& "LANT BOA RD
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society '
Vol. X SPRING NUMBER No. 1
SOME IMPORTANT ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES IN THE
CITRUS GROWING REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
By- W. W. OTHERS
(Read with comments before the Florida Entomological Society, Gaines-
ville, Florida, February 12th,. 1926.)
It is generally known that the entomogenous or beneficial fungi
are the most characteristic entomological feature in Florida. For
many years a large part of the citrus growers have depended
wholly upon them for controlling the pests, attacking citrus trees
and the rest of the growers so plan their spraying as to supple-
ment the work of these fungi. In fact it can scarcely be con-
ceived how citrus culture in Florida could continue without
these natural and inexpensive aids. There is not an important
pest attacking citrus trees that does not have some, fungus at-
It looks as if Florida is the only large commercial citrus grow-
ing region that has these natural advantages and this is due
no doubt to the similarity in climate to that in Southeastern
Asia, the original home of citrus trees.
Owing to the similarity in climate to that of Florida about
the same insect pests are present and these are attacked by
entomogenous fungi. The purple mite (T. citri) one of the red
spiders on citrus in Florida causes considerable damage to sat-
sumas in winter and late spring. No doubt this is partially due
to the satsuma being a favorite. or preferred host plant.
The climate with reference to the distribution of rainfall
is quite similar to that of Florida and the same insect pests
and beneficial fungi are present. The growers-rely almost en-
tirely. on the entomogenous. fungi .to keep -down the white flies
and scale insects. . .
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
The citrus growing region of Texas extends along the Rio
Grande Valley from Mission to Brownsville, a distance of over
75 miles. It is a semi-arid region requiring irrigation only
about 2 or 3 months in the summer time. Even then rains
might occur at any time. In winter the rains are quite fre-
quent. Owing to this lack of heavy and regular rainfall dur-
ing summer the entomogenous fungi do not thrive. These have
been introduced on nursery stock from Florida thousands of
times but have never become established. Such diseases as
scab and melanose do not thrive there either. Scale insects
have been introduced from both California and Florida and in
some instances cause much damage. As a whole these do not
cause the injury that one would expect since the beneficial
fungi are not present.
In one grove near Brownsville owned by Mr. H. H. Banker no
spraying or fumigation has ever been done since the trees were
planted, about 15 years ago. The insects and mites are pres-
ent in only very limited numbers and no commercial damage
is caused by them. The grove is uncultivated except a little hoe-
ing or cutting of weeds. Irrigation is practised and the ditches
in the grove are permanent-not rebuilt after each application
of water. No explanation can be given for the lack of insects
in this grove and this should be made the object of special
There are two sections where citrus is being cultivated viz., in
the Salt River Valley near Phoenix and on the Mesa near Yuma.
The first trees in the Phoenix district originated from seed-
lings planted many years ago-perhaps 50. These now are over
35 feet high. The recent plantings were mostly from home
grown trees but some trees were planted from Florida and Cali-
The most outstanding entomological feature in Arizona, if not
in the entire citrus growing sections of the United States, is the
total absence of scale insects, white flies and mites on the trees
and fruit. During three days search not a scale insect, white
fly or rust mite was found. There were only a few specimens
of Tenuipalpis californicus present. The rust mite has been re-
corded as being present in Arizona but I did not see one speci-
men. If present at all it is indeed very scarce. Some years the
citrus thrips appear but only rarely does this occur.
The factors which prevent the multiplication of insects and
mites may be attributed to the heat and lack of humidity. The
maximum temperature sometimes reaches 120F. and frequent-
ly from 100 to 1080F. The humidity is very low. It is the
opinion of some people that scale insects and white flies have
never been permitted to enter the state. The quarantine meas-
ures may have interrupted thousands of cases but I dare say
some of the insects were introduced prior to 1909 when the
regulations were set up. In regard to the rust mite it is in-
variably introduced from place to place on young trees in Flor-
ida in spite of washing with various remedies to kill scales
etc. For one from Florida to see citrus trees without pests is
certainly a most astounding sight.
