Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00314
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1927
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00314
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text


Florida EntoirioA
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society,. a
Vol. XI SPRING NUMBER t l. ^'*
APRIL, 1927 --

(Continued from Vol. X, No. 4, p. 59)
(Cyloneda sanguine immaculate) (Fab.))
Description.-The adult lady beetle (Fig. la) is red or orange
in color with a black prothorax and head. The legs are black.
The eggs are cigar shaped, yellow in color and placed on end in
clusters of from 7 to 20 on the underside of the leaf. The lar-
vae .(Fig. Ic) are dark blue or black with orange markings and
black head and legs. The pupa (Fig. Ib) are deep yellow or
orange with six small black spots.
The natural food of this insect is aphids. It has been known
to thrive on the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae and
Aphis spiraecola. It frequently is found on aphids on turnip
and cabbage but is usually not abundant there.
The eggs are usually laid on a fairly large leaf somewhere
near an aphid colony. The larvae hatch in four or five.days
and begin active feeding. They were found to eat an average
of sixteen aphids per day. t

a. b. c.
Fig. 1.-Blood-red lady-beetle. (From Bul. 183, Fla. Agri. Exp. Sta.)


The length of time required for a beetle to complete its life
cycle differs with the time of year and the temperature. One
female emerged April 2, and was placed in a cage April 3 with
a male collected from the field. They mated at once and the
female deposited 19 eggs April 10. These eggs hatched April
17. From eggs deposited on April 13 by another beetle adults
emerged May 7 or 24 days later. Taking 24 days for the period
between the deposition of eggs and the emerging of adults and
eight days from emergence to the egg laying period (preovipo-
sition period), the complete life cycle would be approximately
32 days.
The larvae have been observed to molt three times. Larvae
that were hatched out May 18 molted May 21, May 24, and
May 28.
The following tables give records of egg laying and the life
cycles respectively.

Period No. Egg Total No. Ave. Per Max. Eggs Min. Eggs
1925 Masses of Eggs Day Per Mass Per Mass
3-13 to 3-28.--...-.. ..... 9 144 9.6 21 7
3-30 to 4-18........... 9 145 7.0 34 6
3-29 to 4-20 -.........-- 23 204 8.4 19 3
3-28 to 4-15 ........... 7 48 2.5 11 4
3-12 to 3-17 .......... 6 60 12.0 21 7
*6-14 to 6-30 ......... 15 154 9 18 4
*This female was collected from the grove for feeding experiment, June
8. She was placed in an individual cage, no male present. Larvae hatched
out of eggs in each egg mass recorded.

Egg Egg No. of Larvae Days Adult Days in No. Days
Deposited Hatched Days Pupated Larvae Emerged Pupa in Life
Stage Stage Cycle
3-16 3-20 4 4-20 31 4-26 6 41
3-20 3-24 4 4-27 34 5-3 6 44
3-30 4-7 7 4-26 19 4-30 4 30
4-13 4-17 4 4-30 13 5-7 7 24
4-22 4-26 4 5-12 16 5-17 5 25
5-25 5-28 3 6-7 10 6-15 8 21
6-4 6-7 3 6-16 9 6-21 5 17
10-19 10-23 5 11-3 20 11-10 7 32
10-20 10-24 5 11-10 17 11-16 6 28
These eggs were collected from groves so dates of egg deposition are
As was reported previously by Professor J. R. Watson this
is the most common and abundant of all aphid predators. It
occurs during the entire year and in the periods of heavy in-


festation is very abundant. During its period of greatest
abundance as many as 5 larvae could be found per 1000 aphids.
This number is not sufficient to destroy all the aphids but will
greatly reduce their numbers.

