Florida Entoi Ilogist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Vol. XI WINTER NUMBER No. 4
THE SEASONAL AND ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION
OF THE COMMON APHID PREDATORS
OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
W. L. THOMPSON*
The different species of ladybeetles and syrphus flies, which
are the chief predators of aphids, have their likes and dislikes
as to their food and seasons of the year. To record some observa-
tions on these points is the object of this paper.
The records from August 1, 1926 to March 7, 1927 were taken
from Mr. R. L. Miller's report of 1926 and 1927 of the Citrus
Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.
Cycloneda sanquinea immaculate Fab. (Blood Red Lady-
beetle). Our most common ladybeetle predator on aphids seems
to have a wider range of food and is more in evidence the year
around than the other species.
The chief host of the Blood Red appears to be the new citrus
aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch). It is found feeding in colonies
of these aphids every month of the year but is more abundant
from March until May, which are the months the aphids are
most abundant. In October 1926 the beetles were fewer in pro-
portion than any other month of the year, only three adults
were observed in a count of 40,000 aphids. In January 1927,
one adult was observed in a count of 22,600 aphids. There were
very few citrus aphids in evidence during the months the beetles
were at their minimum. During December 1926 and January
1927 only adults were observed, the larvae making their appear-
ance in February.
As stated above the range of hosts of this beetle is rather
wide as it has been observed feeding on the following aphids
other than the citrus aphids: Melon Aphid (Aphis gossypii) on
guava, hibiscus, okra, and melons; Aphis rumicis on beans;
Aphis pseudobrassicae on turnips and rutabagas; Myzus perci-
*Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
cae on eggplants; Aphis coreopsidis on Bidens, and a green aphid
infesting crab grass.
Hippodamia convergens Guer. seems to appear more or less
spasmodically. In August 1925 crab grass was heavily infested
with aphids and hundreds of larvae and adult beetles were pres-
ent but in 1926 when the grass' was infested Mr. Miller gives
no account of observing them with the other predators that
were present. From August 1926 to May 15, 1927 they were
not observed feeding on citrus aphids or the truck crop aphids.
From April 1927 to the present time, December 10, they have
been in evidence every month.
Hippodamia convergens was the predominating predator on
Myzus persicae on eggplants in April and May, 1927. As high
as 59 larvae were counted on one eggplant. Aphis pseudobras-
sicae infesting turnips and rutabagas in the fall and winter
months are important hosts also. Aphis rumicis infesting beans
was practically controlled by Hippodamia convergens with the
aid of a few other predators in a patch on the Experiment Sta-
tion in June and July, 1927. In one count of 6000 aphids on the
beans, 98 larvae and three adult beetles were found. The lar-
vae were found to eat an average of 56 citrus aphids per day
during their larval stage and adults 87 per day. 98 larvae and
three adults should eat approximately 4,671 aphids per day.
In 1925 Hippodamia convergens was quite common feeding
on the .citrus aphid but in the year 1926 and 1927 there were
very few observed feeding on this species of aphid.
Scymnus collaris Melsh has been observed each month in the
year but is less common in December and January.
This ladybeetle is the most common predator of the Grape
Aphid, Macrosiphum illinoisinsis at the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion. It is also found feeding on Aphis gossypii and Myzus per-
sicae infesting truck crops, Aphis rumicis on beans and to some
extent the citrus aphid.
Scymnus terminatus Say is common in the spring and sum-
The favorite host of this ladybeetle at the Experiment Station
is Myzus persicae infesting eggplants and peppers. It is also a
predator of Aphis gossypii, Aphis rumicis, and the citrus aphid
although not very common.
Coccinella oculata Fab. is present in the spring and summer
This beetle is sometimes found feeding on citrus aphids but
it is not a very common predator in this section. It is more of
a scale eater but the larvae were observed feeding on mealy
bugs that had infested a guava tree. These beetles were found
feeding on mealy bugs in 1926 and 1927.
Vedalia (Rodolia cardinalis Muls.), or Australian Ladybeetle
is the chief predator of the cottony cushion scale (Icerya pur-
chasi Mask). The larvae are sometimes found feeding in col-
onies of the citrus aphid but are not common. We have never
been able to rear a complete generation of these beetles through
on the citrus aphid.
