Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Vol. XI SUMMER NUMBER No. 2
NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY AND IMMATURE STAGES
OF GERANOMYIA (Tipulidae, Diptera)
I. GERANOMYIA ROSTRATA (SAY)
J. SPEED ROGERS
Dept. of Biol., Univ. of Fla.
Geranomyia rostrata (Say) is one of the rather large number
of crane-flies that has a notably wide distribution. Its range
includes southern Canada, all of the eastern United States and
extends southward thru the Greater Antilles; to the west it ex-
tends to the western extremity of the Northern Peninsula of
Michigan, central Iowa and Louisiana. Over much of this range
it is a common, often an abundant species.
The habitats in which the adults are to be found vary in many
features but agree. in being in the vicinity of flowing or stand-
ing water, or of seepage areas over rocks or earth. Stream ra-
vines, moist shaded cliffs, banks of streams, low woods and sev-
eral types of swamps (Arborvitae, black gum, and cypress) are
typical habitats. Less frequently specimens may be swept from
the sedges and grasses of open swales, wet meadows, and the
borders of open marshes. In these latter situations the flies
rest on the grass stems near the ground, shaded by the leaves
of the rank grasses and sedges. The adults are often on the
wing during the day in moist, shaded situations; however, night,
dusk, and cloudy days are the times of greater activity, and
then the flies range far from their normal day-time habitats.
At times of continued cloudy wet weather they spread into. such
normally xerophytic situations as "High Pine" and dry oak
woods and may be swept from the scant herbage of typical
"High Pine" several hundred yards. from the nearest normal
habitat. In dry weather they are entirely absent from these
situations even tho abundant in an adjoining brook-ravine or
Both sexes come freely to light and light-records include all
hours between dusk and dawn, but extensive trap-lighting (one
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
of fhe lights ran regularly over a period of months in a cleared
high-pine situation and 250 yards from the nearest G. rostrata
habitat) indicates that altho the flies often range widely at
night, their movements are dependent upon the relative hu-
The feeding habits of this species, along with those of the
other regional members of the genus, have been observed more
fully than those of any other genus of crane-fly. Knab',
Alexander", Alexander and McAtee", and Rogers' have listed a
wide variety of plants from whose flowers nectar is taken. The
varied species on which G. rostrata is known to feed makes it
seem probable that nearly all nectar bearing flowers are avail-
ble, particularly so, since the seasonal range of the fly extends
from mid-spring to late fall in the northern part of its range
and includes every month of the year in Florida.
The immature stages of G. rostrata are spent in wet mosses,
among the thalli of liverworts and in mats of filamentous algae
on wet rocks and shaded seepage areas. The general type of
vegetational association or its stage in succession apparently
makes little difference so long as even very small areas of these
low plants exist. Larvae 'have been taken from an isolated,
tho luxuriant, mat of wet moss on the root of a tree by a spring,
where the moss clump was not over 4 or 5 cubic inches in ex-
tent. Clumps of wet moss or liverworts, whether they occur
on wet rocks, on a stream bank, about a seepage area, on hum-
mocks about the bases of the trees in a swamp, or on wet logs,
are capable of providing a suitable habitat if they remain moist
for periods of several weeks at a time. In north Florida in the
winter and early spring such situations are frequent in all of
the more moist terrestrial habitats; with the dry late-spring
they become more restricted and are confined to a few perma-
nently moist situations: the immediate borders of shaded
springs and rills and the interior portions of the swamps. With
the rainy season of June and July favorable situations are again
3Knab, Frederick-The Feeding Habits of Geranomyia-Pro. Ent. Soc.
Wash. XII-1910; pp. 61-65.
'Alexander, C. P.-The Crane-Flies of New York, Part I. Memoir 25,
Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1919; pp. 878 and 879 and ibid, Part II.
Memoir 38, pp. 816 and 817.
"Alexander, C. P. and McAtee, W. L.-Diptera of the Superfamily Ti-
puloidea Found in the District of Columbia. No. 2344 from the Pro. U. S.
N. M., 1920, p. 408.
'Rogers, J. S.-Some Notes on the Feeding Habits of Adult Crane-
Flies-Fla. Ent. X, No. 1, April 1926, pp. 5-8.
extensive and this fluctuation in the extent of the larval habi-
tat is reflected in the relative abundance of adults, as noted
over several years collecting.
