Title: Florida Entomologist
ALL VOLUMES CITATION DOWNLOADS THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00321
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1925
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
 Notes
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00321
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 1 MBs ) ( PDF )

PDF ( PDF )

PDF ( PDF )

PDF ( PDF )

PDF ( PDF )


Full Text



(


C /


o5he


Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

Vol. IX SUMMER NUMBER No. 2
AUGUST, 1925


EDEN RECLAIMED. "Deep Spring" in the Background
RECLAIMING EDEN
DR. HENRY G. BRANHAM.
Okahumpka, Fla.
It is believed that man originated and dwelt for aeons in the
tropics before venturing into the colder regions of the earth.
Did they migrate because of over population, or were they
driven out by the advent of the disease bearing mosquito?
According to the late Surgeon General Gorgas, it was more prob-
ably the latter.
We recommend the goods advertised in The Florida Ento-
mologist. Please mention Entomologist when you write our
advertisers.










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Fleeing the mosquito, man came to colder places where vege-
tation grew only at certain seasons of the year-there the cold
of winter made him live in caves, wear clothing, and keep near
the constantly burning fire. Unable to hunt profitably at this
time of the year, he gradually learned to capture and to keep
alive in his cave certain herbivorous animals for his winter's
meat. They required food. Their descendants, born in cap-
tivity, were the forbears of our domestic animals. Nuts and
grasses were propagated for them as close by as possible. In
times of meat scarcity these were eaten by man. Thus the begin-
nings of agriculture. Controlled fire has given us machines,
cement, electricity. But all this depended on the brain-develop-
ing process we call reason. Community life beginning around
the home fire probably did more to foster this than any other
one thing. Thus, according to this interesting speculation of
Dr. Gorgas, the mosquito was responsible for our civilization.
Whether or not it was thus responsible, the mosquito's occu-
pancy up to this time of the choicest land on earth may well
be made a direct cause of an indefinite retarding of our prog-
ress. Man's crying need is for rich land on which cheap food
can be produced with an ample return to the farmer. The
"malaria land" of the South capable of producing crop after
crop practically the whole year round is such land. Quantity
production and continuous profitable productive occupation is
of as great value to the farmer as it is to the manufacturer.
The shaded map of U. S. Public Health Reports ("Distribu-
tion of Malaria in the United States as indicated by Mortality
Reports", by Assistant Surgeon Kenneth F. Maxey, U.S.P.H.S.),
shows the tremendous amount of such land in this country,
all of which can be redeemed.
Dr. Henry R. Carter, Assistant Surgeon General of the U. S.
Public Health Service, the man who with Gorgas made possible
the building of the Panama. Canal, says "The loss of efficiency
caused by malaria in the country of the malarious section of
the South is beyond comparison greater than that caused by any
other disease, or even by any two or three diseases combined,
including typhoid fever and tuberculosis."
The land is here, the removal of malaria will make the native
labor efficient and attract ample outside capital and labor to
make this part of our country capable of producing enough
food stuffs to make war for conquest on the part of this country
totally unnecessary. Properly divided, there is enough similar










SUMMER NUMBER


land elsewhere to more than satisfy all nations. Best of all,
the land could now be easily apportioned because it is cheap
and only potentially desirable. Civilization can hardly survive
another general war for "a place in the sun". If we, instead
of fighting one another for land already fully occupied by man-
kind, will only fight the pestilence carrying mosquito, and till
the lands from which she now excludes us, there need not only
be no more wars of conquest, but there will be no necessity for
birth control or for plagues to keep down the numbers of over-
crowded and underfed.
There are millions of acres of such land right here in our
own country. This land has not been reclaimed, among other
reasons because of the hitherto prohibitively large cash outlay
necessary. The purpose of this article is to show how this can
be done at a cost of practically nothing over and above the
amount that always has to be spent in clearing land to make it
fit for farming. Here is how it actually was done on our farm
in Florida. The land in question is a typical specimen of ma-
larial land in the southeastern part of this country. The meth-
ods successfully used here will, with but little modification,
answer anywhere in the South.
We have a beautiful spring nearly two hundred feet deep,
covering about three acres, with an outlet creek about four
feet deep and thirty wide. On the south of the spring is a
six foot bank with high land behind it. On the other sides of
the spring, and along both banks of the stream, is a strip of cut
over cypress swamp and marshland averaging about fifty feet
in width. Beyond the marsh the land gradually rises to about
twelve feet above lake level. The creek was choked with water
lettuce and other aquatic plants and there was a border about
fifteen feet wide of the same material all around the spring.
A large fish-free pond about fifty yards to the west of where
our house was to be not only bred mosquitoes, but in wet
weather overflowed our proposed garden site. A ditch sixty
yards long was dug from the pond through the end of a half
acre hummock marsh one hundred feet away, and from there
into the spring. The marsh land was grid-ironed with shal-
low ditches, all connected with the main ditch. The muck from
the ditches was piled on the hummocks for banana plants and
put into barrels for strawberries. The ditches were dug around
the hummocks so that the marsh, instead of a series of puddles,
became one body of water all of the year.