From a Florida standpoint the presence of the citrus aphis
(A. spiraecola) in California for many years is of great inter-
est. This is mainly because it has not killed trees nor to any
appreciable degree affected adversely the citrus industry as a
whole. It is confined to the section along the coast on low, cold
locations and some years with cold springs it invades some of
the groves on the higher lands and does much damage for short
periods of time.
In the district around Ontario the black scale appears to have
developed a resistance to cyanide fumigation. There is consider-
able evidence to support this contention and practically all cit-
rus growers and entomologists believe that such is the case.
There is also a belief that the red scale in certain localities has
likewise become resistant to fumigation. If these two pests
have really become resistant to fumigation after 30 or 35 years
it opens up an entirely new field not only in insect control but
in the entire biological field. It indicates that artificial control
of insects may be comparatively short lived. It also indicates
that species may change their structure, habits or reactions in
a short time.
Pest free section:
In East Highlands there is a section that is almost as free
of insects as the Salt River Valley. Scales are either entirely
absent or so scarce as to be of no economic importance. In fact
no insects or diseases attack the trees or fruit. This condition
is well known to the citrus growers and entomologists but no
one has suggested any factor that would prevent insects from
infesting citrus trees in this section.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
M THINGS OF .THE SOCIETY
Feb. 12, 1926., The meeting vwa,.held in Science Hall. at, 4:30
P.M. with President Gray. in .the. chair, .and the. following mem-
berg present: Bratley, Berger, Goodwin, Gray,. ubbell, Inman,
Merrill, Montgomery, Stone, Tissot, Watson, and Yothers, and
a Mr. Foster as visitor.
Mr. Watson called to the attention of the society of the va-
cancy of one place on the executive committee. He moved that
the retiring president automatically become a member of the
The paper of the evening, "Some Important Entomological
Problems and Features in The Citrus Growing Sections of the
United States", was given by W. W. Others. The paper was
interesting and called forth some good discussion from various
March 1, 1926.. At a joint meeting, of the Florida Entomolog-
ical Society ,and Sigma Xi.Club, held March .1st, Professor Her-
bert Osborn, Director.of Entomological Research, Ohio State,
University,. was introduced, by Dr. Leigh. Professor Osborn
gave an illustrated talk on noted American Entomologists, show-
ing the picture and giving a brief sketch of each worker's con-
tribution to the nation's entomological progress. Among a large
number of entomologists mentioned were Thomas Say, who is
commonly called the "Father of American Entomologists;" T.
W. Harris, who is considered the first economic entomologist of
the, country; Asa Fitch, the first State Entomologist; C. N.
Riley to whom the establishment of the Bureau of Entomology,
U. S. D. A.,. is largely credited; and Cooke, one of the
first teachers of. entomology.
March 12, 1926, The regular meeting of the Society was held
in Science Hall with President Gray in the chair and the follow-
ing members present: Bratley, Gray, Grossman, Hubbell, Rog-
ers, Tissot, and Watson, also visitors: Goode and Web.
Mr. Tissot made a statement as to the dues .and finance of
the Society. Stating that there were several in-arrears and
some for several years.
The paper of the evening was given by Mr. Grossman, his
subject was "Insect Chemotaxis", and several points of inter-
est were brought out and quite a bit of discussion followed.
-H.I E. BRATLEY, Secretary.
SOME NOTES ON THE- FEEDING HABITS OF. ADULT.
