Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1927
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00315
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Florida Ento pe Ist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

Vol. X WINTER NUMBER No. 4
JANUARY, 1927

NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY OF ATARBA PICTICORNIS
OSTEN SACKEN1
TIPULIDAE-DIPTERA
J. SPEED ROGERS
Dept. of Biology, University of Florida
Atarba picticornis 0. S. is the type and sole North American species
of the genus Atarba. The known range extends from New England to
western Michigan and, south to Louisiana and peninsular Florida. In the
southern part of its rajge it is a common, occasionally an abundant species
in mesophytic forest situations. In the north the adults appear in early
summer; Alexander's New York records are for late June and July, and
Michigan records are all for July. In the District of Columbia, the col-
lection dates extend from May 16 to August 9. In southern Indiana, Ten-
nessee and North Carolina, collection dates include May to August, with
June the time of greatest abundance and average frequency and the late





A3








Fig. 1.-Larva, Pupae and Cocoon of Atarba picticornis 0. S. (1) Larva,
dorsal view; (2) Pupae, ventral and dorso-lateral views; (3) Cocoon
with empty pupa skin projecting.
'Osten Sacken, R., On the North American Tipulidae, Monographs of
the Dintera of North America, Part IV, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col-
lections. Vol. VIII. Washington, 1869.


L~'~a~-













THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


summer records largely from deep, shaded, moist ravines. In northern
Florida, adults occur from mid-February to the last of September with
the greatest numbers in March and April.
For a crane-fly, this species is unusually active and alert and, altho
they are often on the wing in the daytime, flying about the herbage and
low shrubbery of rather open woods, twilight and night appear to be the
times of greater activity. Both sexes come freely to light and- have been
noted as appearing at a lighted sheet from 8:00 P. M. until after midnight.
Some of the light records are for pairs in copulation.
At the time of the publication of the "Crane-Flies of New York, Part
II" (1921), Atarba was among the few genera of crane-flies whose imma-
ture stages remained unknown to Dr. Alexander. Since then the pupa of
a New Zealand species, Atarba viridicolor Al. has been found and reared by
Mr. T. R. Harris, and in Florida I have found and reared larvae and
pupae of Atarba picticornis. In these two species, at least, the immature
stages are spent in rotting wood. Mr. Harris notes for A. viridicolor, "In
rotten wood, beneath bark; Karioi. N. Z.; Nov. 7. 1923" (label in vial).
A. picticornis has been taken from logs and chunks of several species2 of
hardwoods that were in an advanced stage of decay.
All of the wood from which Atarba picticornis has been taken was, at
the time, saturated or nearly saturated with water. In one case the log
was partially submerged in a temporary stream and had been for at least
two weeks. Living in the same wet wood from which this species has
been taken, were sow bugs, Passalus cornutus, several staphylinid beetles
and the larvae of the crane-flies: Teucholabis complex, Epiphragma
solatrix, and Elephantonvyia westwoodi.' In some instances the inhabited
wood was almost black, in others, it was not at all discolored nor even
was bleached, but in all cases the annular rings were still discernable altho
one could mold the soft pulpy wood with his hands and squeeze out con-
siderable water.
The larvae and pupae are found within three or four millimeters of the
surface of the wood. The larvae are active and move freely thru the wet
fibers. As they progress their bodies separate adhering fibers that close
together again when they have passed. No permanent burrows were no-
ticed. The pupae. are in all cases encased in a cocoon of short wood fibers,
lined with a very thin, smooth "silk". The outside of the case is rough
and uneven but the walls are quite thick and the fibers composing it are
entirely free from attachment to the wood of the log.
Altho larvae and pupae have always been obtained from distinctly wet
wood, some of the logs from which they were taken are known to have
been much drier at other seasons. The log mentioned above as partially
submerged in a temporary stream, was much drier six weeks earlier and
the temporary stream at that time was dry and had been for some weeks.
Several weeks after the larvae were taken the log was examined and found

2Identification unsure because of advanced decay. Fairly sure identi-
fications include Magnolia, sweet gum, black gum.
'Possibly ElephantoTmyia longirostris Williston, altho the identification
given above is believed to be correct. E. longirostris was described from
S. Vincent.