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


When bought, the dry land was a jungle of trees, brush, and
thorn filled vines. The swamp and marsh, all of this, plus muck
and water. The trees were filled with Spanish moss. In warm
weather the whole place swarmed with mosquitoes.
Some fourteen acres to the south and west of the spring
were cleared, and ten of it set out for a citrus grove, and one
for a vineyard. The rest was used as a site for the necessary
buildings, for a pig pen, a chicken run, an orchard, a garden,
and a lawn. As far as was practicable, vines, moss, and under-
brush were removed from the rest of the place. The larger
trees were left and make a beautiful woodland park. A six
room white bungalow with two screened porches and sixteen
large French windows-the 16 mesh galvanized wire screen-
ing attached directly to the outside of the window casings by
1/2 x 1 inch black wood strips-was built. Our outside build-
ings, electric and water plant and septic tank sewerage installed,
farm implements and stock purchased, we now had a complete
farm. A well screened house will remain a necessity until such
a large area of land is treated that the home lies beyond the
flight range of all mosquitoes.
Having a place to live, I now proceeded with my "anti-mos-
quito campaign".
In order that the reader may really understand this fight,
it is necessary that he first know some few things about the
mosquito, its friends, its natural enemies, and its enemies'
friends and foes.
The accepted flight range of the malaria carrying mosquito
is about a mile. She is only a carrier of malaria, and cannot
infect one until she has first bitten a person who has malaria.
Five grains of quinine a day will keep one from getting ma-
laria, while he gets rid of his mosquitoes. This usually holds
true no matter how often one may be bitten by infected mos-
quitoes. In order to reproduce, the mosquito must have a blood
meal from any warm blooded animal, and water on which to
lay her eggs. Tin cans, old automobile casings, faulty rain gut-
ters, water troughs, small puddles, etc., will answer instead of
ponds and lakes for some mosquitoes. The malaria carrying
mosquito cannot stand sunlight. Wind modifies greatly the fly-
ing of all mosquitoes. So dark places and wind breaks of any
kind are great aids to the pests in their journey to and from
their blood meal. The male mosquito does not need any blood
meal, and therefore is not anatomically especially fitted to bite.










SUMMER NUMBER


The immature malaria mosquito spends its life in water. It
can breathe only when at the 'surface, and stays there nearly
all of the time. Water vegetation helps it greatly in its efforts
to escape the minnows that pursue it.
Certain plants may, and creosote does, repel the mosquito.
A top swimming minnow, whose favorite food is the imma-
ture water dwelling forms of the mosquito, is present in fresh
and sometimes in slightly brackish water, from the Gulf of
Mexico to New Jersey. The young of this minnow are born
alive-as many as two hundred at a time-and ready to eat the
smaller water living mosquitoes. When food is scarce, these
minnows eat their young. Shallow, weedy waters where they
are reasonably safe from larger fish and where young mos-
quitoes are plentiful, are their favorite natural haunts.
Larger fish, water birds, and at least one water insect prey
on this top minnow. Other minnows and some of the larger
fish eat the water living forms of the mosquito, but the top
minnow is by far our most reliable ally in this respect. Some
other insects, insectivorous birds, bats, lizards, and frogs hunt
the winged mosquito. In turn, these are hunted, principally
by birds, snakes, and large fish.
As direct and indirect aids to the mosquito, we thus have ex-
posed standing water, unscreened sources for her "blood meal",
brush, Spanish moss, aquatic plants, hollow trees, unscreened
buildings, and other hiding places, for either the immature or
the winged mosquito; finally the things which interfere with the
multiplication of the mosquito's enemies.
It is obvious that a sufficient number of the mosquito's
enemies, plus the removal of enough of its aids, would result in
its eventual extermination over an area thus protected.
It remained for actual experiment to show that this condi-
tion could be brought about in a reasonable length of time and
for a very moderate cost.
The cleaning done for agricultural purposes removed a large
proportion of its day hiding places. This was continued in the
parking done at a cost of about five dollars an acre. The land
parked could have been profitably cleared for agriculture.
High grass, weeds, ets., were mowed. The cost of doing this
comes properly under the head of common orderliness on any
farm. Hollow trees, unscreened buildings, wooden steps, etc.,
were painted inside with creosote paint, at a cost of twenty
dollars.