The larvae found among the liverworts occur between the
moist layers of thalli, thosd in the moss lie in contact with the
stems and feed upon the leaves, particularly the terminal leaves
of the smaller stems. The translucent, greenish color of the lar-
vae and their sluggish habit make their detection difficult. The
older larvae are within moist, transparent, greenish tubes that
have a gelatinous appearance, shrink greatly on drying, and are
largely soluble in alcohol. The younger larvae are usually found
free of a tube, tho this may be due to the disturbance made in
searching the moss for larvae. Naked larvae placed in rearing
jars with wet moss soon construct new tubes from which they
crawl, when undisturbed, to feed. In some cases they return to
the same tube, in others, new tubes are constructed. In the
moss clumps taken in the field the tubes are deep within the
moss and do not usually extend to the fresher leaves upon which
the larvae have been observed to feed.
The pupae are found within the distal end of the larval tubes
and are encased in an inner, thin, transparent, ellipsoidal capsule.
Frequently naked pupae are found but this is presumably due to
the vigorous washing to which the moss is subjected in search-
ing for the immature stages. Such naked pupae placed in rear-
ing jars with fresh, washed moss emerge into imagines with
little mortality loss. These pupae, altho many of them are but
newly pupated, do not construct either a tube or an inner cap-
sule, but all pupae from larvae placed in the rearing jars have
at least the inner capsule, and usually more or less of a tube.
Associated with the immature stages of G. rostrata in the
moss and liverworts are an occasional salamander and a large
population of various invertebrates. Among the latter are the
larvae and pupae of the crane-flies: Oropeza subalbipes, Tipula
caloptera?, Tricyphona inconstans (rare in this situation), and
the supposed larvae of Megistocera longipes. Other arthropods
include the immature stages of Chironimiidae, numerous small
adult carabid beetles, small millipeds and juvenile, black, cur-
Larvae and pupae are also found in great numbers in the thin
mats of algae and diatomaceous sludge on the wet lime-stone
rocks over which a small rill trickles and cascades. At the
Devil's Mill Hopper, a deep limestone sink near Gainesville,
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Fla., a number of spring rills trickle down the steep sides of
the heavily wooded slopes. The largest of these streams runs
over outcrops and blocks of fallen rim rock, whose faces are
roughened and pitted with small erosion depressions. Wherever
the water flows and trickles the rocks are covered with a thin
layer of algae and, particularly in the pits and depressions, a
sludge of fine organic sediment, rich in diatoms. Bordering
these narrow rill courses the damp rocks are covered with thick
mats of mosses and liverworts.
The larval tubes of G. rostrata are particularly common be-
neath the algae and sludge on the rock faces. Here the tubes are
longer and more definite than in the moss, but are hidden be-
neath a coat of adhering sediment. The larvae creep about be-
neath the thin sheet of sludge and water and are frequently
found, free of any tubes, in the pits and crevices of the rocks, but
the older larvae are usually seen with at least the hinder part
of the body in the tube and they quickly retreat wholly within
the tube when disurbed. Both larvae and pupae are most nu-
merous in the algal growth that is but partially submerged by
the trickling water but all of the area is inhabited except the
deepest and most rapid trickles. Before pupation the larval
tube is extended to the partially submerged margins of the algal
growth or into the more elevated points of alga of the slightly
deeper water so that the movements of the pupa before emerg-
ence serve to thrust it above the surface of the water.
The larvae feed both upon the algae and upon the sludge of
the rock faces. Long and often branching filaments of algae
are injested entire and diatoms and unrecognizable debris form
a considerable portion of the content of the alimentary canal.
Occasionally what is recognized as a protozoan cyst is found in
the digestive tract and the same cysts can be found in the sludge
scraped from the rocks.
Larvae and pupae were collected from this area by brushing
the wet rocks and collecting the dislodged specimens in a net.
Most larvae and pupae so collected are dislodged from their
tubes but can be reared with slight losses either on moist sludge
and algae from the rocks, or on fresh moss.
The consocies of the algae and sludge covered rocks differ
largely from those of the moss and liverwort mats. The larvae
of G. canadensis occur in small numbers; more numerous are a
small species of white amphipod, may-fly nymphs and net build-
ing caddis larvae. The younger larva of the same Tipula cal-
opera? occur here but the older larvae move into the adjoining
moss mats to pupate, and the same or a very similar species
of spider runs about over the wet rocks. The only vertebrates
inhabiting this situation are numerous juveniles of the southern
leopard frog, and an occasional salamander.
