Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00302
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1930
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00302
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

MARCH, 1930

A. & M. College, Mississippi
The following list embracing some 76 species, although prob-
ably far from being complete is presented here with the hope
that it may be of some aid to taxonomists and to others who are
especially interested in the fauna of our country. Florida occu-
pies a unique geographical position, myrmecologically speaking,
in that it contains many ants which are indigenous to the West
Indies and to the neighboring islands. Some of the species which
are common to Florida and the neighboring islands are for ex-
ample: Euponera (T) stigma (Fabr.), Cyphomyrmex rimosus
subsp. minutus Mayr, Cryptocerus varians F. Smith, Tapinoma
littorale Wheeler, and Pseudomyrma elongata Mayr.
Florida also has her share of imported species, among these
may be mentioned: Monomorium pharaonis (Linn.) and M.
floricola (Jerdon), Solenopsis geminata subsp. rufa (Jerdon),
Tetramorium guineense (Fabr.), Wasmannia auropunctata
(Roger), Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabr.), Paratrechina
longicornis (Latr.), and Paratrechina bourbonica Forel var. It
is very strange that the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis
Mayr is not amongst these.
Quite a number of North American ants have been described
from Florida by Emery and Wheeler. It is to be regretted that
Emery failed in many instances to cite specific type localities in
connection with his descriptions and designated the specimens
he was describing only as from Florida.
Although numerous collectors and systematists have collected
in Florida and must undoubtedly have taken many ants, I have
had no access to their collections or notes. The information on
which this paper is based has been gleaned from various publi-
(Contribution from the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station.)


cations which I have seen, and from the determinations I have
made of specimens sent me by Dr. W. S. Blatchley, and Messrs.
S. 0. Hill, R. H. Hicks, H. T. Woodruff, and Hermann Raster. I
am very greatly indebted to these gentlemen for the records and
especially so to Dr. Blatchley who has in addition furnished
many notes in connection with his specimens.
1. Euponera (Trachymesopus) stigma (Fabricius).
Ft. Worth. P. J, Schmitt. (Wheeler and Gaige, Psyche, Vol. 27, p.
69, (1920)).
2, Ponera coarctata subsp. petiisylvanica (Buckley).
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 268, (1895)).
8. Ponera trigona var. opacior Forel.
Jacksonville. (Wheeler, Bull, Amer. Mug. Nat. Hist. Vol. 24, p. 405,
4. Ponera opaciceprs Mayr.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S, Blatchley. "Nests beneath boards and
stones in the everglades"; Dunedin.-W. S. Blatchley.
5. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) elongata (Buckley).
Belleair. (Wheeler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 24, p. 407,
6. Odontomachus haematodes subsp. insularis Guerin.
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 268, (1895)). Royal
Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "Beaten from dead leaves of royal
palm. Nests beneath stones in the dense hammock"; Saint Peters-
burg.--H. Raster.
7. Stigmatomma pallipes (Haldeman).
Dunedin.-W. S. Blatchley.
8, Eciton (Acamatus) opacithorax Emery,
Saint Augustine.-C, T. Brues.
9, Eciton (Acamatus) schmitti Emery,
Florida. This species undoubtedly occurs in the state as it is coffmorn
in the adjoining states.
10. Pseardmyrma pallida F. Smith.
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb, Syst. Vol. 8, p, 269, (189))).
11. Pseudomyrma flavidula F. Smith.
Key West. (Emery, ibidem, p, 269); Royal Palm PFak.-W, S. Blatch-
lay, "Many examples of this slender bodied, pale yellowish species,
were beaten singly into the umbrella from foliage along the borders
or paths of the dense hammocks. Others were taken by sweeping irt
low ground. It nests in the twigs or stems of plants."
12. Pseudomyrma elongata Mayr.
Key West, (Emery, ibidem p.. 269); Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchbr


13. Pseudomyrma brunnea F. Smith.
Haw Creek, Volusia County. (Emery, ibidem, p. 269.) Royal Palm
Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "Nests in the roots of bunches of grass along
the ditches."

14. Monomorium minimum (Buckley)..
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 274.)
15. Monomorium floricola (Jerdon).
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 275); Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
"Nests beneath stones in damp localities."
16. Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus).
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "In December it occurred by the
hundreds in my room at the lodge, where it attacked such of my speci-
mens of insects as were not in capsules, or tightly closed pill boxes";
Miami.-H. T. Woodruff.
17. Xenomyrmex stolli subsp. floridanus Emery.
Lake Worth, type locality. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 275.)
18. Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius).
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 276.)
19. Solenopsis geminata subsp. rufa (Jerdon).
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "Nesting beneath stones and
boards, in tufts of grass and beneath the bark of pine logs." Saint
Petersburg.-H. Raster; Miami Beach.-S. O. Hill.
20. Solenopsis picta Emery.
Florida, type locality. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 279.)
21. Solenopsis laeviceps. ? Mayr.
Dunedin.-W. S. Blatchley.
22. Pheidole flavens subsp. floridana Emery.
Cocoanut and St. George, type locality (Emery, ibidem, p. 293). Royal
Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "Nests beneath loose bark of pine
logs"; Dunedin.-W. S. Blatchley.
23. Pheidole metallescenjs Emery.
St. George, type locality. (Emery, ibidem, p. 294); Royal Palm Park.-
W. S. Blatchley.
24. Pheidole morrisi Forel.
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 295); Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatch-
ley; Saint Petersburg.-H. Raster.
25. Pheidole dentata Mayr.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "Nests beneath boards in damp
26. Pheidole dentata var. commutata Mayr.
Florida, type locality, (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 295,
27. Pogonomyrmex badius (Latreille).
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 310, (1895)). Saint
Petersburg.-H. Raster; Rock Springs.-H. T. Woodruff.


28. Leptothorax (Dichothorax) pergandei subsp. foridanus Emery.
Florida, type locality. (Emery, ibidem, p. 324.)
29. Tetramorium guineenise (Fabricius).
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 324); Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
30. Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel.
Miami. (Wheeler, Bul'. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 34, p. 393, (1915)).
31. Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger).
Miami.-R. H. Hicks; Fort Lauderdale.-S. O. Hill.
32. Myrmecina graminicola americana var. brevispinosa Emery.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
33. Aphaenogaster mariae Forel.
Florida. (Mayr. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 36, p. 443 (1886)).
34. Aphaenogaster fulva subsp. aquia (Buckley).
Royal Pa'm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
35. Aphaenogaster lamellidens Mayr.
Florida. (Mayr. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 36, p. 444, (1886)).
36. Aphaenogaster texana var. furvescens Wheeler.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Bla-chley.
37. Aphaenogaster treatae var. ashmeadi Emery.
Florida, type locality. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol 8, p. 302,
38. Atta (Trachymyrmex) septentrionalis var. seminole Wheeler.
Miami, type locality. (Wheeler, Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Vol. 19, p. 247,
39. Cyphomyrmex rimosus subsp. minutuis Mayr.
Planter & Key Largo. (Wheeler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 23,
p. 722, (1907)); Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "Found beneath
bark of pine logs on Long Pine Key and in woody fungi in the ham-
mock near the lodge."
40. Cryptecerus varians F. Smith.
Key West. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 325, (1895)).
41. Crematogaster minutissima Mayr.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley; Dunedin.-W. S. Blatchley.
42. Crematogaster opaca depiliil var. punctulata Emery.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
43. Crematogaster laeviuscula Mayr.
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 285, (1895)). Royal
Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
44. Crematogaster lineolata Say.
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 282).
45. Crematogaster ashmeadi Mayr.
Key West. (Emery, ibidem, p. 286). Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatch-
46. Crematogaster atkinsoni Wheeler.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "This ant builds nests of a
kind of paper which it makes from vegetable debris. These nests


are attached to various objects. Two of them about the size of a
quart cup were noted on Long Pine Key. They were fastened to the
twigs of low shrubs growing in moist places. When the nest is dis-
turbed the ants become very ferocious rushing forth by hundreds.
They cling in bunches and try to bite the collecting forceps until they
are shaken into the cyanide bottle." Fort Myers, type locality.
(Wheeler, Psyche, Vol. 26, p. 108 (1919)).

47. Dolichoderus plagiatus subsp. pustulatus Mayr.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley. "Found nesting beneath loose
bark of pine logs on Long Pine Key, and beneath boards on the
ground near the old tomato packing shed. Also swept from weeds in
old fields."
48. Dolichoderus plagiatus subsp. pustulatus var.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
49. Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius).
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley; Saint Petersburg.-H. Raster.
E0. Tapinoma littorale Wheeler.
Card's Point. (Wheeler, Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 21, p. 109,
51. Tapinoma sessile (Say).
Florida. (Mayr. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 36, p. 434, (1886)).
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
52. Dorymyrmex pyramicus Roger.
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 331, 1895.)
53. Dormyrmex pyramicus var. flavus McCook.
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 332.)
54. Iridomyrmex pruinosus (Roger).
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 333); Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley,
"Found nesting in December beneath a chunk of decaying limestone
on Long Pine Key"; St. Petersburg.-H. Raster.
55. Iridomyrmex pruinosus var. analis (Andre).
This species undoubtedly occurs in Florida, although I have seen no
specimens of it from that state nor have I seen any records of its oc-
currence there.

56. Lasius niger alienus var. americanus Emery.
Florida. (Mayr, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 36, p. 429, (1886)).
57. Lasius brevicornis Emery.
Flcrida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 639, (1895)).
58. Lasius (Acanthomyops) claviger (Roger).
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 642, (1895)).
59. Brachymyrmex heeri subsp. depilis Emery.
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 7, p. 635, (1893)).
60. Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille).
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley; St. Petersburg.-H. Raster.


61. Paratrechina (Nylanderia) parvula Mayr.
Florida. (Emery, ibidem, p. 636.)
62. Paratrechina (Nylanderia) vividula (Nylander).
Florida. (Mayr. ibidem, p. 431.)
63. Paratrechina (Nylanderia) bourbonica Forel var.
Miami Beach.-S. O. Hill. "On pavement and sand."
An imported species heretofore unrecorded from the United States.
64. Prenolepis imparis (Say).
Florida. (Mayr. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 36, p. 431, (1886)).
65. Formica pallide fulva schaufussi Mayr. var.
St. Petersburg.-H. Raster.
66. Camponotus caryae (Fitch).
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 7, p. 675. (1893)).
67. Camponotus caryae subsp. rasilis Wheeler.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
68. Camponotus caryae rasilis var. pavidus Wheeler.
Jacksonville & Atlantic Beach. (Wheeler, Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. 18,
No. 4, p. 229, (1910)).
69. Camponotus (Colobopsis) pylartes Wheeler.
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley.
70. Camponotus (Colobopsis) impressus Roger.
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 7, p. 681, (1893)).
71. Campcnotus (Myrmobrachys) planatus Roger.
Fort Myers.-S. O. Hill; Miami, Card's Point, Planter, Key Largo.
(Wheeler, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Vol. 20, pt. 2, p. 348, (1910)).
72. Camponotus (Myrmoturba) maculatus subsp. tortuganus Emery.
Dry Tortugas. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 8, p. 336, (1895)).
Royal Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley; Lake Worth, Miami, and Planter
(Wheeler Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Vol. 20, no. 6, pt. 2, p. 312, (1910)).
73. Camponotus (Myrmoturba) abdominalis subsp. floridanus (Buckley).
Lake Worth, Miami, Key Largo, and Coosahatchie River. (Wheeler,
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci. Vol. 20, pt. 2, no. 6, p. 326, (1910)). Royal
Palm Park.-W. S. Blatchley, "This, the largest and most common ant
taken, occurred in numbers in rotten wood and beneath bark in the
hammock and beneath a third or more of a'll boards and stones turned
over while in search of beetles." St. Petersburg.-H. Raster; Fort
Myers.-S. O. Hill; Cocoa.-H. T. Woodruff.
74. Camponotus castaneus Latr.
Florida. (Mayr. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 36, p. 422, (1886)).
75. Camponotus castaneus subsp. americanus Mayr.
Quincy. (Wheeler, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Vol. 20, pt. 2, p. 324,
76. Camponotus socius Roger.
Sanford, Green Cove Springs, (Wheeler, ibidem, p. 321, (1910)).
Florida. (Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Vol. 7, p. 670, (1893)).

Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,

Vol. XIV, No. 1 March, 1930

J. R. W ATSON.....................-................--- -................ ................- Editor
WILMON NEWELL ................-......................... --------Associate Editor
A. N. TISSOT ..-......-...---...---...--..-.....-..----..... ..Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad
vance; 35 cents per copy.

Among the various substances, used for controlling aphids,
nicotine sulphate has long been considered as the standard by
which others were judged. Soaps of various kinds, extracts and
powders of pyrethrum, derris and quassia were frequently used
but could not always be depended upon to give good results.
Nicotine sulphate was much more certain to give a good kill but
its cost was a serious objection to its general use. Recently,
new materials have been prepared and placed on the market
which will help to satisfy the demand for better and cheaper
During the spring and summer of 1929 experiments with some
of these newer materials were conducted by the senior author
at the Main Experiment Station at Gainesville and by the junior
author at the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred. In the
following pages these experiments are briefly discussed and the
results of the tests given in tabular form.

The experiments conducted at Gainesville, the results of which
are summarized in Tables Nos. 1 and 2 were laboratory tests.
Two species of aphids were employed. The results obtained with
the pea aphid, Illinoia pisi (Kalt.), are given in Table No. 1,
while the green citrus aphid, Aphis spiraecola Patch, was used
*Contribution from Department of Entomology, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station.


in the tests recorded in Table No. 2. In both series of experi-
ments the sprays were applied with a one-quart hand atomizer.
The counts of the aphids were made approximately 24 hours
after the sprays were applied. None of the curled leaves were
removed from the citrus shoots before spraying. In some cases
these curled leaves afforded protection to the aphids and thus
influenced the results. These cases are indicated by an asterisk
in Table No. 2. A smaller number of field tests were made in
which a three-gallon compressed-air sprayer was used for
spraying peas heavily infested with aphids. These gave re-
sults very similar to those obtained in the laboratory. In the
tests conducted at Lake Alfred a three-gallon compressed-air
sprayer was used in every case except where noted in Table No.
3. Only the green citrus aphid, Aphis spiraecola Patch, was used
in these tests, and all curled leaves were removed from the twigs
before the sprays were applied.


Unless nicotine sulphate is used in connection with lead ar-
senate or bordeaux mixture it is necessary to use soap or some
other substance to act as a spreader. Using ordinary soap or
casein spreaders one part of nicotine sulphate (40%) to 750 or
800 parts of water was the most dilute spray solution that
would give a good kill of aphids. The amount of soap or other
spreader used depended upon the relative hardness of the water.


Grandpa's Wonder Spray is a pine tar soap which is sold in
flake form. It does not easily dissolve in cold water but it is
necessary to dissolve the flakes in a small amount of warm wa-
ter before putting it into the spray tank. This soap is far su-
perior to ordinary soaps as a spreader or carrier for nicotine.
At Lake Alfred good results were obtained when it was used at
the rate of one pound to 100 gallons of water with Black Leaf
40 or 50 percent free nicotine 1-3000. With harder water two
pounds of the soap to 100 gallons of water should be used.
Another soap which was used with good results was sodium
oleate. Used at the rate of one pound to 100 gallons of water
with Black Leaf 40, 1-4000, it gave a good kill of citrus aphids.
This soap was in a finely granulated form rather difficult to get
into solution, hot water and vigorous agitation being required.



Some of the standard oil emulsions such as are used for scale
insects and whiteflies were found to be fairly good spreaders
for nicotine. A one percent solution of these oils with free nico-
tine 50 percent at 1-4000 gave a very good kill of citrus aphids.
No injury was apparent on tender citrus foliage after 48 hours
but they should be used with a great deal of caution on tender
vegetables. Penetrol, a sulfonated oxidized oil, gave very prom-
ising results. This material readily forms an emulsion with cold
water, very little agitation being required. It can be used on
tender foliage without injury. Using a one-half of one percent
solution only one-fourth as much nicotine is necessary as with
ordinary spreaders. In case there are many curled leaves on the
infested plants it would probably be advisable to use a three-
fourths of one or one percent solution as this will penetrate into
the curled leaves better than the more dilute solution and will re-
sult in a more complete kill of the aphids. Some preliminary
tests conducted at Gainesville indicate that this oil can also be
used with the pyrethrum sprays enabling one to greatly reduce
the amount of pyrethrum needed.


Some interesting results were obtained from some tests con-
ducted at Lake Alfred with nicotine-lime dusts. It was found
that a two percent dust made with free nicotine was just as ef-
fective for killing aphids as a three percent dust made with nico-
tine sulphate. The free nicotine is much more volatile and the gas
is given off much more rapidly than from the nicotine sulphate.
This results in a high concentration of gas soon after the dust is
applied. The prices of nicotine sulphate and 50 percent free
nicotine are based upon their nicotine content; thus the free nico-
tine contains 25 percent more nicotine and costs 25 percent more
than the nicotine sulphate. The fact that one need use only four
pounds of the free nicotine as against seven and one-half pounds
of the nicotine sulphate for 100 pounds of dust means quite a
saving in the cost of the dust.
The appearance of these new materials upon the market should
mark the beginning of a great step forward in aphid control. A
saving of one-third or one-half the cost of spray materials may
be effected. This will mean that those who have been spraying
regularly for control of aphids can now do so more economically.


It should also mean a general and widespread effort at control
by those who formerly made no effort to protect their crops from



Red Arrow
1 oz. to 4 gal. water
Black Leaf 40
Black Leaf 40
Black Leaf 40
Black Leaf 40
Black Leaf 40
Black Leaf 40
Free Nicotine 50%
Free Nicotine 50%
Free Nicotine 50%
Free Nicotine 50%

Grandpa's Sodium
Wonder Spray Oleate Penetrol

o 0 0 0

467* 478
95.1% 92.1%
501 545
92.8% 98.9%
539 494
90.2%! 93% |
| 606 630 604 920 550
199.5% 99.4% 99.6% 99.2% 100%
495 11158 676 615 519 1086
94.1% 98.2% 98.5% 99.6% 96.5% 97.9%
S 1060 550 624 511
S97.6%! 97.5% 100% 97.4%
1558 643 | 650
S96.9% 99.5% I 98.8'%
585 505 11206
95.7% 99.2% 198.5%
607 660 562
95.2% 95.3% 92.5%
1142| | 512, 590
97 % 99 % 100%
11073 641 544
1 96 % 97.5% 98'.5%
634 605
94.1% 98.2%
/ 513 569 |
93.7% 99.4% I

*For the various combinations of insecticides and spreaders read across
and down. Upper number indicates total number of aphids sprayed, lower
the percentage of kill.



Grandpa's Octagon
Penetrol Wonder Spray Laundry Soap

Insecticide o
1/20/0 1% IC 4d C3 4

0o 0 ,

Neoton 473 472 518
%1/ pound to 20 gal. water 92.4%* '81.9% 94.4%
Neoton I I 588
1/2 pound to 20 gal. water 96.2%/
Black Leaf 40 513 ,542
1-750 97.2% 95.2% |
Black Leaf 40 1036 1 495
1-1000 183.3%*c 94.1% %
Black Leaf 40 645 509
1-2000 97.2% 94.3%
Black Leaf 40 503
1-3000 98.6%
Black Leaf 40 497
1-4000 96.3%
Free Nicotine 50% 523 1
1-1000 98.8% |
Free Nicotine 50% 486
1-2000 97.3%
Free Nicotine 50% 476
1-3000 96 % |
Red Arrow 540
1-500 98.7%
Red Arrow 1 596 581
1-1000 I 195.6% 95.2%
Red Arrow | 602 | 555
1-2000 1696%* 90.9%
Red Arrow 562 | -
1-3000 98.4% |
Evergreen I 553 5,52
1-400 98.3% 1 90.7%
Evergreen 487 510
1-800 95.4% 87.4%/
Evergreen 496
1-1500 82.2%*
Evergreen 493 I
1-2000 77.1%*|1
"'Most of aphids which survived were inside of curled leaves.


Patch) at Lake Alfred.


Penetrol '/2 %

Penetrol %%

Black Leaf 40 Free
1 to 1 to 1 to 1 to 1 to
1000 2000 3000 4000 2000
1300 1801 2345
100,% 99.9% 98.7%
3449 601 1903
99.3% 99.8% 99.8%


Penetrol 1%

Penetrol 1/2%*

Penetrol 12%**

Citro Emulsion 1%

Floridoil 1%

Volck 1%
Grandpa's Wonder Spray
61/4 pounds to 100 gal.
Grandpa's Wonder Spray
1 pound to 100 gal.
Sodium oleate
4 pounds to 100 gal. water
Sodium oleate
2 pounds to 100 gal. water
Sodium oleate ...
2 pounds to 100 gal. water
Sodium oleate
1 pound to 100 gal. water
*Spray applied with 200-gallon
cent of kill approximate.
**Spray applied with 200-gallon
cent of kill approximate.






Nicotine 50%
1 to 1 to
S3000 4000


1505 12031 506
99+% 99+%|98+%
604 305 711
99+% 98+% 98+%
1005 1103
99+% 99+%
99.6% I
1062 553
98.8%| 99.4%
1505 952
99+% 99+%
1126 750
99+% 100 %
973 901 1200
99+-% 99+%0 100%
1 802 700 1 972
199+% 100%!99+%
using spray rod-Per-

power sprayer using spray gun-Per-



Dunedin, Florida

(Continued from Vol. XIII, page 77)

Genus XXXVIII. RUTELA Latreille.

Elongate-oval, convex, glabrous species above the medium in
size and having the clypeus not reflexed; upper surface of body
wholly smooth; thorax in this and the next genus without basal
marginal line; all tarsal claws entire.

154. (13786). R. formosa Burm.
Leng'h 13.8-16 mm. Head pale yellow, the sides black; thorax black,.
with sides and several small discal spots dull yellow; elytra yellow, each
with suture and three narrow black stripes, the later not reaching base.
Metacombe Key, collected by Ashmead (Horn, 1880a). Choko-
loskee and Key Largo (Schf.). A West Indian species so far
definitely recorded from Florida only from the southern keys.

Differs from Rutela in having the clypeus reflexed and biden-
tate; upper surface of body coarsely and deeply sculptured;
male with the large claws of middle and hind tarsi deeply cleft.

155. (13787). P. brevipes Lec.
Length 14-17 mm. Oblong, subcylindrical, strongly convex; uniform
dark chestnut-brown to blackish, glabrous above, s erna with long dense
yellowish hairs; front tibiae with the two outer teeth approximate and
near the base of the apical process.
Enterprise, rare (Sz.). The only State record.

Beetles of medium or very large size having the labrum usu-
ally invisible; front coxae transverse, not prominent; front of
mentum narrowed and subacuminate, rarely truncate; antennae
10-jointed; pygidium exposed; tarsal claws equal, not toothed
beneath. Males often with the head and sometimes the thorax
armed with prominent horns. To the subfamily belong the lar-
gest of the Florida Scarabaeidae. All are phytophagous but, on
account of their comparative scarcity, do little injury.



a. Body convex, usually more or less oval; labial palpi inserted at the
sides of the mentum.
b. Head and thorax unarmed in both sexes, the latter never impressed
near apex; body covering thin, often variegated in color; male with
last joint of front tarsi stouter than in female, the claws very ir-
regular. Genera XL and XLI. Tribe CYCLOCEPHALINI.
bb. Head or thorax, or both, armed with a tubercle or horn in both
sexes; body covering thick, never variegated in color (except in
c. Tarsi short, tapering, the basal joint triangular; length less than
35 .mm. Genera XLII-XLVI. Tribe ORYCTINI.
cc. Tarsi long, thick, basal joint not triangular; color greenish-gray
with black spots; length 32-47 mm. Genus XLVII.
aa. Body elongate-oblong, robust, flattened above; head and thorax armed
in both sexes; labial palpi inserted behind the mentum; color black;
body covering thick, strongly sculptured. Genus XLVIII.


This generic name replaces Cyclocephala Latreille, a name for-
merly wrongly used for our North American species. It com-
prises dull yellow species of oblong or oblong-oval form having
the head and thorax unarmed, the latter never impressed or
foveate; labial palpi inserted at sides of mentum; mandibles
narrow, scarcely curved, not toothed; clypeus flat, finely mar-
gined, reflexed at apex; basal marginal line of thorax absent.
Males, in our species, with fifth joint of front tarsi much en-
larged; antennal club longer than stem and large claw of front
tarsus unequally cleft, the outer branch very slender.

*156. (13798). 0. parallel Csy., 1915, 144.
Length 11-12.3 mm. Male:-elongate, subcylindrical, sides parallel;
pale dull yellow, shining; head piceous, clypeus reddish-brown; glabrous
above, rather thickly pubescecnt beneath; clypeus semicircular, finely and
sparsely runmtate, margins strongly reflexed; elytra one-fourth longer
than wide.
"Florida, four examples" (Csy.). Dunedin, July 1, Oct. 1, two
males at porch light (B1.).

*157. (13801). 0. immaculate (Oliv.).
Length 9.5-12.5 mm. Oblong-oval, broader behind; pale yellowish-brown,
shining, head black, clypeus obscure rufous; glabrous above, very sparsely


pubescent beneath; clypeus subtrapezoidal, thickly and shallowly rugosely
punctate, margins moderately reflexed; elytra a fifth longer than wide.
Common throughout the State, especially so at light, April-
July. Recorded and at hand from numerous stations from St.
Augustine to Everglade and Miami.

*158. (13803). 0. villosa (Burm.).
Length 10.8-13.5 mm. Oblong, sides subparallel; clypeus and thorax
reddish-brown, head black, elytra dark brownish-yellow; upper surface
sparsely, under surface thickly, pubescent; margins of elytra ciliate; cly-
peus shorter, more broadly rounded than in the preceding species. Male
with antennal club much longer than stem.
Gainesville, at light, June (Doz.); Enterprise (Dietz). Istok-
poga, March 29; Dunedin, April 23, at porch light (Bl.).
159. (13804). 0. puberula (Lec.).
Length 8.7-10 mm. Pale brownish-yellow, above with numerous short
erect hairs; head piceous, shining; clypeus reddish-brown, transverse,
very finely, sparsely punctate, its margin broadly rounded, strongly re-
Tampa, very rare (Sz.); St. Augustine (Ham.); Sevenoaks
(Wick.); Lake City, June 2 (Ag. Coll.); Enterprise (Dietz); La-
Belle, Apr. 27 (Dav.). Known only from Georgia and Florida.


Elongate-oval blackish species of medium size, allied to Ochro-
sidia but having the mandibles broad, rounded externally, con-
cealed almost wholly beneath the clypeus which is short, sinu-
ate-truncate at apex; legs slender, middle coxae contiguous.

*160. (13829). D. trachypygus (Burm.).
Length 15-18 mm. Elongate oblong, male, more oval, female; black or
piceous, shining, antennae and legs reddish-brown; elytra each with four
feeble costae, these with a row of fine punctures each side; intervals broad-
er, each with three or four rows of punctures.
Common throughout the State, especially beneath weed debris
and in muck about the margins of streams and lakes. Abundant
also at light.


Rather large robust convex brown species closely related to
Ligyrus, but having the thorax not impressed or tuberculate;
front tibiae with four teeth; male with claw joint of front tarsi
swollen, the large claw dilated and abruptly curved.


161. (13834). L. relictus (Say).
Length 16-22 mm. Subcylindrical, convex; black or piceous, shining;
under surface and legs chestnut-brown, meso- and metasterna with tufts
of long reddish-brown hairs; clypeus trapezoidal, its apex upturned, feebly
"Eiscayne Bay, probably" (Sz. Ms.). No other record and it
is very doubtful whether it occurs in the State. Casey's L. quad-
ripennis, recorded from Illinois, Louisiana and Texas, may oc-
cur in the northern portion.

Genus XLIII. LIGYRUS Burmeister.

In this genus the thorax is impressed in front, with a small
tubercle on front of impression; clypeus toothedat apex; front
tibiae with three teeth. Male with front tarsi unmodified; claws
simple in both sexes. Our first two species belong to the sub-
genus Grylius Casey, characterized by being 20 or more mm. in
length and having the mandibles bidentate on outer side, front
tuberculate; process behind the fore coxae with apex large, flat-
tened, glabrous in front, ciliate with long bristles behind; sterna
*162. (- ). L. laevicollis Bates.
Length 21-23 mm. Black or dark reddish-brown, shining; under sur-
face and legs chestnut-brown; front widely, shallowly concave; clypeus
with apex upturned, feebly bifid, the teeth very obtuse, its base with a
transverse ridge ending each side in a small tubercle; impression on api-
cal th!rd of thorax almost circular.
Florida? (Csy. 1915, 190). Chokoloskee (Schf.); Everg'ade,
June August (Dav. Coll.). A Mexican species, known definitely
in this country only from Southern Florida.

*163. (- ). L. subtropicus Blatch., 1922, 30.
Length 27 mm. Oblong, suboval, very robust; dark chocolate-brown.
s rongly shining, under surface and legs dark reddish-brown; clypeus with
teeth triangular, acute, more widely separated than in laevicollis, surface
transversely rugose, the ridge between the tubercles very low; impression
of thorax oblong-oval; punctures of elytra much coarser than in laevicollis.
Type from Dunedin; taken at light June 4, 1913. No other
record. The largest of our species of the genus.

*164. (13843). L. gibbosus (DeG.).
Length 12-15 mm. Broadly oval, robust; dark chestnut-brown, rarely
black, much paler beneath; thorax coarsely and sparsely punctate; cly-
peus in this species and the next not tuberculate but with a transverse
ridge at base; mandibles tridentate;, prosternal process bristling through-


out with long hairs, and all sterna and margins of femora with similar
Frequent throughout the State; recorded from six stations,
including Jacksonville and the Tortugas Islands, and at hand
from six others. Occurs most commonly at light, May to Sep-
*165. (13847). L. neglectus (Lec.).
Length 14-15 mm. Oblong or elongate-oval; reddish-brown throughout;
clypeus and front with fewer and smaller punctures than in gibbosus; tho-
rax much more finely and sparsely punctate.
Jacksonville (Casy, 1915, 198). Dunedin, March 28, one
specimen at porch light (B1.).
Genus XLIV. APHONUS Leconte.
Medium sized brown species, closely resembling Ligyrus, but
with mandibles very small, concealed, not toothed on outer side;
clypeus with a tridentate transverse process just behind the
apex; thorax without apical tubercle or postapical impression.
*166. (13872). A. variolosus (Lec.).
Length 13-14.5 mm. Broadly oblong-oval; dark reddish- to chestnut-
brown, shining; clypeus deeply concave, the teeth of its subapical carina
equal, short, very obtuse; elytral strial punctures coarse,.deeply impressed,
all in single rows.
Jacksonville (Csy., 1915, 217). Dunedin, April 20, at light
(To be continued)

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