Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Vol XI AUTUMN NUMBER No. 3
THE GENUS DRAECULACEPHALA AND ITS ALLIES IN
NORTH AMERICA (RHYNCHOTA HOMOPTERA)
E. D. BALL
The writer in working over his recent additions in this group
by Van Duzee's excellent key found that he had all -the species
recorded and material in four apparently undescribed forms.
A careful study of the specific relationships indicated that there
were two distinct groups involved and these have been sepa-
rated. Mr. J. A. Reeves made numerous dissections and mounts
of internal genitalia, and while he found an exceedingly compli-
cated and somewhat variable structure, in only one case was
there sufficient variation to be diagnostic. Such widely sepa-
rated and even generically distinct species as mollipes and
reticulata had internal genitalia of the same pattern. It was
also noted that none of the previous drawings of these struc-
tures presented any adequate idea of their complexity. The
members of both genera are easily separated from all related,
forms by the retculate venation of the apical half of the elytra.
A. Vertex flat, or nearly so, with a definite edge; face nearly straight
in profile, front with about 9 narrow parallel lines on each side the
disc. ............ ................... --......................Genus- Draeculacephala Ball
AA. Vertex and front conically produced the margins rounding; face
inflated in profile. Front mottled, without lines or rarely with in-
terrupted lines. .........................................Genus-Carneocephala Nov.
GENUS DRAECULACEPHALA BALL
The members of this genus are all green or straw colored
with pale or smoky faces, in the pale forms the parallel arcs
are black. In the black faces of some of the males they may ap-
pear as just visible light lines or almost wanting. The species
of this genus are relatively slender and range from 6 to 11 mm.
in length. The vertex is quite variable in length in a given spe-
cies, and still more so in the different species. The male vertex
is usually much shorter and more highly ornamented than the
34 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
KEY TO THE N. A. SPECIES
A. Vertex triangular acute, disc flat, the margins straight or concave;
face often dark.
B. Vertex and scutellum without paired black spots. Vertex without
broad black markings or a black apex, male front often black.
C. Large, 8-11 mm.
D. Extremely large, 10 mm.. or over, with last segment in the
male tubular-the plates extremely long.
E. Clypeus definitely angulate in profile, face straight; pale.
-(North) 1. angulifera Walk.
EE. Clypeus and face in an almost uniform curve in profile,
front almost black in male......... (Florida) 2. portola n. sp.
DD. Male smaller 9 mm. or less-male segment triangular, plates
F. Clypeus and lorae inflated, wider than front. Front
with a black dash at apex; vertex and anterior margin
of pronotum heavily marked; elytral nervures metallic
blue in life. .-.....--...---...--.. ...... (S. E.) 8. product Walk.
FF. Clypeus and lorae normal, front unmarked, vertex and
anterior margin of pronotum straw yellow scarcely
marked .....-........--...........(North & N. E.) 4. mollipes Say
CC. Smaller, female 7.5 mm. or less.
G. Stout vertex and pronotum equal in female. Front
and vertex, in female, pale, apex not attenfately pro-
duced. ...---...~.....-- ................... (S. W .) 5. minerva n. sp.
GG. Very small, slender; vertex longer than pronotum in
female, apex attentuate. Front black in both sexes.
-(S. E.) 6. bradleyi Van D.
BB. Vertex with a pair of small dots behind ocelli, and a large pair
on scutellum often partly concealed by pronotum. Vertex may have
a black triangle at apex or broad black stripes in which case the
basal spots may be minute; face not black.
H. Two small round spots on disc of scutellum-ver-
tex with a black wedge at apex or broad black
markings. Anterior submargin of pronotum ver-
I. Vertex with broad black markings-submargin
of pronotum heavily vermiculate.
-(S. E.) 7. inscripta Van D.
II. Vertex pale with a black or mottled apical wedge
-submargin of pronotum obscurely mottled.
J. Face smoky with black arcs; vertex lined in fe-
male-male vertex with pagoda marking-under
7 mm. ............---- ........ ..... (Fla.) 8. pagoda n. sp.
JJ. Face and vertex mottled-male vertex mottled
on disc. Larger.
(Mex. and C. A.) 9. lenticula n. sp.
HH. Spots on scutellum widely separated and partly
concealed by pronotum. Two spots on vertex be-
hind ocelli and a third on disc before middle-
markings obscure except for the 5 or 7 spots.
K. Small, green, the spots small and occasionally
wanting.......(S. E. and Mex.) 10. balli Van D.
KK. Larger straw color with a tawny tinge on ely-
tra. Spots large definite, often 7 or more
(South) 11. 7-guttata Walk.
AA. Vertex rounding at apex with the margin thickened anteriorly, often
with heavy black markings on vertex but none on pronotum or scu-
tellum. Face never black.
L. Vertex in female longer than pronotum, dis-
taiice from suture on margin to apex greater
than width at that point-males with the api-
cal spots approximate and in heavily marked
examples joined to a broad black line on api-
cal third of vertex.
-(North) 12. manitobiana Ball
LL. Vertex about equalling pronotum in female;
breadth across suture much greater than
length beyond that point. Males without a
broad median line on apical third of vertex.
M. Apical dots of vertex small, approxi-
mate; line between eye and suture nar-
row, often brown. Male antennae enlarged.
-(N. W.) 13. crassicornis Van D.
MM. Apical dots large and widely separated-
line between eyes and suture broad, shin-
ing black. Male antennae normal.
(North) 14. novaeboracensis Fh.
D. angulifera Walk. This extremely large and striking species was
taken in numbers in August 1897 from a clump of rushes on the margin
of a shallow pond at Ames, Iowa. In all his collecting since that time the
writer has not discovered it again. It is probably a relatively rare form,
except in the extreme North. Olsen in 1918 records examples from N. Y.,
N. J., Fla., La., and Tex. Examples of cngulifera as determined by Olsen
that the writer has seen have not been the species mentioned above and
figured in the writer's Review of the Tettigonidae. It is likely that the
southern forms he mentions were the same as those listed here as product
Walk or possibly portola described below.
Draeculacephala portola n. sp.
Size and form of angulifera nearly with a longer vertex.
Straw yellow and deep green above; female front smoky, male
black below. Length: female 11 mm., male 8.5 mm.
Vertex long, slender, acutely angular with the margins
straight, one-third longer than pronotum in female, about equal-
ling it in male. Face in profile slightly convex, the curve includ-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
ing the clypeus which may be slightly protuberant but not
angled. Male with last ventral segment long, narrow, tubular;
the plates extremely long, acute but not filamentous at the ex-
tremity as in angulifera.
Color straw yellow, the disc of pronotum and the elytra bril-
liant green, vertex with the median line, the sutures, the ocelli
and the usual pair of lines at apex narrowly black. About 3
faintly dotted arcs on the long roll of the reflexed front, on
either side, and a pair of dotted, diverging lines arising in the
margin of the roll back of the apex and running inside the ocelli.
The reflexed portion is much longer and narrower than in
angulifera and in that species the divergent lines are heavier
and arise in an outward curve on the middle of the disc and be-
hind the roll. Below pale in female, except for a smoky front
and a black line below the eyes on either side. Male, all black
below the lateral line except the apex of clypeus and sometimes
Holotype female, allotype male and 3 pairs of paratypes taken by the
writer at Fulton, Fla. (Label Jax'ville) May 8-27. They were taken on a
sandy ridge that separated the St. Johns River from a tide flat and were
all swept from a sparse stand of coarse grass probably a Spartina. This
location is in sight of St. Johns Bluff. Another pair were taken June
20, '26 in a similar location at Mayport just below the bluff. Walker de-
scribed product and acuta from St. Johns Bluff, but these are much small-
er species than this and appear to apply to varieties of the common marsh
species mentioned below.
D. product Walk. This species occurs in shaded marshy areas in Flor-
ida and has been found most abundantly, both nymphs and adults, on Water
Hyacinth and golden-club (Orontium aquaticum L.) growing in the deep
shade on the edge of cypress swamps. There is a wide variation in size
and length of head, but the writer has not been able to find any constant
character that would separate the two forms Walker described, and as
product has page preference that name has been used.
Draeculacephala minerva n. sp.
Slightly broader than ball, shorter, stouter, with a broader
head than mollipes. Vertex about equalling the pronotum in the
female. Female pale, male black below. Length: female 7 mm.;
male 6 mm.
Vertex broad and flat, the margins straight, as long as pro-
notum, profile of face definitely convex, the clypeus only slight-
ly prominent. Elytra short and relatively broad.
Color: Female; yellow, the vertex frequently orange with a
black tip and an oblique line from the green ocelli to the mar-
gin in front of eyes. Disc of pronotum and elytra deep green.
Face very pale smoky, below pale. Male greenish yellow with
the same markings on vertex. Pronotal disc and elytra deep
green. Below black the tibiae frequently pale.
Holotype female and allotype male Stanford, Calif. June 21, '08 (Ball)
and four pairs of paratypes from San Jose (King) and Chino Calif. (Ball
and Titus). This form was included in D. mollipes var. minor of the writ-
er's previous review of this group and the D. minor of Van Duzee's Key
and Catalogue. This however appears to be a distinct species confined to
the Southwestern U. S. and Mex. The writer has collected it in St. George
in extreme Southern Utah and in many places in Calif. from Chico south
and has examples from Ariz. and several places in Mex. south to Vera
Cruz. Walker's D. minor was from the Atlantic Coast region and examples
of a small var. of mollipes with black faced males have been taken in the
tide flat regions of N. Y. and New Jersey southward. They have longer
vertices and lack the oblique line out from the ocelli. This species and
product have no doubt been confused with mollipes in the past. The ma-
terial at hand indicates that minerva is at home in the arid S. W., mol-
lipes in the North and Northeast and product in the Southeast.
D. inscripta Van D. This strikingly marked species came in some num-
bers to a trap light in a celery field at Sanford, Florida, May 8, 1927.
Olsen has already recorded the fact that most of the examples in collec-
tions have been taken at lights. A single female was taken at Sanford
Oct. 13, '26 from the shore of Lake Jessup just above the line of the Hya-
cinth on the mud flats.
Draeculacephala pagoda n. sp.
Form of minerva (minor of Auth.) but definitely smaller.
Allied to inscripta in markings on pronotum and scutellum but
much paler. Small dusky green with a black wedge at apex of
vertex. Length 5.5-7 mm.
Vertex a trifle longer than pronotum in female, about equal-
ling it in male, flat, acute. Face in profile slightly concave above,
broadly angled over the exceptionally inflated clypeus. Female
segment angularly produced; male plates attenuate.
Color dirty straw with the disc of pronotum and elytra dusky-
green. Spots on apex of vertex united into a dark brown wedge
running back on disc and omitting a tiny ivory apex: Sutures
and a pair of divergent lines on disc in female black; a dot on
median line in back of wedge, a pair of dots at base, inside and
behind ocelli, indistinct vermiculations on the submargin of
pronotum and a pair of round spots on disc of scutellum, black.
Face smoky above, pale below with a smoky median line ex-
panded on apex of front. Below pale in female slightly dusky
in male. Male, with a broad dark pagoda like pattern on vertex
made up of four pillars and a sloping roof supporting the wedge
as a cupola.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Holotype male and allotype female taken July 16, '26, Sanford, Fla.
and two pair of paratypes taken Aug. 18, '27. These were all taken from
a small thick mat of grass growing in the deep shade of a swamp forest
near Oviedo. This species is about the same size as balli, but much stouter
and easily distinguished by the black wedge at apex.
Draeculacephala lenticula n. sp.
Resembling minerva in size and form but slightly narrower,
as narrow as balli but with a shorter head. Dirty green with the
vertex pale yellow finely irrorate with fuscous; face mottled
with pale brown. Length 6-7.5 mm.
Vertex about equalling the pronotum; very similar to min-
erva except that the frontal rolls are higher and the apex broad-
er, thus leaving a rather broad and deep depression between
them. Face full, a trifle convex in profile with a very obtuse
angle on the clypeus. Pronotum very flat with a submarginal
area of irregular depressions. Female segment rather long,
truncate with an extremely long and narrow median projec-
tion whole segment, including projection, with a sharp median
keel. Male segment very wide; valve semicircular; plates nar-
row attenuate with filamentous upturned tips.
Color: vertex dirty yellow, the ocelli green surrounded by
white, suture before the ocelli and a line on margin to the eye
together with a pair of widely separated converging apical
lines black. In the male the apical lines fuse into a wedge shaped
spot. Rest of vertex irregularly irrorate with brown. Anterior
margin of pronotum dirty yellow, irregularly irrorate or ver-
miculate in the depressions; sometimes ocellate spots are
formed. Disc of pronotum and elytra rusty green, face mottled
with brown; below pale except for the black abdominal stern-
ites in the male.
Holotype female Orizaba, V. C. (Osborn) allotype male La Antiqua,
Mex. (Barrett). Paratypes; one male "near Mex. City" (Barrett) four
females and a male La Ceiba Honduras (Dyer) U. S. N. M. One male
Tegucigalpa Honduras (Dyer) sent as a paratype of Gibsons soluta but
differing from the type and rest of paratypes.
Type and paratypes in author's collection; paratypes in U. S. N. M.
D. bradleyi Van D. This small deep green species with the black face
in both sexes has been taken in abundance, both nymphs and adults, on
low flat marshy places in Florida where a beaked rush (Ryncospora) is
common. It has been taken less commonly on the little mats of spike rush
(Elocharis) on the margins of ponds.
D. balli Van D. (soluta Gib.) Through the kindness of Mr. McAtee the
writer examined two paratypes of soluta Gib. The two examples sent
were widely different and represent two distinct species. Mr. Mc-
Atee stated that the type and remaining paratype were like the "long
nosed" one which is a typical balli except that the seven spots are
small. As the name must go with the type, soluta Gib. becomes a
synonym of balli. D. balli is apparently widely distributed. The writer
has taken it at Jamestown Va. and in Florida and has examples from La.,
Miss., and many places in Central Mexico, while the soluta type, para-
type and other examples sent were from Honduras. Many of the Mexi-
can and some of the Honduras specimens lack the spots on scutellum and
a few lack all of them. The small size, slender form, and pale face will
separate even these from any other species. The Jamestown examples were
taken from a mixed salt grass and a "five finger" grass area on the river
bank near the monument.
D. crassicornis Van D. The writer has examples of this rare species
from Hood River, Oreg. (Titus), Toppenish, Wash. (Davis), Victoria,
B. C. (Downes), Uinta Mts., Utah (Pammel), Rico and Pikes Peak, Colo.
(Ball). The last three records were from high altitudes and all the rec-
ords are from regions of high mountains, which may be significant.
Genus Carneocephala nov.
Resembling Draeculacephala in general appearance and reticulate api-
cal portion of elytra, but with front inflated and conically rounding over
to vertex. Vertex variable in length, but lacking the definite margin of
Draeculacephala and Graphocephala-front strongly inflated, strongly
convex in profile, mottled with tawny, and lacking the dark parallel arcs
of Draeculacephala. Pronotum long and inclined to be octagonal as in
Helochara. Elytra long, narrow, reticulate veined beyond the clavus.
Type of the genus Draeculacephala floridana Ball--
The known species are all pale green with the front, vertex and an-
terior margin of pronotum some shade of yellow, the front and usually
the vertex mottled with some shade of brown or tawny. The smoky or
black face and venter so common in Draeculacephala is unknown; instead
there may be touches of scarlet on the venter as in Graphocephala.
KEY TO THE SPECIES
A. Vertex longer than pronotum, acutely conical in both diameters;
elytral nervures almost concolorous. Species large
-(S. E.) 1. floridana Ball,/
AA. Vertex shorter or only about equalling the pronotum elytral nervures
paler, species small.
B. Vertex very short and blunt; tawny or fulvous without definite
dark lines or spots; scutellum without markings; elytra dusky
with greenish white nervures in sharp contrast; apex of elytra
closely reticulate. .......-........................----(South) 2. reticulata Sign.
BB. Vertex longer, tawny or rusty irrorate, with definite dark or light
markings, or both; elytra with relatively few and obscure reticu-
lations; scutellum ornamented.
C. Dark mark on vertex long, reaching ivory dot at apex; median
line dark on basal half: female 6 mm.....(Colo.) 3. gillettei Ball/
40 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
CC. Dark (or tawny) mark on vertex small set well back of apex
and usually surrounded by a white margin. Very small, fe-
male 5 mm. or less. (Mexican Border of U. S., Mex. and W. I.).
4. sagittifera Uhl.
Carneocephala floridana Ball has been taken by the writer in abund-
ance, both nymphs and adults, on a mixture of Sea Blite (Salicornia herb-
acea) and Salt Wort (Bates maratima) growing in profusion on the tide
flats along the Atlantic Coast of Florida from Jacksonville south to Miami.
Mrs. Slossom took the first examples at Charlotte Harbor on the West
C. gillettei Ball has only been taken sparingly in a few isolated alkaline
areas in Colo. Species of Salicornia or Dondia growing in these areas may
be the food plant.
C. sagittifera Uhl has been recorded from Tex. and doubtfully from
California by Olsen. The writer has examples from several places in the
West Indies, including the type locality (compared with type). He also
has examples from three places along the border in Texas, (one recorded
as from an alkali area), and has taken it at St. George, Utah sweeping
Atriplex and Dondia. With the exception of reticulata which swarm's on
Bermuda and allied grasses throughout the Southern States and on to
California, all the species of this genus seem to be confined to alkaline
EBURIA QUADRIGEMINATA PERFORATES A LEAD PIPE
There are several authentic cases on records of beetles per-
forating lead pipes but they are so uncommon that such a rec-
ord is still of value and the above species seems to be a new
June 22nd the Entomologist of the Experiment Station re-
ceived from the Telephone Company of Lakeland a specimen of
the above beetle and a piece of lead pipe with on oval hole 3/8
of an inch long and 1/4 of an inch wide. The wall of the lead
pipe was about 3/32 of an inch in thickness.
The circumstances are as follows: Between 25 and 30 tele-
phones in that city ceased working simultaneously. Investiga-
tions revealed a hole in the lead pipe which was attached to a
pole. The beetle had bored thru the wooden pole to the lead
and the hole in the pipe corresponded with this hole in the pole,
and in the hole in the pole the beetle of the alove species was
found. There is thus practically no doubt but that the beetle
bored both the hole thru the pole and the opening into the lead
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
J. R. W ATSON-........--- -..............................-.......-.... .............-...-- Editor
WILMON NEWELL...-...--.........................................---Associate Editor
A. N. TISSOT .......---.............--....----.............Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.
THE ENGLISH ORCHID THRIPS
Native to Florida
Additions to Thysanoptera of Florida.-XVI
In 1909 (Ent. Monthly Mag. N. S. XX p. 33) Bagnall de-
scribed Anaphothrips orchidaceous from two localities in Eng-
land and one in Ireland. It was found feeding "on various hot-
house orchids, Odontoglossum, Cypripedium, and Zygopetalum".
Its depredations were sufficiently severe to attract the attention
of horticulturists and to receive a common name, "The Yellow
Orchid Thrips" or the "Yellow Thrips".
In the same year Bagnall recorded (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. L.
III, P. 171) it from Belgium in the Brussels Botanical Gardens
from Chamaedorea fragrans and from Scotland (J1. Econ. Biol.
IV, P. 38), and records Cymbidium and Epidendron as hosts.
C. B. Williams (Jl. Econ. Biol. VI, P. 220) adds a new lo-
cality record (Liverpool) and Miltonia, Oncidium and Mor-
modes as hosts.
The writer has recently received specimens of this species
taken from Dendrobium clavatum from England by inspector
W. T. Owrey ,of the Federal Horticultural Board.
During November and December, 1926, Mr. A. N. Tissot col-
lected a quantity of the orchid Epidendron from the limbs of
live oak trees and placed them in a Berlese funnel. Among other
insects a number of specimens of this thrips were taken. The
writer has carefully compared them with specimens secured
from England and finds them identical. The dark longitudinal
band of this handsome insect makes its recognition easy.
This is the first recorded capture of this species outside of
Europe. The circumstances of its capture-on native orchids
42 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
many miles from any greenhouse in which orchids are grown-
points unmistakably to its being a native of Florida. It doubt-
less occurs in other parts of semitropical and tropical America
and has been introduced into European hothouses from some
locality in America on imported orchids.-J. R. Watson.
THE THYSANOPTERA FAUNA OF THE INDIAN PIPE
(Continued from Vol. XI, No. 2, P. 30)
KEY TO THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF ANAPHOTHRIPS
(Including Proscirtothrips Karny)
a. Antennae 9 segmented.
b. More or less prominent bristles on posterior angles of prothorax
c. Head about as long as wide; antennal segment 3 not pedi-
cellate ......................... ......................... .. ...-....-zeae, M oulton.
cc. Head considerably wider than long; antennal segment 3
d. Abdominal segments 5-8 with conspicuous comb-
like arrangement of spines along the posterior
margins; head and prothorax yellowish to orange-
yellow, abdomen brown........--.........tricolor Moulton.
dd. Abdominal segments without combs; color brown-
ish-yellow to yellowish white, abdomen not darker
than head and thorax.
e. Wings long surpassing tip of abdomen; head
subglobose, vertex well rounded.
ee. Wings rather short, membrane not attaining
tip of abdomen; head subrectangular in out-
line, vertex produced a little between bases
of antennae but not rounded.
monotropae n. sp.
bb. No prominent bristles on posterior angles of prothorax.
c. Color almost uniformly brown.
d. Body of female long and slender, prothorax but
little wider than the head......grandioculus Watson.
dd. Body, especially the abdomen of female, wide and
heavy, prothorax considerably wider than the head.
cc. Body yellow, more or less shaded with brown.
d. Abdomen at least partly yellow.
e. Abdominal segments 1, 2 and 10 shaded with
brown ..-.........--.....--...........--.. obscurus (Mull.)
ee. Abdominal segments 1, 2 and 7-10 brown.
eee. Abdominal segments 7-10 shading to pale
brown, 10 dark at tip..................dicolor Hood.
dd. Abdomen uniform chestnut brown.
e. Antennal segment 3 longer and narrower
than 1, 2, 4, or 5 and as long as 6.
ee. Antennal segment 3 shorter.
aa. Antennae 8-segmented; body very light yellow, heavily tinged with
orange on thorax; ocelli pale and inconspicuous; antennae shading
from brownish yellow at base to light brown........arizonensis Morgan.
Thrips flavicauda n. sp.
General color yellow ocher (Ridgway's Color Standards, 1912). Head
a little lighter, maize yellow; abdomen usually much darker (especially
under reflected light) except the last three segments; legs almost uni-
formly massicot yellow (Ridgeway); antenna segment 1 concolorous with
legs; 2, with the head, segments 3-7 dresden brown, ocellar crescents car-
mine, eyes dark red, by reflected light; the thorax tinged with dark brown
and light brown hypodermal pigments in the pterothorax. In the abdo-
men there are about a dozen and in the thorax one or two large blotches
of black hypodermal pigment, which show bright yellow under reflected
light. Some specimens (probably general) are a uniform light yellow
Head 1.3 times as wide as long, widest midway between the eyes and
the posterior border, constricted behind the bulging eyes, dorsal surface
with distinct anastomosing lines, cheeks strongly arched, roughened with
minute bristle-bearing protruberances. A curved row of 5 or 6 minute
bristles behind each eye; the last and most conspicuous ones behind the
posterior ocelli dark, the others colorless. One on each side of the pos-
terior ocelli dark, the most conspicuous ones on the entire head. Frontal
margin nearly straight.
Prothorax only a little longer than the head. The inner bristles on
the posterior angles are two-thirds as long as the median length of the
prothorax; the outer ones half as long; three pairs of weak bristles along
the posterior margin.
Wings reaching abdominal segment 8 (sometimes only segment 6),
width in middle about one fourteenth the length; light gray in apical .7,
lighter towards the apex and base, except the scales; basal .3 nearly clear;
veins darker. Costal margin with about 20 bristles, anterior vein with 9
or 10 of which 6 or 7 are in the basal third; posterior vein with 10 to 12
regularly spaced ones. Abdominal segment 10 sulcate above in apical
third. Segments 8 to 10 and ovipositor abruptly much lighter than the
preceding segments, usually bright yellow. Ventral and lateral surfaces
of the abdomen are much lighter than the dorsal surface.
Measurements: Total body length about 1.25 mm. ( 25 mm.). Head,
length 0.12 mm., width 0.156 mm.; prothorax, length 0.185 mm., width 0.21
mm.; mesothorax 0.25 mm.; abdomen, greatest width 0.27 mm. Antennae,
total length 0.30 mm.
Segment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Length 30 40.5 56.5 53 42 57.5 23
Width 33.5 31 26 24 21.5 23 9 microns
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Male. Similar to female but very much smaller.
Measurements of type.-Total body length 0.75 mm. Head, length
0.07 mm., width 0.089 mm.; mesothorax. width 0.20 mm.; abdomen, great-
est width 0.18 mm. Antennae, total length 0.18 mm. Segments: 15, 25, 31,
31, 20, 37, and 15 microns in length respectively. Described from over fifty
females and two males collected by the writer and Mr. Tissot.
Close to T. impar Hood which also has the three terminal segments of
the abdomen lighter in color than the remainder of the abdomen, but not
nearly as marked as in this species. The two can be at once separated by
a glance at the intermediate antennal segments which are much wider in
proportion to their length than in impar. The color of the insect is much
Hood has recently (Ent. Americana Vol. VII, No. 4) de-
scribed a species of Thrips from Indian Pipe from New York
under the name of T. monotropae. *The writer has taken a sin-
gle specimen of apparently this species from Indian Pipe in ex-
treme northeastern Georgia. It was not taken in Florida.
THE SCARABAEIDAE OF FLORIDA
By W. S. BLATCHLEY
The family Scarabeidae comprises one of the largest and
most important groups of the Coleoptera of the World. About
14,000 species, varying greatly in form, size and general ap-
pearance, are known. Their main distribution is in the tropics
where some of the species are among the largest and most
bizarre of known insects. Leng in his Catalogue lists 996 spe-
cies from America north of Mexico, and perhaps 50 others have
since been described from that area. These range in size from
the pygmy Pleurophorus parvulus Chev., less than one tenth of
an inch in length, up to the giant unicorn beetle, Dynastes
tityus (Linn.), almost two inches long and of corresponding
bulk, both of which occur in Florida.
The name of the family is derived from the Latin Scarabaeus
or Scarab, meaning "a beetle."'The Scarab of the ancient Egyp-
tians was a sacred beetle belonging to this family, which they
held in high veneration. It is stated that the dwellers in the
valley of the Nile thought that the actions of these insects,
when rolling, their balls of dung, were typical of the planetary
and Lunar revolutions; and that the sudden appearance of the
beetles after a period of complete absence was emblematic of
a future life. Hence they carved its image out of stone and
placed it in the tombs with their dead, and its picture was often
painted on their stone coffins or sarcophagi.
The Scarabeidae, together with two other families, the
Lucanidae and Passalidae, make up one of the great divisions
or series of Coleoptera known as the Lamellicornia or Super-
family Scarabseoidea, so called because they alone have the an-
tennal club composed of three or more elongate, leaf-like mov-
able plates or laminae, so formed that in repose they fit so
closely together as to have the appearance of being but one
piece. In addition to this peculiar club the Scarabseidae have
the body usually short, convex and robust; antennae 7- to 11-
jointed, usually 10-jointed, and inserted before the eyes under
the sides of the front; front tibiae always fossorial or fitted for
digging, being broad, compressed, with the outer edge strong-
ly toothed or scalloped; middle and hind tarsi long, always
5-jointed; pygidium or last dorsal segment usually exposed be-
yond and below the tips of elytra; visible ventral segments usu-
ally six, the last two or three in the male often flattened, im-
pressed or otherwise modified.
According to habits the adults of the Scarabmidae are separat-
ed into two well marked groups known as the "dung beetles" or
"scavengers" and the "leaf chafers." The former have the legs
stout, the hind one widely separated and set far back behind
the middle of the body. They live upon putrefying or decom-
posing matter such as the dung of animals, decaying fungi and
carrion. Of this group the common tumble-bugs and the skin
beetles (Trox) are familiar examples. In the leaf-chafers the
legs are more slender and the hind ones are attached at or be-
fore the middle of the body. They are much the more numerous
and feed upon the leaves, or the pollen and petals, of plants, the
May-beetles and "iose bugs" being familiar forms.
The larvae or grubs of the Scarabmidae are either white or
yellowish in hue and have a brown horny head with prominent
mandibles. In their later stages they are usually stout of body
with the hinder end larger and much wrinkled. When at rest
they lie partly coiled up, the tip of the abdomen almost reach-
ing the long spiny legs. They live in the ground, where they feed
upon roots, or in decaying wood or excrement.
The main object of the present paper is to list in natural
order the species of Scarabeidae which are at present known
from, or in the past have been recorded from, Florida, and to
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
show approximately their distribution in the State. Within re-
cent years the changes wrought in the natural surroundings of
many localities of the State have been very great. These changes
have brought a corresponding one in the native fauna and flora
of these localities. Many indigenous species have disappeared
and new ones have been introduced. To put on permanent rec-
ord for future use our knowledge of this important family of
beetles as at present found in the State is, therefore, the prin-
cipal reason for the preparation of this list. As no monograph
of the Scarabaidae of North America has ever been published,
and as the descriptions of the 200 or more species occurring in
Florida are widely scattered, I have thought best to include a
key to subfamilies and tribes, and a brief diagnosis of each
genus and species, thus forming a means by which the future
student can name the majority of species which he may have at
(To be continued)
The New Spray for Aphis
Pleasant to Use
Does Not Require Soap
Mixes with Other Sprays
Can be used with Hard or Soft Water
Made Only by
WILLIAM COOPER & NEPHEWS