: / ?e hIBeARY
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Vol. X AUTUMN NUMBER No. 3
NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY AND IMMATURE STAGES OF
GONOMYIA (LEIPONEURA) PLEURALIS (WILL.)-
J. SPEED ROGERS
Dept. of Biology, University of Florida
Gonomyia (Leiponeura) pleuralis (Will.) is one of the several
Neotropical4Leiponeura that ranges well into the southern part
of the United States. Originally described from St. Vincent,
Fig. 1.-Immature stages of Gonomyia
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
it is now known from Georgia and Florida as well as from Cuba,
Porto Rico, Bermuda, British Guiana and Colombia.
In Florida the species is found thruout the state and is often
the most abundant cranefly of the swamp margin and low ham-
mock associations. Altho taken occasionally thruout the year,
it is common in March and April and often abundant in No-
On November 7 and 8, 1925, these flies were found to be ex-
tremely abundant in a low level "hammock" of sweetgum, water
oak, live oak, and iron wood near the west end of Payne's
"Prairie", an extensive open marsh, near Gainesville. On these
dates the floor of the hammock was quite dry, altho for most
of the year the soil is damp or wet. Altho adults were to be
taken with every sweep of the net from the low undergrowth
and grasses, no general individuals were to be found. Other
adult craneflies found in the same situation were: Rhamphidia
flavipes, frequent; Rhpipidia domestics, few; Pseudolim-
nophila luteipennis, common; Toxorhina magna, few; Eriop-
tera parva, few; Gonomyia puer, few. On the same dates
another and much wetter situation was visited, a low hammock
lying between Levy Lake and a series of small ponds and sedge-
marshes. This low hammock approached swamp conditions,
the principal trees being: red bay, magnolia, sweet gum, laurel
oak, water oak, ironwood and ash, and the soil ranged from
moist to saturated. Here Gonomyia pleuralis was very abund-
ant again and general individuals were not uncommon. Towards
the margins of an area of marsh general specimens were in-
creasingly common and on a wide zone of bare, black muck soil
bordering the water of the marsh, scores of flies were seen
emerging. The zone of black muck is beneath the water of the
marsh during a part of the year; its surface has a scant film
of algae and the surface soil is full of spagnum stems, rootlets
and other decaying vegetation.
Pupae and larvae of three sizes were obtained by washing
the surface layer of black soil thru a sieve. The pupae and fully
grown larvae were very common. Other cranefly larvae or pu-
pae present, tho in much smaller numbers, were: Pseudolim-
nophila luteipennis and Pilaria recondita.
Exanimation of the contents of the alimentary canal of a
number of larvae showed that the food was almost entirely a
filamentous alga. The proventriculus and ventriculus were
completely filled with pellets of matted filaments among which
were a number of diatoms of several genera. Digestion of the
alga is apparently very nearly complete, only a few empty cells
could be found in the intestine. The alimentary canal had very
little sand in it, which would indicate that the alga strands are
fed upon directly and not ingested with samples of soil.
Larvae placed in a dish with water from the pond, crept
about over the bottom of the pan, protruding and opening the
mouth parts with each extension of the body. One of these
creeping larvae was observed to ingest a filament of alga
several times longer than its head capsule. The end of the fila-
ment was grasped by one mandible, during one of the rythmic
mouth movements as the larva progressed, and was pulled into
the mouth, both mandibles pulling the filament in as they closed.
With the retraction of the head capsule the end of the filament
was pulled into the thoracic region and when the head capsule
was again thrust forward the mandibles took another hold much
farther along the filament. Ingestion was completed both by
movements of the mouth parts and by the movement of the en-
tire head capsule.
Larvae left for three days in the pan of water appeared per-
fectly normal at the end of this time and when transferred to
rearing cages completed their development as rapidly and nor-
mally as larvae placed directly into rearing cages. Larvae for
rearing were placed in soil from the habitat after it had been
sterilized and remoistened to about the same wetness as that of
the habitat. Larvae placed in sterilized earth, that had been
but slightly dampened, soon died. Pupae were able to complete
their development and emerge under distinctly drier conditions
than were the larvae, but neither larvae nor pupae were able to
survive soil as dry as that found near the surface of the hammock
at the end of Payne's Prairie.