J SPEED ROGERS
Dept. of: Biology, Univ. of Fla -
There are few recorded observations 'of adult drane-flies-tak-
ing food. -Knab'" quotes the few, scattered andc casual records
that he "was able to find, some' of which he questions; and gives
a quite detailed account of his observations on the feeding habits
of Geranomyia canadensis:and rostrata, made in the vicinity of
Washington, D. C. He states that on several occasions he fond
these two species feeding on the nectar of composite flowers, and
that Mr. W. L. McAtee also had taken Geranomyia -diversa, from
the flower of a composite. Alexander"' states that Geranomyia,
Toxorhina, Elephantomyia and other forms with elongate -rostra
feed- on the nectar of tubular flowers and that it is probable
that many other species feed in the adult state. Cuthbertson"'
is.of the opinion that few British species, outside of Geranomyia,
take food in the adult-condition.
Knab's observation that Geranomyiae were to be seen feed-
ing only at twilight or on cloudy days and were absent from the
flowers in full daylight gives a hint, as to one reason, so few
adult crane-flies are known to feed. I have found that by visit-
ing flowers at night with a "jack light" one can find crane-
flies feeding far more freely than daytime or even twilight ob-
servations would suggest.
On the nights of December 31, 1924 and January 1, 1925,
I visited a mango tree, growing near the banks of the Manatee
River, Manatee Co., Florida. The tree bore hundreds of pani-
cles, the florets varying from tightly closed buds at the tip of
the panicle to fully opened blossoms near the base. The air for
a considerable distance away from the tree was scented by the
blossoms and a variety of insects were present. Besides crane-
flies there were several species of moths and beetles, some
abundant: two species of mosquitoes; and a number of lace-
winged flies. Crane-flies were more abundant than any other
feeding insects. The species present and feeding were: Gerano-
myia canadensis (?), few; G. rostrata, numerous; G. virescens,
abundant; G. vanduzeei, few; Rhipidia domestic, abundant; R.
Schwarzi, few; Gonomyia pleuralis, few; G. puer, few; Erioptera
caloptera, two females. Both males and females of G. virescens,
G. rostrata, and R. domestic were observed feeding, the females
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
the more numerous. In the other species, only females were
seen. In all cases of the species listed above, specimens were
taken from the flowers with forceps while feeding, were killed
and later pinned and their identity made certain.
The Geranomyiae went thru their characteristic bobbing
motion over each blossom they visited. The rostrum, moved up
and down by this motion, probed about each flower in what
seemed a "trial and error" stabbing. When the insect suddenly
ceased bobbing the rostrum could be seen to be inserted in the
flower. One or two slight tremors, that might be called very
faint bobbing followed this insertion of the rostrum and then the
fly quietly fed for a brief time. Slightly opened buds seemed
to yield the most nectar, for on these the Geranomyiae remained
feeding much longer than on the more fully opened blossoms
and more Geranomyiae were found about the tips of the panicles
than about the bases.
All the species of other genera were found on the fully opened
blossoms, only. In each species the procedure was very much
the same, the mouth parts were closely applied to the inside
of the base of the petals and the body was crouched down on the,
flower or its pedicel. In the latter case the head was inserted
into the flower between two petals. The short mouthed forms
remained at a single floret much longer than did any Geranomyia
and were so intent on feeding that usually when their bodies
were lightly touched with the forceps they slightly shifted their
position without removing the mouth parts from the flower. All
the Geranomyiae were much more easily disturbed.
Apparently the feeding goes on all night, but whether the
same flies remain about the blossoms or their places are taken
by new-comers I did not ascertain. On the second night I
remained at the tree from 9:30 until after midnight and the
number of crane-flies about a panicle did not appreciably change,
and this in spite of a cool, drifting fog that settled in tiny drop-
lets on their wings and bodies.
All of these species come rather freely to light but altho my
light was quite bright, none of the feeding flies left their blos-
soms or were in any way affected that I could detect. When
a branch was beaten with a net handle the dislodged flies came
about the light or my illuminated net bag, but most of them
soon returned to the flowers.
