Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XVII OCTOBER, 1933 No. 3
ADDITIONS TO THE APHID FAUNA OF FLORIDA*
A. N. TISSOT
In this paper are described two species of aphids apparently
new to science. It also includes descriptions of the sexual forms
and of the apterous viviparous female of another species of
which only the alate viviparous female has heretofore been
Carolinaia rhois Tissot
Florida Ent. Vol. XII, No. 1, pp. 1-2, 1928 (orig. desc. ala. vivip. female).
This poison ivy aphid was first described from specimens taken
in Hocking County, Ohio. The only form taken at that time
was the alate viviparous female. In the spring of 1929 several
colonies of this species, consisting of many alate females and a
few apterous females were found at Gainesville, Florida. In
November 1929 a few small colonies were found which contained
alate viviparous females, apterous oviparous females, and winged
males. The alate viviparous females from Florida differ slightly
from the typical Ohio specimens. In the Ohio specimens the
unguis of the sixth antennal segment is considerably longer than
the third segment. In Florida specimens the unguis is usually
but little longer than the third segment. Most of the individuals
taken in Florida have one or two sensoria on the fourth segment
of the antenna. This joint is without sensoria in the Ohio speci-
mens. As the specimens from the two localities are, however,
so similar in other respects and as they have the same food plant
it seems very probable that they represent a single species.
As some of the forms of this species are still undescribed, a
description of them will be given at this time.
Apterous viviparous female. (Plate IV, figs. 1 and 2.) General color
of body and appendages yellowish-brown. Body form broadly oval, but
little longer than wide. Length of body 1.80 mm. Head reddish-yellow;
small in comparison to the size of the body. Width through the eyes, .340
*Contribution from Department of Entomology, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station. Published Oct. 10, 1933.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
20 a r.)1.97
NEW FLORIDA APHIDS-PLATE IV
Carolinaia rhois Tissot
Figs. 1-2-Apterous viviparous female: 1, antenna; 2, cornicle.
Figs. 3-7-Male: 3, head; 4, antenna; 5, cornicle; 6, anal plate; 7, cauda.
Figs. 8-9-Oviparous female: 8, antenna; 9, cornicle.
Rhopalosiphum gnaphalii n. sp.
Figs. 10-12-Alate viviparous female: 10, head, 11, antenna; 12,
Figs. 13-17-Apterous viviparous female: 13, head and prothorax;
14, antenna; 15, cornicle; 16, cauda; 17, anal plate.
Amphorophora crataegi n. sp.
Figs. 18-22-Alate viviparous female: 18, head; 19, antenna; 20, cor-
nicle; 21, cauda; 22, anal plate.
Figs. 23-25-Apterous viviparous female: 23, head; 24, antenna; 25,
VOL. XVII-No. 3
mm. Eyes very dark reddish-brown, small, closely appressed to the head,
without definite ocular tubercles. Antennae pale or dusky, about one-half
as long as the body, six-segmented though the joint between the third and
fourth segments may be faintly indicated or scarcely perceptible. The
first two segments smooth, the remaining segments faintly imbricated.
Length of the antennal segments as follows: I, .082 mm., II, .061 mm.,
III, .190 mm., IV, .136 mm., V, .150 mm., VI, base, .122 mm., unguis,
.190 mm. Segments III and IV without sensoria, the usual sensoria at
the apex of V, and at the base of the unguis. Rostrum light brown with
dark brown tip; thick and rather short, reaching but little beyond the
Thorax and abdomen yellowish, without markings. Legs yellowish or
dusky with the tarsi light brown. Cornicles light brown. Considerably
swollen above the middle, then suddenly narrowed to the apex which is
flared. Very faintly imbricated. Length .422 mm. Cauda and anal plate
dusky or light brown. Cauda triangular, somewhat constricted just before
the apex. Surface covered with short thick spines. One or two short,
fine hyaline hairs on each side arising at the point of constriction. Anal
plate broadly triangular in outline, the surface covered with spines similar
to those of the cauda, armed with several rather short hyaline hairs.
Male. (Plate IV. figs. 3-7.) General color of body and appendages
brown. Length of body, 1.24 mm. Head dark olive-brown. Width some-
what greater than the length. Posterior margin somewhat rounded, front
between the antennae produced. Width across the compound eyes, .394
mm. Eyes dark reddish-brown, large, prominent, with rather small ocular
tubercles. Ocelli bordered with black. Antennae dark brown, but slightly
lighter than the head. Six-segmented, as long as or longer than the body.
The first two segments smooth, the remaining ones definitely imbricated.
Third segment with 2-5 large circular or oval sensoria located on the basal
third, and 15-22 small circular sensoria scattered over the segment. Fourth
segment with 8-10 rather small circular sensoria. Fifth segment with 2-5
small secondary sensoria in addition to the apical primary one. Sixth
segment with 1-3 sensoria on the basal portion and the usual group at the
base of the unguis. Length of the antennal segments as follows: I, .054
mm., II, .047 mm., III, .218 mm., IV, .136 mm., V, .136 mm., VI, base, .095
mm., unguis, .258 mm., Rostrum brown, with tip black, thick and short, not
reaching to second coxae.
Thorax reddish-brown, the lobes concolorous with the head. Prothorax
but little wider than the head, with very small lateral tubercles. Wings
hyaline, stigma grayish-brown, veins brown. Forewing with media twice-
branched, the distance from the second fork to the margin of the wing about
equal to the distance between the first and second fork. Radial sector
long and sharply curved. Hind wing with a single oblique vein. Legs
brown. The greater portion of the femora, the extremities of the tibiae,
and the tarsi dark brown; bases of the femora yellowish-brown, the middle
portion of the tibiae light brown.
The anterior half of the abdomen reddish-brown, the posterior portion
yellowish-brown. The abdomen rather small in proportion to the rest
of the body. Cornicles with the basal one-half or one-third yellowish
brown, the apical portion dark brown. Widest above the middle, gradually
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
narrowed toward the base, abruptly narrowed toward the apex which is
slightly flared, finely imbricated throughout their length. Length .245
mm. Cauda and anal plate yellowish or dusky. Cauda triangular in out-
line with a narrowed apical portion. Surface thickly covered with short,
blunt, spine-like processes. Two or three slightly curved hyaline hairs on
each side near the apex. Anal plate short, broad and rounded, the surface
covered with spine-like structures similar to those of the cauda. Several
rather long curved hairs arising from small conical bases.
Oviparous female. (Plate IV, figs. 8 and 9.) Prevailing color of body
and appendages brown. Body broadly oval, length 1.60 mm. Head yellow-
ish-brown, the margin darker than the middle portion. Eyes dark reddish
brown, small, with inconspicuous ocular tubercles. Antennae about one-
half as long as the body, six-segmented. The first segment very light
brown, the remaining segments yellowish. The first segment about twice
as wide as the second. The first two segments smooth, the remaining
segments faintly imbricated. Antennae without sensoria except the usual
primary ones at the apex of the fifth segment and at the base of the
unguis. Rostrum yellowish with a dark brown apex. Well developed,
rather thick, reaching to the second coxae. Length of antennal segments
as follows: I, .054 mm., II, .048 mm., III, .150 mm., IV, .095 mm., V, .095
mm., VI, base, .095 mm., unguis, .177 mm.
Thorax about the same color as the head. Legs yellowish-brown, the
tarsi grayish or dark brown. Hind tibiae swollen, the surface rather thickly
studded with circular, raised sensoria. Numerous spine-like hyaline hairs
arising from small conical bases situated between the sensoria.
Abdomen darker brown than the head or thorax. Yellowish areas where
the eggs within the abdomen are visible through the body wall. Cornicles
yellowish-brown, darker toward the apex. Somewhat swollen above the
middle, tapering rapidly toward the apex which is slightly flared. Rather
faintly imbricated throughout their length. Length .943 mm. Cauda and
anal plate yellowish or dusky. Cauda triangular in outline, the surface
covered with short spine-like processes, two slightly curved hyaline hairs
on each side near the apex, and four or five similar hairs on the dorsal
surface. Anal plate sharply rounded, the surface covered with spine-like
processes similar to those of the cauda, numerous straight or slightly
curved hyaline hairs arising from small conical bases.
TYPES: Allotype male, taken from Toxicodendron (Rhus)
radicans, Gainesville, Nov. 22, 1929 (F 553-29), on slide with
alate viviparous female and an immature specimen. Morpho-
type apterous viviparous female from T. radicans, Gainesville,
Mar. 12, 1929, (F 497-29), on slide with two alate viviparous
females and an immature specimen. Morphotype apterous ovipa-
rous female same data as Allotype male on slide with an alate
viviparous female and two oviparous females, one of which is
immature. All of the above types deposited in the U. S. National
Museum Collection, Cat. No. 44296. Type material collected by
VOL. XVII-No. 3 41
RECORDS: Poison ivy, Toxicodendron (Rhus) radicans, Gaines-
ville, Mar. 8, 1929 (F 489-29) (apterous viviparous females),
Mar. 12, 1929 (F 497-29), Mar. 16, 1929 (F 503-29), (the last
two collections consisted of numerous alate and a few apterous
viviparous females), Nov. 22, 1929 (F 553-29) alatee viviparous
females, apterous oviparous females, and males).
Rhopalosiphum gnaphalii new species
Alate viviparous female: (Plate IV, figs. 10-12.) Length 1.32 mm.
Head dark brown or black. Frontal margin rounded, somewhat produced
at the sides forming short antennal tubercles. Posterior margin nearly
straight. Eyes very dark brown, large, prominent, with large ocular
tubercles. Ocelli rather large, the median one protruding. Antennae six-
segmented, somewhat shorter than the body. The first two segments smooth,
the third and fourth faintly imbricated, the last two definitely imbricated.
All the segments armed with a few slightly curved hyaline hairs, each
arising from a globular tubercle. The third segment with twelve rather
large sensoria, irregularly scattered over the surface of the segment. The
fourth segment with five large sensoria. The fifth segment with three
sensoria in addition to the usual primary one. The sixth segment with
one large and two or three small sensoria at the base of the unguis. Length
of the antennal segments as follows: I, .082 mm., II, .054 mm., III, .231
mm., IV, .122 mm., V, .122 mm., VI, base, .082 mm., unguis, .381 mm.
Rostrum brown with apex black, rather thick and reaching to the middle
Prothorax but little wider than the head with small rounded lateral
tubercles. Thoracic lobes dark brown or black. Wings hyaline with the
stigma and veins very light brown. Fore wing with the media twice-
branched, the second fork very close to the margin of the wing. Hind
wing rather large in proportion to the fore wing, with two oblique veins.
Legs brown, the bases of the femora and the greater portion of the tibiae
yellowish-brown, the larger portion of the femora, the apices of the tibiae,
and all of the tarsi dark brown.
Abdomen green, the margins dusky. Cornicles brown. Narrowest at
the base, somewhat swollen above the middle, then abruptly constricted
before the apex which is broadly flared. Very definitely imbricated
throughout their length. Length, .190 mm. Cauda and anal plate brown.
Cauda broadest at the base, somewhat constricted above the middle, with
two curved hairs arising from each side. Anal plate broadly rounded,
with several rather long somewhat curved hyaline hairs, and a few shorter
and thicker curved hairs. The surface of the cauda and anal plate thickly
studded with short spine-like processes.
Apterous viviparous female. (Plate IV, figs. 13-17.) General form of
the body rectangular when viewed from above. Length, 2.04 mm. Head
rather small in proportion to the size of the body. Front rounded and
armed with four rather long, curved, hyaline hairs. Sides produced into
short though definite antennal tubercles. Width of head through the
compound eyes, .435 mm. Eyes very dark reddish-brown, large, with large
ocular tubercles. Antennae six-segmented about one-half as long as the
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
body, brown. The first two segments smooth, the remaining ones imbri-
cated. Third segment with 8-12 small, circular, scattered sensoria, the
fourth with 4-6, the fifth with 0-1 in addition to the large primary one,
the sixth segment with the usual group of one large and two or three
small sensoria at the base of the unguis. All the segments armed with
a few prominent, long, curved, hyaline hairs. Length of the segments as
follows: I, .082 mm., II, .054 mm., III, .204 mm., IV, .095 mm., V, .095 mm.,
VI, base, .068 mm., unguis, .326 mm. Rostrum dark brown, thick, reaching
nearly to the hind coxae.
Prothorax slightly wider than the head with large, wrinkled lateral
tubercles. The other thoracic segments and the abdomen considerably
wider than the prothorax. The abdomen armed with a few rather promi-
nent curved hairs. The entire surface of the thorax and abdomen covered
with irregular rows of fine spine-like processes. Legs brown, armed with
numerous prominent spine-like hairs. Cornicles dark brown. Widest at
the base, sharply constricted before the apex which is broadly flared.
The entire surface of the cornicles marked by curved imbrications. Length,
.231 mm. Cauda and anal plate brown. Cauda widest at the base, slightly
constricted above the middle with two curved hairs on each side. Anal
plate rounded with several curved hairs. The entire surface of the cauda
and anal plate thickly set with short, thick spine-like processes.
TYPE LOCALITY: Plant City, Florida.
TYPES: Holotype alate viviparous female taken on Cyperus
esculentus Jan. 22, 1930 (Q 288-28) and morphotype apterous
viviparous female taken from Gnaphalium sp., Jan. 24, 1930
(Q 288-29) deposited in the U. S. National Museum Collection,
Cat. No. 44297. Type material collected by G. F. Stahl.
NOTES: There are only two collections of this aphid as indi-
cated above. The first consists of a single alate female. On the
same slide with the alate female are three apterous females of
Carolinaia cyperi, a species commonly found on nut grass. The
second collection consists of a single slide on which are mounted
one mature apterous female, two immature apterous females
and one pupa of the alate female. It seems quite probable that
the alate female taken on the nut grass was there accidentally
and that the host plant of the aphid is Gnaphalium. Only pre-
served material is available and it is impossible to determine
definitely the original color of this species, but it is apparently
green with dark head, thoracic lobes, cornicles, and appendages.
RECORDS: Cyperus esculentus, Nut grass, Plant City, Jan. 22,
1930 (Q 28828) (G. F. Stahl); Gnaphalium sp., Plant City,
Jan. 24, 1930 (Q 28829) (G. F. Stahl).
Amphorophora crataegi new species
Alate viviparous female: (Plate IV, figs. 18-22.) Prevailing color of
the body yellowish. Length 1.60 mm. Head greenish-yellow. Width
VOL. XVII-No. 3
somewhat greater than the length, posterior margin slightly rounded,
antennal tubercles definite though rather short. Width across the com-
pound eyes .462 mm. Eyes reddish-brown, prominent, with small ocular
tubercles. Ocelli bordered with dark brown. Antennae six-segmented,
longer than the body. First two segments dusky, the remaining segments
an intense black. The first segment about twice as long and much wider
than the second, somewhat gibbous on the inside margin. The first two
segments smooth, the remaining ones imbricated. Third segment of the
right antenna with 23 more or less circular sensoria, the fourth segment
without sensoria. The corresponding segments of the left antenna with
21 and 1 sensoria respectively. The fifth segment of each antenna with
one apical sensorium, the sixth with one large and two or three smaller
sensoria at the base of the unguis. Length of the antennal segments as
follows: I, .136 mm., II, .068 mm., III, .653 mm., IV, .544 mm., V, .530
mm., VI, base, .136 mm., unguis, .925 mm. Rostrum light yellowish-brown
with the extreme tip black, rather thick, scarcely reaching to second coxae.
Prothorax concolorous with the head, meso- and metathorax more yellow,
the lobes pale dusky. Prothorax somewhat wider than the head, narrowest
in front and widening rapidly posteriorly, without noticeable lateral tu-
bercles. The anterior edge of the mesothorax with a small cone-shaped
tubercle on each side. Wings hyaline, stigma and veins brown. Fore wing
with the radial sector present, rather long. Media twice-branched, the
distance from the second fork to the margin of the wing less than the
distance between the first and second forks. Hind wing with two oblique
veins. All pairs of legs with femora greenish-yellow at the base, the
apical portion light brown, the tibiae and the tarsi black. The legs with
short hyaline hairs.
Abdomen greenish-yellow with bright green markings on the dorsum.
On each side of the middle line near the thorax is an area of this bright
green while a similar area lies just anterior to each cornicle. The two
patches of each side connected by an irregular line of the same color.
Cornicles dusky but filled with dark green globules which cause them to
appear a dull green. Greatest width about one-third the distance from
the apex to the base, tapering to the apex which is flared, a more gradual
taper toward the middle with a slight expansion at the base. Surface of
the cornicles smooth without reticulations or imbrications, length .435 mm.
Cauda and anal plate concolorous with the abdomen or faintly dusky.
Cauda about one-third as long as the cornicles, cone-shaped without an
evident constriction. The surface thickly covered with short spine-like
processes, three slightly curved hyaline hairs on each side between the
middle and the apex, each of these hairs arising from a conical base. The
anal plate somewhat elongated with rather straight lateral margins, the
posterior margin curved. The surface covered with spine-like processes
similar to those of the cauda, and armed with several curved hairs, each
arising from a raised conical base.
Apterous viviparous female. (Plate IV, figs. 23-25.) Prevailing color
of body and appendages yellow. Body oval, narrowed anteriorly and
widest about the middle of the abdomen. Head greenish-yellow, width
greater than the length, rather large antennal tubercles. Eyes reddish-
brown with prominent ocular tubercles. Antennae six-segmented, con-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
siderably longer than the body. First two segments concolorous with the
head, third and fourth segments yellow with very small apical portions
brown, fifth segment yellow with apical one-third brown, sixth segment
entirely brown. First two segments smooth, the remaining segments
imbricated. The third and fourth segments without sensoria, the fifth
with the usual apical one, and the sixth with one large and five small
sensoria at the base of the unguis. Rostrum light brown with apex black,
reaching to second coxae. Prothorax with small lateral tubercles, the other
thoracic segments and the abdomen without tubercles. Legs yellow with
the tarsi and the apices of the tibiae brown. Cornicles yellow or slightly
dusky, distinctly swollen, the widest portion about one-third the distance
from the apex to the base, the apex flared. Surface smooth, without
imbrications or reticulations. Cauda and anal plate concolorous with the
abdomen, shaped as in the alate female. The surface of each covered
with spine-like processes, the cauda with three curved hairs on each side,
the anal plate with several such hairs, each arising from a raised conical
Measurements of the apterous female as follows: length, 1.80 mm.,
width of head across the eyes, .435 mm., length of antennal segments, I,
.150 mm., II, .76 mm., III, .558 mm., IV, .476 mm., V, .462 mm., VI, base,
.136 mm., unguis, .789 mm., cornicles, .476 mm.
TYPE LOCALITY: Gainesville, Florida.
TYPES: Holotype alate viviparous female from Crataegus
uniflora, Gainesville, Feb. 15, 1929 (F 470-29), deposited in the
U. S. National Museum Collection, Cat. No. 44298. Morphotype
apterous viviparous female same data as the holotype in the
collection of the writer. Paratypes from the same lot as the
holotype in the collections of the Entomology Department of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and in that of the
NOTES: This yellowish aphid appears to be rather similar to
Macrosiphum crataegi (Monell), but differs from it in certain
respects. In M. crataegi the cornicles are only slightly swollen,
the constriction near the apex accentuating the appearance of
being swollen. In Amphorophora crataegi the cornicles are very
definitely swollen. The antennal segments of A. crataegi are
very finely and faintly imbricated whereas the imbrications in
M. crataegi are coarser and more definite. Specimens of this
species were examined by Dr. P. W. Mason who expressed the
opinion that it was an undescribed species of Amphorophora.
The fore wing of this species shows considerable variation in
the branching of the media. The typical condition seems to be
a twice-branched media. Of ten individuals studied, four had
one wing with the media twice-branched and the other wing
with this vein once-branched, and the two remaining individuals
had both wings with the media but once-branched.
VOL. XVII-No. 3
The measurements of the different structures of ten individ-
uals are as follows: length, 1.40-1.72 mm., width of head, .408-
.462 mm., length of antennal segments, III, .598-.653 mm., IV,
.544-.612 mm., V, 503-.585 mm., VI, base, .122-.136 mm., unguis,
.843-.966 mm., length of cornicles, .408-.499 mm., third segment
of the antenna with 14-23 sensoria, fourth segment with 0-3
RECORDS: Crataegus uniflora, Gainesville, Feb. 15, 1929 (F
INSECT PARASITES OF CITRUS IN CENTRAL AMERICA
By MARSTON BATES
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.
(Continued from Vol. XVII, No. 2, p. 32)
Papilio thoas Linn. (Papilionidae)
Both this species and cresphontes are common on the Caribbean
coast, and larvae were frequently found on Citrus.
Papilio anchisiades Esp. (Papilionidae)
This species belongs to a large group of tropical American
Papilios whose larvae, as far as known, are all Citrus feeders.
The life-history of anchisiades has been described several times;
the larvae look much like our orange dogs, but live in large colo-
nies of forty or fifty caterpillars, capable of defoliating a small
tree in a very short time. The insect is generally distributed
in the region.
Eantis pallida Felder (Hesperidae)
Like other Hesperidae, the larva of this species is a leaf-roller.
It was found in all parts of the region, but never commonly.
Another species of the genus (Eantis thraso) has been recorded
as feeding on Citrus in Porto Rico (Walcott, 1923).
Ecpantheria icasia Cramer (Arctiidae)
Larvae of this species were several times found on Citrus
at Tela, Honduras. As other species of the genus are known to
be general feeders, it is likely that icasia too has a wide range
Anastrepha ludens Loew (Trypetidae)
Fruit flies were my primary study during the three years
that I spent in Honduras and Guatemala; but of the five species
of Anastrepha bred from cultivated fruits, only ludens was found
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
in Citrus. It occurs on the Pacific slope of Guatemala from sea
level to five thousand feet, but apparently does not extend above
the line of occasional frosts. On the Atlantic side it was found
down the Motagua river valley as far as Zacapa (600 ft.), but
never on the Caribbean coast, although a special search was
made for it there. It is difficult to understand this limit of
distribution, unless it be due to some environmental factor, as
there is no natural barrier between Zacapa and the coast. The
Zacapa region is typically xerophytic, and the entire Pacific
coast is characterized by a pronounced dry season, even though
in some places where ludens occurs the annual rainfall may be
much higher (200 inches) than on the Caribbean coast (150
inches) where it does not occur. A careful study of the southern
limits of the insect would probably be instructive.
Ludens is typically a pest of the sour orange, occurring rather
rarely in sweet oranges. It is found also in matasanos (Casi-
miroa edulis, Rutaceae, indigenous), and in mangos (Anacar-
diaceae, introduced). It was not found in other Anacardiaceous
fruits, typically the hosts of a quite different Anastrepha, appar-
ently as yet undescribed.
The Federal Horticultural Board has recently published a
report of fruit fly surveys on the Caribbean coast of Central
America, made by Dr. Mann and Mr. Kostal (Anon., 1926).
It is notable that no larvae of Anastrepha were found in Citrus
fruits, although adults of various species were collected, and
larvae were found in other kinds of fruit. Larvae of Euxesta sp.
(Ortalidae) were found in oranges, but as these have previously
been found only in injured fruit, further investigation must be
made before these flies can be listed as pests. We have 10
native species of Euxesta in Florida (Johnson, 1913, p. 82).
Solenopsis geminata Fab. (Formicidae)
These fierce little ants are widely distributed and always a
nuisance, and there are a few references to them as enemies of
Citrus in the literature. In widely varying environments in
Central America (Tela, Honduras: low, very tropical; Antigua,
Guatemala: high, somewhat arid, and temperate) they were
the principal enemies of young Citrus trees. The nests were
generally located at the base of the tree, and extensive sand-
covered galleries were built up over the trunk, under which the
tree would sometimes be completely girdled. Not satisfied with
this, the ants would chew off the terminal shoots, severely check-
VOL. XVII-No. 3
ing growth. Tower, 1911, has described this habit of Solenopsis
in Porto Rico.
Atta spp. (Formicidae)
The leaf-cutting ants, wherever they occur, cause severe dam-
age to Citrus, the trees of this genus being among the plants
most subject to attack. Three species of economic importance
were found in Central America: Atta mexicana Smith (Salva-
dor), Atta sexdens Linn. (highlands of Guatemala, det. Mann),
and Atta cephalotes Linn. (Honduras, Mann, 1922: "compara-
tively little damage to Citrus").
Trigona spp. (Meliponidae)
Small black stingless bees of the genus Trigona are perhaps
the most striking pest of Citrus in the lowlands of Honduras.
Two species are commonly involved: Trigona amalthea Oliv.,
and Trigona silvestriana Vachal (det. Schwarz). They are
especially abundant on young trees, and seem to show a prefer-
ence for grapefruit. They strip the bark from the main trunks
of the trees and chew up the terminal leaflets, apparently in an
effort to collect the sticky sap, probably for use in the construc-
tion of their nests.
I do not know of any record of these insects heretofore as pests
of Citrus, although they have been frequently observed on
bananas, where they cause scars along the ridges of the fruit,
made in an effort to collect the latex. The list of plants subject
to attack is, in fact, large, and their only common characteristic
seems to be the possession of a sticky sap or latex. In Tela the
bees were especially damaging to species of Garcinia, to bread-
fruit, and to bananas. They were frequently observed on forest
trees that had been injured, so that the sap was flowing.
Anon., 1926. Fruit-Fly surveys in Honduras, British Honduras and Gaute-
mala. U. S. D. A., Fed. Hort. Board, Service and Regulatory Announce-
ments, No. 86, p. 10.
Baker, A. C. 1923. An undescribed orange pest from Honduras. Jour.
Ag. Res., XXV, pp. 253-254, pl. 1, 2.
Johnson, C. W. 1913. Insects of Florida. I. Diptera. Bull. Am. Mus.
Nat. Hist., XXXII, pp. 37-90.
Mann, W. M. 1922. Ants from Honduras and Guatemala. Proc. U. S.
N. M., 61, pp. 1-54.
Tower, W. V. 1911. Insects Injurious to Citrus Fruits and Methods for
Combating Them. Bull. 10, P. R. Ag. Exp. Sta., pp. 1-35.
Wolcott, G. N. 1923. Insectae Portoricensis. Jour. Dept. Agr., Porto Rico,
VII, p. 1-312.
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
VOL. XVII OCTOBER, 1933 No. 3
J. R. WATSON .-......--..........--....---.....--.-......---................---- ... Editor
E. W. BERGER----......--......-.....-.....--.......................Associate Editor
H. E. BRATLEY.......-..............----- ..-......................Business Manager
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF OEDALEOTHRIPS
WITH NOTES ON OTHER SPECIES*
J. R. WATSON
Female (Apterous). Body length about 2.17 mm. General color dark
brown, head and abdomen nearly black, thorax, tarsi and antennal segments
1 and 2 lighter, yellowish brown, antennal segment 3 yellow shaded with
brown on apical and basal thirds. An ivory white band extends entirely
across the dorsal surface of abdominal segment 1, and a similar tho
smaller band extends a third of the distance across the ventral surface.
A similar large blotch on each side of segment 5 is nearly as wide as the
segment. Very small spots on segments 3 and 4.
HEAD nearly twice as long as wide, widest across the eyes, quite marked-
ly constricted near the base which is about three-fourths as wide as the
width across the eyes. Dorsal surface near base with a distinct though
fine network. Postocular bristles short but thick, capitate, brown, a pair
of similar but lighter bristles at the bases of the antennae and another
pair on the inner margin of the first antennal segments. These bristles
are much heavier than similarly situated bristles on 0. jacksoni and 0.
EYES large, flat, protruding, not produced posteriorly on ventral side.
Ocelli lacking, mouth cone very broad, reaching a little over halfway across
ANTENNAE about 1.2 as long as head. Segment 1 about as wide as long,
dark brown, lighter at base; 2 dark brown, lighter at apex; 3 clavate,
widest at apex, sides conspicuously concave; 4 widest at apex, from whence
it tapers evenly to a broad base, prolonged on inner side at apex, very
dark brown; 5 inserted on 4 at an angle, similar to 4 in shape but apical
prolongation less pronounced.
PROTHORAX only half as long as head, and (including coxae) two-thirds
wider than long. Pterothorax narrowed, but wider than the head (narrow-
*Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Florida Agricultural
VOL. XVII-NO. 3
er in 0. jacksoni), anterior angles of the mesothorax extended into a thin
plate-like membrane, metanotum with conspicuous, concentric amastomising
striae. Legs slender; fore tarsus with a stout tooth with a recurved tip.
ABDOMEN heavy, about twice as wide as pterothorax. Tube black, less
than half as long as head and more than twice as wide at base as at apex;
bristles about three-fourths as long as the tube, colorless and pointed.
Those on segment 9 of about the same length but capitate.
MEASUREMENTS of holotype: Length 2.2 mm.; head, length .50 mm.,
width across the eyes .285 mm., width at base .21 mm.; prothorax, length
.22 mm., width (including coxae) .40 mm.; pterothorax, width .32 mm.;
abdomen, width .60 mm., tube, length .20 mm., width at base .14 mm., at
apex .065 mm.
Antennal segments length (width) I, 54 (54); II, 80 (41) ; III, 160 (43);
IV, 103 (45); V, 101 (41); VI, 80 (38); VII, 52 (33); VIII, 46 (20)
microns. Total length .63 mm.
Described from a single female taken from egg masses of some
insect on Acacia farnesiana from Buenos Aires, Argentina, by
W. B. Wood of B. P. Q., U. S. D. A. Named for Mr. J. E. Walter,
who first mounted and examined this insect and placed it in its
The long head, widest across the eyes, the color of the first
two antennal segments which are much darker than the third,
the heavy spines at the base of the antennae and on the first
segment will distinguish this species from others of the genus.
Oedaleothrips andrei n. sp.
Female (apterous). Length about 2 mm. (1.7 mm. to 2.5 mm.). Head
and abdomen blackish brown; pterothorax lighter; prothorax, legs, and
antennal segment 1 brownish yellow; segments 2-5 and sometimes base
of 6 brighter yellow, 5 shaded with brown in apical half. No ivory colored
blotches on abdomen.
HEAD but little longer than wide, widest across the eyes, about .8 as
wide at the base. Cheeks arched; dorsal surface reticulated posteriorly.
Postoculars about as long as the eyes, pale, with pointed tips. The setae
at base of antennae very thin and inconspicuous. Eyes small, not pro-
truding, extended posteriorally on ventral surface. Ocelli very small,
smaller than the facets of the eyes. Antennae less than twice as long
as the head. Sense cones and spines colorless but long and slender.
PROTHORAX .7 as long as head, and (including coxae) a third wider.
Spines on coxae colorless and sharp pointed.
PTEROTHORAX nearly as wide as prothorax and distinctly wider than the
head. Metanotum smooth. Legs slender, fore tarsus unarmed. Abdomen
large and heavy; terminal bristles of tube and those on segment 9 about
as long as tube.
Head, length .30 mm., width .26 mm.; prothorax, length .21 mm., width
.41 mm.; pterothorax, width .37 mm.; abdomen width, .62 mm.; tube,
length .20 mm., width at base .10 mm., at apex .047 mm. Antennal seg-
ments, length (breadth) I, 41 (52) ; II, 70 (39) ; III, 97 (37) ; IV, 89 (38);
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
V, 82 (40); VI, 70 (35); VII, 59 (26); VIII, 51 (15) microns. Total
length .55 mm.
Male only a trifle smaller than the female (1.6 mm. to 2.17 mm.). Fore
femora greatly enlarged, reaching to the middle of the eyes and two-thirds
as thick as the head. Fore tibiae conspicuously bent, a small rounded
tooth at the apex on the inside. Tarsal tooth large, recurved.
Measurements (average of three). Head, length, .29 mm., width .24
mm.; prothorax, length .23 mm.; width (including coxae) .43 mm.; ptero-
thorax, width .38 mm.; abdomen, width .55 mm.; tube, length .19 mm.;
width at base .107 mm., at apex .047 mm.
Antennae, length (breadth); I, 46 (49); II, 65 (37); III, 92 (36);
IV, 87 (35); V, 80 (36) ; VI, 70 (33) ; VII, 57 (24) ; VIII, 46 (13) microns.
Total length .53 mm.
Described from four females and four males taken from a
haystack at Boone, Iowa, Mar. 1, 1933 and at Ames, Iowa, Jan.
25, 1933 by Mr. Floyd Andre.
This species lacks many of the characteristics of the species
of the genus hitherto described, including the ivory white
blotches on the abdomen. The pterothorax is not as narrow as
in other species, giving the insect a less ant-like appearance,
ventral prolongations on antennal segments 4-6 scarcely notice-
able. However, the shape of the head, antennae, eyes, mouth
cone and heavy abdomen indicate clearly that it belongs in this
(To be continued)
FRED W. WALKER KILLED
F. W. Walker, a member of the Florida Ent. Soc. and Assistant
Entomologist of the Florida Agric. Experiment Station in charge
of the laboratory for the study of pecan insects at Monticello,
Fla., was killed in an automobile accident during the night of
October 8-9. He had worked chiefly on pecan and banana insects
and on orthoptera.
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