DESCRIPTIONS OF IMMATURE STAGES
The Larva (full grown)
Form, terete and elongate. Average measurements of ten larva: length,
9 mm.; diameter of 3rd abdominal segment, 1 mm.; diameter of spi-
racular disk, 0.8 mm. Body diameter uniform between 2nd thoracic
and 8th abdominal segments. The color, in life, varies in different indi-
viduals from tawny olive to cinnamon buff. Color uniform except for a
slight deepening on the thoracic segments and the markings of the spi-
racular disk. The integument is thin and transparent with a microscopic,
very fine, brownish pubescence.
The spiracular disk (Fig. 3) resembles that of Gonomyia (L) alex-
anderi (Johns.) in general appearance (1), but differs enough in details
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
to easily distinguish it from that species. The plane of the disk is slight-
ly oblique, the dorsal margin, anterior to the ventral. Of the five lobes,
the ventral pair are greatest in both length and breadth and. each bears,
near the tip of its caudal face, a long, slightly curved bristle, directed
caudad; the lateral lobes are distinctly nearer to the dorso-median lobe
than to the ventral lobes and are intermediate in size; the dorso-median
lobe is markedly the smallest. The faces of all of the lobes bear cbnspicu-
ous markings. Each ventral lobe has two jet black stripes; the outer
stripe is the broader and extends from the apex of the lobe to the level
of the spiracles, the inner stripe is much narrower and fuses with that
of the other lobe just above the bases of the lobes. A broken stripe, a
little wider than the diameter of the spiracles, extends horizontally across
the disk between the tips of the lateral lobes. The median portion of this
stripe is jet black and lies between the spiracles; the outer portions ex-
tend from the tip. of a lateral lobe to the inner end of the spiracle, nar-
rowly enclosing the spiracle. The outer portions of the stripe are less
intensely colored than the median. The face of the dorso-median lobe is
almost entirely covered with a jet black mark whose narrow base almost
reaches' to the median portion -of the horizontal stripe. The' broadly
elliptical spiracles are separated by about twice their. long diameter: In
life the spiracles are light yellow in color except for a very narrow, chit-
inized ring of black. Anal gills are small and consist of four blunt, curved
lobes borne from a common base.
The head capsule is close to that of G. (L) alexanderi but differs in
several distinct details. The dorsal bars are'long, slender and their'pos-
terior ends are unexpanded. The lateral bars are 'slightly longer, their
posterior ends expanded into very thin, vertical, spatula-like blades; the
ventral bars are longest, flattened, narrow, blade-like. Anteriorly the
dorsal and lateral rods of either side are connected by a very thin, chit-
inous, dorsal plate, that is incised posteriorly 'into a rounded median and
two curved, lateral lobes. The labrum-epipharynx'is narrow and elongate,
tapering toward the apex which curves ventral and extends as far ce-
phalad as the tips of the maxillae. It bears on its ventral surface, tow-
ard the apex, an extensive mat of long hairs. The mandibles (Fig. 5)
are curved ventro-mesad to a slender apical point. The ventral margin
bears four conical teeth, the first about as large as the apical point, the
2nd, 3rd, and 4th progressively smaller. On the inner face of each man-
dible, near its base is a tuft of long pale hairs. The maxillae are pale,
cylindrical, very little chitinized. They extend cephalad well past the
tips of the mandibles and their tips protrude distinctly beyond the pro-
thoracic margin when the head-capsule is drawn in. The hypopharyngeal
region shows little structure except a mat of short hairs. The antennae
(Fig. 4) have the basal segment cylindrical, twice as long as broad; the
second joint is a small oval, borne on a short, slender pedicel. The whole
antenna is but sparsely hairy.
The younger larvae differ only in their smaller size and in a
less intense coloration on the spiracular disk, altho the char-
acteristic pattern is evident. These younger larvae fell into
two well marked size groups, the larger with a length of 6 mm.
and a diameter of 0.75; the smaller with a length of 4.5 mm.
and a diameter of 0.5 mm.