Spiders and tree frogs were numerous about the tree. Both
jumping spiders and small spider webs were common on and
among the panicles and twigs, but no crane-flies were observed
to have been captured by either. Many G. virescens were noted
resting on strands of spider web, hanging from their prothoracie
legs. Here they seemed particularly wary and difficult of ap-
proach. The tree frogs were all Hyla cinerea, both adults and
juveniles, and were numerous and alert. They were usually
perched near the base of a panicle and probably took a good
many feeding insects but I failed to examine any stomachs.
At Gainesville, Florida, I have noted several other crane-fly
species either feeding or presumably feeding, at night.. Pseudo-
limnophila luteipennis has been taken from the flower spikes of
lizard's tail (Saururus cernuusd.) but it is not certain that they
were feeding. Rhipidia shannoni, I have, on two occasions,
taken from the flowers of a wild honey suckle. In both cases
the insect was within the mouth of the flower. Sweeping these
flowers at night very frequently yields this species altho it is
not common in this region.
I have never observed any Tipulinae on flowers but have taken
two species, Nephrotoma okefenoke and Tipula longipes, both
females, from sugar and molasses baits, at night, about Gaines-
In Jefferson Co., Indiana, Brachypremna dispellans was ob-
served on one occasion drinking dew from the surface of a
pebble. This was in the daytime, in quite deep shade. The top
of a small pebble was covered with dew and the fly applied its
mouthparts to the surface of the pebble for well over a minute.
The head was slightly moved about the surface of the pebble
without losing contact with it but the feet were not moved.
The amount of moisture on the pebble was appreciably dimin-
In early June of 1923, Geranomyia rostrata and G. canadensis
were found feeding at dusk from the white flowers of a tail
shrub along a brook in Bibb County, Georgia. The next morning
no Geranomyiae were about the flowers. But bees and Syrphidae
were numerous. About ten A. M. the sky became very cloudy and
a light shower fell. During the shower a few G. rostrata were
found feeding again. With the return of bright sunlight in about
an hour not a specimen of Geranomyia could be found, even by
sweeping the flowers and bushes. Much the same behavior was
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
J. R. WATSON -.......------........ ---...--...-.. .............--- .......... ...... E...Editor
WILMON NEWELL. ............. ......-.....--.........--. Associate Editor
A. N. TISSOT ---- ..- .... .---.--------.--.. ...-.Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
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vance; 35 cents per copy.
noted as has been described by Knab. When a fly approached a
flower cluster it flew in a shuttle-like movement back and forth in
front of the blossoms. Each movement toward the flower
seemed to bring the extended feet into contact with a floret.
with each movement away from the flower thedlegs were flexed.
This flying dance takes about a minute when the flower is still
but is prolonged if the flower is moved. Finally, on, one of the
movements toward the flower the fly alights and the wings
are folded or partly folded. A rapid bobbing motion continues
by the extension and flexing of the legs, a movement like the
"deep-knee-bend" of setting up exercises. Soon the rostrum
is jabbed into a floret on one of the down motions and the
bobbing ceases. A floret was soon exhausted and the bobbing
was resumed, without the feet changing their holds. A new
floret is quickly found and the bobbing ceases. Most of the
florets within reach were tried before the feet were moved.from
their position. The florets within reach were not systematically
probed; the fly was just as apt to return to an already sampled
floret as to a fresh one beside it. When most of the florets
have been tried the Geranomyia flew to another flower or to a
different area of the same cluster, there to repeat the whole be-
"~'Knab, Frederick. The feeding habits of Geranomyia. Entomological
Society of Washington. Proc. XII: 61-62.. 1910.
')Alexander, Charles P. The Crane-Flies of New York. Part I. Memoir
25 of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station.
"ICuthbertson, Alexander. Country Side VI..No. 8-Aug. 1925.