Twice-stabbed Ladybeetle (Chilocorus bivulnerus Muls.) is
found in all months of the year, especially the adults.
It is primarily a scale feeding beetle but is occasionally found
feeding on the citrus aphid. We have never been successful in
rearing a complete generation through on aphids.
Baccha clavata Fab. is the most common syrphus fly in this
section and leads all the other aphid predators with the excep-
tion of a couple of months in the year. It is present every month
of the year but more abundant in the spring and summer months
when the citrus aphids are working. According to Miller, eggs,
larvae and pupae were killed by a temperature of 240 F., dur-
ing January 1927, but they mostly withstood a temperature of
240 F. in January 1928.
The chief host of Baccha clavata larvae in this section is the
citrus aphid and wherever this aphid is found the larvae of
this syrphus fly is nearly always present. Although the citrus
aphid appears to be the favorite host the larvae feed on a num-
ber of different species of aphids. They have been observed
feeding on Aphis gossypii, Aphis rumicis, Macrosiphum illinois-
insis, Myzus persicae, Toxoptera aurantiae, a green aphid infest-
ing crab grass, and to some extent on Aphis pseudobrassicae.
Baccha lugens Loew is found during nearly every month of
the year. Mr. R. L. Miller does not report any from November
8, 1926 to February 2, 1927. Since February 2, 1927 to Decem-
ber 10, 1927 they have been observed every month although
only a very few larvae were observed in November and Decem-
ber. They were more common in August than any other month.
Baccha lugens is found feeding chiefly on the citrus aphid and
Toxoptera aurantiae which is known as the Grapefruit Aphid.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
It has been observed feeding on Aphis pseudobrassicae on tur-
nips and rutabagas.
Syrphus wiedmanni Johns. (Syrphus americana Wied.) is
common in late fall, winter and early spring months. In 1925
and 1927 the month of May was the last these syrphus flies
were observed until October. There is no record as to when
the larvae were last observed in 1926 but they were not pres-
ent during the summer months.
It seems quite likely that Aphis pseudobrassicae infesting
turnips and rutabagas is the favorite host of this syrphus fly. as
these aphids are present during the cool months when these
syrphus flies are the most abundant. Although citrus aphids are
present in the fall, few larvae are found feeding on them, but in
the spring when turnips are not grown and no Aphis pseudo-
brassicae are present, the syrphus fly larvae are common feed-
ing on the citrus aphid until about May 15.
Allographa obliqua Say. is likely to be found in most any
month of the year if suitable food is present, but they were
found to be most common in November, December and January.
Allographa obliqua is the most common predator of Aphis
pseudobrassicae at the present time, December 10, 1927, and
this species of aphid appears to be its favorite host. It has been
observed feeding on citrus aphids in March, April and Novem-
ber and on Aphis rumicis on beans in June and July. It was also
a predator of the green aphids which infested the crab grass
in August, 1925 and 1926.
DR. O. F. BURGER DIES
Dr. Owen Francis Burger, Head of the Department of Plant
Pathology of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and
a member of our society, died on January 26 as a result of an
automobile accident. Dr. Burger was born at Freeland, Pa., June
8, 1885. He received his A.B. from Indiana University in 1909;
M.S. Florida in 1911; Harvard, 1915; Sc.D. Harvard, 1916. He
was Assistant to the Plant Pathologist, Fla. Experiment Station,
1911-1913; Instructor in Plant Pathology, California, 1916-18.
He has been head of the Department of Plant Pathology of the
Experiment Station since 1918. His cheerful voice and helpful
suggestions will be much missed by all his associates on the
campus and his numerous friends over the entire state.
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
J. R. W ATSON ............................................................................Editor
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Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
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CITRUS INSECTS OF HONDURAS
In two recent letters, one to the editor and one to Mr. W. W.
Others, Mr. R. L. Mestmoreland, Jr. gives some interesting
information concerning the citrus insects of Honduras.
The most interesting piece of information he gives is the
presence of the Citrus Aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) in that
country. Specimens were sent to Mr. Others and were identi-
fied by the specialists in the U. S. Bureau of Entomology. As to
the severity of the infestation he states:-"So far the Citrus
Aphid does not seem to be. so hard on the new growth as in
Florida. They appear not to curl the leaves half as badly as they
do in Florida. We have new growth on the trees most all
months of the year except possibly two in midsummer. Appar-
ently some fungus is keeping the aphid under fairly good con-
trol, as dead ones are frequently seen covered with a fungus-
like growth. One of the oldest grove men here is from Wild-
wood, Fla. He is a very good citrus man and has been in this
country for nearly thirty years. He states that he has observed
the.citrus aphid for ten years to his clear knowledge."
Another citrus insect is the Purple Scale,-"Very severe in
some old groves especially some that suffered severely from a
three months' drought last summer. I have noticed some Red-
headed Scale fungus on this scale but it does not appear in
large quantities as you see it in Florida groves. From Novem-
ber to February we have four months of continuous rain."
"In the woods of this country you find the sour orange, bit-
ter sweet orange, key lime and rough lemon. They aie similar
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
in every way to the native or wild ones in Florida. Also you find
a sweet orange growing in the dense woods and as far as I can
see it is the same as the seedling type you see in Florida."
"Limes and lemons from this country are allowed to enter
the States, but the line is drawn on oranges and grapefruit on
account of the Mexican Fruit Fly. So far I have not been able
to find any of these flies around. Most of the fruit now goes to
England by ice boat."
"For the past month we have been very busy fighting the fly-
ing locust, which is about a third smaller than the Lubber Grass-
hopper of Florida and about the same color. They seem to hatch
out west of us and they travel east in swarms so thick they
darken the clouds. When they settle down, the ground looks
like autumn leaves have covered it. They may stay for a day or
two, or just a few minutes. If they do stay and are not ready to
breed, they will eat everything green in sight. They will com-
pletely defoliate a very large citrus tree in a few minutes. If
they are ready to breed, they will eat very little and will copu-
late for several days, and all the time this process is going on,
the female is laying about sixty eggs, in the ground. The eggs
hatch in three or four weeks and millions of little hoppers are
in great droves and if they are not killed immediately they will
in a few days begin to feed upon the foliage of the citrus trees.
They do not seem to have any preference as to food. They eat all
the leaves off bananas, cocoanut palms and everything green
they can chew on. So far our best method of control is to use
knapsack sprayers and spray the colonies of young ones with
distilate. It is very expensive, but efficient for the ones that
hatch out in our groves, but we have found no way to control
the adult which flies into the grove without a minute's notice
and eats all the leaves off the trees.
Ten years ago this same kind of locust came thru this coun-
try and nearly ruined it, but at the end of the first year of its
appearance, a parasitic fly completely controlled it. Now the fly
is becoming very abundant here and a research department has
an entomologist breeding the flies in cages and letting them
loose in heavily infested areas. This fly is very similar to the
one that parasitises the green pumpkin bug in Florida. So far
as we can determine, there appears to be two species of these
flies, and specimens have been sent to Washington, D. C. for
THE SCARABAEIDAE OF FLORIDA
By W. S. BLATCHLEY
(Continued from page 46)
The sources of information on which the present paper is
based are as follows: (a). My private collection, taken person-
ally during the months from November to April, inclusive, in
the' past 16 years, mainly in the southern half of the State. As
many of the Scarabaeidae are in the adult stage in the sum-
mer months only, my collection therefore lacks numerous spe-
cies. Of the list which follows it contains from Florida only
those species whose serial number is preceded by an asterisk (*)
or 102 of those recorded from the State. (b). The members of
the family in the collections of the Agricultural Experiment
Station and the State Plant Board at Gainesville, which I have
examined in part there, and which in part have been sent to
me for study. (c). A part of the Florida Scarabaeidae in the
collection of W. T. Davis, Staten Island, N. Y., which was sent
to me for examination, and also field notes on the remaining
species by Mr. Davis. (d). A list of the species of Florida Scara-
baeidae, with station records, in the collection of the Brooklyn
Museum of Natural History, furnished me by Chas Schaeffer,
Curator of Coleoptera in that Museum. (e). A list of Florida
Scarabaeidae and station records in the private collection of
H. C. Fall, Tyngsboro, Mass., sent me by Mr. Fall. (f). The
printed records of Florida species of the family as given in the
"List of Works Cited," which follows. (g). Manuscript records,
especially those of Schwarz and Hamilton mentioned in the List
of Works Cited;" also others kindly sent me by Chas. W. Leng,
Staten Island, N. Y., Prof. J. J. Davis, Lafayette, Ind., and Prof.
