Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XVII AUGUST, 1933 No. 2
ADDITIONAL SPECIES OF FLORIDA ANTS,
By M. R. SMITH
Agent, U. S. Bureau of Entomology
In a previous article (Fla. Ent., Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 1-7, 1930)
I listed 76 species of ants for Florida. Since the appearance of
my paper Dr. Wheeler has published a similar list (Jour. N. Y.
Ent. Soc., Vol. 45, pp. 1-17, 1932) in which he recorded 91 species
for the state, quite a number of which are new to science.
Another paper on the subject would hardly seem warranted
at this time were it not for the fact that I have recently seen
an unusually large collection of ants from the state. These ants
were collected by Mr. D. E. Read during the early part of 1932
when he was engaged in scouting for Argentine ants in Florida
under the direction of the United States Bureau of Entomology.
As a result of Mr. Read's work I am able to add 13 species to
the state lists formerly published by Dr. Wheeler and myself.
In order to make my papers on the ants of the state complete,
I am listing here not only the species collected by Mr. Read, but
also those recorded by Dr. Wheeler which were not mentioned
in my previous article. This will bring the number of species
known to occur in the state up to 107. One should not conclude,
however, that all of the species occurring in Florida have even
yet been listed. Mississippi, a state in which the possibilities
for collecting ants are hardly as good as those for Florida, has
135 species recorded to date; therefore one would expect the
Florida list not only to equal but even to exceed this record.
Since practically all of Mr. Read's collecting was done in towns
where he was scouting for Argentine ants, he had little oppor-
tunity to collect those rather rare species which inhabit wood-
lands, rural areas, et cetera.
I am glad to state here that my assumption as to the presence
of Eciton (Acamatus) schmitti Emery in Florida has been borne
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
out by Mr. Read's collecting. He found this ant at 3 different
places in the state: namely, Sanford, Green Cove Springs, and
Woodville. He was also fortunate enough to find another species,
Eciton (A.) carolinensis Emery.
At Key West, Everglades, and St. Augustine Mr. Read found
Pheidole megacephala Fab., an imported species which was not
previously known to occur in the state. The specimens collected
at these places have been compared with specimens given me
by Doctors Wheeler and G. C. Aguayo and I have been unable
to detect any distinct differences.
It is hoped that the papers on the ant fauna of Florida which
have been published to date will be an incentive to others to
work up an adequate knowledge of the ant fauna of the state.
77. Ponera ergatandria Forel.
Belle Glade, Daytona Beach (D. E. Read).
So far as I am aware, this interesting species has been recorded from
but one other state besides Florida, namely, Texas. As the specific name
suggests, these ants have peculiar ergatoid forms. For a description of
all castes see Wheeler, "Ants of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona," Bull.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. 24, pp. 405-406, 1908.
78. Eciton (Acamatus) carolinensis Emery.
Madison (D. E. Read).
This species of legionary ant ranges through the Gulf and Southeastern
states from Mississippi to North Carolina, at least. The type locality is
North Carolina. The species is described by Emery in the Zool. Jahrb.,
Vol. 8, pp. 259-260, 1895.
On April 4, 1932, Mr. D. E. Read found male and female pupae of this
species beneath a piece of paper lying on the ground. He stated that
when disturbed, workers tried to carry the queen away but were more
burdensome than helpful.
79. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) texana var. silvestrii Menozzi.
Gainesville (F. Silvestri), type locality.
Wheeler is of the opinion that this ant is scarcely distinct from Aphae-
nogaster texana var. furvescens, which is also known to occur in Florida.
For a description of the species see Menozzi, Bull. Lab. of Gen. and Agr.
Zool. (Portici, Italy), Vol. 22, pp. 282-284, 1929.
VOL. XVII-No. 2
80. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) texana var. miamiana
Miami (A. E. Wight), type locality; Paradise Key, Planter
(W. M. Wheeler); Biscayne Bay (Mrs. A. T. Slosson).
See Wheeler, "A List of The Ants of Florida With Descriptions of
New Forms," Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. XL, pp. 5-6, 1932.
81. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) texana subsp. nana Wheeler.
Gainesville (W. M. Wheeler) type locality.
See Wheeler, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. XL, p. 6, 1932.
82. Pheidole anastasii Emery.
Sanford, Lake Worth (J. Schmitt) ; Dunedin (W. S. Blatchley).
This species, which was originally described from Costa Rica, is recorded
here for Florida on the basis of information secured from Dr. Wheeler.
I have seen the same species in greenhouses in the District of Columbia,
New Jersey, and Illinois.
83. Pheidole megacephala Fabr.
Everglades, Key West, St. Augustine (D. E. Read).
Wheeler records this imported species for Florida in his book entitled
"Ants," but fails to list it in his recent paper on the ants of that state.
Specimens collected at the localities referred to above have been carefully
compared with supposedly authentic specimens of megacephala, and I have
been unable to detect any distinct differences.
84. Solenopsis xyloni McCook.
Century, Gonzales (D. E. Read).
This species, which is the most common fire ant in the Gulf States,
seems to be replaced in Florida by Solenopsis geminate and its sub-species
rufa. The localities mentioned above are in the northwestern part of the
state. It is one of the most important economic species in the United States.
85. Solenopsis (Euopthalma) globularia subsp. littoralis
Englewood, Jensen, Daytona Beach, Jacksonville, Perry (D. E.
This interesting species was originally described from specimens taken
at Mobile, Alabama. See Creighton, "New World Species of the Genus
Solenopsis," Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., Vol. 66, pp. 113-114, 1930.
I have seen specimens also from Mississippi, Georgia, and South Carolina.
Apparently the ants are confined to the coastal sections of these states.
86. Monomorium destructor Jerdon.
St. Petersburg, Bradenton, Callahan (D. E. Read).
This introduced species is recorded for the first time from Florida, so
far as I am aware. Like all of the other forms of Monomorium in the state,
the ants are of economic importance.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
87. Tetramorium simillimum F. Smith.
Fort Ogden, Pompano, Lake Worth, Palmdale, Okeechobee,
Sebastian, Winter Garden, Sanford, Jacksonville (D. E. Read).
Another imported species, which is also of economic importance. This
ant does not seem to have as wide a distribution in the state as Tetramorium
88. Tetramorium (Triglyphothrix) striatidens Emery.
Marianna, Chipley (D. E. Read).
This imported species was first recorded for the United States by
Wheeler on the basis of specimens taken at New Orleans, Louisiana by
E. R. Barber. For an account of this see Wheeler, Jour. Econ. Ent., Vol.
9, pp. 566-569, 1916. During the past year I have seen specimens from
Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina.
89. Strumigenys (Strumigenys) louisianae Roger.
Blountstown (D. E. Read).
This interesting species undoubtedly has a wider distribution in Florida
than the above record indicates. For description of the ant and an account
of its biology see Smith, "A Revision of the Genus Strumigenys of America
North of Mexico, Based on a Study of the Workers," Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Vol. 34, pp. 689-690, 1931.
90. Leptothorax fortinodis Mayr.
Millville (D. E. Read).
A native species with a wide distribution over the southern and eastern
sections of the United States. For a description of the species see Wheeler,
"A Revision of the North American Ants of the Genus Leptothorax,"
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., pp. 233-235, 1903.
91. Macromischa (Antillaemyrmex) floridanus Wheeler.
Paradise Key (W. M. Wheeler) type locality.
This interesting species was recently described by Wheeler on page 27
of his paper entitled, "Ants of the Genera Macromischa, Croesomyrmex,
and Antillaemyrmex," Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. LXXII, 1931.
92. Cardiocondyla wroughtoni var. bimaculata Wheeler.
Royal Palm Park, (W. M. Wheeler); Winter Garden (D. E.
Originally described from Formosa by Wheeler. Very probably intro-
duced into the state within recent years. Wheeler found it nesting in the
culms of sedges.
93. Cardiocondyla nuda var. minutior Forel.
Miami (W. E. Wight); Miami, Hollywood, Sebring, (D. E.
Originally described from Hawaii by Forel. Also probably introduced
into Florida in recent years.
VOL. XVII-No. 2
94. Xenomyrmex stolli subsp. rufescens Wheeler.
Long Pine Key (W. M. Wheeler) type locality.
Recently described by Wheeler in his paper entitled, "Neotropical Ants
of the Genus Xenomyrmex," Rev. de Entomologia, Vol. 1, p. 137, 1931.
95. Cremastogaster (Acrocoelia) ashmeadi var. matura
Miami, type locality; Cocoplum Beach, Paradise Key (W. M.
For a description of this species see Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. XL,
p. 8, 1932.
96. Cremastogaster (Acrocoelia) atkinsoni var. helveola
Lake Worth (J. Schmitt) type locality.
For a description of this species see Wheeler, "A New Paper Making
Crematogaster," Psyche, Vol. 26, pp. 109-110, 1919.
97. Cremastogaster (Acrocoelia) lineolata subsp. pilosa Emery.
Dunedin (W. S. Blatchely).
98. Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr.
Pensacola, Jacksonville, Caryville, Palatka (D. E. Read);
Gonzalez (P. F. Robertson).
In his paper on ants of Florida, Wheeler lists the Argentine ant from
Gainesville on the basis of a single specimen collected there in October
1914 (collector's name not cited). Mr. Read, who scouted the town on
January 5, 1932, was unable to find the species there. Entomologists at
the University of Florida also have no knowledge of the presence of the
ant in Gainesville. The infestation at Gonzalez is now believed to have
been exterminated. The other infestations in the state are of no great
magnitude as yet.
99. Dolichoderus (Hypoclinea) plagiatus pustulatus var.
Pablo Beach (P. Laurent).
This is very probably the species which I recorded from Royal Palm
Park in my former paper as a variety of pustulatus.
100. Brachymyrmex heeri var. obscurior Forel.
Stuart (D. E. Read).
This species was probably introduced from Cuba or the Bahamas. It
was found by Mr. Read in the vicinity of the docks at Stuart.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
101. Camponotus herculeanus subsp. pennsylvanicus DeGeer.
Tallahassee (L. S. Barber); Madison, Chipley, Westville (D. E.
The carpenter ant is apparently confined to the more northern section
of the state. Wherever it occurs, though, the ant can be regarded as a
potential house pest.
102. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) incensus Wheeler.
Pigeon Key, near Miami (W. M. Wheeler) type locality.
A species which closely resembles C. tortuganus, yet is distinct from
this ant in size, structure, and other characters. See Wheeler's description
in the Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. XL, p. 14, 1932.
103. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) socius var. osceola Wheeler.
Jacksonville (Van Duzee Coll.) type locality.
A color variety of Ccmponotus socius. The latter is known to occur as
far north in the United States as Southern Pines, North Carolina, and as
far west as Waynesboro, Mississippi. For a description of this variety
see page 15 of the same publication as the one referred to above.
104. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) caryae discolor var. cnemidatus
Madison (D. E. Read).
This species is recorded here on the basis of a tentative determination.
I have also seen specimens similar to these from Mississippi and Indiana.
Mr. Read found the ants foraging on the trunk of an oak tree.
105. Prenolepis imparis var. testacea Emery.
St. Augustine (C. T. Brues); Tallahassee.
A color variety of the species, which is rather common in the Southern
106. Formica (Neoformica) pallide-fulva Latr.
St. Petersburg, Gainesville.
Recorded by Wheeler in his recent list of the ants of the state.
107. Lasius (Cthonolasius) umbratus mixtus var. aphidicola
Tallahassee (D. E. Read).
This species is very probably confined to the northern section of the
state. The ants are noted for their relationship with subterranean forms
of plant lice and mealy bugs.
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
VOL. XVII AUGUST, 1933 No. 2
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FOOD HABITS OF LEIS CONFORMIS BOISD.
By J. R. WATSON and W. L. THOMPSON*
In June, 1925, the senior author secured a colony of Leis
conformis from the California Agricultural Experiment Station
for the purpose of establishing them in Florida to combat Aphis
spiraecola Patch (green citrus aphid).
FOOD HABITS IN THE INSECTARY
The adults and larvae thrived on a number of different species,
but Aphis spiraecola and Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae were
used to a large extent in rearing the beetles, for they appeared
to do equally well on either of them. Aphis gossypii, Brevicoryne
brassicae, and Myzus persicae, were used less, but the beetles
devoured them seemingly as fast as they did the Aphis spiraecola
or R. pseudobrassicae. The adults, as well as the larvae, have
been observed eating the pupae and eggs of their own kind, and
also those of other ladybeetles. The larvae especially are of a
cannibalistic nature, as they attack the smaller larvae, and in
many cases, larvae of their own size, even though a fair number
of aphids may be available. Besides feeding on the previously
named aphids, the larvae feed on several kinds of small, soft-
bodied larvae, such as those of the syrphus fly, mealy-bugs,
small cabbage loopers, and other species of ladybeetle larvae.
*Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Agricultural Experi-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
OBSERVATIONS OF FOOD HABITS IN THE FIELD
During the spring and summer of 1926, between forty and
fifty colonies of these beetles were liberated in orange and
tangerine groves in different sections of the citrus belt. Up to
the beginning of the present year, there is only one general
locality in which these beetles are known to have become estab-
lished; namely, at Doctor Phillips Station, and the vicinity of
Windermere, in Orange County. The above named places take
in a radius of about five miles.
On April 22, 1932, the junior author visited some groves in
the vicinity mentioned above, and along the edge of one grove,
large numbers of Leis were observed apparently feeding on the
extra floral nectaries at the base of the flowers of Crotalaria
striata. Since the Crotalaria had not been killed during the
winter, a number of blooms were present. On June 16, another
visit was made to the same grove, and again the beetles were
found on the Crotalaria blooms, but in much larger numbers
than in April. Aphids were very scarce on the citrus trees.
On February 2, 1933, a few beetles were observed on the Crota-
laria, but very few blooms were present. In April, 1933 the
writers visited this locality and the following interesting facts
were observed: Aphids were hard to find on the orange and
tangerine trees, but many young adult beetles that had recently
emerged were present on the trees. A few beetles were on the
Crotalaria, but blooms were not plentiful. In one grove, the
crab grass was infested with Apkis maidis Fitch* and many
adult beetles were feeding on them. In a wood adjacent to this
grove, the saw palmettoes, Serenoa serrulata, were in full bloom
and large numbers of young adult beetles were feeding on the
pollen of these flowers. Beetles were on the palmettoes three
to four hundred yards from the grove. The beetles were also
found feeding on the very tender terminal buds of scrub oak.
Gum was oozing from wounds of the terminal bud which ap-
parently had been made by the beetles themselves. In May the
groves were again visited by the authors. The beetles were
found in abundance feeding on the sap from wounds resulting
from a severe pruning of tangerine trees. As many as 30 beetles
were found collected around one wound. During the previous
year they had been observed feeding on gum exuding from
wounds on the trunk of these citrus trees. At this time they
*Identified by Dr. A. N. Tissot.
VOL. XVII-No. 2
were more abundant on the blossom of Crotalaria and were also
found feeding on the blossoms of fire weed, Erechtites hieraci-
folia (L) Raf. They had eaten off the entire tops of the blossoms
of these plants including pistils and stamens. On none of these
plants, however, were any larvae, pupa or eggs observed.
In July, 1933 W. W. Others and R. L. Miller of the Orlando
Laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A., observed
them feeding on Trialeurodes variabilis on papaya. Not only
adults but larvae were present on the leaves of the papaya. In
August the senior author, together with Mr. Others and Dr. Mil-
ler again visited the papaya plantation at Orlando. In addition to
numerous adults many larvae were seen and several clusters of
eggs and several pupae, showing that the beetles are able to breed
upon this whitefly and do not use it as a food for adults only.
In April, 1933, the authors took 117 pupa off of one small
tangerine tree less than 10 ft. tall. No native lady beetles have
ever been observed to become as abundant as were these, and
it was very evident that they had been an important factor in
controlling aphids in these groves. Although no other control
measures had been taken the amount of damage by the aphids
was slight. It would seem that with the knowledge that we
now have of the possible summer foods for this ladybeetle at
a time when aphids are scarce, we are in a position to make it
possible for growers to establish this beetle permanently in many
groves in Florida and that it will be a very great help in con-
trolling the citrus aphids.
INSECT PARASITES OF CITRUS IN CENTRAL AMERICA
By MARSTON BATES
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.
The insect pests of Citrus anywhere on the American continent
may be divided into three large groups: general feeders that
number Citrus among their hosts; species that were originally
parasites of Xanthoxylum or other indigenous Rutaceae, and that
have adapted themselves to Citrus where it has been introduced;
and Citrus feeding insects that have followed their host in its
progress over the world. Many Citrus pests have become so
widespread that it would be difficult now to determine their
place of origin; others, mostly belonging to the second group,
seem still to be of limited range. A thorough study of the Citrus
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
insects of the world might throw light on many obscure matters
in insect distribution; might enable us to place quarantines and
control measures on a more rational basis. Certainly a list of
the Citrus insects of any one region is always of interest to those
who are working on similar forms in other parts of the world.
The work on which this paper is based was done while the
writer was in the employ of the United Fruit Company, and he
is very much indebted to the officials of that company, especially
Dr. Wilson Popenoe, for many favors and courtesies. Insect
collections were made in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador.
Climatic conditions in this region are exceedingly varied, includ-
ing tropical, sub-tropical and temperate types. The Honduras
coast, where much of the collecting was done, is very tropical,
with a rainfall of 100 to 175 inches annually. The highlands
of Guatemala, on the other hand, are in general temperate, and
the rainfall may be no more than 30 inches annually.
At least four genera of Rutaceae are indigenous in this region:
Casimoroa, Peltostigma, Pilocarpus and Xanthoxylum. Insects
were collected from none of these except Casimiroa, the fruits
of which were found to be infested with Anastrepha ludens.
Citrus fruits were introduced into Central America by the
Spaniards soon after the conquest, and have become pretty well
naturalized in many places. They are distributed everywhere
from sea level to well above the frost line, becoming rare above
6000 ft. In most places they are grown only as door-yard trees:
a significant factor in a study of their pests, as it means that
there are no large stands of food material, that individual plants
are generally separated from others of their kind by unrelated
growth. In the few commercial orchards that I have seen in
the region there were no signs of unusual insect activity.
There has been no real restraint upon the free movement of
Citrus products from other parts of the world into Central
America, or between the countries themselves; but such traffic
is rare, almost confined to the occasional introduction of nursery
stock from California. Certain scale insects have probably been
introduced by this means; but the value of the improved stock
probably over-balances the potential danger of insect introduc-
tion by this means.
Within the countries themselves the movement of Citrus fruits
is rather wide, as they are often marketed at considerable dis-
tances from their place of origin. It would be difficult to say
how much this has affected insect distribution; I cannot see that
VOL. XVII-No. 2
there is any correlation between trade routes and fruit fly dis-
Schistocerca paranensis Burm.
This is the migratory locust of tropical America: a general
and ubiquitous pest. Citrus is one of its favorite food-plants.
Frankliniella insularis Franklin (det. J. R. Watson)
Sometimes common in blossoms; generally distributed.
Nasutitermes cornigera Motsch (det. T. E. Snyder)
Prof. T. H. Hubbell found the nest and galleries of this species
in an old Citrus tree at Puerto Castilla, apparently doing consid-
erable injury. Such cases are not uncommon, but it is difficult
to show that the termites attack trees that are not already weak-
ened from some other cause.
Several species of leaf-hoppers and bugs were found on Citrus,
but as they were local species, apparently rare or accidental on
Citrus, there is no object in enumerating them here.
One or more species of Aphis were abundant on the young
plantings about Tela, Honduras, but Mr. Mason has found it
impossible to determine them beyond the genus with the mate-
rial at hand.
Myzus persicae Sulz. (det. P. W. Mason)
On citrus in Guatemala City; possibly more widely distributed.
Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer) (det. P. W. Mason)
This is the common Citrus aphis of the Pacific coast of Guate-
mala and El Salvador, occurring at least up to 5000 ft., the lower
limit of the temperate zone. It was not collected on the Carrib-
bean coast, but may very well occur there.
Although white-flies were noticed about Citrus trees at various
times, they were never seen in any abundance, and none were
collected from this host. It is notable, however, that Baker
(1923) has described a Citrus feeding species from Honduras,
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock
This species was found rarely in the United Fruit Company's
Citrus grove, near Tela, Honduras.
Icerya montserratensis R. & H. (det. H. Morrison)
Occasional specimens of this species were also found in the
groves on the Honduras coast.
Icerya purchase Maskell (det. G. B. Merrill)
This wide-spread insect was found only in the highland cities
of Guatemala: in Quezaltenango (8000 ft.), Huehuetenango
(6000 ft.), and Guatemala City (5000 ft.). It is probably of
recent introduction, and has not yet spread beyond the gardens
of these cities, where it is common on various ornamental plants.
Lepidosaphes beckii New. (det. G. B. Merrill)
A rather common insect on Citrus, especially in the subtropical
parts of Guatemala. Unfortunately scales of this type were
usually collected in only a few localities, so that their exact
distribution cannot be given.
Lepidosaphes gloverii Pack. (det. H. Morrison)
In the Citrus groves on the Honduras coast.
Parlatoria pergandei Comst. (det. Morrison, Merrill)
Apparently generally distributed, as it was collected both on
the tropical Caribbean coast and on the subtropical Pacific slope.
Pseudaonidia (Selenaspidus) articulatus Morg. (det. H. Morrison)
On the Honduras coast.
Pseudococcus citri Risso (det. G. B. Merrill)
This insect is sometimes a severe pest of coffee in parts of
the Pacific slope of Guatemala, especially in the cloud zone,
between 4000 ft. and 5000 ft. in elevation. It and other mealy-
bugs were observed from time to time on Citrus, but only as
occasional specimens, never as pests.
Saissetia hemisphaerica Targ. (det. Morrison)
This scale seems to be universally distributed in the region,
from the tropical coast well into the temperate zone. It was
collected from Citrus in various localities, but not noted especially
as a pest. It is sometimes very abundant on young coffee plants.
Toumeyella sp. (det. U. S. Bur. Ent.)
Reported from Citrus aurantifolia in El Salvador by Dr.
Calderon. (To be continued)
VOL. XVII-No. 2 33
TWO NEW SPECIES OF PLECTROTHRIPS
(Continued from Vol. XVII, No. 1, p. 18)
Antennae 8-segmented, 2.3 times as long as head. Segment 1 concol-
orous with the head; 2 lighter, especially apically; 3 yellow in basal .4,
blackish brown apically; 4 dark brown lighter apically; 5 and 6 brownish
yellow; 7 and 8 blackish brown. In lighter individuals the whole antenna,
except the basal .4 of segment 3, which is almost colorless, is brownish
yellow concolorous with the head. Segment one large, oblong; segment 2
narrow; 3-5 club-shaped; 6 and 7 oblong ovoid; 8 contracted to a broad
pedicel, narrow in dorsal view, oblong oval with serrated margins in side
Prothorax somewhat shorter than the head but (including coxae) near-
ly twice as wide. At each posterior angle are two pointed, pale yellow
bristles which are over half as long as the prothorax, also four minute
ones. Near the median line on the posterior border is a pair of small
bristles. At each anterior angle is a single bristle about a third as long
as those at the posterior angles; along the anterior margin four minute
ones. Midway of each lateral border is a bristle nearly as long as those
at posterior angles. A similar bristle on each coxa.
Pterothorax slightly broader than the prothorax. Wings short, mem-
brane usually reaching only the sixth abdominal segment, broad, not
narrowed in middle, lightly shaded with yellow; fore pair with 13-18 inter-
located bristles on posterior margin. Legs slender, concolorous with the
body except the fore tibiae and tarsi and sometimes the fore femora which
are lighter. Fore tibiae with a rather large blunt, oblong anteriorly-
directed-tooth on the inner margin at the apex. Tarsal tooth, heavy, long
and slightly curved.
Abdomen long and heavy, gradually narrowed posteriorly. Bristles on
segment 9 hardly as long as the tube. Tube nearly as long as the head,
sides straight, terminal bristles much shorter than the tube.
Measurements: (Average of 10 macropterous females). Body length
2.7 mm. (from 2.5 to 3.00 mm.) Head, length .27 mm., width .26 mm.;
prothorax, length .22 mm., width (including coxae) .45 mm.; pterothorax,
width .52 mm.; abdomen, width .55 mm., tube, length .25 mm., width at
base .096 mm., at apex .045 mm.
Antennal segments, length (breadth), I, 71.6 (51); II, 73.5 (36.7);
III, 109 (42); IV, 101 (42.5); V, 87 (36); VI, 80 (30); VII, 66 (26);
VIII, 64.5 (20). Total length .62 mm.
Micropterous female. Similar to macropterous female but wings reach-
ing only abdominal segment 2.
Apterous female. Wings and ocelli entirely absent. Eyes very small.
Male. Similar to apterous female, but smaller.
Measurements: (Average of two males).
Body length 2 mm. (1.8 and 2.17 mm.). Head, length .225, width .23;
prothorax, length .23, width .425; pterothorax, width, .44; abdomen, width
.46; tube, length .20; width at base .09, at apex, .039 mm. Antennal seg-
ments, length (breadth), I, 64 (45) ; II, 64 (34) ; III, 90 (35) ; IV, 82 (35) ;
V, 74 (32); VI, 68 (27) ; VII, 55 (24); VIII, 58 (17) microns. Total length
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Nymph. Grayish brown by reflected light with much bright scarlet
hypodermal pigment. Antenna 7-segmented.
Described from fourteen macropterous, one micropterous, seven apter-
ous females, two males and two nymphs. Collected by Prof. S. C. Bruner
beneath the bark of poles used as supports for lima beans at El Cano,
Cuba, Oct. 23, 1931.
NOTES ON ROCKY MOUNTAIN PIPUNCULIDAE (DIPTERA)
By GEORGE F. KNOWLTON
Utah Agricultural Experiment Station
The larvae of this family are adapted to a life of internal
parasitism, while the extremely active adults are well fitted to
capture and oviposit in small, active insects. The adult speci-
mens herein recorded were collected in connection with beet
leafhopper investigations. The writer is indebted to Mr. C. T.
Greene for the identifications.
Pipunculus unguiculatus Cress. This species was collected at
Cedar Valley, Curlew, Ellerbeck, Garfield, Garland, Grantsville,
Hansel Valley, Kelton, Magna, Orr's Ranch, Promontory, Skull
Valley, Snowville, Timpie, and Wasatch, in Utah (Knowlton::
Pipunculus subnitens Cress. Collected at Black Rock, Curlew,
Delle, Deweyville, Grantsville, Hansel Valley, Hunter, Ironton,
Kelton, Low, Promontory, and Timpie, in Utah (Knowlton::
Pipunculus horvathi Kertesz. Magna, Utah, August 14, 1931
Pipunculus dubius Cress. On sugar beets at Bothwell, Utah,
August 8, 1932 (Knowlton).
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