These wet rocks of the Devil's Mill Hopper and the partially
submerged boulders of an ,old dam in the Santa Fe River are
the only situations in Florida in which the immature stages of
both G. rostrata and G. canadensis have been taken close together.
In both cases G. rostrata was taken from both algal mats and
in the moss of the slightly drier margins while G. canadensis
could be found only in the thin, semi-submerged algae.
Adults of G. rostrata are numerous at all times about the wet
rocks at the Mill Hopper, either resting from overhanging or
vertical ledges or bobbing about on the wet rock surfaces. Ovi-
position is frequently observed, the eggs being placed beneath
the edges of algal mats or in small pockets and crevices filled
with silt and sludge. Usually the egg is deposited at the margin
of the trickling water but frequently the fly stands with all her
feet slightly submerged and places the egg well out in the sheet
of water. The eggs are laid several inches apart, the oviposi-
tion being preceded by the characteristic bobbing motion. Fre-
quently several spots are tried before the egg is finally laid, the
ovipositor probing about in search of a suitable crevice. Ovi-
positing individuals are frequently stalked by one of the numer-
ous spiders but in all the instances observed they made good their
escape. However, spiders are occasionally seen with female
flies in their jaws and probably some of these are taken while
DESCRIPTIONS OF THE IMMATURE STAGES
The only species of Geranoymia whose immature stages have
been described hitherto is G. canadensis (Westw.). Its larvae
and pupae were described and figured in detail by Alexander
and Malloch in 1920." Their material was taken in Illinois but
I have larvae and pupae of the same species, taken in northern
and central Florida, that agree entirely with their descriptions.
Comparisons with G. canadensis, below, refer to their paper.
Descriptions of the immature stages of other species of Geran-
omyia and a key to the known immature stages will be given in
a subsequent paper.
'Alexander, C. P. and Malloch, J. R.-Notes on the Life History of a
Crane-Fly of the Genus Geranomyia Halliday. Trans. Ill. Acad. Sci. Vol.
XIII, pp. 310-319.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
LARVA AND PUPA OF GERANOMYIA ROSTRATA (SAY)
EXPLANATION OF FIGURES
1. Larva, dorsal view, x.q Drawn from alcoholic specimen.
2. Mandible of larva.
3. Anal gills and posterior segments of larva, drawn from the side.
4. Head capsule of larva, dorsal view, x. 6"
5. Mentum of larva.
6. Hypopharynx of larva, from beneath.
7. Female pupa, ventral view, x. l
Length, 13-15 mm.; diameter at the second abdominal segment: dorso-
ventral, 1 mm.; dextro-sinistral, 1.1 mm.; dorso-ventral diameter at the an-
terior abdominal creeping welt, 1.4 mm.
Form elongate, terete, tapering gently to the more slender posterior seg-
ments. The prominent creeping welts give the body a somewhat corru-
gated appearance. Color, in life, a semitransparent light green, the dor-
sum to either side of the central line with a grayish brown picture (fig. 1),
and the creeping welts brown to dark brown. The tracheae and head
capsule are clearly seen thru the integument. After death the body be-
comes. an opaque yellowish white with the picture on the dorsum much
more evident than in life.
Integument delicate, thin, transparent. Under a hand lens it is ap-
parently glabrous but with higher magnification a covering of minute,
erect hairs is visible and the apparent pigmentation of the dorsum is
seen to be due to areas of dense, black, microscopic hairs. The creeping
welts are well developed. Ventral welts occur on the cephalic margins
of thoracic segments 2 and 3 and abdominal segments 1 to 8; dorsal welts
occur on the cephalic margin of thoracic segment 3 and abdominal seg-
ments 2 to 8. The welts do not extend over the pleural region except on
thoracic segment 3 and abdominal segment 8, where the dorsal and ven-
tral welts meet to form complete circles, altho less developed in the pleural
region. The ventral welts of abdominal segments 2 to 7 are broadly oval,
bearing from 20 to 30 sub-parallel, transverse rows of minute, stiff hairs;
the ventral welts of abdominal segments 1 and 8 are narrower, the stiff
hairs longer and'not so evidently in rows. The ventral thoracic welts
are sub-triangular, densely covered with small stiff hairs. The dorsal
welts are narrower than the ventral, not elevated, and composed of a
few rows of somewhat longer hairs.
Respiratory disk small; it has the form of a cephalad directed notch -in
the end of the narrow caudal segment. The large oval stigmata are borne
on the mesal faces of this notch which may be spread to an angle of about
140 degrees or closed until the faces are in contact. The lobes are rudi-
mentary, the ventral pair represented by minutely protruded angles that
are marked with a light brown pigmentation; the dorsal and dorso-lateral
lobes are not discernable. The anal gills (fig. 3) delicate, transparent;
the four lobes slender conical, and somewhat longer than in G. canadensis.
Head capsule (fig. 4) compact, the lateral plates extensive, the pre-
frons broadly triangular. Labrum broader than long, markedly chitin-
ized anteriorly, brown, covered with short straight hairs; midway be-
tween the central line and either lateral margin of the labrum, at about
midlength, there is a small circular membraneous area bearing three min-
ute papillae. The antennae are borne upon broadly conical elevations;
the basal joint cylindrical, moderately stout, unpigmented at its extreme
ends; second joint sub-spherical, its diameter about a third of that of the
first joint. Mandibles (fig. 2) broad and flat, spoon shaped, with seven,
rather blunt, flat teeth. Dorsal tooth small, the apical tooth larger,
the first ventral tooth largest of all; the four remaining ventral teeth
are progressively smaller. The prosthecal appendage forms a round-
ed projection on the concave, mesa face of the mandible and bears a
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
tuft of stiff hairs. Maxillae with the cardines flat and chitinized; the
lobes less flattened, membraneous, and bearing a covering of long dense
hairs; a short, cylindrical, palpus-like organ near the base of the outer
lobes. Mentum (fig. 5) large, the caudal cleft extending to the level of
the bases of the anterior lateral teeth; central tooth prominent, bluntly
rounded; five pairs of lateral teeth, progressively smaller toward the lat-
eral margins, their apices not curved mesad. Hypopharynx (fig. 6) with
the typical form of an oval chitinous collar formed of two plates. The
anterior (dorsal) plate, a narrow band bearing six long, triangular teeth
that are directed cephalad and are more nearly parallel than in G. canaden-
sis; the posterior (ventral) plate small, disc-shaped, its anterior margin
with six slender, smaller teeth, the surface of the plate with scattered
coarse hairs. The juncture of the two plates, at the lateral margins of the
hypopharynx, are attached to a pair of blunt chitinous rods that extend
cephalo-laterad of the teeth of the anterior plate.
THE PUPA (Fig. 7)
Length, inclusive of the breathing horns, 8.5-9 mm.; length of breath-
ing horns, 1 mm. Diameters at the mesothorax: dorso-ventral, 1.4 mm.;
dextro-sinistral, 1.2 mm.
Form moderately slender, tapering gently to the slender cauda and more
abruptly to the rounded cephalic apex; except for the slightly greater
dorso-ventral diameter of the mesothorax, terete.
Color, in life: head, dorsum of thorax, wing and leg sheaths chestnut
brown; the front, basis of the rostral sheath, and maxillary sheaths
paler; eyes and pronotal breathing horns, dark brown. Abdomen a trans-
lucent greenish white marked with pale brown, transverse stripes on the
dorsum and venter. After death the abdomen becomes opaque white, and
the markings become more pronounced.
Head small, rounded conical; cephalic crest absent, tis usual position
marked off from the antenna bases by almost obsolete lines. Bases of
the antennal sheaths smooth, without angulations or spines; their apices
ending a little past the bases of the wing sheaths. Eyes flattened, not pro-
jecting above the level of cheeks. Caudo lateral angles of the cheeks mod-
erately projecting. The usual labral sheath is greatly prolonged to con-
tain the elongate rostrum and mouth parts characteristic of Geranomyia.
The proximal portion, between the eyes, has the sides parallel but is ex-
panded a little below the eye margins; from either side of the expanded
portion is borne a flattened cresentic maxillary sheath and just distad
of their attachment the labral (or rostral) sheath is slightly constricted
and immediately re-expands into the base of a long, blade-like plate that
ends in an acute point slightly beyond the distal ends of the prothoracic
tibia. The sheaths of the paraglossae arise from beneath the ventral
horns of the maxillary sheaths and extend as a pair of lancet-shaped rods
along the margins of the rostral sheath, and partly beneath it, to end slight-
'ly beyond the distal ends of the mesothoracic tibia.
Dorsum of the thorax smooth, unmarked; the cephalic margin of the
mesonotum gibbous. The large, erect; pronotal breathing horns extend
more than three fourths of their length cephalad of the head. They arise
from the lateral margins of the pronotum and their bases are so arcu-
ated that the large, ear-like blades are almost in contact, their median
faces parallel. The wing sheaths extend to the caudal margin of the
second abdominal segment; the tarsal sheaths to about the middle of the
fourth abdominal segment, where their apices form a level line.
The dorsum of the abdomen is marked with pale brown, transverse bands;
on segments 2 and 3 these are broad and extend across the center of the seg-
ments; on segments 3 to 7 a pair of narrow bands across the anterior part of
the segment enclose a double row of minute spicules, and a single narrow
band extends across the posterior part of the segment. The stigmata of
segment 8 are vestigial and barely discernable as a pair of faint brown
dots. The venter of the abdomen is unmarked save for double bands of
spicules across the anterior ends of segments 4 to 7. These bands of
spicules are composed of several lines of close-set spicules and each double
band encloses a pale, oval area that bears a few minute hairs.
The cauda lack entirely the curved chitinized hooks borne by G. cana-
densis and are less chitinized than in that species. The female cauda have
the tergal sheaths but slightly longer than the sternal, the slightly diver-
gent tips of the tergal sheaths notched on the lateral margins. The lobes
of the male cauda are slightly flattened dorso-ventrally, are rounded lat-
erally and the median faces are flat and in close contact.
DURATION OF THE IMMATURE STAGES
All the data on the length of the larval and pupal stages are
based upon rearing done in northern Florida in an unheated
room. The duration of both larval and pupal stages is affected
by temperature. The normal span of the pupal stage in the
spring is from five and a half to about six and a half days.
Variations of about a day appear to be individual and not due
to temperature or moisture. A generation carried from a fer-
tilized female to the newly emerged adults, during March and
April, required a little over seven weeks. The length of the egg
stage was not determined but the time spent as larvae was prob-
ably close to six weeks. Since this was at the season when lar-
vae are most numerous in the field and adults are emerging in
numbers, it is probably close to the minimum period required.
During January and February pupae required from two to
four days more to complete this stage and do not emerge into
adults on days when the temperature is below 45 or 50 F. In
these same months larvae in a rearing jar failed to pupate with-
in eight weeks.
A moderate degree of dessication in the rearing jars appears to
hasten pupation on the part of larvae that are nearly grown,
and frequently results in undersized adults. Similar small and
palely colored adults are now and then taken in the field in the
dry seasons. With younger larvae dessication results in either
death or prolonged larval existence. As the habitat becomes
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
dry the larvae retreat into small crevices or deep into the silt
about the roots and dead stems of the mosses and become very
inactive. If the drouth is not so prolonged as to thoroly dessi-
cate these crevices or areas of protected silt the larvae remain
alive for some time and if placed in moist rearing jars with fresh
moss soon resume feeding. Presumably such larvae will, under
natural conditions, survive short dry periods and continue their
development with the recurrence of sufficient rain to keep their
moss clump wet for some weeks.
NEW THYSANOPTERA FROM FLORIDA
(Continued from Vol. X, No. 4, page 62)
Mouth cone long, reaching well past the posterior border of the pro-
Prothorax but little over half as long as the head and (including coxae)
nearly three times as wide as long. Provided with five pairs of conspicu-
ous bristles with pale dilated tips. One on each anterior angle, a pair
along the anterior margin media to these, one near the middle of each
lateral margin, one on each posterior angle and a pair media to these.
Also-orie on each coxa.
Pterothorax about as wide as prothorax (exclusive of coxae), sides
nearly straight and parallel. Three conspicuous knobbed bristles near
the middle of the lateral margin, several pairs of smaller ones on the dor-
Legs rather slender, fore femora slightly enlarged, uniformly concolor-
ous with the body except a black spot on each tarsus. Fore tarsi unarmed.
Abdomen heavy, widest at about segment 3, from which the sides are
gently arched to the tube. A large knobbed bristle on the posterior angle
of each segment (small on segments one and two) and a pair of equally
large ones along the posterior border of each segment media to these.
Abdomen marked by conspicuous diagonal lines which appear to be on
the inside of the body wall.
Tube only two thirds as long as the head, width at base nearly two
thirds the length, sides straight and converging sharply to the apex,
three pairs of, terminal bristles fully as long as the tube.
Measurements: Total body length 1.5 mm. Head, length 0.22 mm.,
breadth 0.17 mm.; prothorax, length 0.127 mm., breadth 0.35 mm.; ptero-
thorax, breadth 0.30 mm.; abdomen, greatest width 0.39 mm.; tube, length
0.14 mm., width at base 0.09 mm., at apex 0.040.
Segment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Length ....39 47 62 59 56 53.5 53.5 54
Width ......47 33.5 34.5 34.5 31 27 25 18 microns
Male. Thorax and abdomen somewhat darker than in the female. Fore
femora much enlarged. Fore tarsus with a large triangular tooth.
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
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MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY
May 19, 1927.
The monthly meeting of The Florida Entomological Society
was held in Science Hall at 4:00 P. M. Messrs. Montgomery,
Merrill, Hubbell, Rogers, Gray, Berger, Tissot, and a number
of visitors being present.
Mr. G. B. Merrill gave a graphic account of his studies made
in Porto Rico, illustrated by a number of photographs showing
points of interest in the Island along agricultural lines. Vr.
G. F. Moznette who has long been a member of the Society, gave
a detailed account of the Mosquito Campaign carried out at
Miami. Many interesting points covered in his paper were dis-
cussed at length after its presentation.
June 9, 1927.
The regular monthly meeting of the Society was held in Sci-
ence Hall at 4:00 P. M. Members-Berger, Brown, Calhoun,
Goodwin, Grossman, Montgomery, Newell, Rogers, Stone and
Tissot and visitors Camp, Kern, Knight, Loucks, Seal, Van Cleef
and Walker were present.
Dr. Newell presented a paper on The National Plant Board
and its activities, tracing the need and organization of such a
board. This was the fundamental principles and subsequent
activities of the Board.
THE THYSANOPTERON FAUNA OF THE INDIAN PIPE
J. R. Watson, Dept. of Entomology, Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta.
The Indian Pipe (Monotropa uniflora L.) is unusual in its eco-
logical habitat and season of flowering. It grows on the forest
floor in deep shade where large flowers which might attract
thrips are scarce and it blooms late in the season.
28 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
For these reasons it occurred to the writer that an investiga-
tion of its thysanopterous visitors might be of interest. An
opportunity was offered during the autumn of 1926 when the
plant was unusually abundant in north central Florida. Collec-
tions were made from November 8 to December 19 from the,
often quite diverse, situations in which the plant was found
growing which included woods of pure pine and pure Live oak
and various degrees of mixture of these and other species; and
varying from a low hammock close to the swamp edge to rather
high and dry sandy pine ridges. The plant was, however, never
found in "flatwoods". In this work the writer had the enthusi-
astic cooperation of Mr. A. N. Tissot who did much of the col-
The thrips were invariably found inside the blossoms, never
on the leaves and stems. Since the leaves are so thin that print-
ing may be read thru them it is not strange that they were unat-
tractive to thrips. Most of the insects were found to be feeding
on the anthers of the'stamens, but some were sucking the fila-
ments or the pistil.
'lhe infestation was not heavy, seldom over 10% of the flow-
ers dissected contained thrips. Often there was but a single
individual to a blossom but there was apt to be two or more in
each blossom found infested. As the season advanced and the
absolute number of blossoms decreased the percentage found in-
Six species were taken-two of which are apparently unde-
scribed and have not been taken from any other host. One of
these which we are here describing under the name of Thrips
flavicauda, was the most common species taken. In addition
to the two new species the following were taken:
Haplothrips dozieri Wats. This was the second most abun-
dant species taken. It is common to a large number of hosts.
It is closely related to H. gowdeyi (Franklin), a West Indian spe-
cies but may be distinguished by the shape of the head which
is usually constricted posteriorly (in gowdeyi the head is usu-
ally broader posteriorly, at least not constricted) and by the
number of interlocated bristles, 5 to 9 but usually 7 or 8 (5 or
6 in gowdeyi).
Frankliniella tritici bispinosa (Morgan).
Common but not nearly as abundant as in most blossoms.
Leptothrips mali (Fitch). A single specimen of this common
predator was taken.
Trichothrips anomocerus Hood. A single specimen. This
species is an addition to the Florida list.
Anaphothrips (Proscirtothrips) monotropae, n. sp.
Color by transmitted light-thorax an almost uniform pale yellowish
brown (color of dull brass); abdomen, head, and antennal segments 1 and
5 lighter; eyes black. By reflected light almost white, but thorax and
margins of abdomen heavily tinged with wax yellow (Ridgeway's Color
Standards); eyes dark red; ocellar crescents carmine.
Head nearly 1.5 times broader than length of exposed portion. Head
considerably retracted into prothorax. Occiput indistinctly reticulate,
most plainly marked behind the eyes. Vertex rounded but little in front.
Cheeks considerably arched, with a single small colorless bristle about the
middle. A pair of short but thick and heavy brown bristles on the face
(ventral surface) just below the insertion of the antennae. Eyes promi-
nent, bulging, occupying more than half of the exposed part of the side
of the head, pilose, lateral facets large, only about six outlined along the
margin in dorsal view of head. Ocelli sub-approximate, situated rather
far back on the head, the anterior about opposite the middle of the eyes,
the posterior ones well separated from the margins of the eyes and about
the size of the lateral facets of the eyes, the anterior much smaller; pale
yellow, bordered by bright carmine crescents.
Antennae twice as long as the head. Segment 1 almost colorless; 2
concolorous with the head; 3, 4 and 5 grayish, progressively paler, 6 al-
most colorless; 6-9 darker, brownish gray; 2 and 6 with broad pedicels, 3-5
with narrower ones; 2 barrel-shaped, 3 oval, 4 and 5 obovate, 5 with almost
straight but sharply converging sides in proximal .4, 6 and 7 together el-
liptical. Bristles and sense cones pale and inconspicuous. Simple sense
cones on segments 3 and 5, and a bifurcate one on 4.
Mouth cone long, reaching nearly across the prosternum.
Prothorax subrectangular, a little wider and considerably longer than
the head; at each posterior angle there is a thick heavy dark brown bris-
tle, the only conspicuous ones on the prothorax. These bristles vary much
in length, from 25 to 38 microns in different individuals. At each anterior
angle are two short colorless bristles and about twenty pairs scattered
over the dorsal surface, and 4 pairs along the posterior margin.
Mesothorax almost semicircular in outline, widest at posterior margin,
anterior angles well rounded. Metathorax narrower, sides straight and
nearly parallel. Legs slender and weak, concolorous with abdomen.
Wings-rather short, membrane grayish, 18 to 20 rather conspicuous
brown bristles on the anterior vein, spaced more closely in proximal part.
They are, roughly, in about eight groups of 4 (or 5), 4, 4 (more widely
spaced), (1), 1, 2, 1, 1, (1) bristles each. The posterior vein bears
from 11 to 13 bristles, irregularly placed, the first opposite the 6th or
7th on the anterior vein.
Abdomen cylindrical, of about uniform width to about segment 6, thence
rounded to the tip. Last segment split open, extreme tip orange yellow.
Rather weak spines on each posterior angle from the fourth segment on,
and a similar appressed one about the middle of the lateral margin of
each segment. Those on last two segments abruptly longer but only of
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Measurements: Total body length 0.9 mm.; (0.75 to 1.05 mm.). Head,
length (exposed portion) 0.09 mm.. width 0.14 mm.; prothorax, length
0.118 mm., width 0.16 mm.; mesothorax, greatest width 0.23 mm.; abdo-
men, greatest width 0.24 mm. Antennae, total length 0.205 mm. Seg-
ments: 22, 35, 40, 42, 36, 34, 10, 10, and 13 microns long.
Male. Similar to female in color but considerably smaller.
Measurements: Total body length 0.6 mm. Head, length (exposed
portion) 0.06 mm.; width 0.12 mm.; prothorax, length 0.09 mm.; width
0.14 mm.; mesothorax, greatest width 0.18 mm.; abdomen, greatest width
0.15 mm. Antennae, total length 0.20 mm. Segments: 21, 32, 37, 35, 33,
27, 10, 8 and 10 microns.
Described from ten females and four males.
Resembles A. longipennis Crawford in size and color, and in
the head wider than long. But the head is even wider, not
markedly rounded in front, the mouth cone longer, wings short-
er with more numerous and conspicuous spines and the bristles
on the posterior angles of the prothorax are shorter but heavier
To the unaided eye this insect resembles Frankliniella tritici
bispinosa Morgan with which it is found, but can be told by its
smaller size and lighter color.
(To be continued)
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