Fig. .-Table showing seasonal appearance and abundance.
::: -. I- =_ .... : -==,_-_--

Enemies.-If it were not for the natural enemies of this
predator it would probably become much more abundant. The
hymenopterous parasites reared from this insect were Tetras-
:- -- "--r--i--- .--_.- ._,-7 "'7"7.-r SM

tichus blephyria, and Homaaetylus termninalis Say. These were
found during the spring and early summer of 1925 and during
the same period in 1926. They destroyed as many as 50 percent
of the larvae. During the rainy seasonal appearance and abundance.d by a
Enemies.-If it were not for the natural enemies of this
predator it would probably become much more abundant. The
hymenopterous parasites reared from this insect were Tetras-
tichus blephyria and Homalatylus terminalis Say. These were
found during the spring and early summer of 1925 and during
the same period in 1926. They destroyed as many as 50 percent
of the larvae. During the rainy season a disease caused by a
fungus, Cladisporum sp. attacked the larvae. A bacterial dis-
ease also played havoc during the rainy season. This disease
caused the full grown larvae to turn black and die instead of
Hippodamia convergens Guer.

a. b. c.
Fig. 3.-(From Bull. 183, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.)


Description.-The adult (Fig. 3c) is light red in color with
12 black spots on the wing covers, six spots on each cover. The
prothorax is black with two diagonal white lines, the head and
feet are black. The eggs are cigar shaped, yellow in color and
laid in clusters of 5 to 20 on leaves or twigs. The larvae (Fig.
3a) are blue gray or almost black with orange markings. The
pupa (Fig. 3b) is orange colored with many black spots.
Habits.-This beetle can most frequently be found associated
with aphids on truck crops.
It seems to thrive well when feeding on aphids infesting crops
in the open, Hundreds of these beetles were found feeding on
aphids that infested crab grass in August. In October, Novem-
ber, December and January they were the most common lady-
beetles observed in cucumber and turnip patches infested with
Larvae collected from the field are not as highly parasitized
as those of the Blood-red but at certain times of the year the
death rate is very high due to a disease of a bacterial nature.
In the life history work the death rate was very high from this
The complete life cycle takes about 30 days in April and May.
A male and female emerged April 13 and mated April 14. The
first lot of eggs was deposited April 18 and hatched April 22,
the adults emerging May 12 or 29 days for one generation. The
following table gives the egg record for one female, the molts
and length of time of larvae and pupae stages.

Lot Eggs No. Eggs No. Molts Date No. Adults No. Died
Dep. Eggs Hatch Eggs 1st 2nd 3rd Larvae Emerged
1925 Hatched Pupated
1 4-18 *
2 4-18 14 4-22 14 4-24 4-25 4-29 5-5 2 5-12 2 0
3 -- .. ----.... .... ......--.. 5-6 7 5-12 7 0
3 4-21 7 -- -. -
4 4-22 17 4-24 ? ? ? ? 5-10 5-15
5 5-7 14 5-10 ..-- -.. .. ..... -- .. .. 10
6 5-8 10 5-11 7 5-13 5-15 5-18 5-24 2 5-29 1 6
7 5-15 16 5-18 11 5-20 5-22 5-25 5-3 4 6-3 4 7
8 5-16 14 5-20 7 5-22 5-24 5-27 5-30 1 6-5 1 6
8 5-16 14 5-20 7 5-22 5-24 5-27 5-30 1 6-5 It 6
9 5-18 23 5-24 15 ? ? ? ..
NOTES: *Adult ate eggs. tAdult that emerged was not normal, wings
deformed. All other larvae of lot 9 died of disease.
The eggs are usually laid in clusters on the under side of the
leaves near aphid colonies. The larvae begin feeding immedi-
ately after hatching and ate an average of 58 aphids per day.


The adults are very active, strong flyers and travel from truck
patches to groves near by.

-- :i I Ti ::E-
- - f . -: - -- -_ - ;_ -_-__ _-_-_ i - - - -

. I

....... ....- ---7-- 7. F---I- .:. 1 ---.* - .
.:. ..... ... -.-.._. -;_ _. __ _

Fig. 4.-Chart Showing Seasonal Appearance and Abundance at Lake
This predator is one that seems to be sun loving. A very
open grove or nursery that is heavily infested with aphids is
usually the desired habitat. A nursery or grove in the vicinity
of a truck crop section is also a common habitat. It seems as
tho the beetle prefers truck crop aphids or conditions* and
comes to citrus when the other aphids become scarce or disap-
pear entirely. This lady beetle is the second most important
lady beetle but probably the third most important predator.
The second place must be given to the Syrphus fly, Bacha cla-
Olla abdomninalis sobrina Casey

c. b. a.
Fig. 5.-(From Bul. 183, Fla. Agri. Exp. Sta.)
*It is chiefly a southern species and ecologically belongs to the open
fields rather than the forests. It is by far the most abundant ladybeetle in
the deserts and plains of the southwestern U. S.-Ed.


Description.-The adult beetles (Fig. 5a) are black in color
with one fairly large irregular yellow spot on each wing cover.
The eggs are cigar shaped, light yellow in color and laid in
clusters of 4 to 20. Larvae (Fig. 5c) are black with yellow
markings. The pupae (Fig. 5b) are black and white with a very
elaborate pattern of black spots on the back.
Olla abdominalis var. sobrina Csy. (sym. Coccinella occulata
Auct.), is a more or less common predator of the citrus aphid
but not as common as the Blood-red or Hippodamia convergens.
It has been observed working on citrus aphids as early as March
and as late as November 15. It will feed on the Melon Aphid,
Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae and others.
Quite a few adults and larvae were observed feeding on mealy
bugs that had infested guava. The adults, when caged, eat their
own eggs much more readily than the Blood-red or Hippodamia
The time between the emergence of the adult and the, egg lay-
ing period was not observed. Due to the adults eating their
eggs and the high death rate from disease which also affects
these beetles only one lot completed their life cycle. This is
shown in the following table.

Date Eggs No. Date Date Date Life
Dep. 1925 Eggs Hatched Pupated Emerged Cycle
4-9 10 4-13 5-6 5-12 33 days
4-10 7 4-14
4-10 7 4-14
4-11 10 4-15
4-13 12 No Hatch .
4-14 12 4-17

During the winter months this lady beetle was hard to find
but with the coming of spring it became quite abundant. It in-
creased in numbers until about May 15, at which time it was
the most abundant of all ladybeetles in aphid colonies at Lake
Alfred. Since that time it has been present but not abundant.
Enemies.-No parasites have been reared from this predator
but a fungus disease killed a great number of larvae during the
springs of 1925 and 1926. It was very difficult to rear a lar-
vae thru to the pupation period during that period.


A. I

I'& P .: .2 ir
P '7'.

Fig. 6.-Graph Showing Seasonal Appearance and Abundance.


c. b. a.

Fig. 7.-(From Bull. 183, Fla. Agri. Exp. Sta.)

Description.-This small lady beetle (Fig. 7a) is red in color
and has an irregular black marking near the tip of each wing
cover. The larvae (Fig. 7c) are gray and marked with yel-
low. The pupae (Fig. 7b) remains in the old larval skin which
splits up the back at the time of pupation.
During the period when aphids were most abundant in the
spring of 1926 and again in the summer, this beetle could be
found but was at no time abundant enough to be of importance.





Chilocorus bivulneratus Muls.

