Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Vol. XV SPRING NUMBER No. 1
SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF LEAFHOPPERS RE-
LATED TO EUTETTIX VAN DUZEE (Rhynchota Homoptera)
By E. D. BALL
University of Arizona, Tucson
The genus Eutettix Van Duzee has like most other Jassid
genera been made a catch-all for a number of widely different
groups of leafhoppers, with little in common other than a trans-
verse furrow behind the vertex margin. As fixed by its type
lurida Van Duzee this genus consists of a small group of about
twelve North American species of rather large heavy bodied
leafhoppers with short heads and definite transverse furrows,
simple venation without reticulations, vermiculations or super-
numerary costal veinlets. The other groups that have been
placed here may be separated by the following key:
A. Large heavy bodied species with short obtuse heads and a definite
transverse furrow, venation simple, usually a black band on face
or an ivory area on commissure or both. -1. Eutettix Van Duzee
AA. Smaller and more slender species with more conical heads. and the
transverse furrow less conspicuous or wanting-usually with retic-
ulations or extra veinlets or both; often with an intricate "saddle"
B. No extra veinlets to costa (the costal area may be reticulate.)
C. Species relatively plain without "saddle", usually small.
-2. Opsius Fieber
CC. Species with intricate saddle pattern usually larger and broad-
er. -3. Norvellina Ball
BB. Costal veinlets increased in number and expanded towards apex.
-4. Menosoma Ball
EUTETTIX GONIANA n. sp.
Size and form of subaenea nearly with a short broad vertex as in lurida.
Brownish straw with a black line on vertex margin. Length 4.5-5 mm.
Vertex broader and shorter than in lurida, more than three times wider
than long, margins nearly parallel, dorsum sloping and rounding over to
front with only a trace of the depression; front extremely wide at base,
as wide as the median length. Elytra about as in lurida with similar vena-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
tion except that the claval nervures are joined by a cross nervure. Female
segment broadly roundingly notched with a strap-shaped median tooth
longer than in lurida.
Color: uniform pale tawny or brownish straw, the elytra sub-hyaline
with the dark tergum showing through and giving a smoky cast. Below
pale yellow. A narrow black line just above the white vertex margin end-
ing in the ocelli, a still narrower line on the face just below the vertex mar-
gin in the male; a hair line of black between the vertex and pronotum and
sometimes a shorter one on scutellum.
Holotype 9 allotype & and 5 pairs of paratypes taken by the writer at
Patagonia, Arizona, September 7, 1929. This species resembles aurata in
the lines margining the vertex but is much larger and quite distinct.
EUTETTIX GLENNANA n. sp.
Resembling subaenea but with a shorter, broader vertex. Creamy with
smoky brown elytra and four black spots. Length 9 6 mm d 5 mm.
Vertex, scarcely longer on middle than against the eyes, two and one-
half times wider than long, evenly rounding in front, with a definite trans-
verse depression between the ocelli. Elytra long and narrow, much ex-
ceeding the abdomen, the second apical cell very broad, nearly three times
as broad at base as the first and third. Female segment rounding poster-
iorly with a shallow excavation and a broad strap that exceeds the length
of the segment. Male plates extremely long, roundingly narrowing then
attenuate, four or more times the length of the triangular valve.
Color creamy above and below. The elytra smoky subhyaline, iridescent
with a coppery reflection and a faint ivory spot on the commissure. Ver-
tex with four black spots on anterior margin, two round ones just inside
the ocelli and two oblique ones between these, the latter reduced in the
male. Scutellum with two black points on each side dividing the lateral
margins "into three equal parts. Sutures on lower part of face narrowly
black lined, front smoky with light arcs.
Holotype 9 allotype S and 1 female paratype taken by the writer at
Glenn Oaks, Arizona, October 7, 1929.
GENUS OPSIUS FIEBER
This genus was erected for stactogalus Amyot, an introduced species
first found in this country in Texas and described as Eutettix osborni Ball,
but now distributed from coast to coast. E. clarivida, insana, paupercula,
tenella and strict are here considered as belonging to this group.
GEN. NORVELLINA n. gen.
Resembling Eutettix in the transverse depression on vertex
and single cross nervure; much narrower and trimmer in build
with definite pattern or saddle markings.
Vertex much broader than long, almost parallel margined,
broadly rounded or slightly angulate with front. Head with
the eyes equalling the pronotum or folded elytra in width. Pro-
notum decidedly longer than the head and much less produced
in front than in Platymetopius and its allies. As seen from the
side, the pronotum is strongly arched and sloping down in front,
the vertex sloping in the same curve until just before the apex
where there is a definite horizontal shelf which extends from eye
to eye, anterior margin bluntly rounding and almost right-angled
with face. Elytra closely folded at rest. Venation simple, reg-
ular, only one cross nervure, no true costal veinlets except the
two at the ends of the first apical cell. Elytra covered by a "sad-
dle" pattern made up of contrasting colors and reticulations.
Type of the Genus Eutettix mildredae Ball
This genus embraces some twenty or more largely western
species of which Eutettix seminuda Say and chenopodii Osb. are
the common eastern representatives. From Eutettix, sensus
strict, they are readily separated by the saddle pattern the ver-
miculate reticulations and the narrower lighter form. The gen-
ital pattern is simple and of relatively little value in either group.
NORVELLINA OREGONA n. sp.
Resembling pulchella in form and saddle markings but much smaller and
darker with heavy vermiculations on the ivory areas. Smaller than helenae
with a more definite saddle. Length o 3.7 mm.
Vertex slightly longer than in pulchella, a little longer on middle than
at eyes with a deep furrow and a definite margin. Male valve short ob-
tusely triangular, plates long triangular, as in saucia.
Color: face and anterior margin of vertex dark fulvous, rest of vertex,
pronotum, scutellum and saddle marking dark brown as in pulchella, scu-
tellum with a trace of fulvous. The ivory areas with coarse vermicula-
tions and dark brown veins. Margins of saddle not definite as in pulchella,
and the posterior light bands uniting back of clavus, leaving a broad dark
area apically with two round white dots in disc and a large irregular spot
near the outer angle.
Holotype d and 1 paratype male taken at Unity, Oregon, July 11, 1927.
This is a very distinct species in both size and color marking and warrants
description from a single sex.
NORVELLINA HELENAE n. sp.
Resembling chenopodii Osb. but much smaller with the much heavier
vermiculations somewhat obscuring the saddle. Length 4-4.5 mm.
Vertex proportionally longer than in chenopodii, twice wider than long,
slightly longer on middle than against eye. Elytra reticulate throughout
so that the lighter areas bounding the saddle are coarsely reticulate in-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
stead of ivory as in chenopodii. Female segment with a broad angular
median notch in the apex of which arises a strap-like process as long as
wide and slightly bifid at apex. In chenopodii the margin is only faintly
indented either side the strap. Color brownish fulvous with a fulvous ver-
tex and scutellum, a brown saddle set off by semi-reticulate ivory areas.
Face and below sordid fulvous.
Holotype ? and allotype d Sanford, Florida, June 17, 1926, and 6 para-
types from the same place at various dates all collected by W. E. Stone and
the writer near Lake Helen. The writer has material from Florida, Texas,
Missouri and Kentucky and is inclined to believe that this small species
replaces chenopodii throughout the entire cotton belt.
NORVELLINA APACHANA n. sp.
Resembling bicolorata but smaller and with obscure markings through-
out. Size and form of nevada but less heavily marked. Pronotum, scu-
tellum and an oblique spot on apex of elytra heavily irrorate with brown,
the saddle very obscure. Length 4-4.5 mm.
Vertex shorter than in saucia which it otherwise resembles, twice wider
than long, scarcely longer on middle than against eye. Front narrower
and less inflated than in saucia, much less than in bicolorata. Female seg-
ment rounding posteriorly, deeply triangularly excavated with a broad
strap-like projection. Male plates long, triangular as in saucia.
Color: face and vertex pale creamy, the latter with three to five ir-
regular irrorations on posterior half. Pronotum ivory, heavily and ir-
regularly irrorate with brown. Scutellum almost solid brown with 7 white
spots around the margin. Elytra with a very obscure saddle marking of
pale brown, a brown wash over the ivory areas, a dark spot some distance
back of the cross nervure on either side and a third one at apex of clavus.
The vermiculations become more definite before the long oblique apical
Holotype 9 allotype e and seven paratypes, Granite Dell, Arizona,
August 17, 1929, and six paratypes Glenn Oaks, Arizona, October 9, 1929,
all taken by the writer.
MENOSOMA n. gen.
Resembling Eutettix and Norvellina in general form and
structure, but lacking the transverse depression on vertex and
possessing a number of transverse or oblique veinlets to costa.
Vertex broad, obtuse, sloping, usually little longer on the median
line than against eye, as seen from side, rounding over to front
to form an obtusely conical apex. Front broad and relatively
short, much broader at base than in Eutettix. Pronotum longer
than vertex the anterior margin evenly rounding, side margins
moderately long. Elytra as in Eutettix. The venation simple,
second cross nervure absent. The claval veins tied together and
often connected with the suture. The outer anteapical cell angu-
larly expanded in the middle and narrowing posteriorly. The
two outer apical veinlets reflected and expanded on the costa,
three or four adjacent transverse veinlets with expanded apices
along the costa. Sometimes the first cross nervure is doubled
or even trebled. The general color is pale or tawny with more
or less banding on front, vertex and elytra and a tendency to
oval ivory spots in the ends of cells.
Type of the Genus Menosoma stone Ball
This is a distinctly subtropical genus of which a considerable
number of species occur in the Central and South American
regions. Only four species are at present known from the United
States, M. cincta widely distributed.east of the Rockies and on
to South America. Stonei from Florida, tortolita from Arizona,
and acuminata Bak from the Southwest. Athysanus litigiosus
Ball from Mexico also belongs here.
MENOSOMA STONEI n. sp.
Smaller than cincta with a shorter vertex. Pale tawny without bands.
Length 5 mm.
Vertex definitely shorter than in cincta, almost parallel margined, more
obtusely conical in profile. Female segment similar but slightly shorter
than in cincta male genitalia similar. Color pale tawny, the elytral nerv-
ures red except for the reflexed ones along costa which have broadly fus-
Holotype 9 September 16, 1925, allotype J August 31, 1926, and twelve
paratypes taken from May 5 to October 1 at Sanford, Florida, by W. E.
Stone and the writer. This very distinct little species is named in honor
of Mr. W. E. Stone whose inexhaustible energy was equally displayed in
his economic and systematic work in this area.
MENOSOMA CINCTA var. BINARIA n. var.
Form and structure of cincta nearly but with the dark color intensified
until it appears to be almost black with a broad white band. Length 5.5 mm.
Vertex slightly more angled than in cincta and the female segment
shorter. Color much darker, the vertex and pronotum pale with definite
brown or fuscous spots. Elytra milky with a black blotch either side rest-
ing on the junction of the claval nervures, two similar blotches near base
of costa on either side, back of which is a broad transverse ivory band.
The apical half of each elytron is fuscous except for a spot near the apex
of clavus and a hyaline area running in from the outer apical cells.
Holotype 9 Sanford, Florida, September 2, 1927, and two paratype
females from the same place, August 30, 1926, all taken by W. E. Stone.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
MENOSOMA TORTOLITA n. sp.
Structure of stonei, larger and darker, larger than cincta with definite
dark and light bands on vertex margin. Length 5.5 to 6.5 mm.
Vertex, twice wider than long, almost parallel margined, slightly angled
with front instead of rounding over, front very broad and flat. Prontoum
long, nearly twice longer than the vertex, with a long straight lateral mar-
gin. Elytra longer and narrower than in cincta or stonei. Resembling
genus Scaphoideus in form and venation. Outer anteapical cell long and
narrow usually divided and sometimes triplicated. Female segment rather
short on lateral, margins, the posterior margin produced into a triangle:
male valve just visible behind the segment, plates together deep spoon-
shaped with blunt apices.
Color dark tawny with black on face and apex of elytra. Vertex with
the anterior and posterior margins white lined. Another white line, slight-
ly angled, behind the anterior one, these white lines separated or set off
by fuscous ones. Front, clypeus and lorae black, an angled or wavy white
line a little more than its own width below the margin and about five pairs
of short light arcs on front. Pronotum and scutellum irregularly mottled.
Elytra pale with dark brown veins and brown clouds in the cells, becoming
fuscous towards the apex. These clouds omit a number of oval and round
Holotype ? allotype c and a pair of paratypes taken at Patagonia, Ari-
zona, September 7, 1929 by the writer.
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Meeting, March 27, 1931
The regular monthly meeting of the Florida Entomological
Society was called to order by President Byers. There being
no business, the meeting was turned over to Professor T. H.
Hubbell who gave a very interesting talk on the group of cave-
crickets or camel crickets (Order Orthoptera), discussing their
geographic distribution and theories as to their evolution and
migrations. An interesting feature of the program was the
many examples drawn from other groups of animals and plants
to show similarities in geographic distribution. This group
seems to further substantiate the theory of an old Antarctic
land mass connecting South America, Africa and Australia. The
talk was well illustrated with maps, data, and specimens of vari-
ous species of camel crickets.
Dr. Byers then gave a brief discussion of C. H. Kennedy's
paper entitled "Evolutionary Level in Relation to Geographical,
Seasonal and Diurnal Distribution of Insects" which was pub-
lished in Ecology IX, 4, 367, 1928.
Adjourned at 5:10 P.M. L. W. ZIEGLER,
Approved April 24, 1931 Secretary.
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
Vol. XV, No. 1 April, 1931
J. R. W ATSON.-.........-----........................................-................... Editor
WILMON NEWELL .....---------..........................-- .........Associate Editor
H. E. BRATLEY-- ..--....- ------.........-------- ... Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.
EUVANESSA ANTIOPA Linn.
THE MOURNING CLOAK
A specimen of this striking butterfly was caught by the
author about two miles east of Gainesville on February 1st, 1931.
There were a few willows growing in the rather boggy place
where it was found. In February of 1917 Professor Watson (in
Florida Entomologist, Vol. 1, No. 1, page 6,) saw, but was unable
to capture, one two miles west of Gainesville near what is known
as Hog Town Creek.
These are the only known records of the Mourning Cloak this
far south in Eastern United States. John A. Grossbeck, in the
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.
XXXVII, in a list of Florida Lepidoptera, mentions "Northern
Florida", and states "it is very rare", also "two specimens were
seen in 1887 by Johnson at St. Augustine". St. Augustine is
about fifteen miles further north than Gainesville and on the
Therefore, the conclusion is drawn that the range of Euva-
nessa antiopa extends but a short distance into Florida from the
North, altho some of its host plants, such as willows, extend to
the tip of the peninsula, and elms and hackberry (celtis) are
common about Gainesville. The presence of its eggs, larvae, or
pupae have not been known to the author in this region. The
two specimens found may have migrated from the North.
H. E. BRATLEY.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
INSECT ENEMIES OF THE COTTON BOLL WEEVIL'
By EDGAR F. GROSSMAN
During the summer of 1927, the writer visited a number of
cotton fields in Florida, Georgia and Alabama, with the express
purpose of determining the abundance of the insect enemies of
the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boh.). Infested
cotton squares were collected from sixteen representative fields
and forwarded to the insectary at Gainesville, Florida, where
the boll weevils and their parasites were hatched and recorded'.
In 1930 the experiment was repeated. Cotton squares were
collected from twenty-four fields, three of which (Alachua, La-
Crosse and Tallahassee) were visited twice in order to determine
whether or not the number of parasites increased during a three-
week period. The total number of parasites recovered was ex-
tremely low, 47 having hatched from 11,559 cotton squares
whereas, in 1927, 387 parasites were recovered from 8,451
squares. There were fewer boll weevils also, 1,609 or 13.9 per-
cent emerging from 11,559 squares as compared with 2,453 or
29.0 percent emerging from 8,451 squares in 1927. The cotton
yield, however, was practically the same as that of 1927, ranging
from one-quarter to three-quarters bale per acre. Two of the
fields were poisoned, one four miles north of Americus, Georgia,
and the other six miles south of Madison, Florida, but an ap-
preciable gain in the cotton yield was not obtained. The field at
Americus, however, yielded but few boll weevils and parasites
and the one at Madison yielded none.
The field at Tallahassee, Florida, which was visited on July 22,
and again on August 15, showed an appreciable reduction in boll
weevil infestation though no parasites were recovered. The field
at LaCrosse, Florida, showed a slight increase in weevil infesta-
tion and decrease in number of parasites recovered, and the field
at Alachua yielded fewer weevils and parasites on August 5 than
on July 16. As a consequence of these tests, no definite indica-
tion of an increase or decrease in parasitism 'during this three-
week period was obtained. The dry weather prevalent through-
out the cotton belt during the summer of 1930 undoubtedly
checked both weevil and parasite propagation, though the re-
covery of so few parasites may also be ascribed, at least in part,
1Contribution from the Department of Cotton Investigations, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations.
2Edgar F. Grossman, "Control of the Cotton Boll Weevil by Insect En-
emies". Science, No. 1787, Vol. LXIX, pp. 361-62. March, 1929.
to the relatively light weevil infestation of 1929 which would
bring about an ebb in the parasitic cycle. Messrs. Fenton and
Dunnam' also found a reduction in the number of parasites
which were recovered in 1925, when fewer specimens were re-
covered than in 1924 or 1926.
Campbellton, Fla. ...................
Americus, Ga ...................
Greenville, Fla ....................
LaCrosse, Fla. .......................
Thomasville, Ga. ....................
Bonifay, Fla. .......................
12 Mi. S. of Dothan, Ala. ....
6 Mi. S. of Greenville, Fla.I
4 Mi.W. of Campb'l't'n, Fla.
4 Mi. N. of Madison, Fla...
Dothan, Ala ....................... .
Columbus, Ga. ..............
5 Mi. N. of Madison, Fla. ....
6 Mi. S.E. of Madison, Fla.
Date Boll Para- Percent
collected Squares weevils sites hatched
1927 examined, hatched hatched boll weevils
Alachua, Fla. .......................
7 Mi. E. of Tallahassee, Fla.
Newberry, Fla. .......................
5 Mi. S. of Americus, Ga. ....
Asheville, .Fla ....... ..........
Madison, Fla ....................
LaCrosse, Fla .....................
LaCrosse, Fla ..................
Alachua, Fla. .........................
Gainesville, Fla ........ ......
4 Mi. N. of Americus, Ga ....
7 Mi. E. of Tallahassee, Fla.
Graceville, Fla. .....................
Troy, Ala ........................
Union Springs, Ala. ...........
4 Mi. E. of Graceville, Fla.
Bonifay, Fla ..........................
Caryville, Fla ............... ...
Albany, Ga. ............................
Thomasville, Ga. ...................
5 Mi. E. of Madison, Fla. ....
Sneads, Fla ............................
Hurtsboro, Ala .................
6 Mi. S. of Madison, Fla. ....
3% Mi. W. of Madison, Fla.
6 Mi. W. of Columbus, Ga.
Campbellton, Fla. ...........
There is a natural variation in the percent
are recovered from year to year in the same vicinities and the
uniform scarcity of parasites during 1930 is to be expected to
occur occasionally. Whether or not this scarcity will tend to
precede a year of severe boll weevil damage during the time re-
'F. A. Fenton and E. W. Dunnam, "Biology of the Cotton Boll Weevil at
Florence, S. C." Tech. Bul. 112, U.S.D.A. 1929.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
quired for the parasites to rebuild their population is problem-
atic. Though the insect enemies of the boll weevil undoubtedly
control this cotton pest to a large degree, the exact extent of their
beneficial activities cannot be determined without the inaugura-
tion of a more extensive study of their population and dissem-
NOTES ON UTAH COLEOPTERA
GEO. F. KNOWLTON
(Continued from Vol. XIV, No. 4, page 77)
Rhychites bicolor var. wickhami Ckll.
Logan, August 12, 1925 (Knowlton).
Ophryastes sulcirostris (Say)
Logan, 1923 (Knowlton).
Sitona hispidulus (Fab.)
Hooper, July 1929 (Knowlton); Logan, April 17, 1923 (Knowlton);
Salt Lake City, June 1928 (Knowlton); Tremonton, July 1925 (Knowlton).
Hypera punctata (Fab.)
Hooper, June 1928 (Pack and Knowlton); Logan, July 1929 (Knowl-
ton); Magna, August 1928 (Pack and Knowlton).
Phytonomus posticus (Gyll.)
Lewiston, May 23, 1923 (Knowlton); Logan, June 1923 (Knowlton).
Phyllotrox nubifer Lec.
Sardine Canyon, May 22, 1923 (Knowlton).
Balaninus utensis Csy.
On apple tree at Orem, August 21, 1929 (Pack).
Calendra granaria (L.)
Logan, September 7, 1929 (Pack).
Scolytus rugulosus Ratz.
Orem, May 1927 (Pack); Provo, May 1927 (Pack).
Dendroctonus valens Lec.
A NEW HAPLOTHRIPS FROM PANAMA
By J. R. WATSON
HAPLOTHRIPS PANAMAENSIS n. sp.
Female-Length 1.1 mm. General color brown (Sepia, Ridge-
way's Color Standards, 1912), abdomen lighter with considerable
orange-yellow hypodermal pigment. All tibiae and tarsi prim-
rose yellow, tibial shaded with brown on outer margin. Anten-
nal segments 3 and 4, and apex of 2 deep olive buff. Remainder
Head about 1.5 as long as broad. Cheeks slightly arched, con-
verging slightly posteriorly. Dorsal surface smooth. Postocu-
lar bristles prominent, dark with hyaline dilated tips, about as
long as the eyes. Dorsum with three other pairs of bristles, all
small; one posterior and media of the postoculars, one near
the posterior inner angles of the eyes, and one immediately
posterior to the posterior ocelli. Vertex rounded, a small and a
minute bristle at each anterior inner angle of the eye. Eyes oval,
not protruding, not pilose, occupying about a third of the length
of the head, and each about 5-6 as wide as their interval, facets
small. Ocelli large, more than twice the diameter of the ocular
facets, bordered by large, dark red crescents, anterior directed
forward. Mouth cone well rounded at tip, reaching a little be-
yond the middle of prosternum. Antennae scarcely 1.5 times as
long as the head; segment. One concolorous with the head ex-
cept the lighter base; 2 with the broad pedicel almost black, deep
olive buff towards apex; 3 and 4 deep olive buff shaded darker on
inner margins; 5-8 abruptly darker, fuscous; usual sense cones
present on segment 3; pedicels, of segments 3, 6, and 7, narrow,
of 4 and 5, broad and short.
Prothorax but little over half as long as head but (including
coxae) over twice as wide as long. Pterothorax with sides nearly
straight, converging but slightly posteriorly. Legs of moderate
length. Femore dark, sepia, darker than the pterothorax. Tibiae
abruptly much lighter. Tarsi with a dark fleck on inner side.
Fore tarsus with a slender anteriorly directed tooth.
Abdomen widens gradually to about segment 6, then abruptly
rounded to the short, thick tube, which is only half as long as
the head and .6 as wide at the base as long. It is somewhat
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Measurements-Head, length 0.16 mm., width 0.11 mm.; pro-
thorax, length 0.09 mm., width (including coxae) 0.20 mm.;
mesothorax, width 0.18 mm.; abdomen, greatest width 0.20 mm.;
tube, length 0.08 mm., width at base 0.05 mm., at apex 0.024 mm.
Segment ......................... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Length .............. .......----..... 20 36 36 42 36 35 33 23
Width ............-..................... 28 23 21 24 22 20 18 11 Microns
Total length 0.23 mm.
Wings rather weak, membrane of fore pair pale brownish
yellow; constricted in the middle but not as deeply so as in most
species of Haplothrips. Four interlocated bristles.
This species is marked by the pale yellow color of all tibiae
and tarsi, and antennal segments 3 and 4, the short, wide tube
and the clouded fore wings.
Male not seen.
Larva (length 1.1 mm.)-By reflected light, light lemon yel-
low, prothorax, shaded with brown. Legs, particularly tibiae
and tarsi heavily shaded with blackish brown. Anternal segment
one concolorous with the head, two heavily shaded with brown
in basal half, three light brown with pedicel and tip lighter, 4-7
Described from two females and one larva taken by H. Y.
Gouldman, at Inspection House, PQ&CA, Washington, D. C., on
Pineapple cuttings from Canal Zone. Type in the author's col-
VEGETABLE WEEVIL IN FLORIDA
According to the Insect Pest Survey Bulletin for April the
Vegetable Weevil has been found in most of the Florida counties
west of the Apalachicola River. This insect is invading Florida
from the west and has become very destructive to a large num-
ber of vegetable crops in Louisiana and Mississippi. The insect
is about five-eighths of an inch long, gray in color, mottled with
numerous small black areas and with larger light gray spots and
lines, two on the posterior halves of the elytra are especially
prominent. Near the posterior end of each elytron a rather
prominent papilla projects horizontally. The snout is broad and
WINTER SURVIVAL OF IMMATURE STAGES
OF THE BOLL WEEVIL'
By EDGAR F. GROSSMAN
No live stages of immature boll weevils (Anthonomus gran-
dis Boh) were found on making a mid-winter examination of a
large number of bolls and squares attached to cotton plants which
had been plowed up late in the fall of 1927 and subsequently piled
together to serve as a windbreak. Numerous live adult weevils,
however, were found among the large number of dead weevils,
pupae and larvae, which were discovered in the cotton debris. A
later examination which was conducted in April also failed to
yield live immature forms.
In order to eliminate such factors as predators, parasites and
mechanical injury which greatly increase the boll weevil mor-
tality rate during the winter months, a number of cotton squares
and bolls were removed from an infested field on November 17,
1928. They were then placed in a low temperature incubator
regulated to maintain a temperature of 55'F. and 80 percent to
90 percent relative humidity. The selected temperature and
relative humidity conditions were previously determined to be
near the optimum'. After the cotton fruit had been in the incu-
bator 69, 92, 123, 131 and 139 days, respectively, individual
squares and bolls were opened until a live weevil stage was
Though the examinations yielded many dead larvae, not a
single live one was discovered. Several live pupae, however,
were found, two having lived as long as ninety-two days after
having been placed in the incubator. Live adults were found
after periods of 92, 123 and 131 days, respectively, in the incu-
bator. After 138 days no more live weevil stages were found.
Hinds and Yothers' conducted an experiment for determining
the effectiveness of cotton bolls as hibernation quarters for the
boll weevil and in the experiment tabulated the larvae and pupae
found within the bolls. No live stages were found in March,
though a few representatives of all stages were found in Feb-
'Contribution from the Department of Cotton Investigations, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station.
"Grossman, E. F. "Some Humidity and Temperature Effects on Develop-
ment and Longevity". Fla. Ent. Vol. XIV, No. 4, pp. 66-71. Dec. 1930.
"Hinds, W. E., and W. W. Others. "Hibernation of the Mexican Cotton
Boll Weevil". U. S. D. A. Bur. Ent. Bul. 77, pp. 1-106. 1909.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
ruary. The earlier months of December and January, how-
ever, yielded a large number of live individuals.
In Florida, it is quite probable that the larval stages in cotton
squares and bolls fail to develop into adults during the winter
months. The late pupal stages in squares and bolls, however,
may develop into adults and, unless the winter is severe, emerge
along with other adult weevils quitting hibernation. The tough-
ness of the overwintered cotton bolls, however, generally tends
to confine the newly hatched adult until it dies. Though aban-
doned cotton stalks may yield but few additional weevils for a
renewed spring infestation, they should nevertheless be destroy-
ed early in autumn in order to remove the favorable hiberna-
tion quarters they provide for adult weevils.
SURVIVAL OF IMMATURE STAGES OF THE BOLL WEEVIL IN COTTON SQUARES
AND BOLLS COLLECTED IN THE FIELD, NOVEMBER 17, 1928, AND
PLACED IN A LOW TEMPERATURE INCUBATOR
DDae ays Number Cotton Squares Examinedi
Date inm -
examined, incu- Larvae | Pupae Adults Total
1929 bator Uninfested | Live Dead Live I Dead Live IDead Squares
Jan. 24 .. 69 16 0 26 0 8 0 0 50
Feb. 16 92 449 0 335 2 24 2 47 859
SNumber Cotton Bolls Examined
F Larvae Pupae | Adults Total
Uninfested Live Dead | Live Dead Live DeadF Bolls
Jan. 24 ... 69 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
Feb. 16 .-. 92 6 0 2 0 2 1 1 12
March 18 123 69 0 13 0 22 2 15 121
March 26 131 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 4
April 3 .... 139 88 0 33 0 5 0 6 132
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Meeting, April 24th, 1931
The regular monthly meeting was called by President Byers
at 4:00 P.M. There being no business to transact, the program
was immediately turned over to the speakers. The subject of
the meeting was in the form of a Symposium on the Insects of
Florida Ornamentals. Dr. E. W. Berger opened the program
with a discussion of the whitefly on Cape Jessamine, California
privet and Chinaberry. Professor Watson then gave a discus-
sion of a curculio in the nuts of tung-oil trees, together with re-
marks on the cicada in the ferneries in the vicinity of Jupiter,
Florida. Mr. H. E. Bratley then gave a talk on the Polka Dot
Wasp Moth on oleanders and the Phyllanthus caterpillar on the
Phyllanthus. Both of these insects are proving great pests of
their respective hosts in the southern half of peninsular Florida.
This program was followed by an informal discussion by mem-
bers led by Dr. Byers.
Those present included members Bratley, Byers, Grossman,
Bess, Dickey, Watson and Berger, and visitors Miller, McClana-
han, Kea, and Lawless.
L. W. ZIEGLER,
THE SIX-SPOTTED MITE
The outstanding entomological development of the spring in
the citrus groves has been a heavy infestation of the six-spotted
mite. The infestation is heaviest in Polk County where there
has been a general yellowing of grapefruit leaves and consider-
able dropping, but the outbreak is general in a belt extending
entirely across the State from Pinellas County on the Gulf to
Brevard on the Atlantic. South of this belt including the Man-
atee section the mites, tho present, are much less numerous and
north of this belt, including Lake and Volusia Counties, only
an occasional tree has been attacked. Mr. Thompson at Lake
Alfred was able to get a satisfactory kill even during the unusu-
ally cool weather of April, either by spraying with lime-sulphur
or dusting with sulphur. The unsatisfactory results many grow-
ers reported were mostly due to poor coverage; failure to cover
the under surface of the leaves with the spray or dusting during