The Pupa (Fig. 1)
Length, 5.5-6 mm.; breadth (dextro-sinistral) at base of wing pad
0.8-1 mm.; depth (dorso-ventral) at base of wing pads 0.9-1.1 mm. Length
of pronotal breathing horn 0.25 min. Color (in life) an ochraceous buff
with the dorsum of the thorax more brownish and the eyes dark cherry
red; in older pupae the eyes become black and the dorsum of the thorax,
the wing pads, and the tarsal sheaths become dark brown. The cephalic
crest is marked by two small tubercles, narrowly separated by the mid-
dorsal line; each tubercle bears a stout seta, curved slightly cephalo-
ventrad. Antennal sheaths extend to slightly below the base of the wing
pads, and are marked by a series of slight but distinct angulations. Pro-
notal breathing horns (Fig. 2) consist of short cylindrical bases that bear,
from somewhat spiral lines of insertion, thin, fan-shaped, erect membranes
formed of single rows of slender tubes. The abrupt angle of the mesono-
tum is marked by a narrow, sinuous, transverse crest that bears a line oC
short, stiff, curved hairs. The mesonotal crest marks an abrupt change
in the amount of chitinization of the dorsum, the region between the meso-
notal and cephalic crests having the heaviset chitinization of the body.
The remainder of the thoracic dorsum is smooth and thinly chitinized.
The wing pads extend to the posterior margin of the second abdominal
segment; the tarsal sheaths extend to the anterior third of the fourth
segment; their tips are nearly level, the outer pair slightly longer. The
abodmen is lightly chitinized and shows little armature. The fourth to
eighth sternites bear a row of thin, stiff, pale hairs, just before their
caudal margins. The lateral and caudal margins of both sternites and
tergites have a sparse fringe of scattered, appressed hairs. All five
lobes from the larval spiracular disk are evident on the eighth tergite;
these are more distinct in male pupae.
The duration of the pupal stage is from 5 to 6 days. Of eight
pupae placed in sterile earth on November 10th, the eighth
adult emerged on the morning of November 14 and from larvae
placed in another jar of sterile earth, the first adult appeared
on the morning of November 16. In another jar, containing
unsterilized earth brought from the habitat, adults emerged at
irregular intervals thruout November and December, the great
majority appearing between November 12 and 25.
Notes on the relative abundance of adults, made thru four
years of collecting in. Florida, indicate that there are two gen-
erations a year, the adults usually appearing in November and
in March or April. This seasonal appearance, however, is much
less clear cut than that of crane-flies in the northern United
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
States. The apparent, tho untested, explanation for the lack of
clear cut periods of adult abundance, that is characteristic of
most Florida craneflies, lies in the absence of marked yearly
seasons, and altho favorable conditions are more restricted at
certain times, individuals that mature early or late are frequent-
ly able to reproduce a generation that will emerge out of season.
Collecting at times of greatest number of adults indicates that
Gonomyia pleuralis travel considerable distances away from the
place of emergence. This ranging is much more marked in
damp weather when adults may be swept from vegetation from
300 to 500 yards from the nearest possible larval habitat. At
night the adults range for even greater distances and apparent-
ly they are mainly nocturnal in habit. Oviposition occurs at
night, copulating pairs occasionally come to light several hours
after dark and females have been taken feeding on flowers
(mango) from 8:30 P. M. until 12:30 A. M.
(1). Alexander, C. P. Craneflies of New York, Part II, Memoir 36,
Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., June 1920.
Fig. 1.-Pupa. Fig. 3.-Spiracular Disk of Larva.
Fig. 2.-Pronotal Breathing Horn. Fig. 4.-Antenna of Larva.
Fig. 5.-Mandible, dorsal view.
Prof. John Gray is spending the summer in New York and
Prof. T. H. Hubbell is enjoying himself immensely this sum-
mer studying and collecting the Orthoptera of Oklahoma.
Mr. T. E. Holloway, of the U. S. Entomological Laboratory
in New Orleans, spent some time in Florida during June in
connection with attempts to establish a Tachinid parasite of
the cane borer which is being imported from Cuba. The Ex-
periment Station is also attempting to establish these parasites
in Florida in cooperation with County Agent Leo Wilson of
Mr. Saffro of the California Cyanide Company spent a few
days in Florida. His company has inaugurated some fumiga-
tion experiments here. Mr. Roseling is in charge of these ex-
Mr. Homer Bratley, the Secretary of our Society and Labora-
tory Assistant in Entomology in the Experiment Station, is ask-
ing for a year's leave-of-absence. He will take up graduate
work in entomology in Cornell University.
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
J. R. W ATSON .---......-..-..--.......-----------... ....... .... ..................... Editor
WILMON NEWELL----...----..-......-....-......-...-.....--.........Associate Editor
A. N. TISSOT ------......--.... ----------............ Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.
CITRUS INSECTS OF THE SUMMER
The summer of 1926 has been a very unusual one in respect
to the prevalence of rust mites (Phyllocoptes oleivorus Ash-
mead). It is very unusual for these mites to cause any trouble
after early July unless there occurs a considerable period dur-
ing which the usual summer rains fail. But this year, altho
the rainfall in most sections has been about normal, the ento-
mogenous fungus that normally controls rust mites during the
rainy season has failed to do so. Growers have had to spray
or dust their trees more or less thruout July and August.
The early summer brood of whiteflies was also the heaviest
for several years. The entomogeneous fungi, both the Brown
Fungus and the Red Aschersonia are becoming very abundant
in groves and may reduce the numbers of the fall brood to the
small numbers which have prevailed during the past few years.
It will be well, however, to be particularly careful to apply a
thoro clean-up spray this fall. In this connection we may call
attention to the undesirability of spraying early fruit with an
oil emulsion. Evidence has been accumulating for many years
that the oil emulsions delay the ripening of fruit, but the most
significant evidence is that presented by Mr. W. W. Others dur-
ing Farmers' Week at the University. Tho based on only a single
season's work the results seem, in agreement with previous ex-
perience, quite conclusive. Unless absolutely necessary Parson
Brown orange trees and other early citrus fruit trees should
not be sprayed with an oil emulsion until after the fruit is.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
The Department of Entomology has recently received from
Prof. Harry S. Smith of the California Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion at Riverside a shipment of an oriental parasite (Comperi-
ella bifasciata) of the Florida Red Scale. The shipment arrived
in fine condition and the parasites were liberated on a scale-
infested tree at Lake Alfred. If this parasite can be established
in Florida it should be of much value as the Florida Red Scale
is a difficult one to control by spraying. The hymenopteron is
apparently a parasite of all species of Chrysomphalus.
A LIFE HISTORY STUDY OF IMPORTANT LADY-BEETLE
PREDATORS OF THE CITRUS APHID
W. L. THOMPSON*
In connection with the Citrus Aphid Investigations a study of
the life history of the different predators is being made. Among
the most common of the predators are the lady-beetles. The
Fig. 2.-The Chinese Lady-beetle: a, eggs; b, larva; c, pupa; d, adult.
From Bull. 183, Fla. Agri. Expt. Station.)
Blood Red (Cycloneda sanguinea immaculate Fab.), Hippo-
damia convergens Guer., Olla abdoniinalis and Scymnus biner-
atus are the four most common lady-beetles feeding on the Cit-
*Contribution from Florida State Plant Board and Agri. Experiment
rus Aphid. Other species of lady-beetles have been found feed--
ing on the Citrus Aphids as Exochomus marginipennis children,
Twice-stabbed (Chilocorus bivulnerus Muls.), Vedalia (Rodolia
cardinalis Muls.) and several of the smaller species of Scymnus.
In May 1925 the Experiment Station received a few Chinese
Lady-beetles (Leis sp.) from Professor Harry Smith of the
California Experiment Station, Riverside, California. It is
hoped that these beetles will aid in the control of the Citrus
In the following article are recorded the results of a study of
the life history of the Chinese Lady-beetle, Blood Red, Hippo-
damia convergens and Olla abdominalis; these being the only
species that completed a life cycle under observations. A de-
scription and a more detailed account of the Chinese Lady-
beetles is given because this is a new species in this state.
Due appreciation is expressed to Professor J. R. Watson,
Entomologist of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
and to Ralph L. Miller, Assistant Entomologist of the State
Plant Board of Florida.
LIFE HISTORY OF CHINESE LADY-BEETLE, LEIS SP.
Descriptions.-The adult is oval and very convex. Color:
head yellow with eyes and posterior margin black. Thorax
yellow with angular two-lobed black spots in center of posterior
margin. Wings dark red with thirteen black spots, six on each
wing and one common. When the adult emerges the wings are
yellow and very soft. About one and one-half hours after
emergence all of the spots have appeared. The color of the
wings gradually deepens to a brownish and then to a bright red.
In warm weather it takes from one to two weeks for the wings
to become a bright red and in cool weather or winter, a much
longer period, from four to six weeks. Beetles that emerged
in December did not color to a bright red until the last of Feb-
ruary, when the weather became warmer. The legs and ab-
domen are yellow when the beetles emerge but darken with age.
The center of the ventral side of abdomen is almost black and
the outer margin brown in beetles several months old. The
length is 6 to 9 mm. The male beetles are generally smaller
than the females.
The length of the life of these beetles has not been determined
in Florida. Some of the beetles that emerged in the period from
TABLE I.-NUMBER OF APHIDS EATEN EACH DAY BY THREE ADULT
II A I B II C
Hours Eaten Instar of Aphids Instar of Aphids Instar of Aj
S______ Aphids Aphids Eaten Aphids Eaten Aphids M
23 134 1-2-3-4 108 1-2-3-4 19 1-2-3-4
21 /2 153 1-2-3-4 151 1-2-3-4 45 1-2-3-4 0
22 146 2-3-4 160 1-2-3-4 43 1-2-3-4
S24 124 2-3-4 1 139 1-2-3-4 63 1-2-3-4
2712 107 2-3-4 166 1-2-3-4 109 1-2-3-4
24 182 2-3-4 121 1-2-3-4 77 1-2-3-4
261/ 160 1-2-3-4 184 1-2-3-4 117 1-2-3-4
21% 106 1-2-3-4 193 1-2-3-4 132 1-2-3-4 0
23/2 122 1-2-3-4 ..... 1-2-3-4 133 1-2-3-4
43 201 1-2-3 3 Dead 180 1-2-3 0
29 134 2-3-4 ji ...... ......... -149 1-2-3-4
Note:-A and B beetles emerged in fall of 1925.
C beetles emerged 4-14-26.
September 1925 to January first, 1926 are living at this time,
June 21, 1926. Out of 1000 beetles January 1, there were 34
beetles living June 21, 1926.
Feeding Habits.-The beetles feed mostly on aphids of differ-
ent species. While caged they have been observed to eat the
Citrus Aphid (Aphis spiraecola), Melon Aphid (Aphis gossy-
pii), Turnip Louse (Aphis pseudobrassicae), Cabbage Plant
Louse (Aphis brassicae), Grapefruit Aphid (Toxoptera auran-
tiae) and the Pepper Aphid. The Citrus Aphid and Turnip
Louse are the only species that have been fed to them to any
great extent. They seem to thrive equally well on either. The
adults also eat their own eggs or the eggs of other species of
lady-beetles when the aphis are not abundant in the cages.
They will eat also the pupae of their own species when in the
same cage. Syrphus fly larvae are also eaten by the beetles.
In warm weather they have been observed to eat from 100 to
200 or more Citrus Aphids per day, but in cool weather the
amount is decreased to few or none. The younger adults eat
more than the older ones in cool weather, that is, when the days
are slightly warm the young beetles become active and search
for food but the older ones remain more inactive.
Immediately after an adult emerges, it eats very little but
its appetite gradually increases. One young beetle, No. C of
Table I, started with 19 aphids per day and increased to 180 in
ten days. See Table I for feeding records of young and old
Hibernation.-The adults go into a more or less inactive stage
during winter. The older adults remained dormant during the
latter half of November, December 1925, January and up to
the middle of February 1926. It appears that the temperature
has a great deal to do with their activities in winter. One cage
was kept in a small green house in cold weather so that the tem-
perature was much higher than the temperature in the insec-
tary. These beetles in the green house deposited eggs up to De-
cember 15, 1925 but very few and the egg masses were small,
eight to ten eggs to the mass. The beetles in the insectary de-
posited no eggs after the middle of November.
When hibernating the adults gathered in masses along the
edge of the cage and in curled leaves. For some unknown reason
at certain times in the warm weather they gathered in clusters
as though in hibernation. Beetles that emerged from April
1st to about April 12 started to gather in clusters at the top of
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
the cage April 24. These beetles went down through the leaves
apparently feeding again. From May 10th to 14th they again
clustered at the top of the cage and remained until June 21st
(time of writing). They are now becoming active again. At
the time when they seem to be in this dormant state, there are
always a few active beetles working through the leaves. It was
also observed that there is very little copulation or egg laying
during this period of dormancy.
Deposition of Eggs.-The length of time between the emerg-
ence of the beetles and the time they mate has not been exactly
observed. Beetles that emerged in the period of July 21 to 31
deposited fertile eggs August 13. One female that was in an
individual cage deposited non-fertile eggs 35 days after she had
emerged. Beetles that emerged from April 5 to April 29 de-
posited eggs about May 7. February 17 the beetles that hiber-
nated were moved from Lake Alfred, Florida to Davie, Florida.
The beetles were seemingly dormant when moved but the
weather being warmer at Davie, they became active at once
and started eating. Fertile eggs were deposited one week after
they had become active. Beetles that are depositing eggs regu-
larly seem to be in copulation a greater part. of the time.
The beetles deposit from one to sixty eggs in one egg mass.
The average number of eggs in an egg mass was, for one indi-
vidual female, 24. The maximum was 54 and the minimum '8.
This average was from 37 egg masses deposited over a period
of 106 days, June 17 to November 10, 1925. The total number
of eggs deposited was 904 or an'average of 85 eggs per day.
Eggs.-The eggs are yellow, shaped somewhat like a short and
thick cigar and deposited on end in more or less irregular rows.
The hatching period varies with the temperature. In warm
weather they hatch in three days but in cool weather it takes
eight to twelve days. See Table IV. Just before hatching the
eggs darken in color. The young larvae crawl out from the top
of the eggs. Immediately after hatching the larvae collect around
the old egg mass and if some of the eggs have not hatched they
will be eaten. Sometimes there are several hours difference in
the hatching of the eggs in the same egg mass.
Larvae.-The young larvae are black in color until the first
molt which, in summer, occurs about two days after hatching.
The. markings at this time are similar to that of the full grown
larva but not as distinct.: After the second. molt, which occurs
about two days later, the distinct markings of a full grown
larvae appear. There are three molts in the larva stage.
6-13 6-16 618 6-20 6 23 6-27 7 2
7-18 7-21 7-23 7-25 7-28 8-1 8-6
The larva has 12 plainly visible segments, 3 in the thorax
and 9 in the abdomen. The head and thorax are dark gray to
almost black. The first four segments of the abdomen are yel-
low, with a black median line beginning at the center of the
first segment and extending to the fifth. The last six segments
of the abdomen are a dark gray or black. Six branched spines
occur on each segment except the last. The legs and under
part of the body are a dark gray. The length of the full grown
larva is from 12 to 15 mm.
The larvae start eating soon after hatching, attacking aphids
that are as large or larger than themselves. They catch the
aphids with their miandibles and suck out the body fluids, then
eat the hull. A larva has been observed to suck the body fluids
from a winged female, then eat wings and all. A three-fourths
grown larva ate an adult aphid in two minutes but it takes up
to nine minutes sometimes, much depending on its appetite.
The larva have a fairly wide range of food altho aphids are
their main diet. The Citrus Aphid and Turnip Louse are the
only species that have bee ,v in any quantity but
they have eaten all the species previously named as eaten by
the adult. The larvae have been observed to eat several kinds
of soft-bodied insects such as the syrphus-fly larvae, mealy bugs,
small Cabbage Loopers and larvae of their own species or other
lady beetles. Counts were made to determine the number of
Citrus Aphids individual larvae would eat per day. All adults
and dead aphids were removed from the leaves before the ma-
terial was put into the cage. See Table III.
trial was put into the cage. See Table III.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
BEETLE No. 1 | BEETLE No. 2
7-7 23y1/ 41 0 41 1-2-3 56 4 522 i1-2-3
7-8 24 /2 82 5 77 .1-2-3 92 17 75 1-2-3
7-9 221/2 141 0 141 1-2-3-4 166 85 81 1-2-3-4
*7-10 221/2 0 0 0 0 114 20 94 1-2-3-4
7-11 25 150 6 144 1-2-3-4 140 22 118 1-2-3-4
7-12 22 188 60 128 1-2-3-4 180 23 157 1-2-3-4
7-13 26 205 12 193 1-2-3-4 210 0 210 1-2-3-4
7-14 23 290 20 270 1-2-3 300 40 260
7-15 261 312 50 262 1-2-3 320 90 230
7-16 316 70 246 1-2-3-4 325 60 265 1-2-3-4
7-17 27 300 41 259 1-2-3-4 .................................... Pupat'd
7-18 24 315 46 269 1-2-3-4 ............... ......... .......
7-19 24 310 165 145 ................ -:.. .. ......
7-20 ........... ......................... ........ Pupated .......... .........
7-25 ............ .............. ...................... Em erg'd i....... ............ ..... ............ Em erg.
7-251 ---------- ------------------- -----Emerg'd ------- --------..... Emerg.
S I I Total 21751 I I Total 1542 1
*Note.Box overlooked and no food added 7-9-25.
(To be continued)
Thru an oversight the writer neglected to sign the article
in the last number of the Entomologist describing Haplothrips
Abyssianae.-J. R. Watson.
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Does Not Require Soap
Mixes with Other Sprays
Can be used with Hard or Soft Water
Made Only by
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