c. b. a.
Fig. 8.- (From Bull. 183, Fla. Agri. Exp. Sta.)
Description.-This beetle (Fig. 8) is shiny black with one
small red spot on the fore part of each wing cover, giving the
impression that the wing covers have been stabbed. The eggs
are yellowish in color, cigar shaped and laid in clusters. The
larvae (Fig. 8c) are covered with many spines, are black in
color with a narrow yellow band across the back. 'When pupa-
tion takes place the larval skin splits and the pupa (Fig. 8b)
remains inside the skin until the adult emerges.
Importance as Destroyers of the Citrus Aphid.-This lady-
beetle is primarily a predator on scale-insects and attacks aphids
only when in the vicinity of an infestation of scale. Both lar-
vae and adults have been found eating aphids but this beetle
cannot be considered an important beneficial factor in control-
ling the aphid, altho it may aid to some extent.
(Rodolia cardinalis Muls.)
This common cottony cushion scale destroyer has been ob-
served to eat aphids but a complete generation of beetles has
not been reared on the aphid.
Microweisia coccidivora (Ashm.)
One specimen of this tiny red and black beetle was taken feed-
ing on aphids at Temple Terrace during the spring of 1926. The
anterior half of the elytra is reddish brown, the posterior black.
It is about 1/25 of an inch long.
Ceratomegilla fuscilabris
Two specimens of this predator were found feeding on aphids
during the spring of 1926; one at Fort Lauderdale, Fla., where
the beetle was abundant on the turnip louse and one specimen
at Lake Alfred, July 5.

Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,

J. R. W ATSON .....-....-........-...................-...................... ....-------- -Editor
WILMON NEWELL...........-.......................................-Associate Editor
A. N. TISSOT -----.................-------------. ..........Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

"The Heteroptera or True Bugs of Eastern North America
with Especial Reference to the Faunas of Indiana and Florida,"
by Dr. W. S. Blatchley. Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis.
Again Dr. Blatchley has produced a book of great value to
those interested in insects. For years his Coleoptera of Indiana
has been the most handy reference book for entomologists, who
are not especially coleopterists, wishing to learn something con-
cerning some beetle and especially its habits. More recently
his (in collaboration with C. W. Leng) Rhyncophora or Weevils
of North Eastern America and his Orthoptera of North-Eastern
America have filled the same long-felt needs in their respective
fields. For most of us who often find it difficult to keep up
with the literature in one order or even one family of insects
the amount of labor Dr. Blatchley has expended on these four
books seems stupendous. One reads with regret that this book
is to be his last of this nature; but he assures us that he will
from time to time publish supplements to these works and also
local lists of insects with full field notes. Indeed he has prom-
ised a paper in the last category for an early number of the

The January meeting was called to order on the 13th at 4:00
p. m. by President Gray. Those present were: Members,
Messrs. Gray, Grossman, Hubbell, Nolan, Merrill, Tissot, and
Watson; Visitors, Messrs. M. R. Ensign and M. N. Walker. Mr.
W. Miller was elected to membership.


Mr. Ensign gave a very interesting talk on the contributions
of entomologists to agriculture.
The following officers of the society were elected for the 1927
President, W. W. Others; Vice-President, T. H. Hubbell;
Secretary-Treasurer, E. F. Grossman; Editor of the Florida En-
tomologist, J. R. Watson; Associate Editor, Wilmon Newell;
Business Manager, A. N. Tissot.
Messrs. E. W. Berger, Goodwin, Gray, Grossman, Hubbell,
Merrill, Nolan, Stone, Tissot, and Watson attended the regular
meeting of the society, February 10, at 4:00 p. m. in Science
Hall. Mr. M. R. Ensign was elected to membership and Drs.
W. M. Barrows and H. T. Fernald were elected to honorary
The society enjoyed a symposium on the meetings of the
A. A. A. S. at Philadelphia and Southern Agricultural Workers
at Atlanta. Messrs. Goodwin and Watson led in the discussion
and many topics of interest were brought before the meeting.

February 24. The Society met in Professor Gray's labora-
tory in an especial evening meeting in honor of Dr. W. S. Blatch-
ley of Dunedin and Indianapolis,- an honorary member 'of the
Society. Dr. Blatchley gave the members a very interesting
account of his trip to South America, from Brazil to Peru. The
general aspects of the insect fauna of the drier parts of South
America seem to be very similar to those of the southwestern
part of the United States.

March 10. The Society met in Science Hall at 4:00 p. m.
Professor John Gray gave an interesting and instructive talk
on his Christmas vacation trip to Cuba where he visited the
main educational institutions as well as -plantations. Prof.
Gray found the science laboratories of Cuba well equipped.
E. F. Grossman, Secretary.

Anticarsia gemmatilis is a noctuid moth whose caterpillar,
commonly called the velvet-bean caterpillar, feeds extensively
on velvet beans, Stizalobium sp., and also on soybeans, kudzu,


cannavalia and peanuts. The moths first appear in north cen-
tral Florida, usually between the last of June and middle of Aug-
ust, and are to be found until January, altho their numbers
rapidly diminish after November. The larvae have never been
taken further north than Georgia and South Carolina. But the
moths have been taken as far north as Ontario and have some-
times been quite abundant as far north as Pittsburgh. These
captures in the northern states have all been in the autumn, from
the last days of September into November, and undoubtedly
have been migrants from the Gulf states. The ability to reach
such far northern states as Canada is due to their longevity.
Some moths kept in a case, 4' by 4' by 5', and fed on moistened
sugar kept for five weeks. Doubtless under more natural con-
ditions they would live even longer.
The object of this paper is to give the results of our inquiry
into why it is not able to permanently establish itself in north-
ern Florida and other southern states. This is not due to the
direct action of cold. November 21, 1914 the temperature at
Gainesville fell to 22 degrees, yet pupae lying exposed on the
surface of the ground were not injured and moths were flying
about as soon as the weather moderated. This is the lowest
temperature the pupae will ever be exposed to under natural
conditions in this latitude. But a heavy frost kills all the host
plants of the larvae of this species, namely velvet beans, soy-
beans, kudzu, cannavalia and peanuts.
The pupal period is from ten to eleven days in September,
but as the weather becomes colder it is lengthened until in No-
vember it is 21 days; and two individuals which pupated on No-
vember 20 and 21 respectively emerged on January 7; 47 and 48
days respectively.
The inability of the insect to permanently establish itself in
northern Florida is due to its inability to tide over the starva-
tion period of the caterpillars. In other words due to its inabil-
ity to lie dormant during warm spells, in mid-winter. A 50 per-
cent increase in the length of its pupal life would enable it to
tide over this starvation period. In view of the immense length-
ening of the pupal period during the cold weather, amounting
to five times the period during warm weather, a rather small
further lengthening would suffice.
Many laws have been promulgated to account for the geo-
graphical distribution of organisms. Among the factors which


have been considered important as limiting the distribution of
organisms, the direct effect of temperature has been a favorite;
such as the absolute, minimum, summation of effective tempera-
ture, etc. For most organisms most of.these explanations are
too simple. The factors limiting the distribution of an organ-
ism are doubtless varied and complex. In the case of Anticarsia
gemmatilis the northern limits of its permanent range are de-
termined not by the minimum temperature of the weather acting
directly on the organism, not by any summation of effective tem-
peratures, not by any direct action of the cold whatsoever, but
by the effect of cold on the host plant of the larvae. Even this
would not be effective were the insect able to remain dormant
during comparatively a few weeks in winter. A comparative
slight lengthening of its pupal life would enable the insect to
do so.

We have just learned of the death last May of Dr. Henry G.
Branham of Deep Spring, Okahumpka, Fla., a member of our
Society. Dr. Branham will be remembered by our readers as
the author of a paper in our issue of August, 1925, on "Reclaim-
ing Eden," a narrative of his successful attempt at controlling
mosquitoes, largely by the use of top minnows, on his place at
Deep Springs. The editor has visited his place at Deep Springs
and was agreeably surprised at the degree of control achieved,
and much interested in the methods used. Dr. Branham was
during the World War an officer in the medical department of
the American: Expeditionary Forces in France.

Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture
Soon after the publication of my article on the Crambinae of Florida
(Fla. Ent. 6:49-55, 1923) my attention was called by Mr. D. Marston
Bates to Grosbeck's paper on the Lepidoptera of Florida (Bul. Am. Mus.
Nat. Hist. 37:1-147, 1917) a publication which in some way had completely
escaped my knowledge. Since I stated in my paper that several of the
species in Grosbeck's list had not previously been reported from the state,
it is only fair that this correction be made. Dr. Dyar's Crambus trip-
sacas was also omitted from the first list.
In addition, Grosbeck records three species not in my list, thus increas-


ing to 41 the number of species known to occur in the state. For the
convenience of those who do not have access to Grosbeck's paper and
also to correct one or two inaccuracies in it, I have included in the fol-
lowing notes the species and localities not known to me at the former writ-
ing. Thus my previous paper and the present amendment contain all the
distribution data we now have on this group in Florida.
Argyria lacteella Fab. Recorded by Grosbeck from Everglade in ad-
dition to previously reported localities.
Argyria nivalis Drury. Listed also from Everglade by Grosbeck.
Crambus decorellus Zinck. The credit for first reporting this species
from the state should go to Grosbeck, who has records from Lakeland, La
Belle, and Fort Myers.
Crambus mutabilis Clem. Listed by Grosbeck also from Lake Worth
and Biscayne Bay.
Crambus quinqueareatus Zeller. Grosbeck lists C. hastiferellus Wlk.
and C. extorralis Hulst, both of which, as I showed in my former paper,
are incorrect determinations for the Florida species. He also lists a spe-
cies as "Crambus extornalis Wlk." I can find no such species described
by Walker and I am forced to assume that C. extorralis Hulst is meant.
In this matter I am indebted to Dr. Dyar, of the National Museum, and to
Mr. Heinrich, of the Bureau of Entomology, who kindly searched their
records and corroborated my conclusion. Jacksonville is the only additional
locality given.
Crambus satrapellus Zinck. Recorded by Grosbeck also from La Grange.
Crambus teterrellus Zinck. By some oversight omitted from my pre-
vious list, for have taken it at Lakeland, Orlando, and Fellsmere. First
reported from the state by Grosbeck from Fort Myers, La Belle, and Ever-
glade. There are also specimens in the National Museum from Archer
and Fort Meade.
Crambus tripsacas Dyar. Described as new from specimens taken at
Diatraea differentials Fern. Jacksonville, Everglade, and Biscayne
Bay are additional localities given by Grosbeck for this species which he
places under Argyria.
Dicymolomia pegasalis Wlk. First recorded from the state in Gros-
beck's list. No additional localities are given.
Eoreuma densellus Zeller. Listed by Grosbeck in the genus Chilo but
without additional locality records.
Eugrotea dentella Fern. Grosbeck gives Fort Myers as an additional
record. Barnes and McDunnough list this species as a synonym of E. in-
certella Zinck.
Platytes squamulellus Zeller. First recorded from the state in Gros-
beck's list as Chilco squamulellus with a record from Fort Myers in ad-
dition to those already given.
Prionapteryx nebuilera Steph. The doubt expressed in my previous
paper as to the occurrence of this species in the state is dissipated by
Grosbeck's record from Jacksonville where the larvae, in accordance with



their habit farther north, construct tubes of sand at the base of the plants
of the Vacciniaceae, on which they feed.
Prionapteryx achatina Zeller. First recorded from the state by Gros-
beck from specimens taken at Biscayne Bay by Mrs. Slosson.
Thaumatopsis floridella B. & McD. Grosbeck lists this also from Punta
Thaumatopsis pectinifer Zeller. Another addition to the state list.
Recorded by Grosbeck from Lakeland.


Rust mites are appearing rather earlier than their average
date this season and citrus growers will do well to keep a sharp
lookout in their groves. This early appearance is probably due
to the unusual dry weather of the past spring. The citrus crop
seems to be light this year and fruit should be kept bright in
order that the growers should receive the full benefit of the
short crop.

The New Spray for Aphis

No Odor
Non Poisonous
Pleasant to Use
Does Not Require Soap
Mixes with Other Sprays
Can be used with Hard or Soft Water

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