Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XIX DECEMBER, 1936 No. 3
OUTBREAKS OF Stomoxys calcitrans L. ("DOG FLIES")
ALONG FLORIDA'S NORTHWEST COAST
W. V. KING, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
U. S. Department of Agriculture
LOUVA G. LENERT, Florida State Board of Health
An entomological problem associated with one portion of Flor-
ida's extensive coastal area arises as a result of severe annual
outbreaks of the blood-sucking fly Stomoxys calcitrans L., com-
monly known as the "stable fly", "biting house fly", or, locally,
as the "dog fly". The area concerned is the 200-mile section of
Fig. 1.-A fresh accumulation of Sargassum becoming stranded at the
edge of Last Resort Lake, Bay County, Fla. View looking inland. (July
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Gulf coast forming the southern boundary of the western arm
of the State and extending approximately from Carrabelle on
the east to Pensacola Beach on the west.
In this area swarms of flies begin to appear, as a rule, dur-
ing the latter part of August or first part of September, and
nearly every year parts of this coast become infested. Some
years enormous numbers of flies are found along the whole
section. During the periods of prevalence, the activity of the
flies fluctuates markedly from day to day and, according to state-
ments of the residents, the greatest swarms are encountered
when the wind is from a northerly direction. It is reported that
the flies appear along the beach at times in such numbers as to
cover practically everything, even the bare sand. The beaches
are necessarily abandoned by the bathers and vacationists, and
many of the bathing resorts are compelled to close during the
dog-fly season, which may last for 2 months or more. Fishermen
are also greatly plagued by the flies, and the sudden appearance
of the pest many miles from shore is said to be a common occur-
Livestock, especially cattle, suffer intensely from the attacks
of the flies. When these are abundant, the cattle are to be seen
during the day standing partially submerged for hours at a
time in the salt water of the bays and gulf. Considerable money
is spent each year for fly sprays and screening as protection for
the dairy stock. Reduction in milk returns during the fly season,
in addition to direct expenses, was estimated by various dairy
owners at from 20 to 50 percent.
From inquiries among stockmen, flies from the coast ap-
parently migrate inland for 10 to 15 miles, or possibly as much
as 25 miles in the worst seasons. Back from the beach itself
the flies are much less troublesome to the human host.
This fly is a widely distributed species and is an important
pest of livestock in many countries. Serious outbreaks have
been reported from inland regions, although these have never
been of a regularly recurring nature and seldom approach the
magnitude of those occurring on the Florida coast. Outbreaks
in Texas and other places have been brought on by the develop-
ment of large numbers of larvae in stacks of fermenting straw.
The normal breeding places are manure piles, so the habits of
Stomoxys are somewhat similar in this respect to those of the
house fly. The larvae have also been taken in piles of lawn
VOL. XIX-No. 3
Few records are available of the breeding of this species in
other materials. W. C. Nettles in South Carolina (Jour. Econ.
Ent. 27: 1197-1198, 1934) reported prolific breeding in the trick-
ling filters of a sewage disposal plant. The flies have not other-
wise been found breeding in human faeces. W. E. Dove, in a
personal communication, reported the emergence of adult
Stomoxys into several sand-fly traps that had been placed on
a salt-marsh area near Charleston, S. C. The vegetation here
consisted of a stunted growth of marsh grass and the soil had
an unusual sourish odor. Stomoxys adults were not taken in
similar traps in many other locations and it seems improbable
that breeding in marsh areas is of common occurrence.
In undertaking an investigation of the problem in north-
western Florida, it was evident that search should be made for
breeding conditions peculiar to this section of coast and of a
seasonal nature. Straw stacks were found to be almost non-
existent in the area and there seemed to be nothing unusual
about the handling or the amount of stable manure, so these
could be eliminated immediately from special consideration.
On a preliminary visit to the area in October 1933, large piles
and windows of seaweed were noted around the shores of the
numerous bays that indent the coast line. The accumulations
consisted mostly of the common wide-bladed turtle grass, Tha-
lassia testudium, and the narrow-bladed manatee grass, Halodule
wrightii.1 The piles showed varying degrees of dampness and
decay, and while they were suspected on first sight of being a
suitable breeding medium, no Stomoxys larvae could be found in
this material either on this or subsequent occasions. Other con-
siderations that would tend to rule out the possibility of their
connection with the present problem are the facts that the piles
are present the year round and similar accumulations are to
be found in many other coastal sections.
There are considerable areas of low salt marsh land around
the bays and, in view of the observations reported by Dove, the
possibility of fly breeding in these marshes was also investigated.
The soil was found to be largely of a soft mucky character with
a growth of black rush, or spike grass, Juncus sp. In places,
fairly large quantities of dead and decaying stems had been
accumulated by the action of waves and tides. During many
1The identification of these plants was obtained through Mr. Erdman
West of the University of Florida.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
hours of intense searching, however, no larvae were to be found
in the muck or the decaying rush, and no emerging adults were
obtained in a series of flytraps placed on the marshes.
Before this line of search was suspended, encouragement to
the efforts was given by an interesting observation on oviposition
to which attention was called by one of the local residents, Mr.
W. C. Holley, at South Port. Mr. Holley reported that he fre-
quently had seen dog flies, sometimes by the hundreds, settling
on moist soil in certain places, apparently to deposit eggs or
larvae. Upon visiting one of these places, the senior author was
able on several occasions to confirm the observation. The females
were seen to alight on the soil, extend the tip of the ovipositor
under a'small root or lump of dirt, and proceed to deposit a few
eggs in each of several spots. The location was a gently sloping
and partially wooded side hill just above a small tidal flat, with
black humus soil kept moistened by a fresh-water seepage out-
crop. This unusual occurrence was carefully followed up but
no evidence at all was obtained that larvae were developing
or could develop in such material.
A definite lead was finally obtained, in September 1934, upon
revisiting one of the beach resorts that was reported as being
unusually badly infested with flies. Here eggs and larvae were
first found on some sandy soil that was kept moist and foul by
the drippings from a sink in which fish were cleaned. Upon
being shown some of the larvae, one of the colored helpers stated
that he had seen many maggots of a similar appearance at the
edge of a nearby salt-water lake known as Philips Inlet. This
proved to be the clue needed, for numbers of Stomoxys larvae
and pupae were soon located in a certain kind of seaweed, Sar-
gassum, accumulated in small piles just at the edge of the water.
Breeding was also found shortly afterwards in more limited
accumulations of the same seaweed in wet swales, or depressions,
along the Gulf beach. In places of both types the lower part
of the piles, where the larvae occurred, was saturated with the
salt water. The pupae were located in drier parts of the tangled
mass of plants. The water in the lake at the time of the obser-
vation showed a specific gravity of 1.016 at 760F., correspond-
ing to a salt content of about 2.5 percent. The water in the
swales was not tested but was probably even saltier than this.
In some of the places where breeding was found, the plants were
mixed with fish refuse, but this did not appear to be a constant
VOL. XIX-No. 3
Samples of the seaweeds were identified by Mr. West as two
species of Sargassum, probably filipendula and pteropleuron.
These belong to the higher brown marine algae and have
branched stems with definite leaves. The branches also bear
numerous small berry-like air vessels, or float organs. The plants
are greenish when fresh and become dark brown or almost black
when dry. Windrows of the dried and shriveled plants are
common along the beaches but are unfit for fly breeding in the
dry state. Sargassum is known locally by various names, such
as "berry grass" or "ball grass", "May grass", and "rock grass",
the last name referring to its supposed origin on submarine rock
beds. It is also known more generally as "Gulf weed". The
generic name is a familiar one because of the famous Sargasso
Sea from which the name is taken, where great areas are covered
by the floating plants.
The writers are not familiar with the habits of Sargassum
except that the plants are to be seen floating in the water along
the Florida coasts at times during the spring or summer. In
1935, they were noted in abundance at Daytona and Miami Beach
on the Atlantic coast in March. Samples from the former place
were identified as S. pteropleuron. The northwest coast was
visited in July and considerable quantities of recently stranded
4 ,' ,'
Fig. 2.-A closer view of the marine algae, Sargassum.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Sargassum (identified as probably S. fluitans) were observed by
the senior author along the beach near Philips Inlet, although
very few plants were floating in the surf. The passage from
Philips Inlet was open at this time and the passage from Last
Resort Lake had been open a day or so before. Some of the
weeds were stranded at the edge of the water in the lower parts
of the lakes (Figs. 1 and 2), and apparently were the first of
the season to enter. Fly breeding had not yet started in them.
The fresh plants were said to have been brought to the shore
by a storm a few days previously. They were reported as hav-
ing been abundant in the surf along the same shore about a
month earlier. The drifting weed evidently does not accumulate
in the open bays in that section, as few plants could be found on
the bay shores.
While Sargassum is by no means peculiar to the northwest
Florida coast, its coincidence with certain physical features
of this section may explain the localization of the Stomoxys out-
breaks. In the stretch of Gulf coast west of St. Andrews Bay
are several small lakes similar to the large one, Philips Inlet,
where breeding was first found. These lakes lie directly back
of or among the sand dunes, with outlets cut through the dunes
Fig. 3.-The passage from Last Resort Lake into the Gulf. The passage
is partially closed with a sand barrier after having been washed open
by high water.
by high water.
VOL. XIX-No. 3
and beach to the gulf. While these channels are usually closed
with sand thrown up by wave action (Fig. 3), they are washed
open on occasions by storm tides or by overflowing water from
heavy rainfall. If Sargassum is present in the surf at such times
it is carried into the lakes on high tides and some of it becomes
stranded just at the water line when the lake level drops to
normal. Closing of the passage again by sand prevents further
tidal fluctuations, which otherwise would tend to strand the
material so high on the bank that it would become dry. Such
semi-isolated saline lakes are not known to the writers on other
parts of the Florida coast.
Since the finding of Stomoxys breeding in Sargassum, the
writers have not been able to continue the observations on other
portions of the affected coast. We are, however, under the im-
pression that lakes similar to those mentioned are rare west of
Choctawhatchee Bay. It is entirely possible, therefore, that
other conditions enter into the problem. Nevertheless, breeding
appears to be comparatively concentrated in the area where the
studies were made and the elimination of the breeding material
as it accumulates here may prove to be a feasible and effective
operation in the control of the insect.2
2The writers are indebted to L. C. Merriam, C. A. Barnes, and other
local residents for their assistance in connection with the investigation.
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Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society,
VOL. XIX DECEMBER, 1936 No. 3
J. R. WATSON, Gainesville ...............-------------. Editor
E. W. BERGER, Gainesville.------....------........Associate Editor
J. W. WILsoN, Leesburg ..-. ......... ..........Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.
RECORDS OF FLORIDA DRAGONFLIES-II*
By C. FRANCIS BYERS
In 1929, the author (Byers '30) finished writing an account
of the Dragonflies of Florida which contained all of the pertinent
information on that subject known to the writer at the time.
In the fall of 1934 (Byers '34), an additional set of records was
published. During the year 1935, several new and important
records have turned up and two old ones have been brought
to the attention of the writer. It is the purpose of this paper
to record these new additions. Only those records are listed
that are pertinent to an understanding of the occurrence, dis-
tribution and life-histories of dragonflies in Florida. The new
additions are as follows:
*1. Dromogomphus armatus Selys. Northeastern Florida, July, 1935
(1). Originally described and previously recorded from Georgia only.
The Florida specimen was recovered from the radiator of an automobile
driven from Jacksonville to Gainesville; the body was still soft.
2. Dromogomphus spinosus Selys. Alachua County, High Springs, July
1935, (1). This specimen, in a semi-teneral condition, was collected from
low vegetation near the banks of the Santa Fe River. It is the first adult
specimen of 1). spinosus that the writer has seen from Florida. In April
1931, a nymph was received from Collin's Mills, near Milton, Florida,
belonging to this genus, but of which species is not known.
3. Didymops floridensis Davis. Bradford County, Starke, April 10,
1936, (1). Taken, in almost perfect condition and still alive, from the
::Contribution of the Department of Biology, University of Florida.
VOL. XIX-No. 3
radiator of an automobile driven on State Highway No. 48 from Kingsley
Lake to Starke. Mr. W. T. Davis (Davis '21) described D. floridensis from
two male specimens taken at Lakeland, Florida, March 28, 1912. No
other material has been reported since Mr. Davis' paper was published
in 1921. This record, therefore, is of special interest because it is the
first one for the female of the species. The taxonomic characters listed
by Mr. Davis as distinct for D. ji,.. I' :', apply to the female as well as to
the male. The anal appendages of the female of floridensis are broader
and possess a shorter terminal spine than do those of D. transveras, other-
wise the genitalia of the two species are the same.
*4. Neurocordulia virginiensis Davis. Jackson County, Chipola River,
April 1935, (1). Collected by R. E. Bellamy who writes that it was taken,
"Along low wooded and slightly marshy region east of the Chipola River
above the Tallahassee-Marianna road. In afternoon-still-very cold."
This record is of special interest not only because it is the first one for
this species from Florida but also because it is the first record of the
collecting of the male of the species. Mr. W. T. Davis (Davis '27) described
N. virginiensis from a single female collected in Virginia. No other
material has been reported until Mr. Bellamy's find in April 1935. Nymphs
of Neurocordulia sp.? have been frequently collected in western and central
Florida, especially in the Santa Fe and the Chipola River drainage systems
(Byers '30). Description and notes are being written by the author.
5. Brachymesia gravida (Calvert). Alachua County, Newnan's Lake,
Gainesville, May 1935, (4). The four females recorded here were taken
emerging, thus giving us our first exact knowledge of the nymph of this
species. Description and notes have been published by the writer,
6. Sympetrum corruptum Hagen. Orange County, Winter Park, No-
vember 1934, (1). Collected by Mr. E. M. Davis. A southern extension
of the range of this northern dragonfly, which has previously been recorded
in Florida from Alachua County only.
7. Pantala hymenea (Say). Monroe County, Cape Sable, February
1935, (4 nymphs). Taken in a cistern of brackish water near Palmetto,
Florida. Mr. E. M. Davis reports having received adults from Florida.
Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) occurs commonly in Florida, is, in fact,
one of the dominant fall species. P. hymenea and P. flavescens have been
collected by the writer in South Carolina flying together. Why P. hymenea
is so comparatively rare in Florida is an interesting question.
8. Ischnura kellicotti Williamson. Orange County, Winter Park, May
1934. Collected by Mr. E. M. Davis. A southern extension of the range
of this species, which is beginning to make its appearance in central Florida
as a fairly common form.
In this portion of the list are given records taken from
literature or from letters addressed to the writer. The author
has not seen the specimens indicated.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
9. Libellula jesseana Williamson. Orange County, Winter Park. Mr.
E. M. Davis writes, "A very evident L. jesseana was brought to me the
other day (circa April 18, 1935) from the east shore of Lake Apopka.
It is apparently an old one". Mr. Davis later collected quite a series of
this species from the same locality. The Williamson type material
(44 $ ; 2 9 ) was taken near Enterprise, Florida (Williamson '22); the author
has one male taken near Orlando in 1924. So the species has evidently
established and maintained itself in the territory over the last fifteen years
(Byers '30, p. 263).
*10. Sympetrum ambiguum (Rambur). On a library card, recently
found in my files, there is written the following note by the late E. B.
Williamson, "In one of large boxes of pinned Sym. rubicundulum in museum
(University of Michigan) collection is a Sym. ambiguum (labeled)
'Alachua Co., Fla., Gainesville, 11-20-22. H. Graves, Coll.'"
*11. Miathyria marcella (Selys). Dr. James G. Needham (Needham
'33) records the collection of a nymph of this species about midway
between Fort Pierce and Okeechobee, Florida, in a roadside ditch created
by the construction of State Highway No. 8. In a letter to the writer
dated October 13, 1934, Dr. Needham remarks that he has also received
the adult from another collector. This is not only a new state record but
also, as Dr. Needham points out, a new record for the United States.
The range of M. marcella is usually given: Mexico to Argentina and the
The species added to the Florida list in the foregoing (*)
bring the total number of species occurring, or said to occur,
within the State to 131.
BYERS, C. FRANCIS. 1930. A Contribution to the Knowledge of Florida
Odonata. Univ. of Florida Pub., Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-327.
BYERS, C. FRANCIS. 1934. Records of Florida Dragonflies-I. Ent. News,
Vol. 45, pp. 214-216.
BYERS, C. FRANCIS. 1936. The Immature Form of Brachymesia gravida,
with Notes on the Taxonomy of the Group (Odonata:Libellulidae).
Ent. News, Vol. 47, pp. 35-37; 60-64.
DAVIS, W. T. 1921. A New Dragonfly from Florida. Bull. Brooklyn Ent.
Soc., Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 109-111.
DAVIS, W. T. 1927. A New Dragonfly from Virginia. Bull. Brooklyn Ent.
Soc., Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 155-157.
NEEDHAM, JAMES G. 1933. New Records of Odonata for the United States.
Ent. News, Vol. 44, p. 98.
WILLIAMSON, E. B. 1922. Libellulas Collected in Florida by Jesse H.
Williamson, with Description of a New Species. Ent. News, Vol.
33, pp. 13-19.
VOL. XIX-No. 3
THE LARGE-WINGED MITES OF FLORIDA
ARTHUR PAUL JACOT
(Continued from page 31)
In determining the commonest species, the frequency of
occurrence, that is the number of lots in which a species occurs,
is used instead of the number of individuals because these ani-
mals tend to be colonial. For instance one lot has 115 individ-
uals of one species. This also is in accord with experience in
other groups. The commonest species are Zetes elimatus louis-
ianae, Galumna flagelliferum, G. curvum, and Z. weberi, then
follow, in order of frequency, Z. minutes, Holokalumma colora-
densis, Parakalumma robustum. The others are local. Thus
there is no outstandingly abundant species as in the Phthira-
caridae (11). Zetes has by far the largest number of species
-in the litter.
Of the forty-three lots, only thirteen yield three or more
species. Lot G75, which was a rich lot for Phthiracarids, con-
tains the largest number of species of Galumninae (seven),
namely, Protokalumma depressum, Parakalumma robustum,
Zetes elimatus louisianae, Z. minutus, Holokalumma coloraden-
sis, Galumna flagelliferum, and G. curvum. Lot G115 (Well-
born) yielded the same species except that Z. weberi replaces
Z. elimatus, and P. depressum is absent. P. robustum drops out
to the southward.
By contrast, nine species (five of them found about Gaines-
ville) have been taken from one locality in Connecticut.
Sixteen lots secured by Prof. J. R. Watson between December
1928 and March 1930, chiefly from the Gainesville region give
the following occurrences:
P. robustum...................................... 11 (4) and two indiv. from Crystal R.
P. robustum floridanum................ 1 (1)
Z. elimatus louisianae.................. 4 (3) and one indiv. from Royal Palm
Z. emarginatus................................ 1 (1) and three from Worthington
18. Z. banksi.......................................... 1 (1) and two other collectors!
H. coloradensis................................ 3 (2)
19. G. lanceatum octopunctatum........ 31 (5)
G. flagelliferum .............................. 4 (3)
It is interesting to note how these few additional lots yield two
new records to the state list, even though 27 lots had already
been secured from this locality (Gainesville region). This is
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
due to collecting from different niches, as on tree trunks and
Finally, the twentieth species Holokalumma floridae was ob-
tained from Cocoa, and the twenty-first Zetes bradleyi from near
None of the more severe habitats harbored Galumninae, thus
they are not as resistant as Pseudotritia ardua. There seems to
be some habitat preference. For example Zetes weberi is asso-
ciated with fallen live oak leaves and also long-leaf pine. As
usual, dry pine and spruce litter is rather barren, except that
H. lyricum, the longest bristled species, was found in this habitat.
Z. elimatus louisianae and Holokalumma coloradensis seem to
prefer drier habitats. G. curvum was found on a magnolia tree
bole, so that again it shows a tendency to ascend vegetation. On
the whole the species of this subfamily are more abundant on
oak and long-leaf pine land. In one case (lot G67) shore bay
debris yielded five species.
Protokalumma depressum x pterotum, only found in the horti-
cultural grounds at Gainesville, is either a recent introduction
or the offspring of two individuals introduced with plants. I
have noted no other such hybrids from further north where
both species occupy the same territory.
Collections from other habitats may yield other species. Com-
pare Watson's lots with Grossman's.
The distribution of the different species may be visualized
by means of the following table:
1. Protokalumma depressum x ........
2. Parakalumma robustum ----.-. ----.
3. P. robustum floridanum ...............
4. Zetes macroptera matecumbei ...
5. Z. elegantulus .........................
6. Z. bradleyi .....................
7. Z. emarginatus .........................
8. Z. emarginatus laevis ..................
9. Z. elimatus louisianae .................
10. Z w eberi ....... .......... .. .........
L1. Z. weberi plumalae ...................
12. Z m inutus .............. ......... ..
13. Z. banks ............... .........
..-. Gainesville, hort. grounds
.... w. Fla. to Tarpon Springs and
... n. peninsular
..... Key Largo, Lower Matecumbe
..--. Bradenton, Dunedin
..-. near Tarpon Springs
..... n. Fla.
..... n. Fla.
..... peninsular, except s. tip
..... all Fla.
..... Astor, Mulberry
..... w. Fla. to Vero Beach
..... Gainesville (probably n. Fla.)
VOL. XIX-No. 3
14. Holokalumma coloradensis -............ w. Fla. to Vero Beach and Miami
15. H. lyricum ..r ~~.-...-....--... .....- .. ..... Campville, Tarpon Springs
16. H floridae ....................................... Cocoa
17. Galumna lanceatum octopunctatum Gainesville
18. G. alatum hispidumn .......................... Fort White, Gainesville
19. G. curvum .............. .................. peninsular, s. to Fort Lauderdale
20. G. flagellifcrum .................... peninsular
21. G. flagelliferumn circulum .................. Cortez, Vero Beach, Miami
This distribution contrasts markedly with that of the Phthira-
caridae (11). There are some very much localized species. All
of the species, as far as can be judged from the present data,
have come in from the north and west and spread chiefly down
the east coast. For instance Z. minutus and H. coloradensis
are not yet reported from the west coast. This was also the
case with the abundant and ubiquitous Pseudotritia ardua sinen-
sis. Thus, as in the Phthiracaridae, the chief element governing
distribution within the state, seems to be physiographic.
To further check up on this factor, an analysis of the dis-
tribution of the passerine birds of Florida was made (8). The
passerine birds were chosen as better known and less inter-
fered with by man. Two distinct types of distribution were
found: (1) tension zone of two subspecies, (2) southern limit
of northern birds.
A species occupying the whole state often breaks into two
subspecies between the Apalachicola and the Aucilla rivers.
The Pine-woods Sparrow, Towhee, Cardinal and Crow stop at
the Aucilla. On the other hand some of the peninsular species
follow along the coast to Apalachicola, as the Boat-tailed Grackle,
Florida Redwing and Florida Wren.
Northern species range south to the borders of the Lower
Austral, that is to the middle of the peninsula. Those which
extend to the center of the peninsula are the Acadian Flycatcher,
Rough-winged Swallow, Southern Blue Jay, Chickadee, White-
breasted Nuthatch, Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Yellow-throated
Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Prothonotary Warbler, Parula Warbler,
Blue Grosbeak, Towhee, Lecont's Sparrow, Henslow's Sparrow,
Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Swamp Sparrow and Song
Sparrow. This distribution is significant because it applies to
many of the overwintering sparrows as well as to so many of
the nesting birds. This midpeninsular boundary fluctuates with
the species but it usually cuts diagonally across from northwest
to southeast as in figures 41, 44, 47, 57, 58, and 60 (8). This
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
is the same avoidance of the west coast, and trend toward the
east coast, as was observed in the Galumninae.
At least one botanist (17) divides the peninsula across the
center (without mentioning definite boundaries or citing data).
The only clue to this distributional pattern was found in con-
nection with the distribution of craneflies (16, p. 27, last ).
Reference to the phytogeographic map (17, p. 69) shows the
trend of hardwoods to be along northern Florida to the Alapaha
branch of the Suwannee River. Here this hardwood belt trends
southeastward. A glance at the state soil map (7) also brings
out this southeastward trend. The hammock land adjacent to
Bradenton also explains the larger number of Oribatoidea found
at this locality. Diptera were found to be much more abundant
in these hammocks and in the swamp woods than along the
coasts (15, p. 39, last ).
To summarize: the distribution of certain groups of animals
within the state seems to be largely dependent on the trend of
vegetation types which in turn are dependent upon physiography
and soil types.
The Florida species of Galumninae extend into the following
life zones: endemics (at least temporarily) : Parakalumma ro-
bustum floridanum, Z. macroptera matecumbei, Zetes elegan-
tulus, Z. bradleyi, Z. emarginatus laevis, Z. weberi, Z. weberi
plumalae, Holokalumma lyricum, H. floridae, G. alatum hispidum,
G. flagelliferum circulum (eleven) ; lower austral: Z. elimatus
louisianae, Z. banksi; upper austral: Z. minutus, H. coloraden-
sis, G. flagelliferum (three) ; transitional: Protokalumma de-
pressum, Parakalumma robustum, Z. emarginatus, G. lanceatum
octopunctatum, G. curvum (five).
Eight hundred species of Florida diptera (15), 117 species
of Odonata (3), and 128 species of Craneflies of northern Flor-
ida (16) were found to have the following life zone ratios:
Diptera Odonata Craneflies
Endemics ...-... ....... 15% 17% 19%
Lower austral ............ 12%----
Upper austral ............ 35% 67% 42% (Indiana) 7 77% 69%
Transitional .--........... 20% 35% (Conn.)
Tropical ...................... 15% 23% 9%
Mex. and s. Calif. ...... 3% .....
Cosmopolitan ----....... ........ 14% 1.4%
Thus the enormously high ratio of endemic Galumninae seems
to be due to lack of knowledge of the distribution of these species
in the other southern states.
VOL. XIX-No. 3
1. BANKS, NATHAN, 1895 (Jan.), On the Oribatoidea of the United States,
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., vol. 22, pp. 1-16.
2. BERLESE, ANTONIO, 1914 (Dec. 31), Acari nuovi, Manipulus IX; Redia,
vol. 10, pp. 113-150, pls. 1-4.
3. BYERS, CHARLES FRANCIS, 1930, A Contribution to the Knowledge of
Florida Odonata, Univ. Fla. Pub., Biol. Sci. Ser., vol. 1, no. 1,
327 pp., 115 figs. (11 pls.)
4. EWING, HENRY ELLSWORTH, 1907 (Dec.), New Oribatidae, Psyche, vol.
14, pp. 111-115, pl. 3.
5. Same, 1909 (Sept.), The Oribatoidea of Illinois, Bull. III. State Lab.
Nat. Hist., vol. 7, pp. 337-390, pls. 33-35, 5 txt. figs.
6. Same, 1909 (Oct. 8), New American Oribatoidea, Jour. N. Y. Ent.
Soc., vol. 17, pp. 116-136, pls. 2-6 (Sept.).
7. HARPER, ROLAND MCMILLAN, 1925, Generalized Soil Map of Florida,
and Description of the New Soil Map, Fla. State Geol. Surv., 17th
Ann. Rpt., pp. 29-40.
8. HOWELL, ARTHUR HOLMES, 1932, Florida Bird Life, N. Y., 579 pp.,
58 pls., 72 txt. figs.
9. JACOT, A. P., 1929 (Jan.), American Oribatid Mites of the Subfamily
Galumninae, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoil., vol. 69, pp. 3-37, pls. 1-6,
1 txt. fig.
10. Same, 1932 (April), Moss Mites, Bull. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., no. 63,
pp. 17-22, 4 figs.
11. Same, 1933 (April), Phthiracarid Mites of Florida, Jour. Elisha
Mitchell Sci. Soc., vol. 48, pp. 232-267, pls. 19-22, 2 txt. figs.
12. Same, 1933 (Nov.), The Primitive Galumninae (Oribatoidea-Acarina)
of the Middle West, Am. Mid. Nat., vol. 14, pp. 680-703, pls. 13-14.
13. Same, 1934 (March), The Galumnas (Oribatoidea-Acarina) of the
Northeastern United States, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. 42, pp. 87-124,
14. Same, 1935 (March), The Species of Zetes (Oribatoidea-Acarina) of
the Northeastern United States, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. 42,
pp. 51-94, pls. 7-10.
15. JOHNSON, CHARLES WILLISTON, 1913, Insects of Florida, I: Diptera,
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 32, pp. 37-90.
16. ROGERS, JAMES SPEED, 1933, The Ecological Distribution of the Crane-
flies of Northern Florida, Ecological Monographs, vol. 3, pp. 1-74,
17. SMALL, JOHN KUNKEL, 1913, Florida Trees, N. Y., 107 pp.
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