WINTER NUMBER


quite dry at the surface and only slightly damp at two inches beneath
the surface. The temporary stream was again quite dry.
Neither larvae or pupa have ever been found to be abundant; samples
of wood that yielded scores of Epiphragma solatrix larvae and dozens of
Teucholabis complex larvae would, at most, contain but three or four
larvae of Atarba pecticornis and even fewer pupae. When one considers
that numerous samples of wood containing a few immature stages was
examined at various seasons, and that the adults are often very common,
it seems probable that the females deposit but a few eggs in one place.
The duration of the pupa stage is close to seven or eight days in Flor-
ida in the early spring. Later in the summer it may be a day shorter.
The growth of the larvae is rather slow. A typical rearing jar record is
as follows: "Feb. 16, 1924, five apparently full grown larvae taken from
rotten wood today; 2 killed and preserved, 3 placed in a vial with sterilized
rotten wood from habitat. March 8, 1924, a male A. picticornis emerged;
March 9, 1924, a second male A. picticornis out today. March 28, 1924, re-
maining larvae examined today-still active. April 29, 1924, larva exam-
ined today-still a larva but encased in 'cocoon' and inactive. May 8, 1924,
a female died emerging today." From other rearing notes it is evident that
the cocoon is builded by the larva but a day or two previous to, pupation.
The larva skin and head capsule may always be found at the posterior
end of the cocoon, usually wadded into a flat pellet entirely caudad to the




























Fig. 2.-Details of Larva and Pupa. (4) Left mandible of larva, mesal
view; (5) Right mandible of larva, dorsal view; (6) Mentum of larva.;
(7) Face of pupa.













THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


pupa; occasionally the last two or three abdominal segments of the pupa
are still enclosed in the loose pupa skin.

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE IMMATURE STAGES
THE LARVA (Figs. 1, 4, 5 and 6)
Form terete, moderately elongate. Length, 11-13 mm.; diameter of
1st thoracic segment, 0.7-0.8 mm.; diameter of 3rd abdominal segment,
1-1.3 mm.; diameter of base of 9th abdominal segment, 0.5-0.6 mm. (Meas-
urements made fram expanded, preserved larvae).. In life, the 8th abdom-
inal segment is often markedly dilated. Color, in life, a pale yellowish
white, deepening to a pale orange yellow in the anterior segments. In-
tegument thin, translucent, colorless, with a scant pale, wholly microscopic
pubescence. Creeping welts extensive but with a very low relief, so that
they are not apparent without considerable magnification. Each welt com-
posed of numerous (8-20) close-set, parallel rows of minute brownish hairs;
the rows extending across the width of the tergites and sternites but ab-
sent from the pleural region; about 15 such parallel rows to 0.1 mm.
The first pair (dorsal and ventral) of these welts is situated on the caudal
end of the third thoracic segment; abdominal segments 1-7 have a pair
on both cephalic and caudal ends; abdominal segment 8 has a pair on
its cephalic end. On the central abdominal segments the welts occupy the
cephalic and caudal thirds of the segment.
The spiracular disk is small and very oblique, as nearly horizontal (dor-
sal) in position as vertical. It has five small lobes, of which the ventral
pair are distinctly largest. Ventral lobes nearly parallel, their outer mar-
gins in line with the lateral edges of the disk, their inner margins short,
fused to more than mid-length; each is marked by a linear, dark brown
spot that extends from near the distal end to the base, or even onto the
face of the disk. Just caudad of this linear spot, each lobe bears a short,
stout, curved seta, directed dorsad. Dorso-lateral lobes markedly dorsal
in position, but slightly larger than the vestigial dorso-median lobe. All
three dorsal lobes infuscated with a narrow crescent, parallel to and just
before their apical margins. The margins with a thin growth of short,
slender, brownish hairs. Spiracles situated just below -the bases of the
dorso-lateral lobes, circular in outline, small, separated by about three
times the diameter of one spiracle; the centers jet black, the rings yellow-
ish orange. Caudo-ventrad to the spiracular disk are the anal gills; these
form an un-lobed, wart-like protuberance beneath the extreme caudal end
of the body. In life, they are translucent, colorless; after death, an
opaque white.
The head capsule is compact, dark brown, massive. Prefrons extensive,
triangular in outline, chitinized; its cephalo-lateral angles fused with the
lateral plates, its acute caudal angle slightly incised. Lateral plates ex-
tensive, deep, shaped like the valves of a mussel; above, they are fused
with the prefrons anteriorly and but slightly separated from. the prefrons
for its entire length; below, the edges of the lateral plates turn mesad and
are separated by less than a third of the floor of the head capsule pos-
teriorly, and meet, or nearly so, anteriorly, where they articulate with the
bars of the mentum. Antennae slender, elongate, cylindrical; first joint
very long, length five times the diameter, cylindrical but tapering slightly













WINTER NUMBER


.53


toward the apex; second joint small, about as long as the diameter of the
first joint, rounded-conical. The labrum-epipharynx separated from the
prefrons by a broad, crescent-shaped membrane whose cephalic (concave)
margin bears a narrow, crescent-shaped plate, the clypeus (?). Labrum-
epipharynx gently convex along its caudal margin, more rounded at the
cephalic margin; cephalic margin well chitinized, with a narrow, shallow
emargination in the middle; surface with a thick growth of short hairs, a
single seta at either caudo-lateral angle and group of three, small, separate
setae toward either cephalo-lateral angle. Mandibles strongly chitinized,
rather massive, strong; apical halves spoon-shaped, the cavities ventro-mesal;
dorsal margin with two blunt, conical teeth; apical tooth long, flattened,
directed ventro-cephalad; three ventral teeth, similar to apical tooth but
smaller; prosthecal region with a distinct lobe, bearing a heavy, blunt tooth
on its dorsal surface. Length of mandible, 0.16 mm.; width at base, 0.05
mm.; width at prosthecal lobe, 0.07 mm.; length of apical tooth, 0.28 mm.
Maxillae membranous, short, faintly two-lobed; surface with a thick growth
of pale, moderately long hairs; a small circle of minute setae on the ventro-
lateral margin of the outer lobes near their bases; tips of the maxillae
extend scarcely cephalad of the anterior margin of the labrum-epipharynx.
Mentum large, prominent; apical tooth long, narrow triangular; on either
side three progressively smaller and more caudad teeth; caudal cleft nar-
row but extending to midlength of median tooth; mental bars short, broad.
Hypopharynx rather delicate, supported on either side by two strong chitin-
ous rods; two rows of anteriorly directed teeth are discernable, the narrow-
er row with four rather blunt teeth, the wider with ten or twelve, sub-equal,
narrow, longer teeth, the lateral two or three, shorter and more acute.
In spite of the many distinct differences, particularly in the head cap-
sule, the living larvae are peculiarly like the living larvae of Teucholabis
complex in general appearance.

THE PUPA (Figs. 2 and 7)
Length, 6.5-7.5 mm.; breadth (dextro-sinistral) at base of wing pad, 1.3
mm.; depth (dorso-ventral) at base of wing pad, 1.3 mm; Color, in life,
very pale, whitish tinged with yellow; eyes terra cotta; sheaths of tarsi,
apical margins of the wing pads, pronotal breathing horns, cinnamon rufus;
in older pupae the bicolorous antennal joints show thru the transparent
antennal sheath. Younger pupae uncolored except for the eyes. Integu-
ment very delicate, thin; heaviest chitinization in the tarsal sheaths. The
sheaths of the tarsi, antennae and wings adhere very slightly to the sur-
face of the pupae case, are easily displaced by gentle currents of fluid.
Head small, rounded conical; projecting cephalad of the thorax. Ce-
phalic crest represented by two small, widely separated, somewhat coni-
cal tubercles. These tubercles are slightly chitinized, their apices directed
slightly laterad and bearing a single long stout seta; two similar setae are
borne from the mesal face of each tubercle. In ventral view the tubercles
are concealed by the bases of the antennae altho the setae are visible pro-
jecting cephalad. The antennae arise from. basal enlargements that are
rather closely approximated; extend to beyond the basal fourth of the
wing pad; are without angulations beyond the basal enlargements. Eyes
widely separated, their lateral margins very rounded. Cheeks markedly












THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


rounded, without projecting angles. Labrum longer than broad; the
width is abruptly expanded at a little less than mid-length so that the
apical half is broader than the basal; apex rounded. Labial lobes rounded-
elliptical; their lower inner margins meeting in a broad curve below the
labrum. Maxillary palpi moderately long, broad at the base, acute at the
apex; curving along the margin of the cheeks to a point well cephalad of
the knees of the prothoracic legs.
Prothorax rather long in the mid-dorsal line, curving over the caudal
part of the head, pale, very little chitinized. Pronotal breathing horns
small, length, 0.15 mm., clavate, cylindrical, curved cephalo-laterad; the
expanded distal ends are somewhat darker than the basal portion. The
horns are separated by more than two thirds the width of the dorsum
of the prothorax. Mesothoracic dorsum smooth, gently rounding. Dor-
sum of metathorax depressed. Wing pads extend to cephalic margin of
second abdominal segment. Tips of the tarsal sheaths ending opposite
the fifth abdominal segment, the three pairs of slightly, but distinctly,
unequal length: prothoracic pair the longest, extending to beyond mid-
length of fifth adominal segment, mesothoracic pair the shortest, ending
at anterior margin of the segment, metathoracic pair intermediate.
Abdomen pale, unchitinized, glabrous save for the caudo-ventral mar-
gin of the fifth abdominal segment where a number of close-set, parallel
rows of minute points form a narrow, transverse band. Segments 2-7
are divided into a basal and posterior annulus, the latter somewhat the
longer, the former again divided dorsally into two narrow folds. Lateral
spiracles are present on segments 2-7 and on the dorsum of segment 8
are a pair of narrow, brown ringed depressions that are believed to be
dorsal spiracles. Female cauda pointed; dorsal lobes the longer, their
apices acute, chitinized, slightly upturned; ventral lobes straight, blunt.

THE COCOON (Fig. 3)
The cocoon, in which the pupa is enclosed, is composed of wood fibers
(xylem), save for the very thin, smooth lining of a silk-like substance.
The pupa is tightly enclosed save for a slight space at the caudal end.
The outside measurements of a typical cocoon are: length, 11 mm.; diam-
eter of cephalic end 3.5 mm.; of caudal end 3 mm. The size is fairly uni-
form but the color of various cocoons ranges from almost black to almost
white, depending upon the color of. the wood inhabited by the pupa. The co-
coons of "black-rotten" wood are, more fragile and more liable to crumble
than those of lighter colored woods. The one figured is a dry cocoon gum-
med to a point and pinned with the male that emerged from it.

RELATIONSHIPS INDICATED BY THE IMMATURE STAGES
The genus Atarba was placed by Osten Sacken in his "section" (tribe
of Alexander) Limnobia anomala. This group was later known as the
Antochini by van der Wulp, and Rhamphidini by Verrall. In this tribe
Osten Sacken included some thirteen or fourteen genera including Atarba,
Antocha, Dicranoptycha, Rhamphidia, Teucholabis, Elephantomyia. He
recognized and declared the artificial nature of this grouping and for this
reason maintained the term Limnobia anomala rather than Antochini or












5he

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
Florida.

J. R. W ATSON ................-........--..-..-- .......------- ...-- .................-Editor
WILMON NEWELL-.........-.......--- ..................---.........Associate Editor
A. N. TISSOT -...-.......--- .........---.-- ......---....... --Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free, to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

Rhamphidini.' Lately Alexander" has entirely abandoned the recognition
of this tribe, removing the various genera to more natural groupings as
the evidences of natural relationships have been discovered. Most of the
genera have been found to have relationships with the tribe Limonini:
Dicranoptycha, Rhamphidia, Antocha, Diotrepha; others have been placed
in the Eriopterini: Teucholabis, Elephantomyia.
On the basis of larva and pupa characters, Atarba very clearly is
among the genera whose relationships are with the Limonini. The massive
structure of the head capsule, with its extensive and intact prefrons and
lateral plates; the mentum with a caudally cleft but anteriorly intact,
prominent median tooth and smaller lateral teeth; the structure of the
hypopharynx and form of the mandibles, all are clearly Limonine in char-
acter. Other larva characters are also of a Limonini type. In the pupa
the majority of the characters: form of mesonotum, sheaths of mouth
parts, lack of chitinized crests, abdominal spiracles, are Limonine. The
only possible Eriopterine character, the unequal length of the tarsal
sheaths, is approached by the pupae of several genera of the tribe Limonini.
The characters of the adult are, I believe, also indicative of the Limo-
nini as the tribe is now defined.
In the Limonini, Atarba stands closest to the Dicranoptycha, altho it
would not fit into the sub-tribe Dicranoptycharia as now defined.
Thru the kindness of Mr. Harris of New Zealand and of Dr. Alexander,
who forwarded it to me, I have the empty pupa skin of Atarba viridicolor
Al. This is so close in all characters to the pupa of Atarba picticornis that
separation would probably be difficult if both flies occupied the same re-
gion. The main differences are a slightly longer pair of tergal valves in
the female cauda of A. viridicolor and the fact that in this species the
bands of minute points are found on the caudo-ventral margin of several
abdominal segments, the points even more minute than in A. picticornis.

"Osten Sacken, R. See note 1, also Studies on Tipulidae, Part II, Re-
view of the Published Genera of the Tipulidae brevipalpi, Berl. Entom.
Zeitsch., 1887.
5Alexander, C. P., Crane-Flies of New York, Part II, Ithaca, N. Y.,
1921 and Biology of N. A. Crane-Flies, Part V, The Genus Dicranoptycha
Osten Sacken, Pomona College Journ. Ent. and Zool., XI, Dec. 1919.




4











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


PERSONALS
Mr. F. S. Chamberlain is senior author (with J. N. Tenhet)
of an article in the Journal of Agricultural Research, July 1926,
on "Cardiochiles nigriceps Vier. An Important Parasite of the
Tobacco Bud Worm, Heliothis viresceus Fab." The work was
carried on at 'Quincy, Fla., where Mr. Chamberlain has charge
of the laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology for the
investigation of the insects attacking tobacco.

Dr. E. W. Berger has been called to Ohio by the death of his
brother.

Among our members who are planning to attend the meetings
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in
Philadelphia are G. B. Merrill, Edgar Grossman, A. F. Camp,
J. C. Goodwin, O. F. Burger, J. R. Watson, J. H. Montgomery,
S. R. Warner, Wilmon Newell, E. D. Ball.

Prof. John Gray is spending'the Christmas holidays in Cuba.

THE IDENTITY OF THE NEW CITRUS APHID
A. N. TISSOT
Since its appearance in the spring of 1924 the identity of the
citrus aphid has been in question. In Bulletin 174 of the Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station by J. R. Watson and A.
H. Beyer, this aphid was called Aphis spiraecola Patch, but a
footnote mentioned that it was very closely related to Aphis
pomi De Geer, and might be identical with this species. In Bul-
letin 313 of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station Dr.
Patch considered the two species identical, but some other ento-
mologists hold that there are two distinct species.
In an attempt to throw light on the question some transfer
tests were made by the writer during the past summer and fall
and the results of some of these experiments follow:
There were a few colonies of aphids on apple on the Station
grounds but since there was a possibility that they had migrated
from citrus it was thought advisable to secure some aphids from
some outside source. On September 15th a shipment of aphids
on some apple shoots was received thru the courtesy of Mr. F.
F. Smith who collected them in the vicinity of Willow Grove,
Pennsylvania.











WINTER NUMBER


Three lots of these aphids of about ten individuals each were
placed on growing shoots of apple. The aphids at once began
to feed and reproduce and soon there was a large colony on each
shoot. Two of these shoots still have a few individuals alive at
the present time, Dec. 20th, and on each of them eggs were laid.
Five groups of aphids from the Pennsylvania shipment,
averaging about eight individuals each, were placed on tender
shoots of citrus of the Cleopatra variety. Two of these groups
disappeared in two or three days but some of the aphids in the
others fed on the citrus and produced a few young. The colo-
nies grew smaller however and disappeared completely in two
to three weeks.
Twenty-six of the young which were produced by these three
colonies were transferred to other shoots of citrus. Only two
of these twenty-six reached maturity and produced young. One
of these females produced thirty-six young in ten days. Twelve
of these young were transferred to other shoots. Some appar-
ently did not feed at all while others fed for a time but none
reached maturity. The other female produced a total of twen-
ty-nine young in ten days. Nine of these young were trans-
ferred, and here again some of them fed for a time but none
reached maturity.
While a sufficient number of transfers have not been made
to give conclusive evidence, still the fact that two individuals
of the forty-seven which were transferred reached maturity and
produced young would seem to indicate at least that under fav-
orable conditions a physiological race of aphids could develop
on apple or spirea which would be able to live and reproduce on
citrus.

LIFE HISTORY OF IMPORTANT LADY-BEETLE
PREDATORS OF THE CITRUS APHID
W. L. THOMPSON
(Continued from Vol. 10. No. 3, p. 46)
The length of the larval instars differs according to the time
of year and temperature. From July to the last of September
the larval period lasted from ten to fourteen days; the average
daily temperature ranging from 730 F. to 890 F. In November
and December the larval period was from thirteen to thirty-
seven days, the daily average temperature ranging from 590 F.
to 720F. See Table IV for details.










58 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

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i 'I '
I ; i .iI- - -_. i
,I I 1 ; j,. ...-. , ,

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.. f. ............ ...! T


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Fig. .elation between average temperature and length of larval life.
When the larvae pupate they attach th themselves by the tips
i. *i / . .. -- > r ; -. .* '-.. ,,. +,- -I -, ,
L 'I



















of their abdomens, head down, to a mature leaf; if caged, to
'hI





















the side of the cage. When changing from larva to the pupa
stage the skin splits over the head and down the back. To re-
move the skin the larva has the power to move the body up
and down, throwing the skin back to the attached part of the
body.
Pupae.-After the skin has been cast off the pupa is a bright
yellow but in a short time it deepens to an orange color with
two black spots on the thorax, one on each wing pad and six
on the abdomen. The length of the pupa is from 6 to 7 mun.
T -' .. 1I 9 j'"V

ofteibdmn, head !wtamuea








When the skinrthe luarvate theypw ea toemoves y the bidp












WINTER NUMBER


The length of the pupa stage is from 5 to 7 days in warm weath-
er but this period increased in cool weather from ten to fifteen
days. See Fig. 3.


A NEW LIOTHRIPS FROM SANTO DOMINGO
J. R. WATSON
(Liothrips seini n. sp.)
Light brown to dark chestnut brown in color; only tarsi, most of fore
tibiae, and intermediate antenna segments much lighter. In lighter speci-
mens the thorax especially shows much hypodermal pigment. All bristles
weak, short and inconspicuous, light yellowish brown, Head but little
longer than broad. Cheeks nearly straight, slightly diverging posteriorly.
Dorsum finely striated. Eyes very long, much wider at posterior end than
at anterior which is prolonged inwardly at the anterior angle. Ocelli
large, the anterior reaching nearly across the interocular area; situated
far forward, the posterior in front of the middle of the eyes; bordered
with reddish brown crescents. Mouth cone reaching to about the middle
of the prosternum, tipped with black. Antennae a little more than 1.5
times as long as head. Segments 1 and 2 concolorous with the head, 3-5
yellow, shaded with brown, 4 and 5, especially 5, considerably so, 3 scarce-
ly at all, 6-8 light brown, 6 yellowish in basal half. Segment 1 very
broad, especially at base; 2, barrel-shaped, but contracted slightly at
base, curved outwardly; 3-5 clavate; 3 with narrow pedicel, 4 and 5 with
wider ones; 6 and 7 oblong, abruptly narrower than' 5; 8 conical but con-
spicuously bent outward.
Prothorax rather small, rounded, a moderately long bristle on posterior
angle; nearly twice as wide (including coxae) as long.
Mesothorax much wider. Metathorax with nearly straight sides con-
verging posteriorly. Legs rather slender, femora and middle and hind
tibiae concolorous with body. Distal half of fore tibiae, tips of others and
all tarsi brownish yellow.
Wings rather short, membrane often reaching only to segment 5 of ab-
domen; in others to segment 8; color of fore pair pale brownish yellow,
veins and margins darker, a colorless area on the scale and another in
the anterior half of the basal third. Fringing hairs moderately long,
about eleven interlocated ones.
Abdomen no wider than mesothorax, varying much in length. In some
individuals no longer than the head and thorax, in others much longer.
Tube only about 2/3 as long as the head. Terminal bristles scarcely as
long as the tube.
Measurements: Head, length 0.30 mm.; width 0.25; prothorax length
0.20 mm.; width 0.39 mm.; mesothorax, width 0.46 mm.; abdomen width
0.48 mm.; tube, length 0.19 mm.; width at base 0.11 mm.; at apex 0.06
mim. Total body length 2.4 mm. (1.7 to 2.8 mm.). Antennae, total length
0.47 mm. Segment 1, 42; 2, 57; 3, 80; 4, 65; 5, 71; 6, 65; 7, 63; 8, 44
microns.
Male.-Similar to female but averaging smaller.













THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Measurements: Head, length 0.24 mm., width 0.26; prothorax, length
0.21 mm., width 0.41 mm.; mesothorax, width 0.47 mm.; abdomen, width
0.47 mm.; tube, length 0.19 mm.; width at base 0.09 mm., at apex, 0.05.
Total body length 2.0 mim. (1.4 to 2.3 mm.). Antennae, total length 0.40.
Segment 1, 39; 2, 51; 3, 72; 4, 56; 5, 62; 6, 57; 7, 57; 8, 40 microns.
Described from three females and four males collected by
Mr. Francisco Sein from an unknown shrub at Cerro el Cas-
ique Santo Domingo, Dec. 12, 1924. Forwarded by Dr. H. L.
Dozier.


NEW THYSANOPTERA FROM FLORIDA
J. R. WATSON
Merothrips floridensis sp. nov.-Female (apterous)
General color yellowish brown, head and prothorax Dresden brown
(Ridgeway's Color Standards), abdomen and pterothorax a little lighter,
legs a brownish yellow.
Head a little longer than wide, widest a little above the base from
which points the cheeks are arched sharply to the base and gently to the
eyes; smooth; post-antennal bristles nearly as long as the first three an-
tennal segments. A pair of bristles situated midway between the eyes
and the posterior border of the head are quite conspicuous tho less than
half as long as the post-antennals; media of these is a pair of small
bristles; and a fourth pair, equally small, lies between the eyes. Eyes very
small, showing only. three facets in lateral profile, pilose, ocelli lacking.
Mouth cone about 5/6 as long as wide, reaching about half way across the
prosternum, semi-circularly rounded at the apex. Antennae 2.5 times as
long as the head. Segment 1 concolorous with the head, 2 a trifle lighter,
3-8 mummy brown (Ridgeway's Color Standards), about a third of 1
covered by the vertex, 2 cup-shaped; 3 and 4 oblong-elliptical in outline;
5 small, ovoid; 6 and 7. ovoid-elliptical; 8, elliptical; 3 and 4 with the
tympanum-like oval sense areas typical of the genus. Bristles and sense-
cones pale and inconspicuous.
Prothorax large, trapezoidal in outline, longer than the head and wider
than long. Sides nearly straight and diverging sharply from the anterior
border which is no wider than the head. Anterior angles with a weak
bristle and the rounded posterior angles with a long bristle, a shorter one
on each coxa. Mesothorax with sides diverging sharply to a sharp angle
from which they narrow again to the straight and parallel sided metatho-
rax; a pair of long, sharp-pointed bristles posterior to the anterior angles
and another posterior to the lateral angles. Legs short and thick, the fore-
femora greatly enlarged and the hind femora less so. Fore tibia armed
at the tip with a plainly evident but small spine. Wings lacking.
Abdomen rather heavy, broadening regularly to about segment 7 and
then abruptly rounded to the tip, ovipositor rudimentary.
Measurements: Total body length 0.66 mm. Head, length, 0.096 mm.,
width 0.09 mm.; prothorax, length 0.106 mm., width (including coxae)
0.14 mm.; mesothorax, width 0.15 mm.; metathorax, width 0.136 mm.; ab-
domen, greatest width 0.16 mm., antennae;-total length 0.25 mm.












WINTER NUMBER


Segment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Length ....23 27 40 38 30 33 35 45
Width ......27 25 18 16 14 15 13 10 microns

Male very similar to the female, but the fore femora are provided with
a stout tooth just below the middle of the inside margin and the tooth on
the fore tibia very much larger than in the female. When the leg i4
flexed these two teeth come into opposition.
Described from a single female and a single male taken in moss grow-
ing on the trunk of a live-oak tree at Earleton, Fla., Sept. 4, 1926. Types
in the author's collection.
This species resembles the type species of the genus morganii) in the
small eyes, absence of wings, etc., but differs in the shape of the head and
antennal segments and in the presence of the tooth near the apex of the
fore tibia in the female.
The following key will enable one to separate the four species of the
genus:
a. No tooth on the fore tibiae........-.......-... ..--.--.................morgani Hood
aa. Fore tibiae provided with a tooth near the apex.
b. Head 1.25 times as long as wide ---..---.......------..- williamsi Priesner
bb. Head about as long as Wide, wings and ocelli absent
-floridanus sp. nov.
bbb. Head 1.5 times wider than long, wings and ocelili pres-
ent ---..-....-...---..--- ........ ........-------...-.....-fusciceps Hood

POLYPOROTHRIPS GEN. NOV.

Head considerably longer than wide and longer than the prothorax;
cheeks parallel, vertex elevated, gently rounded in front, slightly over-
hanging the bases of the antennae. Antennae, about 1.5 times as long as
the head; 8 segmented; the'basal segments unusually stout, inserted close
together and directed nearly straight forward, segments 2-8 pedicellate,
3-8 narrowly so, and of nearly uniform length, with long slender bristles.
Mouth cone long, reaching the mesosternum, pointed at tip.
Prothorax much shorter than the head, armed with five pairs of long
capitate bristles.
Abdomen almost conical in shape, widest at base and evenly rounded to
the tube. Tube with straight sides.
Close to Neothrips Hood but can be told at a glance by the narrow pedi-
cellate 8th antennal segment (7 and 8 closely united in Neothrips)., It
differs also in the heavier basal segments of the antennae. which are in-
serted closer together and directed more nearly forward. The head is
shorter and vertex "rounded. The prothorax is much shorter. It differs
also in the shape of the abodmen (which is almost cylindrical in Neothrips
and in the straight sides of the tube. Type Polyporothrips longipilosus sp.
nov.












THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Polyporothrips longipilosus sp. nov. Apterous female
General color, baryta yellow (Ridgeway's Color Standards, 1912). Pro-
thorax, sides of pterothorax and abdomen shaded with brown. Hypodermal
pigment orange red by reflected light. Antennal segments 4-8 dark mouse
gray.
Head 1.3 times longer than wide; cheeks, straight and parallel but ab-
ruptly rounded to the eyes, provided with a few pale short bristles; ver-
tex elevated, rounded, covering about a third of the basal antennal seg-
ments. Dorsal surface with a few faint striations at-the sides. Post ocular
bristles large, a row of three small bristles behind each postocular, two
others lateral to these and three media. Ocellar bristles present but
small. Eyes very small, only two large facets in lateral outline. Pigment,
dark red. Ocelli wanting, but a speck of dark red pigment at the vertex
between the bases of the antennae probably represents the anterior ocellus.
Antennae nearly twice as long as the head, segments 1, 2 and base of 3 con-
colorous with the head or darker, apex of 3 and 4-8 dark mouse gray. Seg-
ment 1 very large and heavy, 2 cup-shaped, with a wide pedicel; 3 short
club-shaped; 4-7, oblong ovoid. Bristles long and slender, progressively
so from base to apex; one on the inner side of segment 7 1.5 times as long
as the segment, a pair at the base nearly as long. Sense cones on seg-
ments" 3-6 heavy, curved, colorless.
(To be continued)


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