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Finding the aquatic plants, especially water lettuce, excel-
lent food for chickens and stock, and also of great value as fer-
tilizer, they contained small water animals making its phos-
phorus value high, the cost of keeping this down was not esti-
mated. It would not be fair to charge stock food and fertilizer
to the mosquito.
From the nature of things, the removal of hiding places for
the mosquito, especially weeds, is not a job that is finished and
done with, it is one of any farmer's constant tasks anywhere.
This day after day job keeps down materially the number of
the places where the mosquito can hide and be more or less
safe.
The potential breeding places of the pest were destroyed
where possible (tin cans, very small puddles, etc.). Wells and
mud puddles were stocked with the hardy cat fish. Larger iso-
lated ponds were stocked with the top minnow. One large pond
and many isolated marsh puddles were connected with one an-
other and the lake by ditches, too shallow for the large fish
that eat the top minnows to negotiate, and denied to the young
predaceous fish by one half inch hardware cloth. These ditches
make excellent breeding places for the top minnow, and from
them are obtained not only stock for outlaying ponds, but the
constant migration, due to over population of minnows, into the
spring and stream, keeps them filled with sufficient minnows to
satisfy the larger fish and still leaves a margin sufficient to
cope with the mosquitoes hatched there; this in spite of the
large amount of water plants present. Another fish preferred
to the top minnow by the larger fish and much sought after for
bait was protected from the fisherman, and multiplied rapidly.
Fishing birds were shot when caught near these breeding places.
Other ponds within a radius of a mile were stocked with top
minnows. Breeding sanctuaries (smaller models of the hum-
mock marsh ditches) for the top minnow were built for the
nearer and larger of these.
Our top minnows cost us nothing. The ditching cost less than
fifty dollars. In this way the breeding places were made very
unsafe for the young mosquito. The number of top minnows
in a fish filled pond is usually small, and they are to be found
only in the shallow places and hiding among the plants. Natu-
rally quite a few mosquitoes escape and reach the flying stage.
My plan, however, results differently. Not only is there a
constantly arriving fresh supply of top minnows, but the larger











SUMMER NUMBER


fish are furnished a supply of small fish ("Shiners") preferred
by them, as a food, to the top minnows. Many forms of aquatic
animals subsist on the water plants left, and help greatly in
keeping our minnow eating fish away from the top minnow.
The top minnow being too numerous to obtain sufficient food
near the shore, and being but little bothered by the larger fish,
spreads over the surface, and naturally eats many more young
mosquitoes.
Notwithstanding the tremendous superiority of this over
the older methods, relatively small numbers of mosquitoes reach
'the final or winged stage of life. These then attempt to per-
petuate their species. As said before, they must have a blood
meal and protection from light and wind. These we have done
our best to place beyond their reach. However, trees, grass,
wild and domestic animals, will always be here. So we have
tried to make his hiding places not only scarce but disagree-
able, and even dangerous. Frogs and toads search out and eat
mosquitoes, on the banks of ponds, streams, and in inland
grass. Protected from man, owls, hawks, and snakes, they have
multiplied so that one has to watch one's step. The hornless
chameleon has the same enemies and performs the same func-
tion in bushes, trees, under uneven logs, etc. Spiders are encour-
aged in dark corners, hollow trees, etc. We soon had as many of
all of these as we needed without resorting to breeding. The
small tree frog, however, not only hunts mosquitoes, but is very
useful in fruit and citrus trees as a destroyer of certain insect
pests. It was found that a small box of hardware cloth placed
over these tadpoles in a puddle allowed an unusual number of
them to reach maturity. Hunted even by chickens, small tin
tobacco boxes attached to trees make them excellent citadels.
What few mosquitoes escape all of this and start to fly are
confronted by an unusual number of insectivorus birds. Bird
houses for their young, the killing of their enemies, and the
abolition of the "sport" of killing them has been all that was
necessary in this respect.
These frogs, birds, etc., form an excellent outside "screen",
far preferable to the old method of placing domestic animals
between the house and the pond, in the pious hope that the
mosquito would obtain her blood meal from the poor beasts.
The object of my screen is to prevent the mosquito getting her
"blood meal", not to furnish her one.