R. W. Dawson, St. Paul, Minn.
LIST OF WORKS CITED IN THE PRESENT PAPER
Arranged alphabetically by authors and years of publication.
Blatchley, W. S.-1902-A List of the Coleoptera taken in the vicinity of
Ormond, Florida in March and April, 1899. A Nature Wooing at Or-
mond by the Sea.
1910-An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera known to
Occur in Indiana, pp. 1-1386. Scarabaeidae, pp. 909-1005.
1912-On Some Undescribed Forms of Florida Coleoptera. Can., Ent.,
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
1916-A New Genus and Species of Nitidulini with Descriptions of other
New Species of Coleoptera from Indiana and Florida. Can. Ent.,
1918-On Some New or Noteworthy Coleoptera from the West Coast of
Florida, Pt. IV. Can. Ent., L, 52-59.
1919-Some New or Scarce Coleoptera from Western and Southern
Florida, II. Can. Ent., LI, 28-32.
1920-Notes on the Winter Coleoptera of Western and Southern Florida
with Descriptions of New Species. Can. Ent., LII, 42-46; 68-72.
1922-Some New and Rare Coleoptera from Southwestern Florida. Can.
Ent., LIV, 9-14; 27-33.
Casey, Thos. L.-1915-A Review of the American Species of Rutelinae,
Dynastinae and Cetoniinae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera-VI, 1-394.
Castle & Laurent-1896-'97-April Collecting in Georgia and Florida. Ent.
News, VII, 300-305; VIII, 7-9.
Davis, John J.-1920-New Species and Varieties of Phyllophaga. Bull.
XIII, Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv., 329-338.
Dawson, R. W.-1922-New Species of Serica.-V. Journ. N. Y. Entom.
Soc., XXX, 154-169.
Dozier, H. L.-1918-An Annotated List of Gainesville, Florida Coleoptera.
Ent. News, XXIX, 295-298; 331-335; 370-374.
Fall-H. C.-1905-New Species of Coleoptera, Chiefly from the South-
west. Can. Ent., XXXVII, 270-276.
1909-Revision of the Species of Diplotaxis of the United States. Trans.
Amer. Entom. Soc., XXXV, 1-97.
Hamilton, Dr. John-1888-A Manuscript List of Coleoptera taken in the
Vicinity of St. Augustine, Florida by Rev. Chas. Johnson.1
1894-Coleoptera taken at Ft. Worth, Florida. Can. Ent. XXVI, 250-256;
Horn, Dr. G. H.-1870-Description of the Species of Aphodius and Dialy-
tes of the United States. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., III, 1870, 110-134.
1871-Synopsis of Aphodiini of the United States. Trans. Amer. Ent.
Soc., III, 284-297.
1876-Revision of the United States Species of Ochodaeus and Other
Genera of Scarabaeidae. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., V, 177-197.
1880-A Monographic Revision of the Species of Cremastochilus of the
United States. Synopsis of the Euphoriae of the United States. Proc.
Amer. Phil. Soc., XVIII, 382-408.
1880a-Coleoptera from the Florida Keys Collected by W. H. Ashmead.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., VIII, 17 (Proc.).
1887-A Monograph of the Aphodiini Inhabiting the United States.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XIV, 1-110.
1887a-Revision of the Species of Lachnosterna of America North of
,.Mexico. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XIV, 209-296.
Hubbard, Henry G.-1894-The Insect Guests of the Florida Land Tortoise.
Insect Life, VI, 302-315.
1See Schwarz, Proc. Wash. Entom. Soc., I, No. 3, 1889. All St. Augustine records by
Hamilton refer to this list.
LeConte, John L.-1856-Synopsis of the Melolonthidae of the United
States. Journ. Acad. Nat. Phil., (2), III, 225-288.
1878*-New Species of Coleoptera from Florida." Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc.,
Leng, C. W.-1920-Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America North of
Mexico, pp. 1-470.
Linell, Martin L.-1895-New Species of North American Coleoptera of
the Family Scarabaeidae. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVIII, 721-731.
Schaeffer, Chas.-1906-On Bradycinetus and Bolboceras of North Amer-
ica, with Notes on other Scarabaeidae. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XXXII,
1907-New Scarabaeidae. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., XV, 60-75.
1915-New Coleoptera and Miscellaneous Notes-II. Journ. N. Y. Ent.
Soc., XXIII, 47-55.
Schaupp, F. G.-1878-Addition to Schwarz' List of Florida Coleoptera.
Bull. Brooklyn Entom. Soc., I, 34.
Schwarz, E. A.-1878*-Descriptions of New Species of Coleoptera from
Florida. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., XVII, 354-372.
1878*-List of Species of Coleoptera from Florida. Proc. Amer. Phil.
Soc., XVII, 434-472.
Schwarz, E. A.-A manuscript list' of all additions to his "Coleoptera of
Florida," up to about 1910. This list is in the Smithsonian Library.
Slosson, Mrs. A. T.-1893-Spring Collecting in Northern Florida. Journ.
N. Y. Ent. Soc., I, 147-152.
Smith, John B.-1889-Some New Species of Lachnosterna. Entom. Amer.,
Wickham, H. F.-1909-A List of the Van Duzee Collection of Florida
Beetles. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sciences, IX, 399-405.
In the list of species which follows, the sequence and the no-
menclature, with rare exceptions, is that of Leng's "Catalogue
of the Coleoptera of America North of Mexico," and the num-
ber in parenthesis before each species is that of said Catalogue.
Where a species was originally described from Florida the date
of year and page follows the name of author, the name of the
publication in which the description appeared being given after
the date of that year in the "List of Works Cited." The species
'collected by Dietz are in the Brooklyn Museum collection and
the records were furnished by Chas. Scheffer. In most instances
the station where taken is mentioned but once, though it may
have been taken or recorded from there by several persons.
2The. three papers marked with an asterisk comprise the work of Schwarz entitled
"The Coleoptera of Florida." Since the Leconte article is included I have thought it best
to list the three separately.
'This is an annotated copy of the "Coleoptera of Florida" in which all additional
species of Florida Coleoptera taken by Schwarz and others up to about 1910 are carefully
recorded, with localities, dates, etc. Through the kindness of Mr. Schwarz I was able to
borrow this annotated list from the Smithsonian Library and made a copy of all the
manuscript additions and records.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
The names of authors whose locality records are mentioned
or of those who furnished manuscript data are, to save space,
usually abbreviated as follows:
Agr. Exper. Station Collection= Hamilton, John=Ham.
Ag. Coll. Leconte, J. L.=Lec.
Blatchley, W. S.==B. or Blatch. Schaeffer, Chas.=Schf.
Casey, Thos. L.=Csy. Slosson, Mrs. A. T.=Sloss.
Castle & Laurent=C. & L. Schwarz, E. A.=Sz.
Davis, John J.-J. J. D. State Plant Board Collection=
Davis, W. T.=Dav. P. B. Coll.
Dawson, R. W.=Daw. Wickman, H. L.=Wick.
Dozier, H. L.=Doz.
The classification and nomenclature of the Scarabaeidae of
North America is greatly in need of revision. The only recent
work is that of Casey (1915), which treats of but three of the
subfamilies, and many of the species recognized or described by
him will in time be found to be mere varieties of the older named
forms. Revisions of a number of genera have been made in the
past by Horn, Schoeffer, Fall and others, but these are widely
scattered and most of them out of print. It is thought best,
therefore, to incorporate in this paper a key to the subfamilies
and tribes which are represented in Florida, together with a
short diagnosis of each genus and species. The tribes and sub-
tribes as recognized in the "Classification" of Leconte and Horn
(1883) have, by Casey, Leng and other recent authors, been
raised to subfamily and tribal rank and will be so regarded in
this work. The keys apply only to such subfamilies and tribes as
are represented in Florida. They embody the most distinctive
characters, and these are often not repeated in the text, so that
the keys should always be used in connection with the generic
and specific descriptions.
KEY TO SUBFAMILIES OF FLORIDA SCARABAEIDAE
a. Abdominal spiracles all situated in a line on the membrane connecting
the dorsal and ventral horn-like segments and all wholly covered by
the elytra; upper surface of the head usually much dilated on the
front and sides; tarsal claws simple, rarely wanting; head or thorax,
or both often armed with horns or tubercles; dung, carrion or fungus-
feeding species. .................... ....... .................................. (Laparosticti).
b. Abdomen with six visible ventral segments.
c. Antennae 8- to 10-jointed; mandibles (except in Ochodaeus)
concealed by the clypeus.
d. Pygidium exposed; form rounded or oval; scutellum (ex-
cept in Oniticellus) wanting; hind tibiae (except in first
two species of Canthon) with a single terminal spur; mid-
dle coxae widely separated. Subfamily I. COPRINAE.
dd. Pygidium covered by elytra; scutellum distinct; hind tibiae
with two terminal spurs; middle coxae contiguous.
e. Antennae 9-jointed; form oblong or subcylindrical; up-
per surface rarely pubescent; color black, brown or dull
yellow; dung inhabiting species.
-Subfamily II. APHODIINAE.
ee. Antennae 10-jointed; form oval, convex; upper surface
with erect hairs; color brown; mandibles exposed; habits
unknown. Subfamily III. OCHODAEINAE.
cc. Antennae 11-jointed; mandibles prominent, visible from above;
color black or brown, usually shining; pygidium concealed; dung
and fungi feeding species. Subfamily IV. GEOTRUPINAE.
bb. Abdomen with five visible ventral segments; pygidium not exposed.
f. Body partially contractile, rounded when in repose,
smooth, shining; color black; scutellum relatively
large; carrion and fungus feeding species.
-Subfamily V. ACANTHOCERINAE.
ff. Body not contractile, oblong, convex, roughly sculp-
tured; color dull grayish-brown or blackish, usually
covered with a thick dirt colored crust; scutellum
small; front femora very wide; skin and dry carrion
inhabiting species. Subfamily VI. TROGINAE.
aa. Only the basal three spiracles situated on the connecting membrane,
the others on the ventral segments, the last one or two visible behind
the elytra; upper surface of the head rarely dilated on the sides; pygi-
dium always visible; vegetable feeding species.
g. Abdominal spiracles, except the basal ones, placed
in a single line on the superior part of the ventral
segments; mandibles concealed by the clypeus; an-
tennae 7- 10-jointed; tarsal claws usually cleft at
tip and toothed beneath; head and thorax never
armed; body loosely jointed; hind legs usually very
long. Subfamily VII. MELOLONTHINAE.
gg. Abdominal spiracles placed in two strongly diverg-
ing lines on the dorsal part of the ventral seg-
ments; mandibles usually visible from above; anten-
nae 9- or 10-jointed; tarsal claws variable; body
stout, compact; hind legs of normal length.
h. Tarsal claws unequal, the inner one much the
more slender; labrum visible; head and thorax un-
armed; tarsal joints short, cylindrical; leaf-feed-
ing species. Subfamily VIII. RUTELINAE.
hh. Tarsal claws equal (except in male of Ligyrodes);
labrum concealed beneath the clypeus.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
i. Front coxae transverse, not prominent; body
above (except in Phileurus) convex; head or
thorax or both, often armed with horns or tu-
bercles; scutellum as broad as long, narrowly
rounded behind; mes-epimera not visible from
above. Subfamily VIII. DYNASTINAE.
ii. Front coxae conical, prominent; body more or
less rhomboidal and subdepressed; head and
thorax (except in Cotinis) unarmed; scutellum
distinctly longer than broad, pointed behind; mes-
epimera (except in tribe Trichiini) visible from
above; pollen and fruit feeding species.
-Subfamily IX. CETONIINAE.
A LIST OF THE SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF SCARABAEIDAE
WHICH ARE KNOWN TO OCCUR OR HAVE BEEN
RECORDED FROM FLORIDA.
Dung-eating or carrion beetles, usually of small or medium
size and short rounded form, having the upper surface of head
usually much dilated on front and sides; antennae 8-10-jointed,
club 3-jointed; abdomen with six visible ventrals; hind tibiae
(except in species Nos. 1 and 2) with a single terminal spur;
KEY TO TRIBES OF FLORIDA COPRINAE
a. Middle and hind tibiae slender, feebly curved, but little enlarged at
tip; head and thorax unarmed in both sexes.
Genera I and II. Tribe SCARABAEINI.
aa. 'Middle and hind tibiae with apical halves gradually dilated; males
usually with horns on head or thorax, or both.
Genera III-VIII. Tribe COPRINI.
