Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1934
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00285
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XVIII NOVEMBER, 1934 No. 3

NOTES ON NEOTERMES CASTANEUS BURM.
W. L. THOMPSON'
Neotermes castaneus Burm. is one of a few different species
of termites that work in live wood, or, rather in growing trees.
It is known as a dry wood termite, differing from the subterran-
ean termites in that it is larger and does not require so much
moisture or direct connection with the ground.
The writer has observed this termite only in Polk County,
Florida, but Dr. T. E. Snyder' has collected it in different locali-
ties in Dade County and he states that dead winged adults were
found in Mediterranean fruit fly traps in Osceola, Orange, and
Seminole counties.
The host plants observed are citrus trees-including grape-
fruit, orange, tangerine and lime-the live-oak and mangrove2
trees. There are probably many other hosts not listed, as ex-
periments conducted in the laboratory for the past twelve months
show that these termites are thriving on various kinds of lum-
ber; such as cypress, oak, white-pine, and pitch pine. Bequeart
(1) states that guava trees in Brazil are attacked by these insects.
Termites attack limbs, trunk, and roots of trees, and in the
majority of the ones examined all three of the sections mentioned
were attacked. Galleries nine feet in length have been found
in the roots. However, such lengths are exceptional, from three
to six feet being the rule. In many cases some of the main roots,
as well as the smaller ones (some being only three-sixteenths
of an inch in diameter) are reduced to mere shells. The galleries
often come to the surface, allowing fungi to get a foot-hold.
The tap root on some of the badly infested trees was entirely
gone, but whether that was due wholly to the work of termites
or partly to fungi was not determined. As a rule there is only
one gallery per root, especially in the smaller ones. Often the
gallery from the main root into the lateral ones is quite small,
'Assistant Entomologist, Fla. Agricultural Experiment Station.
SDr. T. E. Snyder, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


but farther out it is much enlarged, giving the appearance that
the termites first make a passageway and then enlarge it as they
work back. This in time kills that root, since there is nothing
but a shell left.
The trunk of
the tree is usually
attacked rather
severely. The
main position of
Sthe colony appears
Sl to be about ground
Level or in the
crown. It is in
this section that
e the galleries are
the largest, espe-
v cially in a heavily
infested tree.
wl tThey vary in size
from many small
ones to those of
three to five inch-
es in diameter.
Sometimes there
are many small
ones around one
larger gallery,
with only very
; thin layers of
wood between.
Fig. 1.-A wound in a citrus tree through which The galleries may
the Dry Wood Termites entered.
or may not follow
the grain of the wood; sometimes they run directly across it.
The limbs, too, may be hollowed out. In citrus trees termites
have been found in limbs eight feet from the ground and in live
oaks up to eighteen feet. In several cases the limbs of citrus
were hollowed out to such an extent that they were only shells,
yet bearing a heavy crop of fruit. Normally it takes a very
strong wind to break grapefruit limbs even though they are
heavily loaded with fruit. After the hurricane of September,
1933, broken limbs were observed on trees infested with termites,
while there were very few broken ones on normal trees in the
same block. It is interesting to note here that one of the infested









VOL. XVIII-No. 3


trees was along the edge of the grove, adjacent to uncleared
land that was wooded with oak trees. Two termite infested
oaks within fifty feet of this tree were blown down during the
hurricane.
Many of the termite infested citrus trees have been discovered
more or less by chance. Grove workers found the majority of
them while they were treating trees that had diseased bark
or wood. In treating the affected part of the tree the diseased
portion is chiselled away. In cutting away the diseased wood
the galleries are sometimes reached. When they come near the
surface of a limb, they cause an exudation of gum, giving the
appearance of gummosis, a common citrus disease. The bark
sometimes splits and after healing makes a kerous scar-Figure
1. Watson (4). Since a number of grove workers have become
acquainted with indications of termites, more infested trees
have been reported. All except three of the infested citrus trees
under twelve years of age were stunted, and so were some of
those over twenty years. The three that were not stunted had
just recently been attacked and the termite colony in each had
no more than fifty individuals. Four trees over twenty years
old, and within an area of one hundred feet square, appeared to
be in as good condition as adjacent ones although the trunk and
limbs had been badly hollowed out. The roots were not exam-
ined. Younger trees that were heavily infested were in a
condition of decline, while others, although stunted and sparse
of foliage, had green, healthy leaves.
DESCRIPTION: The winged sexual forms are nine to ten six-
teenths of an inch in length (with the wings) and reddish brown
in color. The mature workers are about seven sixteenths of an
inch long, the color varying from a dirty white to mottled colors
of very dark brown to a light reddish brown. The soldiers are
about the same length as the workers, except they have large
brownish colored heads with black toothed mandibles; the abdo-
men is dirty white to mottled. The eggs are bean-shaped and
white to pale reddish color.
HABITS: Although Neotermes castaneous is classed as a dry
wood termite, it evidently requires more moisture than those
belonging to the family Kalotermes. Light (3) states "-it is
confined to the desert area (in California) and is found chiefly
at or below ground level and thus in damper wood, than Kalo-
termes." In Florida they go above ground level in live trees,
but the larger galleries above and below ground are filled with
a dark brown residue, resembling wet clay, thus keeping a con-










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


stant damp condition near where they are working. A few tests
were carried out to determine the length of time termites would
live when no appreciable amount of moisture was present. Small
pieces of various kinds of wood were placed in glass jars with
twenty termites of various sizes in each one. The bottom of
each jar was covered with dry sand to enable the termites to
crawl around. All the containers were placed in a dark cage.
The results showed that the difference in time of death between
those that received no food and the ones that had available food
and lived the longest was only twenty days.

FEEDING EXPERIMENT WITH MINIMUM AMOUNT OF MOISTURE
No. of Living Termites After Time Approximate
Indicated Number of
Food Material 110 13 18 24 31 38 43 52 Days Until All
SDays I Days Days Days Days Days Days Days Were Dead
No food ...... ...... 18 14 13 5 0 ..-- -......... ...... 25 to 31
Dry white pine ......... 18 13 13 2 0 ................ 25 to 31
Dry citrus roots ..... 16 16 13 6 0 ............. ..-- 25 to 31
Green citrus roots .... 20 19 19 9 2 0 ............. 38 to 48
Dry cypress ............. 19 16 12 9 6 2 0 --.... 43 to 52
Dry pitch pine........... 16 11 10 6 4 3 2 0 43 to 52
Dry filter paper.........-............... .... 4 4 3 0 43 to 52

Termites feeding on filter paper were in a glass tube and were not
exposed to the air as much as those in jars.

In another test two pieces of dry cypress, five inches long and
half an inch thick, were placed on end in a glass jar. Twenty
termites were placed between the pieces of wood and just enough
damp sand was used to make a mold around the wood so that
when dry sand was poured into the jar the space between the
wood would not be filled. The jar was filled about half full of
dry sand so that one fourth of the wood was exposed to the air.
After seventy-six days the termites were all dead, and a very
small amount of wood had been eaten. The insects lived much
longer when the wood was entirely covered by sand. Dry citrus
roots along with twenty termites were placed in a jar covered
with a mold of damp sand, and then covered with dry sand that
had been in the laboratory for more than a year. After six
months one termite was still alive. The moisture was, no doubt,
retained longer in this jar than in those in which part of the









VOL. XVIII-No. 3


wood was exposed to the air, but nevertheless the termites were
able to live quite a long time with a very small amount of mois-
ture. Several pieces of the wood were hollowed out.
Another series of tests is being run in which oak, cypress,
pine, and citrus wood, respectively, are covered with damp sand.
In another test damp filter paper is used. After twelve months,
at the time this paper is being written, each colony appears to
be thriving. In a glass cylinder where the termites are feeding
on the filter paper sexual forms have developed, eggs were de-
posited, and young nymphs hatched. Young nymphs were also
observed in the jar containing cypress wood. The eggs were
noted four months after the experiment was started.
The termites that are feeding on damp filter paper can be
studied to a certain extent, since they are in a glass cylinder
which is closed at each end with corks and is twelve inches long
and over an inch in diameter. When eggs were first observed,
they were scattered over one small area and a few were on the
side of the cylinder. One of the workers was seen picking up
an egg and disappearing with it into a gallery. The following
day no eggs were seen. Several days later it was noted that a
number of workers were eating away part of one of the cork
stoppers. Upon closer examination twenty-two eggs were counted
on the cork in the area where they had been working. It oc-
curred to the writer that the termites may prefer for the eggs
a drier condition than that which existed in one of the galleries.
The filter paper is merely kept damp but the passage ways have
the appearance of being almost wet.
Six months after the first nymphs were observed the whole
colony was taken out of the tube. Sixty-three nymphs and
twenty-seven unhatched eggs were counted. The nymphs were
placed in another tube to determine the length of time for sexual
forms to develop. The eggs were put in a separate tube to
determine whether the very young nymphs could live without
being fed. After thirty-seven days the eggs had all hatched
but the nymphs soon died. During the ten months the colony
was left undisturbed, the number of the original termites had
decreased from twenty-five to seventeen. They were not ob-
served daily, but no dead individuals were ever noticed.
Little difference in size between the fertilized queen and the
workers was noted. There appeared to be two mature females,
and two males. Only one individual had wing stubs.
It was first thought that the termites gained entrance into
the tree through the roots, since these were badly hollowed out








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


on all trees that had been dug out, and in several cases only the
trunk and roots were infested. While one citrus tree was being
dug out, an oak log about four feet under the ground and just
to one side of the tree was uncovered. The log was heavily
infested with termites as were the roots and trunk of the citrus
tree. At a later date three orange trees, all within an area of
one half acre, were found to have a small colony of termites in
each. In two of the trees the termites were in a main limb and
in the other, the crotch. In one limb the galleries were not more
than one foot long and the other, two feet. Where they had
entered at the crotch, the galleries were not over six inches long.
The infested areas were in limbs three inches in diameter, and
about two feet from the ground. In each case the termites had
entered through an old wound where a limb had split off. The
wood had started to decay to the extent that the outer layer was
fairly soft. Figure 1 shows where they entered a tree at the
crotch where a limb had split off and the wood had started to
decay. During the previous year one heavily infested tree had
been found in this grove with many winged adults in the colony.
A small lemon tree two and one half inches in diameter was
transplanted to a box in the greenhouse. On the trunk there
was an old wound where a sprout had been cut off and the bark
had not fully grown over it, thus leaving a small depression.
The exposed wood had started to decay, being rather soft on the
surface. A pair of winged termites were placed in this depres-
sion and confined by wrapping a piece of cloth around the tree.
A week after the termites were introduced, they apparently had
made no effort to eat into the wood. One had lost its wings.
A week later another examination was made. The termites had
evidently entered the tree, as the depression was filled with fine
wood, like sawdust. Further examinations have not been made
to date.
Natural Enemies: Ants, no doubt, are a big factor in hinder-
ing these insects from establishing many new colonies. Several
experiments have been destroyed because of ants killing the
winged adults. In the laboratory if they are not protected the
ants will destroy them. The writer has not been fortunate
enough to observe the length of time it takes a pair of termites
to eat into a tree and conceal themselves, but it is safe to say
long enough for ants to find them.
The termites feeding on damp filter paper are covered with
very small mites. These mites are on the head, legs, and body
of the termites but apparently are doing little harm to their host.









VOL. XVIII-No. 3


The nymphs are small, colorless individuals that cling to the
termites and are hard to remove. Through the courtesy of Dr.
T. E. Snyder, the mites were identified as a species of Tyro-
glyphidae. The species was not determined as only the migratory
nymphs were sent. According to Essig (2), this family of mites
live on cereals, bulbs, and roots of plants. During the most of
their lives the mites are free moving, but there is a non-feeding,
migrating stage or condition known as hypophus during which
they take no food. It is in this stage that these mites attach
themselves to other insects for the purpose of being transported
to favorable host plants. It has not been determined what these
mites live on, but, as stated above, the termite colony is growing
in spite of the fact that all of the individuals are literally covered
with these mites.
LITERATURE CITED
(1) BEQUEART, J. Entomological News, Vol. 36, December, 1925.
(2) ESSIG, E. O. Insects of Western North America.
(3) LIGHT, S. F. Termites and Termite Damage, Circular 314, California
Agricultural Experiment Station.
(4) WATSON, J. R., and BERGER, E. W. Citrus Insects and Their Control,
Extension Bulletin 67, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE OLEANDER CATERPILLAR
(Syntomeida epilais Walker)
Since the publication of its life history and distribution in
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST of March 1932, this insect has
gradually extended its range northward. In 1933 it was reported
as doing considerable damage to oleanders (Nerium oleander)
at Daytona Beach, Orlando, Groveland and Montverde, Florida.
During the summer of 1934 it made a sudden expansion
toward the north, reaching Gainesville in September, where the
larvae were noticeably plentiful on the oleander. From Orlando
it was reported by Dr. R. L. Miller as feeding on Carissa grandi-
flora and from Montverde by Mr. F. P. Lawrence on Bougain-
villia.
It seems to be acclimating itself to the cooler weather and
the winters of northern Florida. Heretofore it has been regarded
as a strictly tropical species.
H. E. BRATLEY.


















































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FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society,
Gainesville, Florida.

VOL. XVIII NOVEMBER, 1934 No. 3

J. R. W ATSON --.................-...--..-..-- ...--........-...-........--..............Editor
E. W BERGER -.....-........- --.......-........................... Associate Editor
H. E. BRATLEY ..............-.............-..-...............--..... Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

A BIG-EYED BUG PREDATOR OF THE POTATO PSYLLID'
GEORGE F. KNOWLTON2
The big-eyed bug, Geocoris decoratus Uhler, is generally dis-
tributed throughout Utah and commonly occurs upon potatoes
in all parts of this state. This bug had previously been found
to be an important enemy of the beet leafhopper" and in addition
had been observed feeding upon small flies and nymphal false
chinch bugs as well as upon several other kinds of small insects.
Four adult G. decorates were placed in an 8-dram shell vial
with 15 adult Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Within a few min-
utes a male Geocoris had inserted its stylets into a psyllid, upon
which it fed for 12 minutes. During most of the feeding process,
the predator dangled the victim from the end of its rostrum,
which was held outstretched in front. At the end of 12 minutes,
a second Geocoris approached and started feeding upon the
same psyllid. The first predator released its mouthparts and
walked off; the second fed upon the psyllid for 15 minutes.
Within an hour all four Geocoris fed upon adult potato psyllids.
Three adult Geocoris were placed in a 2-dram vial with sev-
eral adult potato psyllids. One Geocoris thrust its stylets into
the thorax of a psyllid and began feeding. One minute later
the still active psyllid gave a vigorous jump, which carried it
for about half an inch, moving the predator to a new position

Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Utah Agricultural
Experiment Station.
SAssociate Entomologist.
S"The Beet Leafhopper in Northern Utah". By G. F. Knowlton. Utah
Agr. Exp. Sta. BuL 234 (Tech.) : 43-45. 1932.
Publication authorized by Director, December 12, 1933.









VOL. XVIII-No. 3


and turned about 500 from its original position. After 4 minutes
of feeding, the only movements shown by the psyllid were slight
movements of the antennae and head, which were discernible
under the microscope. The Geocoris held the psyllid at the end
of its horizontally outstretched beak most of the time for 30











...








Fig. 1-Adult Geocoris decoratus Uhler.

minutes; then using its pro-thoracic tarsi, it withdrew its
stylets, inserting them again in the same puncture and feeding
for another 6 minutes. The stylets were then withdrawn and
inserted through the suture between the head and pro-thorax.
At this stage a second Geocoris attempted to feed upon this
psyllid; after a brief struggle, the trespasser left. After 45
minutes of feeding a second Geocoris began feeding upon the
dead psyllid; a struggle again ensued, in which the original
possessor backed up for about 1 inch. After the second aggressor
was repulsed, the stylets of the first predator were re-inserted
through the wings and into the abdomen. After feeding in
this position for 6 minutes, the abdomen became much shriveled.
After 57 minutes of feeding, a third attempt to feed upon this
dead psyllid was made; this new Geocoris fed in the head of the
psyllid for 3 minutes and then walked off. The original possessor
then removed its stylets and inserted them more dorsally, again
in the suture between the head and pro-thorax. After feeding









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


for 1 hour and 10 minutes, the shriveled body of the potato
psyllid was dropped, and the big-eyed bug walked away.
A number of feeding Geocoris were watched carefully under
the binocular microscope. Some used only their rostrum in
securing and holding their prey, except when the stylets were
to be withdrawn or re-inserted. At such times the predator
usually manipulated its prey with the pro- and meso-thoracic
tarsi. Most of the predators withdrew the stylets every little
while, re-inserting them in the same or in a different place.
Most insertions were made at sutures of the thorax, abdomen,
legs, or around the margin of the compound eyes. It was quite
a common practice for a Geocoris to drop its own prey and
attempt to feed upon a victim held by another predator. If
repulsed, the big-eyed bug would often return to its last victim
and resume feeding or wander away, often securing a new
victim. Sometimes a part of the rostrum was folded down and
back, bringing the psyllid near to the head of the predator, the
stylets apparently being inserted deeply into the adult psyllid.

A.



B.Y 'CD






Fig. 2-Adult Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc): A-antennae; B-external
genitalia,of male; C-male genitalia extended; D-external female
genitalia.

Ten Geocoris were placed in a vial with 20 P. cockerelli adults;
in 5 minutes, four Geocoris were feeding; in 15 minutes, six were
feeding upon psyllids. A pair of Geocoris copulated while the
female fed upon a psyllid.
Four Big-eyed bugs were then caged with nymphs of P.
cockerelli. Four Geocoris were placed in a vial containing a
piece of potato leaf and stem, upon which potato psyllid nymphs
were feeding. Several of the big-eyed bugs began feeding on
the petiole of the potato leaf. After 15 minutes one Geocoris,
which had not fed upon the plant, started feeding upon a fifth
instar psyllid nymph, feeding for 16 minutes. It then discarded









VOL. XVIII-No. 3


this nymph and fed upon a third instar nymph for 13 minutes.
A second instar nymph was next selected by the same predator;
upon this it fed for 3 minutes. The predator then seized a fifth
instar nymph and fed upon it for 14 minutes. Another fifth
instar psyllid was attacked and fed upon for 9 minutes. This
Geocoris fed upon and killed five P. cockerelli nymphs in 1 hour
and 15 minutes. During this time, only one of the other three
Geocoris, which had fed upon the potato plant, killed a psyllid;
this one fed on a third instar nymph.
Six Geocoris were caged in vials with 100 P. cockerelli nymphs
on potato leaves. Within 2 minutes, four Geocoris had begun to
feed on four psyllid nymphs. At the end of the first hour, all
Geocoris had fed upon nymphs, killing a total of 13 P. cockerelli.
At the end of 2 hours, 22 nymphs had been killed. One Geocoris
fed for 54 minutes upon a fifth instar nymph, feeding during
the entire interval through the original puncture. Under the
binocular, the flexible stylets of the predators were seen to search
out the various regions of the body, being seen under magnifi-
cation through the rather transparent body wall. The ability
of the bug to actively move these stylets (or piercing lancets)
around, quickly thrust them out, draw them back, and even flex
them near the end, was of surprising interest to the writer.



NOTES ON NEZARA VIRIDULA (L)
Prolific breeding of the southern green stink bug usually
ceases in Florida in early fall. There is usually a large brood
of nymphs in September, but the adults of this brood commonly
do not produce many nymphs until the following spring. But
this year there were numerous nymphs all through October and
most of November. This production of an extra generation is
correlated with unusually warm (and dry) weather during
October and November. October averaged at Gainesville more
than a degree above normal and November more than three
degrees.
There was also a sharp rise in the percentage of parasitization
of this bug by the Tachinid Trichopoda pennipes. Mr. H. E.
Bratley at Gainesville found from 85 to 93 % parasitized and
Mr. W. L. Thompson at Lake Alfred in late October from 50 to
60% where in August but half of one percent were parasitized.
J. R. WATSON.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


THYSANOPTERA OF THE GEENTON'
J. R. WATSON
For several years the writer has been giving some attention
to the thysanopterous fauna of the geenton, a term coined by
Sylvestri. Included in this term are materials lying on the
surface of the soil, such as moulding and rotting leaves and
wood, and dead and decaying grass, and also materials as bark
and woody fungi, lichens, epiphytes, and ferns growing on limbs
of trees. In such materials he has discovered a wealth of species
hitherto unknown or rarely collected by ordinary means. These
materials were placed in a modified Berlese funnel, without a
water jacket, and collected in a dish of alcohol at the bottom
of the funnel. In the South such material as moulding leaves
from the forest floor often yields several hundred thysanoptera
per bushel. This fauna seems to be essentially southern in dis-
tribution. Similar material from Tennessee, Ohio and other
more northern states has yielded a thysanopterous fauna much
poorer in species and individuals. Indeed, similar material from
the main range of the Great Smoky Mountains in Eastern Ten-
nessee yielded not a single thysanopteran. That this scarcity
in the Great Smokies is partly due to heavy rainfall is indicated
by the fact that similar material from Asheville, N. C., though
not rich, yielded a fair number of species and individuals. In
Florida, the heavy rain of summer greatly decreases their num-
bers as they do of all Thysanoptera. This fauna reaches its
maximum in late spring before the beginning of the rainy
season. The vast majority of the individuals of this fauna
belong to the family Trichothripidae and most of them are
yellowish or brownish yellow in color.
UROTHRIPIDAE
The two species of Urothripidae that have been found in
Florida belong to this fauna.
Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood & Williams, a species de-
scribed from the West Indies, occurs in moulding leaves in dense
shade in the southern half of Florida. Its most northern locality
is Winter Park, in Orange County. Other Florida localities are
Cortez and Palmetto, in Manatee County, Ft. Lauderdale and
Miami.
Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Fla. Ag. Exp. Sta.










VOL. XVIII-No. 3


Trachythrips watsoni Hood
This species seems to be associated chiefly with decaying pine
needles on the ground. In some collections of pure pine needles
it has been the most common thysanopteron.
It has been taken in Royal Palm Park, Dade County, Fla.,
west to Pass Christian, Miss. (Erdman West, coll.) north to
Gatlinburg, Tenn. (Fla. Ent. Vol. XVI, p. 62) and near Peters-
burg, Va., and Green Ridge, Md. (J. W. Kea, coll.). In Winter
Park, Fla., it was taken associated with the preceding species,
the only instance of their being taken together.
Glyptothrips
Next to Trichothrips pergandei Hood, species of this genus
are the most common thysanopterons in decaying leaves under
trees.
The four species here described all differ from the generic
description in having an 8-segmented antenna. However, they
are so close, especially the first, to G. flavescens, the type of the
genus, that it is plainly better to modify the generic description
in that respect rather than create a new genus.
The writer has an apterous specimen of G. flavescens collected
by Floyd Andre at Ames, Iowa, considerably west of its hitherto
reported range.
Glyptothrips reticulatus n. sp.
APTEROUS FEMALE. Length about 1.2 mm., varying from 1 mm. to 1.5
mm. General body color brownish yellow, with much orange hypodermal
pigment; abdomen, terminal antennal segment, and apical half of tube
usually heavily tinged with brown; legs yellow.
Head about 1'/s times as long as wide, dorsum deeply reticulated. Cheeks
strongly arched (much more so than in G. flavescens), sharply contracted
behind eyes, not spinose. Postocular bristles very short and inconspicuous
(not over 16 /. long) situated far behind eyes. Eyes small, occupying about
two-sevenths the length of the head, larger and more finely faceted than
in flavescens. Antennae about 2.2 times as long as head. Segment 1
brownish yellow, concolorous with head; 3 somewhat darker; 2 decidedly
darker; 4-8 progressively darker; pedicels of 3-5 yellow, of 6 yellowish
brown. Segment 3 subglobose; 4-7 oval; 3-6 abruptly contracted to a
narrow pedicel, that of segment 3 accounts for over a third the length of
the segment, thin and curved outwardly. Segment 1 with longitudinal
ridges. Sense cones and spines not as robust as in flavescens.
Prothorax .6 as long as head and, including coxae, more than twice as
wide as long. A pair of short, thick, nearly colorless bristles on each
posterior angle and a similar one midway of each lateral margin.
Pterothorax somewhat wider than prothorax, sides nearly straight and
parallel. Legs short, fore pair conspicuously reticulated. Fore tarsus with
a short recurved tooth at the apex of the basal segment. Abdomen thick
and heavy. Bristles on segment 9 decidedly shorter than the tube. Tube








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


shorter than the head and less than half its width. Terminal bristles
about half as long as tube.
Measurements: (Average of ten individuals). Length 1.2 mm.; head,
length .16 mm., width .14 mm.; prothorax, length .10 mm., width (including
coxae) .22 mm.; pterothorax, width .24 mm., abdomen, width .32 mm.,
tube, length .14 mm., width at base .06 mm., at apex .027 mm. Antennae,
segment, length (width) I, 40 (42) ; II, 42 (31) ; III, 60 (28) ; IV, 53 (29);
V, 56 (26) ; VI, 48 (23) ; VII, 30 (21) ; VIII, 33 (12) microns. Total length
.345 mm.
MALE. Very similar to female but smaller, about 1. mm. in length.
Abdomen more slender.
Described from over a hundred specimens collected from
dead leaves. Many localities in Alachua and Marion counties,
Levy County, Trenton, Fla. (A. N. Tissot, coll.) ; Birmingham,
Ala (H. E. Bratley, coll.) ; Petersburg, Va. (J. W. Kea, coll.) ;
Asheville, N. C.
This species is found mostly in moulding leaves on the ground,
both of deciduous leaves and pine needles. It occurs more com-
monly in drier situations than does G. batesi. It was the domi-
nant species under sand pine (Pinus clausits) in Ocala National
Forest.
In the shape of the intermediate segments the antennae of
this species are very similar to those of G. flavescens Hood, the
type of the genus, but differ in being 8-segmented. The tube
also is much shorter than in flavescens.
(To be continued)

FOOD HABITS OF LEPTOGLOSSUS GONAGRA
This close relative of our common leaf-footed plant-bug (L.
phyllopus) in early November became very abundant in a citrus
grove near Sebring, Fla. The insects bred on the citron (Citrul-
lus vudgaris) so common in citrus groves. From the citron it
spread to oranges where it did considerable damage until col-
lected by the owner of the grove. In the fall of 1931 a similar
instance occurred in a grove near Waverly. W.L. THOMPSON.
W. L. THOMPSON.


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