NEW THYSANOPTERA FROM FLORIDA-XIII
J. R. WATSON
(Continued from Vol. IX, p. 60)
Liothrips muscorum n. sp. (Continued)
Antennae about twice as long as the head. Segment 1, cylindrical, dark
brown, concolorous with the head; 2, with a broad curved peduncle, yel-
lowish brown; 3, long clavate, tapering uniformly to a rather broad
base, a uniform yellow; 4, clavate, a little shorter and darker; 5, bar-
rel-shaped, contracted abruptly to a broad peduncle, brownish yellow in
basal two-thirds, heavily shaded with brown in apical third; 6, yellowish
brown in basal half, dark brown in apical; 7, ovate, abruptly contracted
to a narrow peduncle, margin deeply created in upper half; dark brown;
8, conical, margin deeply created, dark brown.
Mouth cone long and sharp pointed, reaching the mesosternum.
Prothora.: trapezoidal in shape, sides (including coxae) almost straight
and sharply diverging. The sides of the prothorax proper form sharp
angles where they meet the coxae at about half their length, and from
these angles extend straight and parallel to the posterior border. Posterior
angles (of the coxae) well rounded, each provided with a single short
but thick bristle and two minute ones. Each posterior angle of the pro-
thorax bears a prominent stout blunt bristle, a short very thick, blunt
bristle at each median angle mentioned above.
Mesothorax, quadrangular, anterior angles quite square; dorsum striated.
Metathorax, a trifle narrower, sides arched, converging posteriorly.
Middle and hind legs of medium length and very slender; fore femora
considerably thickened; tarsi unarmed.
Wings, long, membrances reaching beyond the base of the tube; fore
pair not constricted in the middle, colorless .except for a small brown-
ish yellow area at the extreme base, fringed with hairs except for about
the basal third of the anterior border where they end abruptly. These
hairs are unusually long near the tip of the wing. Eight inter-located
ones on posterior margin. On the hairless base of the anterior border
are three conspicuous, blunt bristles.
Abdomen rather short and thick, widest at about the middle. Posterior
lateral angles of the posterior segments armed with rather long brown
bristles, those on segment 9 as long as the tube. Tube about two-thirds
as long as the head; widest at about the middle. Thence tapering with
straight sides to both apex and base. Two pair of terminal bristles about
as long as the tube.
Described from a single male taken from moss and lichens on the trunk
of a tree in a magnolia hammock. Gainesville, December 1925. Type in
Limocercyothrips gen. nov.
Head about as long as wide, produced anteriorly in front of the eyes
into a triangular projection which bears the antennae and projects slight-
ly over their bases; cheeks slightly converging posteriorly. Antennae
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
8-segmented; maxillary palpi 3-segmented. Ocelli and wings present in
female, ocelli absent in males and wings rudimentary. Prothorax about
as long as the head; posterior angles provided with two strong bristles.
Abdomen rather long and slender in female but short and thick in male.
Segment 9 of female much the longest and provided (as is also segment
10) with long bristles, a short stout spine on each side of segment 10
Type Limocercyothrips bicolor sp. nov.
This genus has characters intermediate between Limothrips Haliday and
Cercyothrips Morgan. It differs from the former in the converging cheeks,
the character of the antennae and the terminal segment of the abdomen
of the female. It agrees with Cercyothrips in the elongated ninth seg-
ment of the female. But the antennae are not inserted far apart and close
to the eyes nor directed somewhat laterally. It differs from that genus
also in the presence of two stout spines on each posterior angle of the
The following key will aid in separating the genera of the family:
a. Head very small, noticeable smaller than the prothorax.
aa. Head larger, as long as prothorax or longer.
b. Cheeks swollen posteriorly; terminal segment of abdomen of
female approaching a tubular form; segment 9 not especially
long. ........................................................................Limothrips H aliday.
bb. Cheeks converging posteriorly; terminal segment of abdomen of
female conical; segment 9 elongated, much the longest of the
c. Antennae inserted close together; two stout bristles on each
posterior angle of the prothorax....Limocercyothrips gen. nov.
cc. Antennae inserted far apart and close to eyes; no stout
bristles on posterior angles of prothorax..Cercyothrip3 Morgan
95. Limocercyothrips bicolor sp. nov.
General color brown but very variable in shade, pterothorax usually much
lighter in color than head and abdomen. Head dark brown, prothorax
varies from raw umber (Ridgeway's color standards), almost as dark
as the head, to yellow brown, almost as light as pterothorax; ptero-
thorax varies from light grayish yellow to yellow brown; abdomen mostly
dark brown but all but the posterior margins of the segments, and some-
times the entire basal half, often yellowish brown, as light as ptero-
Head a trifle longer than broad, widest across the eyes, cheeks slight-
ly convex and converging posteriorly. Dorsum faintly striated. Two
pairs of bristles, the postocular and one laterad to the anterior ocellus,
nearly as long as the eyes; smaller ones near the anterior angles of the
eyes and two near their posterior border and a pair near center of dorsum.
Head prolonged in front of the eyes into a triangular projection upon
which the antennae are carried. The lateral margins of this projection
are straight, about two-thirds as long as the width of the first antennal
segments, and extend inward and forward from the inner corners of the
eyes at an angle of about 45 degrees. The apex of the projection is
rounded and usually covers the bases of the antennae. The space between
the bases of the antennae not nearly as wide as the bases.
Eyes, large and much protruding; inner margins almost straight and
sharply converging posteriorly. Eyes much wider posteriorly, pilose,
black, facets large and widely separated. Ocelli large, yellow, flecked
with orange and bordered with dark orange crescents; sub-approximate,
situated far back, the posterior pair near, but not touching, the inner
posterior angles of the eyes. Mouth cone large and long, reaching about
three-fourths across the prosternum, rounded at the tip, maxillary palpus
Antennae 1.5 times as long as the head, segments 1, 2, distal half to
two-thirds of 6, 7, and 8 chestnut brown, concolorous with the head in
lighter specimens; 3, 4, 5, base of 6, and often tip of 2, uniform pale
straw yellow (naphthalene yellow-Ridgeway) 1 short-cylindrical; 2 cup-
shaped with a very broad short peduncle; 3 oval, abruptly contracted
to a thin peduncle; 4 oval with a short, thick peduncle; 5 oblong ovate
with a short broad peduncle; 6 oval-ovlanceolate with a broad peduncle;
7 and 8 cylindrical, 7 a little broader and shorter than 8. Bristles pale
Prothorax, about as long as the head and (including coxae) 1.5 times as
broad as long. Two strong bristles at each posterior angle of which the
anterior is about a third as long as the width of the prothorax, the posterior
is often considerably shorter. A third minute, curved bristle at each
posterior angle and also anterior angle. Pronotum with a few striations
along the anterior margin. Mesothorax considerably wider than the pro-
thorax, sides rounded. Metathorax with nearly straight and parallel sides;
posterior angles rounded.
Wings weak and narrow; membranes of anterior pair clear except
for the brownish extreme bases of the costal margins. Both margins sparse-
ly fringed; the hairs on the posterior margin rather long and wavy;
about 5 rather heavy spines on the anterior vein, four near the base and
one near the apex, and 9 evenly distributed ones (except the extreme basal
portion) on the posterior vein. Three on the scale. Legs of medium
length, femora (except base, and often basal half of middle and hind
tibiae) yellowish brown, nearly concolorous with the pterothorax, bases of
femora, tibiae, and tarsi (except dark spot near the base) light brown-
ish yellow to sulphur yellow.
Abdomen rather slender, widest at about segment 6, thence tapering
gradually to tip. Segment 9 very long, much the longest of all, provided
with three pairs of very long bristles, a pair of short but heavy, black,
curved bristles near posterior angles. Segment 10 conical, not at all
tubular, split open above, also with three pairs of long dark bristles,
and a pair of short, thick, dark spines near the tip.
Measurements: Total body length 1.2 mm. Head, length 0.17 mm.,
width 0.16 mm.; prothorax, length 0.13 mm., width 0.22 mm.; mesothorax,
width 0.26 mm.; metathorax, width 0.23 mm.; abdomen, greatest width
0.27 mm. Antennae total length 0.26 mm.
STHE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Segment 1 1 2 I 3 4 5 6 7 8
length 25 38 45 37 40 62 114 18
width 28 33 21 20 19 22 10 6 microns.
Male. Similar to the female but much smaller and ocelli absent and
wings mere rudiments which barely reach the base of the abdomen. Head
about as wide as long. In color the pterothorax and the legs are a more
vivid yellow than in the female and the head and abdomen darker; the
color contrasts are more sharp. Antennal segment 6 is sometimes en-
tirely yellow and 7 and 8 a light yellowish brown. The abdomen is rounded
at the tip but carries long bristles similar to those of the female.
Measurements: Total body length 0.85 mm. Head, length 0.15 mm.,
width 0.15 mm.; prothorax, length 0.16 mm., width 0.21 mm.; mesothorax,
width 0.24 mm.; metathorax, width 0.22 mm.; abdomen, greatest width
0.25 mm. Antennae, total length 0.23 mm. Segment 1, 25; 2, 34;
3, 39; 4, 33; 5, 33; 6, 54; 7, 13; 8, 16.5 microns.
Described from six females arid five males collected from under the
leaf sheaths of Japanese cane and Napier grass at Gainesville. Jan.
and Oct. 1925. Type in the author's collection.
PROF. OSBORN VISITS FLORIDA
Professor Herbert Osborn spent the last week in February and
the first few days in March in Gainesville as the guest of Dr.
E. W. Berger of the State Plant Board. He looked over the
jassids in the collection of the State Plant Board and the Experi-
ment Station and the Department of Biology of the University.
Professor Osborn is a frequent visitor to Florida where a num-
ber of his former students are at work on various projects.
Professor Osborn, the editor of the Annals of the American En-
tomological Society, is nationally known as a teacher and leader
of a large number of America's economic entomologists.
FUMIGATION OF SATSUMAS
Mr. Carl B. James, Horticulturist of the L. & N. Railroad, in
cooperation with the American Cyanamid Company, has been
conducting some very interesting and successful experiments in
fumigating satsuma trees for the camphor and other scales.
Now is the tiie to spray trees affected with ,.rist mite,
scab or melar~ge.,W; handle the .- '"' '-
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in any waterbf Add Dr 'Lim'e S'"lp'fiiurt v-water and stir.
Five pounds td one hundred gallons wavtei-fr, rust mite,
equivalent tto two gallons M36 Limoe Sulphui Sblution to
one hundred gallons; of water. Pijces:range from 101 to
25c per pounds aqcordig: te qi-ritity -order.
Arsenate of"Lead h Oapli-i-eid, Crude
Bluestone ; Copperas
Bordeaux Miitture: ",: Fish Oil Soap-
Genuine Protexo :' '"" Soluble Sulphur Compound
Caustic Soda ,; Sulphur Flowers, etc.
Schnarr's Spray Formula Target Brand White Fly De-
Fresh stock of goods always on hand.
IN OUR SPRAYING DEPARTMENT
we carry only the' best and most reliable, such as Leggett's
Champion Duster, Lowell Compressed Air Sprayers and
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THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
CORRECTION OF RECORDS OF CEUTHOPHILUS
In 1922 I recorded Ceuthophilus nigricans Sc. from Berrien
County, Michigan (Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 116, 69).
Examination of the Scudder types in the Museum of Compar-
ative Zoology show that these specimens represent instead C.
divergens Sc. I have this species also from Ann Arbor, Wash-
tenaw, Co., Mich., and Reelfoot Lake, Obion Co., Tenn.
The first of the undetermined species of Ceuthophilus men-
tioned on p. 52 of my North Dakota paper (1922-1.c., 113), from
Bottineau, has been determined by comparison with the types
to be C. pallescens Sc.
T. H. HUBBELL.
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