Genus I. CANTHON Hoffmansegg
Black or bronzed (rarely green) Coprinids, varying much in
size and having the sexes alike with head and thorax unarmed;
front margin of clypeus usually with distinct ,teeth; epipleura
of elytra narrow; front tarsi distinct. The larger species are
usually known as "tumble bugs," and were formerly common
along country roads where they rolled balls of dung to a con-
venient burying place and either used it as a food supply for
themselves or after placing a few eggs in the side of the ball,
buried it to serve as future food for the larvae. Since the auto-
mobile has replaced the horse and eliminated their food from the
roadways, these beetles are seldom seen.
*1. (13038). C. nigricornis (Say).
Length 6-9 mm. Black, opaque; clypeus 4-toothed; hind tibiae with
Northern half of State, frequent; south to Lake Worth
(Ham.); Tampa (Sz. Ms.); Estero (Wick.).
*2. (13038a). C. punctaticollis Schffr. 1915, 50.
Form, size and characters of nigricornis. Head and thorax not granu-
late as there but minutely sparsely punctate.
Enterprise (Dietz). Dunedin, March 15, (B1). In my opinion
this is a distinct species.
*3. (13040). C. depressipennis Lec.
Length 8-11 mm. Greenish-black head and thorax thickly granulate;
hind femora minutely punctate.
Throughout the State. Jacksonville, April 4 (Bl.). Gainesville;
"very common around dung in roads, April-Sept." (Doz.). Key
West (Sz. Ms.).
*4. (13042). C. probus (Germ.).
Length 5-6 mm. Black, feebly shining; nearly smooth, finely alutaceous;
clypeus with four prominent teeth.
Enterprise (Sz.-Dietz); St. Augustine, Crescent City and Cen-
terville, (Sz. Ms.); St. Mary and Marion Co. (Fall). Dunedin,
two only, Feb. 10-March 22 (B1.).
5. (13047). C. vigilans Lec.
Length 17-22 mm. Black, opaque, antennae ferruginous; eyes, as seen
from above, twice the width of those of laevis; clypeus bidentate, the teeth
Ft. Myers, March 31-April 23, at light (Dav.). The first rec-
ord for the State.
*6. (13048). C. levis (Drury).
Length 10-19 mm. Black, often with a coppery or bluish tinge; clypeus
bidentate, the teeth short, obtuse, often subobsolete; antennae dark brown.
Recorded from numerous stations. Formerly common through-
out the State, now apparently much less so. In a bluish Key
West specimen received from Davis the elytra bear numerous
scattered, blister-like granules, these in addition to and eight
or ten times as large as the normal ones.
*6a. (13048a). C. levis viridescens Horn.
A bright green color variety of laevis.
Enterprise (Schf.); Lake City (Bl.).
*7. (13052). C. viridis (Beauv.).
Length 4-5 mm. Green or bronzed, smooth, shining; clypeus bidentate;
sides of thorax with transverse carina beneath.
Enterprise, rare (Sz.); Crescent City (Sz. Ms.); Lake Worth
(Dietz.); Ormond, April 6 (B1.). This and the next are our
smallest species of the genus.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
*8. (13053). C. perplexus Lec.
Length 3.8-5.5 mm. Brown, bronzed, strongly shining; clypeus 4-toothed;
thorax finely, closely punctate.
Dunedin, July 10, at light; Royal Palm Park, one, Dec. 13;
several in April in bottle bait of amyl acetate and molasses (B1.).
Genus II. DELTOCHILUM Eschscholtz
Very large Coprinids, possessing the characters given under
subfamily heading and having the epipleurae of elytra wide;
tibiae as in Canthon, front tarsi wanting. Males with a large
dorsal tubercle at basal third of each elytron.
*9. (13054). D. gibbosum (Fab.).
Length 24-28 mm. Dull black, opaque.
Throughout the State, including the southern keys, but scarce.
Lake City and Gainesville (Ag. coll.); Capron, Sand Point and
Enterprise (Sz.); Buck Key (Sz. Ms.); Big Pine Key and St.
Petersburg (Dav.); Fruitland Park (Fall). Dunedin, March 21,
a half dozen taken from a putrid, extremely foetid mass of fungi
in a dense moist hammock; one, March 11, a captive of the large
Carabid, Pasimachus strenuus L. (Bl., 1920, 43).
(To be continued)
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