Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1929
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Volume ID: VID00305
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5he

Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

Vol. XIII SUMMER NUMBER No. 2
JUNE, 1929

THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY
A Round Table Talk before the Florida Entomological Society on April 26
By P. H. ROLFS
Consultor Technico de Agricultura for the State of Minas Geraes (Brazil)
.I am very much surprised and delighted to meet so many of
my friends here today, and equally pleased to see so many new
people interested in this entomological problem. Having lived
eight years among the pest, it is more than probable that f can
give you a close view of this miserable and noxious insect. It
may be pardonable to state for the benefit of the younger peo-
ple here that for nearly eight years (1891-1899) I held the re-
sponsible position of Entomologist and Botanist to the Florida
Experiment Station. (It takes a score of men to hold down that
job now.) Among the pleasant recollections of that time was
the discovery that the red-headed fungus is the, most efficient
agent for the destruction of the San Jos6 Scale. Later it was
discovered that it was equally efficient in controlling some of
the serious scale insects of citrus trees.
In the last two weeks scientists and others have asked me if
I thought it possible to "control" the Mediterranean Fruit Fly.
I have invariably replied, "Florida does not want control. Flor-
ida wants and will have nothing short of eradication."
Let us see, briefly, how these two systems work out in actual
practice. Germany has, and has had for decades,. a disease of live-
stock known as foot-and-mouth disease. She also had Dr. Loeffler,
one of the great scientists of the ages. Germans are noted the
world over as a scientific and practical people. Decades ago
Germany entrusted Loeffler with the task of ridding her of
foot-and-mouth disease. The Germans being an ultra practical
people could not or would not permit the destruction of cattle
that could be cured of the disease and later used for beef. The
:result is that after decades of struggle at control, Germany still
has plenty









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


In 1914 this disease broke out in a herd of hogs at Niles,
Michigan (arriving from goodness only knows where) and spread
to the adjoining state of Illinois. Later it broke out among ani-
mals that had been on exhibition at the International Live Stock
Show. Every farm and community where there were suspected
animals was quarantined. Every animal in an infected herd was
shot and buried deeply with quick lime. Even if there was only
one animal in the herd infected, all were sacrificed. The work
was done under guidance and direction of Dr. John Mohler, a
scientist of high order and a man of broad economic vision.
It was drastic eradication but it was effective. And this was
the result. The United States has eradicated outbreaks of the
foot-and-mouth disease four times at an approximate cost of ten
million dollars. In 1913 Germany was paying a tribute of about
forty million dollars annually to control this same disease. Ger-
many had a livestock population of only half that of the United
States and an area a little larger than that of Texas. You can
imagine what a stupendous tribute the United States would
have to pay to the foot-and-mouth disease if we had been con-
tented with control.
To make eradication possible we must have,-1", a basis of
sound scientific facts; 2", an effective and vigorous propaganda;
3", an overpowering popular approval. With any one of these
elements wanting or weak the work will be retarded or rendered
inefficient.
THE FRUIT FLY OBSERVATIONS

I shall not attempt to review the literature written on this
pest. Doubtless most or all present know its life history. What
I want to do here is merely to record some observations during
my eight years residence in Brasil.
In the State of Minas Geraes the coffee tree is almost omni-
present. Almost every back yard has one or more and every
fazenda has from a few trees to large orchards. The ripe berry
is a favorite host of the fruit fly. The sweetish pulp surround-
ing the ripe seeds is very attractive to them. After the berries
have been picked they are taken to the large "terreiros" (cof-
fee drying ground) or "barbacues" as they are called in many
English speaking colonies. When the berries are sufficiently
dried they are taken to the mill for hulling. After the berries
have been removed from the "terreiros" it is possible at times
to sweep up liters of pupae of the fruit fly. They do no per-










SUMMER NUMBER


ceptible damage to the coffee berries so there is no reason why
control or eradication measures should be taken.
At Anna Florencia there is a large coffee fazenda that we have
visited many times. Along one side of the "terreiro" is a fine
seedling citrus orchard about fifteen years old, composed of bit-
ter sweet, Parson Brown group, midseason orange group, rang-
pur limes and others. We have eaten quantities of fruit from
this orchard and have never found a maggot. This is a good
illustration of the immunity of the immature citrus fruit. Along
side of and among the citrus trees the whole range of truck
crops are grown during twelve months of the year. This truck
is rarely affected. This freedom from attack of the citrus fruits
and truck crop is entirely due to the strict clean-up that is prac-
ticed in the grove and garden.
On the same fazenda, and less than a mile from the first one,
is another grove and garden with which I am familiar also. In
this place no care is taken to make a clean-up of the old fruit
and surplus vegetables. Here the fly got all the grapefruit last
year, many of the oranges, all of the loquats and peaches. The
first locality gets an annual introduction of thousands if not mil-
lions of the fruit fly larvae with each coffee harvest and re-
mains nearly unharmed. The latter place gets no new infesta-
tion but has a constant food supply for the pest, and so it prac-
tically ruins both the fruits and vegetables. In our part of
Minas Geraes the pest could not persist on coffee alone. Very
few coffee berries ripen between seasons to tide it over from
one crop to the next.
ON THE COLLEGE GROUNDS

Here we may take up some observations of the pest on the
grounds of the Agricultural College of the State of Minas 'Ge-
raes. The region was apparently infested before we arrived. If
it had not been it would have been introduced with the coffee
hulls that we have hauled in for fertilizer. None of the records
are with me so the percentage can be given only as an approxi-
mation and "no infestation" pertains only to my observation
there.
Citrus Fruits. Kumquats,-Niewa, 100% drops before fully
colored. Tangelo,-Thornton, 100% drops before at its best.
Grapefruit, Marsh, Foster, Duncan, McCarty, 80% (plus or
minus) drops by time they reached prime condition. Shad-
dock,-Melon, pyriform and Paradise, 60% (plus or minus)











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


before fully mature. Round Oranges,-30 or 40 varieties, no
infestation until over mature, then considerable, probably
30% in some varieties. Tangerines,-Dancy and a seedling
variety, dried up on trees without infestation. Satsuma.--
Owari, no infestation. Lemons,-Genova and seedlings, also
sweet lemons, no infestation. Limes, Mexican, other types, as
well as sweet limes, no infestation. Bergamot orange, no in-
festation.
Peaches, many varieties, 100% infestation. Trees sprayed
with poison bait showed a reduction of infestation coordinate
with the spraying. The experiment shows some possibilities. In-
festations begin when the fruits are about half grown. Fruits
rarely reach maturity before dropping.
Plums, Japanese varieties, quite generally infested.
Surinam Cherries, dry season crop almost 100% infestation,
rainy season crop, difficult to find an infested fruit. (Further
discussion on this later.)
Apples, infestation begins when fruits are about two-thirds
grown but fruit remains on the tree.
Guavas, common table and jelly varieties, carry the infection
from season to season as there are nearly always fruits matur-
ing thruout the year.
Mangoes, seedlings, less than one percent infestation.
The following fruits although fully exposed remained without
infestation,-Japanese persimmon (kaki), pears (Asiatic), avo-
cado, Carissa grandiflora.

INFLUENCE OF RAINS
In Minas Geraes as in Florida the rainy season is coincident
with summer, tho in Minas the demarcation is much more ac-
centuated. The winter is likely to pass without any rainfall.
The total annual rainfall at Vicosa is the same as at Tampa.
The Surinam cherry ripens one crop toward the end of the
dry season. When the last of this crop ripens the infestation
is generally about complete. A second crop ripens well into the
rainy season from blooms produced after the rains begin. The
fruits are much larger but not so abundant as the dry season
crop. In the second crop the infestation nearly reaches the zero
point. (Difficult to find one.)
I have given these observations in a somewhat detailed way
because they show something of the influence of the rains on
keeping down the pest.












SUMMER NUMBER


This appears to be a clue as to why Ceratitis capitata has ap-
parently disappeared from certain localities in Brasil where it
has been previously observed. It also gives a clue for its absence
from grapes grown in favorite localities.
EMERGENCE FROM GRAPEFRUIT
During the last two years I have had all the drops gathered
every morning from all of the citrus trees.. Records have been
made for each tree and all the fruit placed on the tables for
my personal inspection. During this work I noticed that many
larvae left the fruit between the time of placing it on the table
and the examination of the fruit. The number that had emerged
were counted. Several times when the fruit was Jeft 24 hours
on the table the number that emerged would approximate fifty
percent of the affectation. This observation is rather important
in a "clean up" program, as it shows what a very large propor-
tion of the larvae leave the grapefruit during the first 24 hours
after dropping. Some of the larvae pupated within a few hours
after emergence and a very few remained active for three days.
Apparently they do not all emerge in the same stage of develop-
ment. After emerging they wriggle off to a dark place for trans-
formation.
I have not encountered a pupa inside of a grapefruit but have
found them inside of shaddock. A large proportion of the fruits
dropped as the result of one infestation, but larvae in various
sizes may be found in the same fruit. The foregoing observa-
tions show the importance of great precaution in moving and
disposing of grapefruit that is affected.
THE FLORIDA SITUATION
"We have got the fruit fly." It has not got us by a long ways.
The question is one of eradication. We cannot stop to investi-
gate, to experiment, to deliberate. In my introductory remarks
I told you what happened when people tried to be economical
and conserve beef by curing cattle of foot-and-mouth disease.
By "controlling" the disease they lost a million pounds for every
one saved. Dr. Mohler had thousands of animals shot and buried
with quick lime for no other reason than that they occurred
on the same farm where only one other animal had the dreaded
disease. Some of the perfectly healthy animals sacrificed were
top-notch milkers,-the finest in the world, and worth tens-of-
thousands of dollars. The sacrifice was heart-rending and enor-
mous but it has already paid a thousand fold.
In fighting the Mediterranean fruit fly, the problem is not so












THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


vast nor so complicated. The foot-and-mouth disease is trans-
mitted by a virus; an infinitely small quantity of which is suf-
ficient to cause infestation. Roving. dogs, prowling around at
night time, carried it from the quarantined farms to the free
area. Crows alighting on infested premises carried on their
feet an infinitesimal particle for miles into the free zone.
In the case of citrus canker, mockers and other birds carried
the bacterium from an infested tree to adjoining properties.
Bees and other insects were also capable culprits.
To eradicate the fruit fly, as indicated previously in this dis-
course, three basic conditions must be present, first, a basis in
sound scientific knowledge; second, an effective and vigorous
propaganda; third, an over-powering popular approval.
The first condition is an eminently satisfactory state. Thanks
to the scientific entomologists who have labored year after year,
often amid squalid surroundings in foreign countries. Fre-
quently they have spent their own miserly salaries, without any
expectation of popular approval, with no other end in view than
to extend the horizon of scientific knowledge. I take my hat off
to these earnest plodders. They have made it possible for us in
Florida to stand today with our feet firmly on the solid rock of
scientific facts, although we would not be able to name a half
a dozen of these men.
The second condition, that of an effective and vigorous propa-
ganda, has been waged for at least a decade. The pest has been
all but over the border repeatedly in the last ten years. The
menace of its introduction has been constantly before us. There
is not a horticulturist in Florida who has been without this
knowledge. Everybody has known that there is not a man, wo-
man or child living in the state but would be poorer if ever
the pest became established in the state.
The third point, an overwhelming popular approval, is clearly
.evidenced. Every branch of the government is squarely behind
this eradication program. The fact that Wilmon Newell so ably
conducted the canker eradication program has given the federal
government and the state government complete confidence, in
his ability to handle the present situation. It needs generalship
of the highest order and a concerted and concentrated action.
After the allied powers made Foch generalissimo, the European
conflagration soon terminated. It is the duty of every Floridian
to give whole-heartedly his sympathy and loyalty to this eradi-
cation program.











Vhe
FLORID'A ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
Florida.
J. R. W ATSON............................................................................ Editor
WILMON NEWELL.............................................A....Aociate Editor
A. N. TIssoT ....--..........--...-......-...-- .. ........---.....Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY
The outstanding entomological event since the publication of
our last number was the discovery early in April of the Medi-
terranean fruit fly in Florida. Infestations have been found
from Brevard County on the East Coast to Pinellas County on
the Gulf Coast, and north to Jacksonville. Except in the district
about Orlando and extending as far north as Mt. Dora and the
middle section of the East Coast, the infestations are light and
apparently very recent. Every effort is being made to stamp
out the pest and its numbers have materially decreased in the
Orlando section.
In this issue we print a paper by Professor Rolfs in which he
gives his experience with the fly in Brazil. As stated by Pro-
fessor Rolfs, the fly behaves differently under different environ-
ments, so it is not surprising that some of his observations as to
hosts vary somewhat from those of other observers in other
parts of the world.

MARCH MEETING OF THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL
SOCIETY
The Society Inet in the Agricultural Building of the University
on March 28, with President Grossman in the chair and fourteen
members (including Mr. C. O. Bare of Sanford) and five visitors
present. The address of the evening was by Mr. D. B. Mackie,
Senior Entomologist of the Department of Entomology of Cali-
fornia, on his work in the eradication of the citrus -whitefly in
California. A two percent oil emulsion is being used and the
infestation at Oroville has been reduced from an average of 38
larvae to the leaf in 1925 to 2 or 3 per 1000 leaves in 1928.
SH. E. BRATLEY, Secretary.












THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


BIOLOGY OF THE MEXICAN COTTON BOLL WEEVIL

III. The Mechanism of Grub Feeding.
By EDGAR F. GROSSMAN1
The fact that the Mexican Cotton Boll Weevil grub (Antho-
nomus grandis Boh.) does not eat its way. out of cotton fruit,
has been viewed either with wonder, or with an acknowledg-
ment of a self-preserving action of another (an ever growing
series) mysterious instinct. The mental activities of those who
pause to "wonder" is not of present interest. The instinct
theory, however, at least offers an idea which can be adopted
or refuted. It is very easy, at least mentally so, to introduce
an instinct which confines the grub to the interior of the square.
Self-preservation demands such an instinct because the grub,
if once exposed to the exterior, would be subjected both to the
ravages of bacterial or fungoid diseases, and the taste of nu-
merous predators. Altogether a pretty idea, but this particular
phenomenon can be traced at least one step farther back in our
effort to gain the ultimate explanation of natural phenomena.
In this particular case explanation by instinct is discarded by
the writer. The grub does not eat its way out of the cotton
square because the outer shell is harder than the contents. The
grub has a sufficient quantity of soft food to eat and therefore
does not chew on the harder shell-thereby mechanically avoid-
ing exposure to the exterior.
Introduce abnormal conditions. If the grub reacts "different-
ly" and escapes it "loses its instinct of imprisonment," ergo,
there was no instinct (or a new protective instinct may be
mentally called into existence to supersede the failing instinct!).
If the grub reacts "normally" with respect to changed mechani-
cal conditions, and escapes from its cell, the "instinct" fails
also.
Experimentally two artificial conditions were designed in
which numerous grubs ate their way out of cotton fruit. One
condition was that in which the outer shell was softened by plac-
ing the cotton fruit on trays in desiccators containing about 100
cc. water. By the time the floral envelopes were nearly as soft as
the contents, some grubs started to chew through the walls.
Likewise on drying cotton fruit until the inner contents were
'Contribution from the Department of Cotton Investigations, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station.












SUMMER NUMBER


as hard as the shells, some grubs started to chew through the
walls.
The relative hardness of the outer material and softness of
the inner material was determined by measuring the resistance
of the materials to a standard needle puncture. The average
resistance in grams of the three classes of squares used follows:

Outer Inner
Material Material Difference
Normal cotton squares .................-- 11 3 8
Softened cotton squares ..-........-..... /2 1/2 1
Hardened cotton squares ...---....--. 16 14 2
Experimental evidence then indicates that when there is little
distinction between soft and hard material, i.e., when all the
material is soft or when all is hard, the grubs, feeding "norm-
ally" meet no mechanical differentiation and consequently some
individuals chew their way out of their protective cells. On the
other hand, when there is a different degree of hardness be-
tween the shell and inner material of the square the grub does
not bore its way out.




THE SCARABAEIDAE OF FLORIDA

By W. S. BLATCHLEY'
Dunedin, Florida
(Continued from Vol. XII, No. 4,-p. 65)
e. Form stout, robust; front coxae transverse, not prominent; ventral
segments connate. Genera XXVII-XXVIII. Tribe MELOLONTHINI.
ee. Form elongate, slender; front coxae prominent, conical; ventral seg-
ments not connate; color greenish or dull yellow, often iridescent;
length 9-12 mm. Genera XXIX-XXX. Tribe MACRODACTYLINI.
aa. Hind tarsi with but one claw; tarsi without an onychium; hind tibiae
with one spur or none;* upper surface more or less thickly clothed
with flat scales. Genus XXXI. Tribe HOPLIINI.

Genus XXIV. SERICA MacLeay
Oblong, convex insects of a brownish color, often iridescent
and usually clothed with soft silken pubescence. They have the
labrum united with and concealed by the clypeus; elytra feebly
striate; ventral segments 6, not connate; hind coxae flat, broad-
ly dilated; middle and hind tibiae with two spurs. They hide by
day beneath leaves, logs and bark in orchards and woodlands.













THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


85. (13354). S. vespertina (Gyll.).
Length 8.5-11 mm. Dark chestnut-brown, shining, not iridescent; cly-
peus with a deep acute notch each side, the margin in front of notch strong-
ly reflexed; front of head and clypeus coarsely, confluently punctate, with
wrinkles between the punctures.
Haulover and Tampa, "rare in February and April" (Sz.).
Gainesville, March 10, eating foliage of young hickory (Doz.).
Tallahassee, April 24 (Daw.).

86. (13361). S. iricolor (Say).
Length 5.5-6 mm. Blackish-brown, iridescent; clypeus emarginate at
tip, without notch on side; head and thorax with numerous short, erect
yellowish hairs.
St. Augustine (Ham.). Key West (Daw.).

*87. (13364). S. sericea (Ill.).
Length 8-9.5 mm. Purplish brown, strongly iridescent; clypeus without
notch, rather finely and sparsely punctate; head and thorax not distinctly
hairy.
"Fla." and Lake City (Daw.); Slosson Coll. (Leng); Gaines-
ville, Feb. 21 (B1.). A common species in the northern states,
but probably occurs only in the northern third of Florida.

88. (- ). S. aspera Dawson, 1922, 161.
Length 7-7.5 mm. Pale reddish to chestnut-brown, velvety and opaque,
feebly iridescent. Allied to parallel Csy. Distinguished only by male gen-
ital organs.
Paratype from Marion Co., Fla.; Tallahassee,. April 23, col-
lected by T. H. Hubbell (Daw.).

89. (- ). S. delicate Dawson, 1922, 161.
Length 7.5 mm. Amber brown, opaque, slightly iridescent; clypeal
notch obsolete; clypeus evenly and closely punctate; elytra with line-like
striae, each with a regular row of small punctures.
"Florida" (Horn Coll.); Green Cove Spring and New River
(Leng Coll.); Lakeland and Haulover (Daw.).

90. (- ). S. tantula Dawson, 1922. 162.
"Very similar to delicate; eyes smaller, antennal club slightly shorter,
elytral striae less defined, their punctures irregular; claspers of male radi-
cally different" (Dawson).
Type from Lake Worth, Fla. No other record.

91. (- ). S. pusilla Dawson, 1922, 162.
Very similar to the two preceding. "Elytra with a stronger iridescent
sheen, their line-like striae punctured as in delicate;" male genital arma-
ture distinctive.
Marion Co. and Gulfport (Fall Coll.). Tampa, April 15 (Daw.).












SUMMER NUMBER


92. (- ). S. lecontei Dawson.
Length 9.5 mm. Pale to dark chestnut; polished, shining; clypeus
nearly flat, rather strongly, closely punctate, margins reflexed and with
a narrow acute notch each side; elytra rather strongly grooved, the fur-
rows each with three confused rows of coarse, close-set punctures.
Tallahassee, April 23, collected by T. H. Hubbell (Daw.).
Widely distributed over the eastern United States.
93. (-- ). S. spicula Dawson.
Length 7.5 mm. Claret-brown to chestnut, bare, polished and shining;
clypeus feebly depressed, finely punctate, its center with a median tumidity,
front margin separated from the lateral ones by deep, acute incisures;
elytral sulci each with two confused rows of punctures.
Monticello, March 21, April 4, collected by W. A. Hoffman
(Daw.). Known elsewhere only from Macon, Georgia.
*94. (- ). S. errans sp. nov.
Length 6.5-7.5 mm. Pale reddish-brown, very feebly iridescent, wholly
glabrous above, very sparsely pubescent beneath; clypeus concave, sub-
quadrate, coarsely irregularly punctate, margin without notch, front one
strongly reflexed, almost squarely truncate; front similarly punctate, occi-
put smooth. Thorax with middle distinctly more convex than sides, basal
margin strongly bisinuate, disk evenly, rather sparsely and finely ocellate-
punctate. Elytral intervals distinctly convex, irregularly sparsely punc-
tate; striae each with a regular row of rather coarse close-set serrate
punctures. Metasterna and hind coxal plates finely sparsely evenly punc-
tate; ventrals coarsely irregularly so. Antennal club of male very large,
one-third or more longer than remaining segments united.
Dunedin, Dec. 10-April 19; three males, two females, three
at porch light, the others beaten from bunches of Spanish moss.
Ocala, April 17 (L. H. Weld). Specimens were sent to R. W.
Dawson, who pronounced it a very distinctive new species.

Genus XXV. HYPOTRICHIA LeConte.

Elongate-oval species, densely white pubescent beneath and
having the antennae 10-jointed; labrum distinct; front coxae
conical, prominent; hind femora much thickened; ventral seg-
ments six.
*95. (13374). H. spissipes Lec.
Length 11-13 mm. Piceous-brown; thorax finely and deeply punctate,
thickly clothed with fine prostrate hairs; elytra similarly punctate, the
hairs brown.
Crescent City, June 23, emerging from the ground in pine
woods (Hubb.); St. Augustine (Ham.); Enterprise (Dietz);
Gulfport (Fall). Dunedin, June 5, at porch light. Known only
from Florida.













THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Genus XXVI. DIPLOTAXIS Kirby.

Small or medium, oblong or ovate, convex, brown or blackish
beetles, having the antennae 10-jointed; apical margin of tho-
rax membranous; elytra usually not striate but with the rows
of punctures alternately approximate, the wider intervals ir-
regularly punctate; visible ventral segments five; front coxae
prominent, conical; tarsal claws cleft or toothed. Like other
members of the family they are phytophagous, hiding by day
beneath bark and stones, and flying about and to light at night.
In his "Revision" Fall recognized 95 species from the United
States, only seven of which are known from Florida. These are
all glabrous species having the mentum horizontal, with its de-
clivity margined by a raised line and a row of erect setae, and
the thoracic angles not impressed.
*96. (13411). D. subcostata Blanch.
Length 9-11 mm. Dark reddish or chestnut-brown, shining; sides of
thorax in this and rufa bisinuate; front of clypeus broadly rounded, sin-
uate at middle; elytra not alutaceous; pygidium coarsely punctate and
with a shallow median longitudinal impression.
Cedar Keys, one specimen in June (Sz.); Jacksonville (C. &
L.); Gainesville, Oct. 6, large numbers under arc light (Doz.);
Lake City and -Crescent City (Fall). The largest of our seven
species.
97. (13412). D. rufa Linell, 1895, 725.
Length 8-9 mm. Reddish-brown; front of clypeus squarely truncate;
elytra finely alutaceous; pygidium without median impression.
Described from Georgiana. Enterprise (Dietz); Useppa Island,
Lee Co., April (Dav.).
*98. (13413). D. frontalis Lec.
Length 8-9.2 mm. Black or brownish-black, shining; front of clypeus
rounded and sides of thorax not bisinuate in this and remaining species;
front of head just behind clypeus with a transverse convex ridge, and a
distinct median impression behind it; basal margin of thorax not im-
pressed near hind angles.
Monticello (Sz. Ms.). Gainesville, April 6, at light; April 24,
feeding at night on chinquepin foliage (Doz.). Lake City, May
6-June 2 (Ag. Coll.). Marion Co. (Fall).
99. (13414). D. excavata Lec.
Similar to frontalis except that the thoracic disk is broadly and deeply
concave along basal margin near hind angles.
St. Augustine (Ham.); Enterprise (Dietz).











SUMMER NUMBER


*100. (13453). D. bidentata Lec.
Length 6.2-7.7 mm. Ovate, strongly convex; black or chestnut-brown,
strongly shining; base of thorax with a row of punctures, but without a
marginal impressed line; head and thorax sparsely, coarsely punctate;
upper tooth of front tibiae very small or wanting, much nearer the sec-
ond tooth than the latter is to the apical one.
One of the most common Scarabs in Florida, occurring
throughout the state. Attracted by thousands to light, March
to June. Numbers taken at night, April 24, near Gainesville,
feeding on chinquepin foliage (Doz.).

101. (13455). D. harper Blanch.
Length 7-10 mm. Oblong; reddish-brown to blackish, strongly shining;
base of thorax distinctly impressed along the margin; head and thorax
densely, rather coarsely rugosely punctate.
A common northern species recorded from Florida only by
Fall (1909, 80) without definite station record. Gainesville, Jan.
27 (Ag. Coll.).

*102. (13457). D. languida Lec., 1878, 403.
Length 5.8-6.8 mm. Elongate-oblong; head and thorax reddish-brown,
elytra dull yellow; clypeal margin broadly rounded; head finely, closely
punctate, thorax more coarsely unevenly and sparsely so.
Described from Tampa, where it was "common in April on
oak trees at night" (Sz.). Occurs throughout the State, the rec-
ords at hand being from eleven stations, including Jacksonville,
St. Petersburg and Key Largo.
(To be continued)



APRIL MEETING OF THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL
SOCIETY
The Society met in the Agricultural Building on April 26,
with Dr. Berger as the presiding officer and over sixty members
and visitors present. The subject of the meeting was a round
table discussion of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Dr. P. H. Rolfs,
a charter member of the Society, gave the principal address of
the meeting. He described the ravages of the pest in Brazil.
An abstract of his talk is printed in this issue.
H. E. BRATLEY, Secretary.




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