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Having ample top minnows to fully stock, when danger
threatened, any pond that had previously unexpectedly "gone
dry", no necessity arose to use dirty, expensive, soil destroying
oil, or for extensive drainage by ditch or by digging through
the underlying water-impervious sub soil. A small well dug
below permanent water level will leave, in dry weather, a place
where some top minnows will survive until the pond fills again.
The small amount of work of this kind was done either to
beautify the place or for agricultural reasons. Nevertheless,
the cost will be included in the anti-mosquito budget.
Every species has its natural enemies, and from time to time,
as these enemies have triumphed, whole species have disap-
peared. In the case of the mosquito, these enemies are well
known, and, as I have shown, can be readily increased to the
point where they will wipe out the mosquito. The cost is
negligible. The work here was done on a small tract of land
where the mosquito had every advantage nature could supply
it. The larger the land area the smaller the cost per acre, and
the more nearly perfect the result. The upkeep will diminish
with time and the enlargement of the area treated.
Anti-mosquito work requires the active cooperation of every
one concerned. That is the reason why we still have malaria.
When it is generally known that nature's balance maintaining
the mosquito may be altered with a pennyweight sufficiently
to put dollars in the pockets of the man doing the work, then we
will get this cooperation.
The total outlay required to make our home mosquito free
and to keep malaria off the place was less than two hundred
and fifty dollars. At the very most, a yearly expenditure of
fifty dollars will maintain this condition. Mosquito land is usu-
ally fallow muck, and very valuable when malaria is absent.
Such land can be bought very cheaply in all of the southern
states. Practically unlimited quantities of this land can be
purchased, put in condition for planting, and cleared of mos-
quitoes, for less than one-crop land costs elsewhere. The farm-
er can raise "money .crops" over a large part of the year; twelve
months in Florida. This naturally tends to raise land prices,
and to remove farming from the list of seasonal occupations.
There is a tremendous lot of this land on every continent.
May man occupy it and live in peace and plenty.








sr wa












U5he
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
Florida.

J. R. W ATSON. -...................-.....................................................-Editor
WILMON NEWELL....-.......---------........--..................- Associate Editor
A. H. BEYER ..--.--.......... ...........---- ..................- Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.


In connection with Dr. Branham's article in this number of
the Entomologist we wish to call attention to U. S. Public
Health Bulletin No. 114-"Top Minnows in Relation to Malaria
Control, with Notes on their Habits and Distribution" by Sam-
uel F. Hildebrand.


DESTRUCTION OF MOLE CRICKETS

In many of the cities of Florida the West Indian mole cricket
or "Changa" is getting to be a great nuisance in gardens. In
damper soils also the native species are often troublesome. The
poisoned bran baits have been found useful in controlling the
pests and frequent cultivation and plowing have been recom-
mended. Mr. S. C. Whidden of Jacksonville reports the follow-
ing method to be highly efficient. He plows the garden and,
if dry, wets it thoroly. He then rolls it thoroly and leaves it
until the next morning. During the night the mole crickets in
the ground throw up little mounds of dirt. In the morning Mr.
Whidden goes out with a cane and a bottle of carbon-bisulphide
and treats each burrow. Doubtless a solution of sodium cyan-
ide and perhaps a few crystals of calcium cyanide would work
as well and be considerably cheaper.

PERSONALS
SDr. E. D. Ball, elected to take charge of the Celery Leaf-tyer
investigations of the State Plant Board provided for by the last











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


session of the legislature, has taken up his residence in San-
ford. He gave an address on controlling truck crop insects dur-
ing Farmers' Week at Gainesville. The truckers of Florida are
to be congratulated upon securing the services of a man of Dr.
Ball's wide experience and ability.

Mr. Archie N. Tissot has been elected assistant Entomologist
of the Experiment Station in the place of Mr. A. H. Beyer, who
has resigned to devote his time to his numerous grove interests.
Mr. Tissot received his Master's Degree in June from Ohio
State University. He is now teaching in the summer school
there, and will take up his duties in Florida on September first.

Mr. W. W. Others, of the Bureau of Entomology at Orlando,
is travelling in the Pacific Coast states, investigating the use
of oil emulsion sprays there.

Dr. H. L. Dozier has resigned his position with the Insular
Experiment Station at Rio de Piedras, Porto Rico, to accept a
position as entomologist for the Delaware Station at Newark.

Mr. A. C. Brown has resigned from the State Plant Board to
take up grove development work at Ft. Lauderdale.


ANOTHER YEAR OF THE CITRUS APHIS
(Continued from page 13.)

Dusting in the open with nicotine sulphate lime dusts is
effective if there is no wind, but this condition is seldom met
during the aphid season. To be highly effective the cloud of dust
should hover over the tree a full minute. Much of the dusting
done this season has given unsatisfactory results because of
wind or poor dust. Some of the dusting done with a power
duster on quiet nights has been very effective, an hour's search
in the grove the following day failing to yield a single live aphid.
Spraying, too, is effective if thoroly done and done in time,
i. e., before the aphids have curled the leaves. It is difficult to
get a spray into the curled leaves. The oil emulsions, lime sul-
phur, and soap sprays are effective, but the kill is much more
thoro if nicotine sulphate is added. But to get a satisfactory
control by spraying one must do much more thoro work than has











SUMMER NUMBER


been customary with crews spraying for whitefly or purple scale.
A great advantage of spraying is the possibility of combining
the control of aphids with that of whitefly, scale, thrips, rust
mite, or red spiders.
(3) Begin the fight in the fall. Aphids can be fought most
economically during the winter. The first step in preparation
for next year's fight (we can see no valid reason on which to base
a hope that they will not again appear in destructive numbers
next season) is to employ every means consistent with good
grove practice to throw the trees into complete dormancy in the
late fall, about November in most sections. Then during
December and January watch the trees carefully and destroy
every aphid found. It would probably be an excellent idea to
cut off those occasional sporadic sprouts that start out on young
trees. Make every effort to have the groves free of aphids by
the first of February. In the spring, as early as is considered
reasonably safe from the standpoint of danger from frost, do
everything consistent with good grove practice to rush the
growth along and get a good crop of new foliage out before the
aphids become numerous.
(4) With the exception of the fungus Empusa, the natural
enemies of the aphid are generally incapable of checking an out-
break. The lady beetles and syrphus fly larvae destroy many
aphids, but their multiplication is checked by numerous supe.r-
parasites. The hymenopterous parasite, which is usually the
most effective check on the increase of the melon aphis on citrus,
has been repeatedly bred out on the green aphis, but its occur-
rence on this species in the groves is still so uncommon that the
presence of any considerable number of dead, swollen aphids
with emergence holes is a sure indication of the presence of the
melon aphis.
OTHER HOSTS. In addition to spiraea and citrus the aphid
occurs occasionally on a number of hosts. Three of them are
quite common in citrus groves and are often quite heavily in-
fested. Perhaps the most dangerous of these is the "Jerusalem
oak" (Chenopodium sp.). Even more heavily infested is fireweed
(Erechtites hieracifolia (L) Raf.) but it is not as common in
citrus groves, being found mostly on lower more moist land es-
pecially when newly cleared. These two plants should be cut down
before a grove is dusted or sprayed. Cudweed (Gnaphalium
sp.) is a very common winter and early spring annual in citrus











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


groves, but the aphids attack only the heads and consequently
this plant is not an important host in the early part of the win-
ter when few heads have appeared. In many cases grapefruit
has been heavily infested this year. In most cases, however, it
was near heavily infested oranges from which the aphids were
being driven by the maturing of the foliage.
In May and June the Experiment Station received from the
California Experiment Station two shipments of a lady-beetle
(Leis sp.) which was originally brought from China. This lady-
beetle is much larger than any native species. The adult fe-
male is 5/16 of an inch wide and nearly 3/8 inches long. The
ground color is red. There are thirteen round black spots on
the elatra and a larger one on the thorax. The beetle's appe-
tite for aphids is in proportion to her size. Sometimes as many
as two hundred aphids are eaten in a day. But our hopes for
this beetle were chiefly that it might be less susceptible to the
fungous and bacterial diseases which are such a large factor in
checking the multiplication of our native species. Experience
in breeding these beetles in the laboratory at Lake Alfred
would seem to justify this hope. Altho many have died of dis-
eases, the proportion is distinctly smaller than in the case of
the blood red lady-beetle, the most common of our native species
in aphid colonies.
The original small number of these beetles brought to Flor-
ida has increased until we now have several hundred on hand
and have liberated as many more in groves scattered over the
state. While some of the early colonies liberated seem to have
died out, (due apparently to scarcity of food) others seem to be
prospering, and in at least one grove the beetles have completed
a full generation in the field, thus demonstrating their ability
to live out of doors in Florida, at least ,during the summer time.
From the standpoint of the food supply the summer is the most
unfavorable season, as aphids are scarce.
As to the outlook for the future, the aphids are much more
numerous in our groves than they were a year ago at this time.
Much will depend upon the weather during the next five months.
Unless their numbers are greatly diminished by dry or cold
weather throwing the trees into complete dormancy during
the fall or winter, the prospect is for another heavy infestation
next spring.












SUMMER NUMBER


A NEW Species of Symphyothrips (Thysanoptera) from
Argentina
J. R. WATSON

Symphyothrips reticulatus sp. nov.
Whole body including legs uniform chestnut brown; only tarsi and
antennal segment 4 a little lighter brown, and antennal segment 3 yellow-
ish brown.
Head about .2 longer than broad. Cheeks straight, converging only
slightly posteriorly. Dorsum with anastomosing reticulations forming a
network. Eyes rather small, dorsal length considerably less than a third
of the head; non-protruding; facets large. Ocelli large, yellowish, bor-
dered by dark crescents; posterior pair situated opposite the middle of the
eyes; anterior directed forward. Post-ocular bristles conspicuous, consid-
erably longer than the eyes, widely. dilated at the tip, colorless. A small
bristle behind each posterior ocellus, a pair in front of the anterior ocellus,
and one at the anterior angle of each eye, and an irregular row of eight
across the middle of the dorsum.
Mouth cone large, reaching the mesosternum. Antennae somewhat less
than twice as long as the head. Segments 1, 2, and 5-7 concolorous with
the head, 3 yellow with apex almost colorless, 4 yellowish brown. 1 cy-
lindrical, considerably wider at the base than at the apex; 2 urn-shaped
with a broad pedicel; 3 clavate, 2.6 times as long as broad, scarcely pedi-
cellate; 4-6 barrel-shaped, with a long broad pedicel; 7 spindle-form.
Spines and sense cones colorless. Sense cones on segment 4 especially
heavy.
Prothorax considerably shorter than the head and, including the coxae,
about twice as wide as long. A heavy, colorless spine with a dilated tip
on each angle; those on the posterior angles less than half as long as the
prothorax (71 microns); the ones on the anterior angles and coxae a little
shorter. A pair of conspicuous ones along each lateral margin. Dorsum
with a number of smaller bristles; the surface covered with faint anasto-
mosing lines which are more conspicuous along the anterior margin.
Fore femora short and considerably thickened (about half as wide as
long). Fore tibiae also short, about five ninths as long as the femora, a
short thick tooth on the inside of the apex. Fore tarsus with a heavy,



AXFIXO
Trade Mark Reg. U. S. Pat. Off.
(A Superior Nicotine Dust)
For Dusting Against
APHIS AND CUCUMBER BEETLE
SOLD BY ALL THE BETTER DEALERS.
Manufactured By
Chemical Division
HIGHTSTOWN HARDWARE COMPANY










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


slightly curved spine. Middle and hind legs rather slender. Pterothorax
a little wider than prothorax, sides slightly convex.
Abdomen rather short and thick, abruptly rounded posteriorly; bristles
rather short, only one pair almost as long as the tube, pointed. Tube .8
as long as the head and about half as wide as long, heavily chitinized,
sides roughened with little warts which bear minute spines; terminal
bristles considerably shorter than the tube, pointed. (To be continued.)

Now is the time to spray trees affected with rust mite,
scab or melanose. We handle the

DRY LIME SULPHUR
It saves freight on water and expense of handling. Ship-
ped in air-tight packages with removable top. Will keep
indefinitely if top is replaced after using. Dissolves readily
in any water. Add Dry Lime Sulphur to water and stir.
Five pounds to one hundred gallons water for rust mite,
equivalent to two gallons 330 Lime Sulphur Solution to
one hundred gallons of water. Prices range from 101/2 to
25c per pound according to quantity order.
Arsenate of Lead Carbolic Acid, Crude
Bluestone Copperas
Bordeaux Mixture Fish Oil Soap
Genuine Protexol Soluble Sulphur Compound
Caustic Soda Sulphur Flowers, etc.
Schnarr's Spray Formula Target Brand White Fly De-
stroyer.
Fresh stock of goods always on hand.
IN OUR SPRAYING DEPARTMENT
we carry only the best and most reliable, such as Leggett's
Champion Duster, Lowell Compressed Air Sprayers and
Gould Sprayers. Write for booklet and prices.
E. 0. PAINTER FERTILIZER CO., Jacksonville, Pla.


Printing for All Purposes

Carefully Executed
Delivered on Time

Pepper Printing Company


Gainesville, Florida




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs