Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00273
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1938
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00273
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text


Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society


(Grossman Collection-IIIf
U. S. Forest Service, New Haven, Conn.
According to Silvestri, the Geenton comprises the plants and
animals which live in the surface soil (including the litter),
and such extensions of the earth's surface as boulders, outcrops,
stumps, trees. It excludes aquatic and parasitic species.
The first paper of this series covered the box-mites (5), the
second the large-winged mites (8). Since these papers were
prepared the entire Grossman Collection has been entrusted to
me for study and I find 85 more box-mites and 26 more large-
winged mites. To the above papers the following notes should
therefore be added:
Although the numbers in the table on page 262 (5) are af-
fected, the order of abundance remains unchanged. Naturally
most of the additions were Pseudotritia ardua. The material
also included the following new distribution records: one speci-
men of Hoplophthiracarus robustior from Bradenton (lot 87) ;
one specimen of Oribotritia glabrata from Micanopy (lot 74)
and one from Key Largo! (lot 92) ; one specimen of Oribotritia
carolinae from Vero Beach (lot 67) and one from Lower Mate-
cumbe Key! (lot 31).
Hoplophthiracarus grossmani. I neglected to designate the
type in connection with the original description. I now desig-
nate as holotype the specimen from Pinkoson Springs, Gaines-
ville; slide G33.
The only serious additions to distribution are: two specimens
of Holokalumma coloradensis from Mulberry (lot 103) and two
Zetes minutus from Vero Beach (lot 67).



Dolicheremaeus rubripedes sp. nov.
Fig. 1.-Lateral aspect, leg II omitted; ratio x100.
Exoribatula juglans sp. nov.
Fig. 2.-Dorso/ventral aspects, legs and mouth parts omitted; ratio x138.
Fig. 3.-Cephaloprothorax and anterior end of notogaster, dorsolateral
aspect, legs omitted; ratio x138.
Fig. 4.-Tarsus I and tibia I; ratio x182.

VOL. XXI-No. 4

More or less related to Eremaeus but with long lamellar
ridges; four prominent callosities on posterior edge of cephalo-
prothorax, and at least two complementary callosities on an-
terior edge of notogaster which is quite distinct dorsally from
cephaloprothorax; twenty notogastral bristles; tibiae long, tarsi
less than half their length; genuals very short, practically en-
closed by pocketlike flange of femora (ungues monohamate).
Type: Dolicheremaeus rubripedes sp. nov.

Dolicheremaeus rubripedes sp. nov.
Figure 1
Legs and genital covers (even in balsam mounts) mahogany red;
pseudostigmatic organs with small lanceolate head; bristles fairly long,
lamellar, inserted laterad of distal end of lamellar ridges, converging, and
descending to nearly meet; interlamellar bristles between pseudostigmata,
long; disc of notogaster sculptured with fine, apparently incised, jagged
lines which trend from anterolaterad to posteromesad; sides of thorax
verrucose; sides of cephalon with a few shallow areolations; tectopedia
I areolated; anal and paranal bristles fairly long, curved like notogastral
bristles; size quite variable: length 0.45 (0.56) 0.62 mm., breadth 0.23
(0.25) 0.28 mm.
Cotypes: Thirty-three specimens from Carpinus litter, sta-
tion pasture, Experiment Station, Gainesville; taken February
18th, 1936, by J. R. Watson, slide 3521-8.
Three specimens from true moss, Sugarfoot Hammock,
Gainesville; taken June 10th, 1928, by J. R. Watson, slides
G109D1 to -D3.
Odontocepheus sexdentatus and 0. curtipilus Tragardh 1931
(Oct. 7) from Juan Fernandez apparently belong in this genus.

Exoribatula juglans sp. nov.
Figures 2 to 4
Diagnostic characters: Surface roughened so as to resemble the shell
of the Eurasian walnut; body elongate, depressed; cephaloprothoracic
bristles of medium length, blunt, distal half barbulate (figures 2 and 3);
notogastral bristles slender, smooth; pseudostigmatic organs short, strongly
clavate, flattened (like a tennis racket) (figures 2 and 3).
Description: Color dark brown; size medium, dimension of largest
female: length 0.6 mm., breadth 0.33 mm., of largest cotype (female):
length 0.58 mm., breadth 0.31 mm., of smallest male: length 0.374 mm.,
breadth 0.2 mm.; rostrum broadly rounded, rostral bristles bent close to
rostrum, meeting on median plane (figure 2); lamello-rostral ridges flat-
tened on lateral face of cephaloprothorax so that only upper edge is
distinct; lamellae unsculptured, tapering a little at distal end, though
not apparently so in dorsal aspect, lamellar bristles nearly straight, not


extending to distal end of rostrum, interlamellar bristles erect, not longer
than lamellar, vertex areolated-pocked; no exopseudostigmatic bristle dis-
cernible; anterior edge of notogaster slightly concave, forming a distinct,
rounded angle above base of lamellae; notogastral bristles twenty, smooth,
some of them barely longer than the cephaloprothoracic bristles, "shoulders"
poorly developed, crenulate (figure 2).
Ventral plate much narrower than notogaster; maxillae-coxal plates
well developed; sternum slender; parasterna I, II and III each with two
bristles on mesal third; mesal end of apodemata II-III meeting at anterior
edge of genital aperture in females (figure 2), but nearly midway between
genital aperture and camerostome in males and thus entirely free from
genital aperture; mesal end of apodemata IV anteriad of middle of genital
aperture in females, only a little more anteriad in males; thus the anal
and genital apertures are much more distant (relatively) in the females
than in the males; genital covers bearing but two bristles on anterior half!
(figure 2) ; paramesal bristles a little less than length of genital aperture
distant from aperture; anal aperture close to posterior edge of ventral
plate, each cover with but one bristle of medium length inserted near
center of mesal edge (figure 2); adanal bristles only two, of medium
length, inserted at sides of aperture.
Legs strong, ungues triheterohamate, central hook only a little heavier
than the other two; tarsi I and II short, ventral face bristles ciliate,
dorsoproximal quartette well developed (figure 4); .tibiae I and II long,
tibiae I with dorsodistal process well developed, pointed, major bristle
of tibiae I and II very long (figure 4) ; femora I with very slender flange;
femora II with well-developed flange on distal half; dorsal face bristles
of femora I and II large, stout, barbulate-ciliate in several ranks. Legs
III and IV similarly developed but without well-developed flanges.
I know of no similar species. On the dorsal face the cephalopro-
thoracic bristles are highly developed, on the ventral face the bristles
about the posterior end are well developed.
The females bear six unusually elongate eggs.
Material Examined: One specimen from live oak leaves
(litter ?), Fernandina; taken March 8th by Miss Decker, lot 40.
One specimen from live-oak litter, east side of bridge, Green
Cove Springs; taken April 29th, lot 79. One specimen from
oak litter, one mile west of preceding, same day, lot 80. One
specimen from live-oak litter, one mile north of Crescent City;
taken May 1st, lot 82. Twelve specimens from spruce pine litter
and small freshly fallen limbs on burned over land, Campville;
taken March 18th, lot 47 (cotypes). One specimen from green
spanish moss (Tillandsia), four to eight feet from ground,
Gainesville; taken January 21st, lot 4. Nine specimens from
bark of magnolia tree between one to five feet from ground,
horticulture grounds, Gainesville; taken March 15th, lot 43.
Three specimens from bark of box-wood, same locality; taken
March 27th, lot 57. One specimen from true moss, Sugarfoot

VOL. XXI-No. 4

Hammock, Gainesville; taken June 10th by J. R. Watson,
lot 109.
Quite evidently a tree climber.

Xylobates imperfecta comb. nov.
Galumna imperfect Banks 1906 (Nov.), p. 492, pl. 16, figs. 21, is an
aberrant Xylobates in that the pseudostigmatic organ head is not armed
with the usual row of cilia but is truncate and terminated by two or
three short bristles or cilia; the rostrum descends in a point; tarsi I are
as slender as in Scheloribates, the spine of dorsal face is bristlelike;
the ventrodistal spine is quintipectinate, and the dorsodistal apophysis
of tibiae I is not developed (thus legs I are more primitive,-not specialized
for digging); tarsi II have the two spines well developed; the adalar
porose areas are elongate, the lateral mesonotal are also elongate but
parallel to sides of notogaster.
The original figures are very misleading.
Originally described from Indianapolis, Indiana (collected
by Blatchley), I find 287 specimens in the Grossman collection
collected by George F. Weber, May 10th, 1928, from dry leaves,
at Key Largo (lot 92). As far as I know this species is known
from these two localities only!

Elsewhere (10) I give my reasons for regarding Fuscozetes
fuscipes of authors as F. setosus Koch. This change should be
noted in my paper on east American Fuscozetes (7). In that
paper I described a subspecies from Florida placing it under
F. bidentatus because of a similarity in the lamellae. I now
regard it as a subspecies of F. setosus because it resembles that
species in all characters except shape of lamellae and even in
this character they approximate the condition in F. setosus
more than that of F. bidentatus. There is one noteworthy dif-
ference, the fourth bristle in lateral row is inserted much
further posteriad even than in F. setosus.

1. Distal end of lamellae without cusps; cusp of tectopedia I not reach-
ing insertion of rostrals; fourth lateral bristle of notogaster in-
serted on transverse plane anteriad of third mesal; ventrodistal
bristle of femora II inserted proximad of center of femur.
F. bidentatus
1. Distal end of lamellae with at least one cusp; cusp of tectopedia I
surpassing insertion of rostrals; fourth lateral bristle of notogaster
inserted on transverse plane posteriad of third mesal; ventrodistal
bristle of femora II inserted distad of center of femur. 2


2. Distal end of lamellae with a lateral cusp; lamellar blades well spaced,
feebly converging; fourth lateral bristle inserted only slightly pos-
teriad of third mesal. ............--.....----. ---- ..-...-- .................. F. setosus
2. Distal end of lamellae with a lateral and a mesal cusp; lamellar blades
strongly converging V-like; fourth lateral bristle inserted far pos-
teriad of third mesal. .................................... .......... F. setosus floridae
Fuscozetes setosus floridae comb. nov.
In describing this subspecies (7) two specimens from the
Grossman collection were reported. I can now add the follow-
ing records:
Four specimens from live oak and pine litter, sunny, rather
dry, Perry; taken February 2nd, lot 10. Two specimens from
leaf litter about azalea bushes, shady place, apiary grounds,
Gainesville; taken January 26th, lot 6. One specimen from litter
of elders, rather damp, horticulture grounds, Gainesville; taken
February 29th, lot 29. Thirteen specimens from oak litter,
Devil's Mill Hopper, Gainesville; taken April 24th, lot 76. One
specimen from long-leaf pine litter, east shore of Newman's
Lake, Gainesville; taken March 25th, lot 54. Fifteen specimens
from long-leaf pine litter, south shore of same, same date, lot
55. One specimen from sweet-gum litter, three miles southwest
of Micanopy; taken April 17th, lot 74. Twenty specimens from
oak litter one mile west on state road from Green Cove Springs;
taken April 29th, lot 80. Four specimens from twelve miles
from south point on shore of North Beach, St. Augustine; taken
April 1st, lot 63. Nine specimens from live oak litter, east side
of St. John's River, East Palatka; taken April 15th, lot 69.
Six specimens from water oak litter, one mile east of Mulberry;
taken May 17th by Erdman West, lot 103.
Thus seeming to prefer the drier litters (oak), south to the
center of the peninsula (Perry to Mulberry).
The species is known north to Ottawa and Maine.
Oribatella brevicornuta extensa (6)
In describing this subspecies nine specimens from the Gross-
man collection were recorded. I can now add the following
One specimen from rather damp elder litter, horticulture
grounds, Gainesville; taken February 29th, lot 29. Two speci-
mens from leaf litter, same locality; taken April 20th, lot 75.
Five specimens from oak litter, upper edge of Devil's Mill
Hopper, Gainesville; taken April 24th, lot 76. One specimen
from litter, high, dry, under hickory, Pinkoson Springs, Gaines-

VOL. XXI-No. 4

ville; taken March 4th, lot 33. Two specimens from long-leaf
pine litter, east shore of Newman's Lake, Gainesville; taken
March 25th, lot 54. Two specimens from long-leaf pine litter,
south shore of same, same. date, lot 55. One specimen from
sweet gum litter, three miles southwest of Micanopy; taken
April 17th, lot 74. One specimen from litter at bottom of the
sink "Devil's Hole" at water's edge, two miles north of Edgar
(about eight miles from Hawthorne on road to Palatka) ; taken
May day, lot 81. Forty-eight specimens from twelve miles from
south point on shore of North Beach, St. Augustine (type local-
ity) ; taken April 1st, lot 63.
From the above records this form seems to enjoy the sea
beach. Unfortunately no record of the litter conditions is given
for the most favorable sample! From other collections it ap-
pears to be related to decaying wood (and its dependents) more
than to decaying leaves.
This subspecies ranges north to Iowa, Illinois, and Ohio.
Propelops pinicus (9)
One specimen from pine litter seven miles from Perry
towards Mayo; taken April 28th, lot 78. One specimen from
leaf litter under hickory, high, dry, Pinkoson Springs, Gaines-
ville; taken March 4th, lot 33. Fourteen specimens from sweet
gum litter, three miles southwest of Micanopy; taken April 17th,
lot 74.
Originally described from the mountains of North Carolina.
PARAPELOPS gen. nov.
Similar to Propelops (9) but interlamellar bristles broad
(as in Pelops) ; lamellae slender; no distinguishable trans-
lamella; lamellar bristles stout, curving ventrad, and slightly
laterad; pteromorphal bridge (in genotype) as in Pelops but
not emarginate; porose areas distant their diameter from
Type: Pelops bifurcatus Ewing 1909 (Sept.), p. 118, pl. 2,
fig. 3, from Havana, Illinois (length 0.38 mm.).
I have this species from western North Carolina, and from
the following localities in Florida:
Parapelops bifurcatus comb. nov.
Three specimens from second growth pine, east of Oscuala
Country Club, five miles west of Pensacola; taken March 29th
by G. H. Blackmon, lot 61. Four specimens from long-leaf pine


litter, south shore of Newman's Lake, Gainesville; taken March
25th, lot 55. One specimen from leaf litter and grass, old lab-
oratory, Bradenton; taken March 14th by George F. Weber,
lot 44. Ten specimens from same place; taken May 2nd by
Weber, lot 87.
Genus ZERCON Koch Uebersicht
Koch appointed Z. dimidiatus as type of his genus Zercon
(Uebersicht, vol. 3, Vorwort, p. 6, last paragraph). This leaves
the group characterized by Z. triangularis without generic des-
ignation. I propose for it the term:
Type: Zercon triangularis Koch (11) fasc. 4:16.
In 1910 (Feb. 12) p. 245 Berlese described Zercon radiatus
from Lake City, Florida. In 1914 (Dec. 31) p. 136 he published
a figure of the dorsal aspect (pl. 3, fig. 48) and expressed doubt
concerning its maturity, wondering if it might not be an im-
mature stage of the common Zercon triangularis. Evidently
Berlese's material was such that he was unable to discern sex
characters, and it lacked the dorsoposterior crescentic ridges
so characteristic of adult Zercon, and of some of the nymphs.
In 1916 (Dec. 31) p. 297 Berlese described what he regarded
as the female of Z. radiatus (which he now regards as a nymph).
From abundant material of a closely related species from
the White Mountains of New Hampshire it is evident that his
nymph is not an Ascidae but a Parasitidae. As it is quite dis-
tinct, I propose segregating this species in the following genus:

Type: Zercon radiatus Berlese 1910 (Feb. 12), p. 245; 1914
(Dec. 31), p. 136, pl. 3, fig. 48.
The female which Berlese refers to Z. radiatus I rename:

Zercon misgenatus nom. nov.
The specific name, alluding to Berlese's attempt to bed this
female with a youth of a foreign race, is designed to warn
acarologists of the undesirability of describing new species
from inadequate material.
I find no Trizerconoides in the Grossman collection!

1. BANKS, NATHAN, 1906 (Nov.), New Oribatidae from the United States.
2. BERLESE, ANTONIO, 1910 (Feb. 12), Lista di nuove Specie e nuovi
Generi di Acari.

VOL. XXI-No. 4

3. 1914 (Dec. 31), Acari nuovi, Manipulus IX.
4. 1916 (Dec. 31), Centuria terza di Acari nuovi.
5. JACOT, A. P., 1933 (Apr.), Phthiracarid Mites of Florida, Jour. Elisha
Mitchell Sci. Soc., 48:232-267, pls. 19-22.
6. 1934 (Nov.), A New Four-Horned Mossmite (Oribatoidea-
Acarina), The Am. Mid. Nat., 15:706-712, 13 figs.
7. 1935 (Sept.), Fuscozetes (Oribatoidea-Acarina) in the
Northeastern United States, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 43:311-318,
pl. 26.
8. 1935 (July, Nov.), 1936 (Dec.), The Large-Winged Mites
of Florida, The Florida Ent., 19:1-14, pls. 1-2; 15-31, pl. 3, txt. fig.;
pp. 43-47.
9. 1937 (Sept., Dec.), Journal of North-American Moss-
Mites, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 45:353-374, pls. 26-27.
10. 1939, The Pterogasterine Oribatinae of C. L. Koch, Jour.
N. Y. Ent. Soc. (forthcoming).
11. KOCH, CARL LUDWIG, 1835-1844, Deutschlands Crustaceen, Myriapoden
und Arachniden.
12. 1842, Uebersicht des Arachnidensystems.
13. TRAGARDH, IVAR, 1931 (Oct.), Acarina from the Juan Fernandez
Islands, in Carl Skottsberg, The Natural History of Juan Fernandez
and Easter Island, 3:553-628, .166 figs.

Index to Vol. XXI will appear in the next issue of


Consulting Entomologist
457 Boone Street, Orlando, Fla.
Advisory Work Confined to Citrus
Citrus Literature Bought and Sold Without Profit

Printing for All Purposes
Carefully Executed
Delivered on Time

Pepper Printing Company
Gainesville, Florida

Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida

J. R. W ATSON, Gainesville .......................................................Editor
E. W. BERGER, Gainesville.....-...-........................Associate Editor
J. W. WILSON, Belle Glade----................-----......-- Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

At 1:00 p.m. Friday, December 2, the Florida Entomological
Society convened in Science Hall at the University of Florida
for its annual meeting with President King presiding. After
a brief business session the following papers were presented:
The Salt Marsh Mosquito Problem in Florida. Presidential
Address, W. V. King, U.S.D.A., Orlando.
The Physiological Effects of Mineral Oil Sprays on Citrus.
L. W. Ziegler, Consulting Entomologist, Winter Haven.
Present Status of Knowledge of Tipulidae of Florida. J.
Speed Rogers, Biology Department, University of Florida,
Methods Employed in Determining Variability of Leaf Sam-
ples from Citrus Trees. J. K. Holloway, U.S.D.A., Orlando.
Distribution of Certain Orthoptera in Relation to Soil Types
in Florida. T. H. Hubbell, Biology Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
Insects Inhabiting "Salamander" Burrows. C. C. Goff, Agri-
cultural Experiment Station, Leesburg.
The presentation of papers was continued at the Saturday
morning session, when the following papers were given:
Observations on Mexican Insects. J. R. Watson, Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, Gainesville.
Present Status of Knowledge of Mayflies of Florida. Lewis
Berner, Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville.
The Possible Use of Phenothiazine in the Control of Three
Common Truck Crop Insects of Central Florida. C. B. Wisecup,
U.S.D.A., Sanford.

VoL. XXI-No. 4

The Lycosid Spiders of Florida. H. K. Wallace, Biology
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville.
The regular business session of the Society followed the
presentation of the papers.
G. H. Bradley, T. E. McNeel, and B. V. Travis, all of the
U.S.D.A. Laboratory, Orlando, were elected to active member-
ship and Wayne P. Dean and J. R. Tremble, graduate students
at the University of Florida, were elected to student member-
ship in the Society.
After some discussion of the proposed Constitution and by-
laws, it became evident that some changes in these were neces-
sary. The Society voted to postpone final action and adoption
of these documents until the next annual meeting.
The Executive Committee was authorized to petition the
American Association of Economic Entomologists for affiliate
membership in that organization for the Florida Entomological
The officers of the Society for the following year are:
President, J. H. MONTGOMERY
Business Manager-Treasurer, J. W. WILSON
Secretary, A. N. TISSOT
Associate Editor, E. W. BERGER

The register of attendance at the meeting included the fol-
lowing members and friends of the Society:

C. A. Bass
E. W. Berger
Lewis Berner
John T. Bigham
Edwin W. Booth
G. H. Bradley
K. E. Bragdon
K. Paul Bragdon
M. R. Brown
T. J. Cantrall
S. O. Carson
Jeff Chaffin
Henry S. Chubb
John T. Creighton
Wayne P. Dean
J. H. Girardeau, Jr.

C. C. Goff
Coleman J. Goin
J. C. Goodwin
James S. Haeger
S. O. Hill
Homer Hixson
Horton H. Hobbs, Jr.
J. K. Holloway
T. H. Hubbell
W. P. Hunter
Walter L. Kersey
W. V. King
R. A. Knight
T. E. McNeel
G. B. Merrill
Wm. C. Nanney
Max R. Osburn

John R. Preer
J. Speed Rogers
H. B. Sherman
Herbert Spencer
John R. Springer
W. L. Thompson
A. N. Tissot
B. V. Travis
J. R. Tremble
Henry H. True
H. K. Wallace
J. R. Watson
Kathleen V. Wheeler
J. W. Wilson
C. B. Wisecup
L. W. Ziegler

A. N. TISSOT, Secretary



B. J. KASTON, New Haven, Conn.

When a species has a distribution as wide as that of the
black widow, Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius), it is natural
to expect a certain amount of variation, and, indeed, many of
the forms have been described as distinct species. The spider
has been recorded from Canada in the north, to Patagonia in
the south, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. For the United
States, Chamberlin and Ivie (1935) distinguished three vari-
eties. These are mactans mactans, "from New Hampshire to
Florida, and westward into Texas and Oklahoma," mactans
texanus, and mactans hesperus, the latter two being new west-
ern varieties. Though there is some mention of a slight dif-
ference in the length of the legs, their figures indicate that
when taken in relation to the length of the cephalothorax, for
example, this can hardly be used as a distinguishing character.
The most conspicuous variation concerns the shape and extent
of the red and white markings on the abdomen.
Mr. Marshall B. Bishop, of the Peabody Museum of Natural
History in New Haven, while on collecting trips around Lake
Worth, Florida, during the past two winters procured a large
number of specimens of a new variety on which he had made
extensive observations.
Latrodectus mactans var. bishop var. nov.
The abdomen of this form is well marked on the dorsum,
like the brightest of the typical mactans mactans. There are
the usual red spots along the mid-dorsal line, and the white
splashes laterad. Curiously enough, however, none of the 61
specimens examined has a complete hour-glass mark on the
venter. This mark is much reduced; in only six females is
there even a suggestion of a posterior portion. In the remain-
ing 47 females and eight males it is reduced to a small triangle
representing the anterior portion only. In itself this reduction
of the hour-glass mark is not significant, for the same can be
observed in many specimens of the typical eastern variety, as
already pointed out by Kaston (1937).
The males of this variety are proportionately larger than
those of the others, but the most striking character by which
this variety can be distinguished from all others is the color

VOL. XXI-No. 4

of the cephalothorax and legs. Instead of being dark brown
or black they are bright orange in most specimens. In a few
they are yellow, and in some brick red! In general structure,
including that of the genitalia, this variety agrees with the
others. Likewise, the ratio of the length of the leg segments
to that of the cephalothorax falls quite close to the figures
given by Chamberlin and Ivie for the other varieties.
Type material is deposited in the American Museum of
Natural History, which also has a single female from Orange
County collected by Dr. H. K. Wallace, Sept. 5, 1934.
Contrary to the usual habit of the species, the members of
this variety do not build their webs under stones or debris, etc.,
near the ground. Instead, they are commonly found in webs
built three to more than four feet from the ground. The pre-
ferred habitat seems to be in dry areas where the light palmetto
grows. The webs are stretched from one palmetto to another
and may be more than two feet across. They have much the
appearance of a sheet web after the fashion of a Linyphia,
rather than the irregular network of a theridiid. Mr. Bishop
informs me that the web appears always to be associated with
the small nest of a wasp which builds at the base of the palmetto
leaves. The spider usually stands near this wasp nest while
waiting for prey to strike its web.
It is interesting to note that Petrunkevitch (1910) reports
a somewhat similar type of web-building in a black-legged
variety of southern Mexico. This builds its web some six feet
above the ground among the branches of cactus. However,
around Lake Worth the black-legged mactans mactans can be
found in the same areas in which var. bishop occurs, the former
under stones, etc., near the ground.
During the latter half of February the sexes are mature,
and several males can be found on the web of a single female.
The first egg sac was observed on February 22, 1938.

CHAMBERLIN, R. V. and IVIE, W. 1935. The black widow spider and
its varieties in the United States. Bull. Univ. Utah, XXV (8) :1-29.
KASTON, B. J. 1937. The black widow spider in New England. Bull.
New England Mus. Nat. Hist., No. 85, pp. 1-11.
PETRUNKEVITCH, A. 1910. Some new or little known American spiders.
Ann. New York Acad. Sci., XIX:208-209.


In the afternoon of August 25, last, in and about the city of
Monterey, Mexico, the writer ran into the most remarkable flight
of butterflies he has ever seen. The species involved was the
snout butterfly, Libythae carinenta, which Holland considers
only a pale variety of the common snout butterfly of the east,
L. bachmani. The flight was literally a brown snowstorm. A
common method of estimating the abundance of butterflies in a
flight is to mark off a line about 100 feet long and count the
number that pass this line in a minute. In the case of this flight
this was impossible. A conservative estimate was a butterfly
for every cubic et of air space, and they extended up to a
height of 30 or 40 feet, and at least every 21/2 seconds this cubic
We4 would be occupied by another butterfly. At that rate, in
the flight there would be well over 2000 butterflies pass a 100
foot line every minute. When they struck the buildings in
Monterey they went to the very tops of the buildings. They
may not have been that high in the open country.
It was the day before the hurricane, rather quiet, and the
wind was from the southeast, and the flight was against the
wind. We ran into the flight about ten kilometers southeast
of Monterey. As we ascended the mountains to Chipinque Mesa
we passed out of the flight although there were many of these
butterflies on the blossoms on the "mesa". These rose and
resumed flight about 10:00 a.m. the next morning. At 4:00 p.m.
the rain started and of course no further flight was observed.

(Continued from Vol. XXI-No. 3, p. 47.)
None of the interactions were significant except the quad-
ruple remainder, indicating that the effect of each factor was
very marked and due entirely to its own characteristics, i. e.,
a change in any one factor did not produce a significant change
upon another except where all factors were operating together.
It should be pointed out that in order to bring out in this
experiment the effects of the other ingredients, phenothiazine
and paris green were purposely tested at a lower rate than
would be expected to give satisfactory mortalities. Therefore
the resulting low mortalities should not be interpreted as mean-

VOL. XXI-No. 4

ing that these materials are of no practical value in baits for
this insect. On the contrary, they may prove as effective as
cryolite if used at sufficiently high concentrations. This possi-
bility is worthy of consideration.

Factor Variable Mortality Difference

Corn meal .----................................. 64
Bulk 3
Cottonseed meal ...................... 61

Paris green .................-............. 89
Poisons 53
Phenothiazine .........-- ...........--... 36

Present ...........-...---- ...--- ......-- ... 78
Syrup 31
Absent .......... ... .------...-...-- ... 47

Present .--...--..-.-------.... ......--- 58
Lemon 9Ab-
Absent ...................................... 67
Difference required for significance ....-.........------------. .................- 19

The effect of varying the ingredients of southern armyworm
baits was studied in laboratory experiments designed factorially
and analyzed accordingly. This resulted in a saving of time
and aided considerably in the accurate interpretation of the
data. Corn meal and cottonseed meal were demonstrated to
be good substitutes for each other in these baits. Lemon was
valueless, while syrup definitely increased the effectiveness.
The presence of natural food decreased the mortalities obtained
with the baits, demonstrating the desirability of supplying this
insect with an abundance of natural food when testing baits,
if the results are to be useful. It also demonstrated the desir-
ability of the development of additional attrahents.
Cryolite was the only poison that gave satisfactory results
in any combination in the presence of natural unpoisoned food.
Paris green was second in effectiveness, followed by phenothia-
zine and cube. Cube was worthless, while phenothiazine gave
some mortality and in view of its safe qualities may be con-
sidered promising when used at a relatively high rate.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs