Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1931
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00296
Source Institution: University of Florida
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^jCenE PLA AT SOARD

Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

Vol. XV NOVEMBER, 1931 No. 3

A CORRELATION OF THE DATE OF EMERGENCE AND
PERCENTAGE OF SURVIVAL OF THE COTTON BOLL
WEEVIL WITH THE DATE OF THEIR INSTALLATION
IN HIBERNATION CAGES
P. W. CALHOUN
It has long been known that placing cotton boll weevils
(Anthonomus grandis Boh.) in hibernation cages early in the
fall greatly reduces the percentage of weevils which survives the
winter. The effect which early confinement in cages has on the
time of emergence from hibernation, however, has not been ex-
tensively studied. Concerning one series of hibernation cages
Newell (5) states that, in general, the earlier the weevils were
confined in cages, the earlier in spring were the majority of
them out of hibernation and active. It is reported elsewhere
(4) that placing the weevils in hibernation cages late in the fall
decreased the duration of the time spent in hibernation. No
claim was made, however, that the date of their emergence was
affected thereby.
To determine the effect that the date of confining weevils in
hibernation cages in the fall might have on the date of their
emergence or the percentage of their survival, the data from
eleven groups of hibernation-cage experiments conducted in
Florida and one conducted at Mansura, Louisiana, were exam-
ined.* The groups studied represent three general types of
hibernation-cage experiments, namely: Cages placed on the
ground, in open fields, in which dried grass, leaves and corn
*All Florida hibernation cage experiments used in the following tables
were conducted under the direction of Geo. D. Smith. The Gainesville
series was set up and cared for by C. A. Bennett. The results of only one
of the Florida series, that conducted at Madison, Fla., in 1918-19, has been
published (6). The Mansura, La., experiment was conducted by Newell
and Dougherty in 1908-09 (5).










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


stalks were the principal protective materials used; (2), cages
placed on the ground, in woods, in which pine straw and Span-
ish moss were the principal protective materials; (3), cages
placed in trees, in woods, in which Spanish moss was the prin-
cipal protective material. In each group the weevils were in-
stalled at either weekly or bi-weekly intervals, and, although
the groups differed considerably among themselves, the cages of
each group were prepared as nearly alike as possible.
To ascertain whether the time of confining the weevils in the
cages was a controlling factor in determining the time of their
emergence from hibernation, the emergence data from nine of
the groups were arranged so that the degree of linear correla-
tion existing between these two variables could be calculated.
Table I shows how the data of each group were arranged for
calculating the coefficient of correlation between the date of
confinement in the cages and the date of their emergence.

TABLE I.-ARRANGEMENT OF DATA FOR CALCULATING THE COEFFICIENT OF
LINEAR CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DATE BOLL WEEVILS WERE CON-
FINED IN HIBERNATION CAGES AND THE DATE OF THEIR EMERGENCE
FROM HIBERNATION. THE DATA SHOWN ARE THOSE OF THE TREE SERIES,
OF 1923-24, MADISON, FLORIDA.


A
Cage No. Days after Sept.
25 cage was
started

1 7
2 21
3 38
4 52
5 68


The correlation coefficients
ninety-five percent emergence.


B
Days after March
25 before 95%
emergence
occurred

3

24
28
44
62


Correlation co-
efficient, r, be-
tween A and B





+ .99


were calculated for fifty and
One hundred percent emergence


was not included, as the last two or three weevils often emerge
two or more weeks after the active emergence period. To have
included them would have introduced more error than did their
removal from the experiment.
The values of the correlation coefficients so found are shown
in Table II.













AUTUMN NUMBER


TABLE II.-DEGREE OF LINEAR CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DATE OF PLAC-
ING BOLL WEEVILS IN HIBERNATION CAGES AND THE DATE ON WHICH
FIFTY AND NINETY-FIVE PERCENT EMERGENCE HAD OCCURRED IN NINE
GROUPS OF HIBERNATION CAGES.


Location
of Cages





Gainesville,
Florida


Madison,
Florida








Madison,
Florida


Correlation coefficient found for 50% and 95%
emergence under different hibernating
Dates conditions
cages
were Cages on groundiCages on ground Cages in trees
started in open field in woods in woods
50% I 95% 50% 1 95% 50% 95%

1923
Oct. 1
Oct. 15
Nov. 1 -.95 .-95 -.37 -.08 .68 +.34
Nov. 15
Dec. 1


1923
Oct. 1
Oct. 15
Nov. 1 +.89 -.04 +.82 -.15 +.90 +.99
Nov. 15
Dec. 1


1924
Oct. 1
Oct. 7
Oct. 16
Oct. 23
Oct. 30 +.46 +.81 -..--. .......-..... -.10 +.73
Nov. 6
NT.. 1 0


N1oV. a
Nov. 20
Nov. 27


1908
Sept. 28
Oct. 5
Oct. 12
Oct. 19
Mansura, Oct. 26
Louisiana Nov. 2
Nov. 9
Nov. 16
Nov. 23
Nov. 30
Dec. 7
Dec. 14
Dec. 21


+.70


+.10 1............


.............. .


! *











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


In Table II the negative correlations are seen almost to
counterbalance the positive correlations. Still more striking is
that the sign of the correlation coefficient in several instances
was, in the same group of cages, positive for fifty percent
emergence and negative for ninety-five percent emergence, or
vice versa. It seems quite apparent that, on the whole, the date
of placing the weevils in the hibernation cages did not deter-
mine to any great extent the date of their emergence during
the following spring.
It is common knowledge, however, that a greatly reduced
emergence percentage almost invariably accompanies early, as
contrasted with late, fall confinement in cages. This has been
one of the chief experimental bases for recommending that cot-
ton stalks be destroyed early in the fall. With this in mind the
twelve groups of cages were examined for further evidence con-
cerning the relationship that existed between the earliness of
confinement and the percentage of survival.
Because of the great differences in the total percentages of
emergence among the different groups of cages, it was difficult
to compare, offhand, one group with another, although it was
quite apparent that in each group the lower percentages of sur-
vival were found among the earlier installations. Indexes of
variation were, therefore, calculated for each group of cages.
The index assigned to each cage is the percent survival of that
cage divided by the average percentage of survival of its group.
If the relative variation in one group be the same as the rela-
tive variation in another group, the indexes of variation of the
two groups will be identical, regardless of the fact that the
actual percentage of survival in one case may be much higher
than in the other. An index of unity shows that the percentage
survival of a particular cage was equal to the average percent-
age survival of its group.
Table III shows the data used for this study. The groups are
the same as those used in Table II, with the addition of three
groups started at Madison, Fla., in the fall of 1918 (6). Suffic-
ient data were not available to include these groups in Table II.
Inspection of the indexes of variation in Table III shows
that, in the groups placed on the ground in open fields, the rela-
tive percentage of survival was very low for all cages started
before Oct. 15. In none of the Florida cages placed in fields did












AUTUMN NUMBER


TABLE III.-PERCENT OF BOLL WEEVILS SURVIVING THE WINTER AND THE
INDEX OF VARIATION OF EACH CAGE IN NINE GROUPS OF HIBERNATION
CAGES UNDER DIFFERENT HIBERNATING CONDITIONS.


Dates
cages
were
started


1923
Oct.
Oct. ]
Nov.
Nov. 3
Dec.


2 3)o


Oc. 1
Oct. 1
Oct. 15
Nov. 1
Nov. 15
Dec. 1


1924
Oct. 1
Oct. 7
Oct. 16
Oct. 23
Oct. 30
Nov. 6
Nov. 13
Nov. 20
Nov. 27

1908
Sept. 28
Oct. 5
Oct. 12
Oct. 19
Oct. 26
Nov. 2
Nov. 9
Nov. 16
Nov. 23
Nov. 30
Dec. 7
Dec. 14
Dec. 21


Percent weevils surviving and index of
variation* for each cage


Cages on
ground in
open field


Per-
cent Index
sur- of vari-
viving ation


0.3 0.05
2.9 0.51
9.0 1.57
5.5 0.96
10.9 1.91



0.0 0.0
1.3 0.41
6.6 2.08
2.7 0.85
5.2 1.65



1.7 0.15
1.6 0.14
3.6 0.31
7.5 0.64
9.9 0.85
5.8 0.50
20.0 1.71
33.0 2.83
22.0 1.88


2.7 0.13


1.3
5.5
1.6
25.1
23.3
24.4
26.7
12.7
29.7
23.6
47.7
37.1


0.06
0.27
0.08
1.25
1.16
1.21
1.33
0.63
1.48
1.17
2.37
1.84


Cages on
ground in
woods
Per-
cent Index
sur- of vari-
viving ation


15.3
12.5
13.6
28.5
23.3



1.8
4.2
13.5
6.6
6.6






**....


------------


0.82
0.67
0.73
1.53
1.25



0.28
0.64
2.06
1.01
1.01


Cag
tree
wo
Per-
cent
sur-
viving


8.9
4.9
8.6
27.4
5.9



0.7
1.6
2.9
0.4
2.0



0.8
10.2
19.0
14.1
12.0
7.5
11.0
34.2
12.8


es in
s in
ods

Index
of vari-
ation


0.80
0.44
0.77
2.46
0.53



0.46
1.05
1.91
0.26
1.32



0.06
0.76
1.41
1.04
0.89
0.56
0.81
2.53
0.95


Location
of cages








Gainesville, Fla.


Madison, Fla.









Madison, Fla.











Mansura, La.


*Percentage of survival of each cage divided by the mean percentage of
survival of the group.
**This group of cages was partially submerged for several weeks by
high water.


-............ I -... ............
... ...... ----------.-. -


............ ............ ............ ............
............ ]........... ........................









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


the percentage of survival of a cage installed before Nov. 1 equal
the mean percentage of survival of its group.
The effect of installing the cages early in the fall was not
nearly so pronounced in the groups placed on the ground in
woods, although in all groups the highest percentages of sur-
vival were obtained from cages started as late as Nov. 1.
The relationship between the time of installing the cages and
the percentage of survival was not as consistent in the groups
placed in trees as in the other groups. In three out of four cases
of this series rather high relative percentages of survival were
secured from cages in which weevils were placed on Oct. 15 or
16, while in three out of four cases fairly low percentages of
survival were secured from cages in which weevils were installed
on or after Nov. 15.
The degree of linear correlation between the time of install-
ing the cages and the percentage of survival was calculated.
The data of each group were arranged exactly as in Table I,
except that under column B the indexes of variation of the cages
(Table III) were used. Had the actual percentages of survival
been used in column B instead of the indexes of variation, the
same value for the coefficient of correlation would have been
obtained, except for errors of adding or dropping fractions.
The numerical computation was slightly simplified, however, by
the procedure employed. Table IV shows the values of the cor-
relation coefficients so found for each group of cages.

TABLE IV.-DEGREE OF LINEAR CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DATE OF PLAC-
ING BOLL WEEVILS IN HIBERNATION CAGES AND THE PERCENTAGE OF
SURVIVAL.
Coefficient of Linear Correlation
(a e o -- - _--- -_ -
Location and year Cages on Cages on Cages in
group was started* ground in ground in trees in
open field woods woods
Mansura, La., 1908 +.85 ..................
Madison, Fla., 1918 +.82 +.87 +.39
Madison, Fla., 1923 +.66 +.42 +.23
Gainesville, Fla., 1923 +.88 +.76 +.28
Madison, Fla., 1924 +.86 .---.--.-------. +.49

*Day and month weevils were placed in each cage is shown in Table III.









AUTUMN NUMBER


It can be seen from Table IV that the correlation between the
date of placing the weevils in the hibernation cages and the per-
centage of survival was positive for all groups of cages studied.
The correlation was highest for the groups placed on the ground
in fields, while the groups placed in trees in woods showed a
low degree of correlation between the date of confinement and
the percentage of survival.
This, however, should not be interpreted to mean that the
destruction of the green cotton stalks early in the fall would
prove of little benefit in localities where weevils are supposed
to hibernate largely in mossy trees. Early stalk destruction
greatly reduces the number that hibernate, and certainly for
this reason reduces the number that emerge the following
spring. Furthermore, cage hibernation tests have been shown to
be decidedly unreliable as a means of predicting the time of ap-
pearance of boll weevils in the cotton fields (1) (2) (3). It
would be unsafe therefore to conclude that destroying the stalks
at different dates would have the same effect on the mortality of
the over-wintering weevils as does confinement in cages at dif-
ferent dates. It is entirely probable that, if extensive field tests
were made of early stalk destruction, the conclusions drawn
from cage data concerning the effectiveness of this procedure
would have to be modified considerably.

CONCLUSIONS
In nine groups of hibernation cages, some placed on the
ground in open fields, some placed on the ground in woods, and
some placed in trees in woods, the date of confining the weevils
in the fall apparently did not determine to any considerable ex-
tent the date of their emergence the following spring.
In five groups of hibernation cages placed on the ground in
open fields, the date of confinement markedly affected the per-
centage of emergence. The highest percentages of survival
always came from cages in which the weevils were introduced
moderately late in the fall.
In four groups of hibernation cages placed in trees in woods,
the date of confinement of the weevils in the fall seemed only
slightly to affect the percentage of survival.











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


LITERATURE CITED
(1) FENTON, F. A. and E. W. DUNNAM. Winter survival of the cotton
boll weevil at Florence, S. C. Jour. Econ. Ent. 20:327-336. 1927.
(2) Biology of the cotton boll weevil at Florence, S. C.
U.S.D.A. Tec. Bul. 112:1-76. 1929.
(3) GROSSMAN, EDGAR F., and PAUL W. CALHOUN. Determination of the
winter survival of the cotton boll weevil by field counts. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 233:1-55. 1931.
(4) HUNTER, W. D., and W. D. PIERCE. The Mexican cotton boll weevil:
A summary of the results of the investigation of this insect up to
Dec. 31, 1911. U.S.D.A. Bur. Ent. Bul. 114-:1-188. 1912.
(5) NEWELL, WILMON, and M. S. DOUGHERTY. The hibernation of the
cotton boll weevil in central Louisiana. State Crop Pest Comm.
La. Cir. 31:163-219. 1909.
(6) SMITH, GEO. D. Studies in the biology of the Mexican cotton boll
weevil on short-staple upland, long-staple upland, and sea-island
cottons. U.S.D.A. Bul. 926:1-44. 1921.


MEETINGS OF THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

March 27, 1931.-Professor Hubbell gave a very interesting
talk on the group of cave-crickets or camel crickets, a group to
which he has devoted a good many years of thorough study. He
spoke of the geographical distribution of this group and gave
several theories as to their evolution and migrations. An in-
teresting feature of the lecture was the many examples drawn
from other groups of animals and plants to show similarities in
geographical distribution. This group seems to supply further
evidence in support of the theory of an old Antarctic land mass
connecting South America, Africa and Australia. The talk was
well illustrated with maps, data, and specimens of various
species of camel crickets.
Dy. Byers gave a brief discussion of C. H. Kennedy's paper
"Evolutionary Level in Relation to Geographical, Seasonal and
Diurnal Distribution of Insects" (Ecology IX, 4, 367, 1928).
L. W. ZIEGLER, Sect'y.


October 30, 1931.-Dr. Rogers gave the paper of the meeting
on "The Crane Flies of Florida." He showed the relationship of
our species to those of adjoining regions. Of the 130 species
found in Florida, about 60% are northern forms, 12% species of
southern genera, 16% endemic, 11 % neotropical in origin and one
is cosmopolitan. H. E. BRATLEY, Sect'y.












t5he
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
Florida.

Vol XV, No. 3 November, 1931

J. R. W ATSON ..----.............................................. ...........-........--Editor
WILMON NEWELL ............-....-....-...----- ........-... ....Associate Editor
H. E. BRATLEY.------............-----...... ......-- ..-Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

PHOLUS FASCIATUS
ELLEN ROBERTSON MILLER
A little girl brought the moth to me. She had seen it on a
vine growing over a porch. It must have been freshly emerged,
for the velvet "map" upon its wings was still uninjured. What
a beauty it was, a sphinx moth new to me. The fore wings were
of a deep brown with a band of rich cream color crossing each
from the apex to the middle of the inner margin, and another,
equally wide, starting at the body met this, and with it formed
a conspicuous Y. The hind wings in addition -to the brown,
showed pea-green and rose colors, while the big, tapering body
was clothed in brown and cream "fur". The insect, a female,
measured five inches when spread.
A couple of years later on June 9, 1926, among the water
plants growing close to our bath house at Lake Wildmere, Flor-
ida, I saw a large brightly colored sphinx larva, at least five and
one half inches long resting on a leafless stem. I captured it
with my butterfly net and found that it was strikingly marked.
The head was a mahogany red with a black clypeus and black
adfrontals, the first segment had an amber shield, marked with
five dark dots. There was a stripe of brown down the back with
dull yellow on either side crossed by lines of brown. The yellow
became a circular spot on the eleventh segment where the horn
of many of the sphinx larvae is located. The caterpillar lacked
this appendage. A pale blue stripe began on the second segment
and ran back over the third, then, with a break, down onto the










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


side of the fourth, making an angle. Another blue line began
on the fourth and ran down onto the fifth. There were eight of
these angles on each side of the larva. The spiracles, outlined in
gray, were at the lower edge of the blue stripe in trangular
black areas. The skin below the spiracles had a pea-green color,
marked on the ventral surface with dark. The prolegs were red
with black on the upper portions, the remainder of the cater-
pillar's skin showed a dull old rose color.
Near this larva I found a second one but half its size, a fac-
simile in miniature, except that the colors were more vivid.
I gathered leaves from the aquatic plants among which the
insects rested but neither would feed upon them so I replaced
the smaller specimen and left it to shift for itself while I con-
fined the other in a box with earth. It appeared to be in fine con-
dition and on June 12 went into the ground and changed to a
pupa. The pupa case had no handle or separate tongue sheath.
Fifteen days later, in the evening, the moth emerged as Pholus
fasciatus, a male, smaller than my first specimen but with prac-
tically the same colors and markings on its wings. Then I real-
ized that if I had known its "wormship" for what it was I could
have reared the younger larva on grape leaves. But for the half
grown caterpillar close to the mature specimen I should conclude
that the latter had lived on a wild grape vine near the water,
and that when discovered it was searching for dry land in which
to pupate. The presence of the younger crawler, however,
makes it seem likely that among the aquatic plants by the bath
house there was one acceptable as food to the young of Pholus
fasciatus.


SCARCITY OF THE ZEBRA BUTTERFLY
That interesting butterfly, a northern outpost of the family
of Heliconians which are extremely numerous in the tropics of
the New World, Heliconius charitonius is usually common here
in north central Florida in the fall. It can be seen lazily flapping
its long striped wings along almost any woods road. But this
fall it has been almost entirely absent. The writer has not seen
a half dozen specimens. What is the cause? Is it drought?
The Gainesville section has not had a significant shower since
mid September. The caterpillar feeds on the passion flower,
Passiflora. We have missed this striking reminder that we
live on the edge of the tropics.











AUTUMN NUMBER


TWO NEW THYSANOPTHERA FROM COLORADO

J. R. WATSON

PROSOPOTHRIPS BRUNNEUS n.sp.
Fem'ale-Length 0.76 mm., color dark brown, only antennal segments
3-5 distal, half of fore tibiae and fore tarsi lighter, yellowish brown.
Head about as wide as long, half of it retracted into prothorax; very
narrow, greatest width (across eyes) but little more than half the width of
prothorax (including coxae). Exposed portion twice as wide as long;
reticulations weak, not extending to vertex, frons abruptly darker, almost
black, straight except for two knob-like projections near the middle. These
projections are much smaller than in P. cognatus, occupying only about
half the vertex, but are sufficiently large to almost cover the first antennal
segment; the notch between them not as deep as in cognatus. Cheeks
roughened by several low, broad tubercles bearing minute bristles. Vertex
bearing four rather prominent bristles. Eyes strongly protruding. Ocelli
lacking. Mouth cone long, reaching three-fourths the distance across the
prosternum. Antennae fully twice as long as width of head. Segment 1
hemispherical, much smaller than 2; 2 trapezoidal in shape with a broad
pedicel, like 1 concolorous with the head; 3 and 4 sub-spherical and 5 short
barrel shaped, all with narrow., almost colorless pedicels (3 especially nar-
row) ; progressively larger, yellowish brown, 5 darker; 6 lanceolate in out-
line, concolorous with the body; 7 and 8 cylindrical, very narrow. Seg-
ments 2-6 all show prominent encircling lines, four of those on segment
6 are especially prominent.
Prothorax considerably longer than wide and over three times as long
as the exposed portion of the head, dorsal surface dotted with about 15
pairs of bristles. Meso- and meta-thorax narrow and very similar in ap-
pearance to abdominal segments. Posterior border of metathorax scalloped,
as are those of abdominal segments 1-8. Legs, short and stout (tho not as
short as in the other species), concolorous with the body except distal half
of fore tibiae and fore tarsi which are yellowish brown.
Abdomen large and heavy. Segment 1 about same width as the meta-
thorax, others widening to about the fourth segment, thence gradually
narrowing. Segment 10 broad, not narrow and cylindrical as in cognatus.
All bristles short and colorless.
Measurements: Head, length of exposed portion .046 mm., width .09 mm.;
prothorax, length .16 mm., width (including coxae) .13 mm.; mesothorax,
width .19 mm.; abdomen, width .23 mm.

Antennal segments ...........-..] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
length .-----... 17 33 26 28 30 40 9 7
width .. 21 28 16 21 19 16 6 4 microns
Total length .186 mm.

Described from a single female taken by John L. Hoerner at
Rocky Ford, Colorado, on June 2, 1931, on barley. Type in the
author's collection.
This interesting specimen represents the third species of this












THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


genus to be described. P. vejdovskyi Uzel is the type of the
genus and occurs in central Europe, from Italy to Finland. P.
cognatus Hood was described from specimens taken on wheat in
Kansas where it has been studied by E. O. G. Kelly. It has since
been reported from Okla., Mo., and Neb. The author has it
from Ohio. This species is easily told from the others by the
color, small size, and very small head. In shape the antennal
segments are closer to cognatus than to vejdovskyi.
The following key will enable one to separate the three species:
a. Body color dark brown .--...............-----------.............-... brunneus n. sp.
a'. Most of abdomen and pterothorax yellow
b. Abdominal segment 10 narrow subcylindrical and heavily chitinized;
antennal segment 3 subglobose .................................... cognatus Hood
b'. Abdominal segment 10 wider conical and not heavily chitinized; an-
tennal segment 3 oblong oval ...................................... vejdovskyi Uzel

TRICHOTHRIPS HOERNERI n. sp.
Female (macropterous). Length about 2.1 mm., (one 2.28 mm.) color
blackish brown, tarsi, tips of tibiae and antennal segments 2-8 lighter
brown.
Head about as wide as long, cheeks nearly straight and quite markedly
converging posteriorly, somewhat roughened and bearing numerous small
hairs; postocular bristles dark, sharp-pointed, reaching about to middle of
eyes. Eyes large, occupying .4 the length of head. Ocelli large, anterior
directed forward and slightly overhanging, posterior well in front of middle
of eyes. Antennae about twice the length of head; segment 1 concolorous
with the head, others quite variable in color but mostly light brown with
darker brown clouds, three usually lighter, usually brownish yellow as are
sometimes 4-8; 1 nearly cylindrical, slightly wider at base; 2 barrel shaped
abruptly contracted to a pedicel half the greatest width of the segment;
3 elongated wedge shaped, with nearly straight sides converging to a rather
narrow pedicel; 4 oval, 5-7 barrel shaped, abruptly contracted to wide ped-
icels; 8 conical; bristles and sense cones slender, pale and rather incon-
spicuous. Mouth cone reaching fully two-thirds across prosternum.
Prothorax about two-thirds as long as head, and fully twice as wide
(including coxae) as long. One long curved bristle at each posterior angle
about four-sevenths the length of prothorax, the other and one on each
anterior angle and a pair along the anterior margin only about a third
as long.
Pterothorax considerably wider than prothorax, sides slightly convex.
Wings of equal width throughout, reaching about to the sixth abdominal
segment, nearly colorless except a brown patch at base. Fringing hairs
long, double for about 12 or 13 hairs. Legs slender; fore tarsi unarmed.
Abdomen large and heavy, slightly wider than pterothorax. Tube about
three-fourths as long as the head, more than twice as wide at base as at
apex, sides straight. Bristles light, short and inconspicuous, those on
segment 9 about half as long as tube, terminal ones considerably shorter
than the tube.











AUTUMN NUMBER


Measurements: Head, length .23 mm., width .22 mm.; prothorax, length
.18, width .37 mm.; mesothorax, width .47 mm.; abdomen, width .52 mm.;
tube, length .177 mm., width at base .093 mm., at apex .042 mm.

Antennae Total length .475 mm.
Segment .............................--- ..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
length ----. 35 59 76 71 70 67 59 36
width ........---- ------ 39 35 30 36 33 33 28 16 microns

Micropterous female. Smaller than the macropterous. Average length
1.8 mm. (from 1.5 to 2 mm.). At most only the brown scale of the wing
present. Antennal segment 1, 35 (35); 2, 47 (30); 3, 70 (28); 4, 61 (32);
5, 61 (28); 6, 56 (28); 7, 54 (23); 8, 31 (12) microns.
Male (Macropterous).-Smaller than the female. In the single specimen
the antennae and fore.tibiae and tarsi much darker, nearly concolorous with
the head. Tube abruptly swollen at base. Fore femora but little larger
than in the female.
Measurements: Total body length 1.8 mm.; head, length .21 mm., width
.20; prothorax length .15 mm., width .33; tube, length .16 mm., width at
base .08 mm., at apex .035 mm.; antennae, total length .43 mm., segment
1, 28 (37); 2, 51 (30); 3, 70 (30); 4, 65 (33); 5, 67 (30); 6, 58 (30); 7,
56 (26); 8, 37 (14) microns.
Micropterous male. Smaller than the macropterous male. Antennae
colored as in the females.
Measurements: Total body length 1.5 mm. and 1.6 mm. Head, length
.20 mm., width .19 mm.; prothorax, length .14 mm., width (including coxae)
.31 mm.; mesothorax, width .32 mm.; abdomen, width .43 mm.; tube, length
.14 mm., width at base .08 mm., at apex .035 mm. Antennae segment 1,
28 (35); 2, 58 (32); 3, 66 (29); 4, 63 (32); 5, 64 (30); 6, 62 (28); 7,
55 (25); 8, 32 (14) microns. Total length .425 mm.
Larvae. Light brown in color of head, legs, and antennae, but thorax
and abdomen colored bright red by hypodermal pigment except, usually,
abdominal segments 9 and 10. Each segment bears near the middle of
each lateral margin a prominent, stiff knobbed bristle. On abdominal seg-
ments 7 and 8 there is another somewhat media and on the abdominal seg-
ment 9 and the thoracic segments 2 others. Those on the 9th segment are
situated on the posterior angles and are nearly as long as the 10th seg-
ment. One terminal pair are longer than the 10th segment and sharply
bent inward about the middle. There are four pair of much more slender
and shorter bristles. Antennae 7 segmented.
The last (?) instar is from 1.1 to 1.7 mm. in length, antennal segment
3 is elongate clavate and three times as long as wide; segment 4 over twice
as long as wide. 7 cylindrical and less than twice as long as wide.
In the preceding instar (length 1. mm.) the third and fourth antennal
segments are nearly as wide as long, and the seventh is sharply conical
and the length three times the basal width.

Described from twelve macropterous and 5 micropterous
females, one macropterous and two micropterous males and six
larvae collected from Woodbine at Ft. Collins, Colo., by John
Hoerner. Type in the author's collection.







THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


In color, the unarmed tarsi, and the acute bristles, this species
resembles T. fuscicornis Hood; but differs in the lighter anten-
nae, the large eyes, color of wings, the larger number of inter-
located bristles and the much shorter eighth antennal segment.
In the color of the antennae and the minutely spinose checks,
this species resembles the European T. cortices (Deg) but that
species has a long slender tarsal spine and yellow tibiae.


It will pay you to investigate. Ask the State Entomologists.
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