Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XXIII FEBRUARY, 1940 No. 1
PRELIMINARY REPORT ON WIREWORM INVESTIGATIONS
IN THE EVERGLADES
BY J. W. WILSON,
Everglades Experiment Station
The problem of wireworm control has engaged the attention
of economic entomologists in all sections of the United States
and, unfortunately, no one has yet been able to suggest an en-
tirely satisfactory control program. Thomas (1930) has re-
viewed the extensive world literature on wireworm control, list-
ing approximately 385 papers. Since 1930 there has been a steady
increase of papers on the same subject. Almost every conceiv-
able means of control has been tried, some fairly satisfactory,
but none entirely so. It seems that each section of the country
has different species and different climatic conditions to combat
which make that section's problem different from all other sec-
tions. For example, the most prevalent species we have in the
Everglades, Melanotus communis, (Gyll.) is capable of surviving
for long periods of time without moisture on the muck soil. This
is all the more remarkable because the Everglades for periods
during the year is very wet. In addition flooding experiments
conducted during July and August, in other investigations, have
proven ineffective against this species.
As indicated above Melanotus communis, Gyll. is the most
abundant destructive elaterid larva we have in the Everglades.
Collections to date have revealed five other species present.
These are Heteroderes laurentii Guer., a species causing con-
siderable damage in other sections, Glyphonyx recticillis (Say.),
Aeolus dorsalis Say., Dolopius sp. and Conoderus sp. All de-
terminations were made by W. S. Fisher of the National Mu-
seum. The last two named species are rare and are probably
not of economic importance anywhere. Melanotus communis
is the only species being studied at this time and subsequent
statements refer to this species.
Paper read before the meeting of Fla. Ent. Soc. Dec., 1939.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
In most sections of the country the wireworm larvae attack
a number of unrelated crops. This is true in the Everglades.
Growers of sugarcane have stated that in heavily infested fields
they have to replant three or four times to get a stand. No
method has yet been developed for estimating the damage to the
stubble crop. Last year one celery grower lost approximately
20 percent of his celery plants where the wireworm population
was 21,780 larvae per acre. The same grower had a planting
of peppers completely destroyed. The acreage of potatoes planted
is increasing each year, but no estimate of wireworm dam-
age has yet been obtained. Other species in other sections of
the country are responsible for severe damage to the potato
crop. Corn is largely grown for windbreaks in the bean fields,
but if figures from other sections apply at all to our section,
the wireworms also cause much damage to corn. Thus, in the
Everglades, we have four major crops, sugarcane, celery, pep-
pers and potatoes that are severely injured by wireworms.
Life history studies of Melanotus communis were begun in
April, 1939. It now appears that this insect is capable of com-
pleting its life cycle in one year's time in South Florida, but, like
many other insects in our southern climate, all stages are likely
to be found at any time during the year. Two adults were col-
lected January 13, 1939 and others during the spring months.
It seems possible that these early emerging adults were pro-
duced from eggs laid in the late summer, 18 months previously.
Three adult females collected in May laid a total of 123 eggs in
the insectary. The adults were placed in tin boxes with moist
blotting paper in the top and bottom with a piece of corn stalk
cut to fit between the lid and the bottom. The adults were fed
corn pollen. Evidently the females were fertilized before they
were placed in the boxes because copulation was not observed
and 69 percent of the eggs hatched. Many of the eggs not hatch-
ing were killed by mold. One of the difficulties of working with
this species is that satisfactory external characters for dis-
tinguishing males from females have not yet been found. That
the average of 41 eggs for each female is below the usual num-
ber laid in the field is indicated by the fact that four females
not laying in the insectary and dissected after death contained
an average of 123 fully developed, probably infertile eggs.
A total of 85 eggs hatched in the insectary between May 26
and June 19 with a maximum incubation period of 17 days, a
minimum of 12 days and an average of 13.66 days. These lar-
VOL. XXIII-No. 1
vae were placed in tin boxes with germinated corn between
moist blotting paper. They were kept in the insectary until
July 15 when 28 larvae were placed in four 8 inch pots filled with
sifted and sterilized muck. Corn was planted in the pots for
food. The pots were examined October 18, revealing 14 larvae
24 mm. in length. Eight of the 28 larvae had molted three times
before July 15.
The experience of other investigators indicates that chemi-
cals strong enough to kill the wireworm larvae are too expen-
sive for general field use. Nevertheless preliminary investiga-
tions with calcium cyanide, carbon bisulphide and chloropicrin
were made with the hope that one of these chemicals might
prove useful for control of wireworms in seed beds. A seed bed
four feet wide was divided into six 10-foot plots with three foot
alleyways between plots. In each plot a screen cage 1.5 inches
in diameter and six inches long, containing 25 wireworms was
buried at 'three and six inch levels. The materials were ap-
plied in holes three inches deep and six inches apart, 3 cc. of
the material to each hole and the holes immediately filled with
dirt. After the application of the materials was completed the
bed was covered with heavy tarpaulins which remained in place
for 48 hours.
TABLE 1.-RESULTS OF SEED BED TREATMENT WITH VARIOUS SOIL FUMI-
GANTS APPLIED NOVEMBER 23, 1938, SOIL TEMP. 27 C. NEAR BELLE
Treat- Number larvae alive
ment Material used and 48 hours after Percent
No. rate per acre Cage Cage Killed
3" deep 6" deep
1 Chloropicrin 300 lbs. dis-
solved in 96% alcohol ........ 7 11 36
2 Chloropicrin 600 lbs. dis-
solved in 96% alcohol ........ 0 0 100
3 Check untreated ..................... 22* 24*
4 Carbon bisulphide 1383 lbs.
per A. -.....-- ..-..................... 0 0 100
5 Cyanogas 300 lbs. broadcast 24 23* 2
6 96% Alcohol ....- ............--...... 25 25 0
*Treatment 3: 3 larvae missing from Cage 3 inches deep and 1 from Cage 6 inches deep.
Treatment 5: 2 larvae missing.
The larvae were placed in tin boxes with soil from their re-
spective plots for six days. None of the larvae counted as dead
revived and only one of those found alive died during this time.
Although the chloropicrin at 600 pounds per acre gave com-
plete control the cost is almost prohibitive. The method of appli-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
cation was clumsy and slow. The experiment was repeated
emulsifying the materials with soap, diluting with water and
applying them with a sprinkling can. In spite of the fact that
at 300 pounds per acre chloropicrin gave 100 percent control
the method was a failure. This is due to the fact that application
with a sprinkling can is entirely unsatisfactory and at one dol-
lar a pound for chloropicrin the cost of this method for materials
and labor would be approximately $460 an acre.
Baits of many kinds have been used in attempts to control
wireworms attacking many crops. Yet a survey of the litera-
ture failed to show that some chemicals recently used for insect
control had been used in this connection. With this in mind 600
wireworm larvae were released in a screened insectary 12x15
ft. without a floor. An experiment was designed to determine
the preferred food among the following: wheat, corn, graham
flour, beans, potatoes, oats, wheat bran, cottonseed meal and
corn meal. Five rows, three feet apart, were laid out across
the insectary and each row divided into nine 12 inch sections.
Each material was placed in each row in a random distribu-
tion and covered with three inches of soil on January 12, 1939.
On January 23 the soil from each plot in each row 6x6x12
inches was sifted and the number of wireworms recorded. This
data was subjected to an analysis of variance, demonstrating that
the wireworms preferred these materials in the following order:
oats, wheat, corn, potatoes, corn meal, string beans, cottonseed
meal, graham flour and wheat bran. There was no significant
difference between the first three foods.
Since corn and wheat were the most easily obtained of the
three they were used in subsequent experiments conducted in
the greenhouse to determine the effectiveness of the following
chemicals: Tartar emetic, Thallium sulphate, potassium fluor-
ide, and zinc phosphide. None of the arsenicals were tried be-
cause Woodworth (1938) working with Limonius cans Lec.
in Washington has shown that this species is not affected by
arsenicals. Various strengths of the chemicals were dissolved
in a constant volume of water and rosin residue emulsion used as
a sticker. Corn and wheat were treated with these preparations,
dried and planted in jars containing five wireworms. Each
treatment was replicated five times and examinations were made
two weeks after the experiments were started. The examina-
tion showed that the wireworms had fed on the grain but were
not affected by the chemicals. In some cases the chemicals were
VOL. XXIII-No. 1
made up to a saturated solution before the grain was treated.
Likewise corn stored with paradichlorobenzene and naphthelene
was ineffective. The latter is contradictory to results obtained
by other investigators, Miles (1937), Headlie (1929) and Haw-
kins (1936). The only explanation I can offer is that the para-
dichlorobenzene and naphthalene absorbed by the grain was not
sufficient to act either as a repellant or as an insecticide.
TABLE 2.-WIREWORM POPULATION IN COVER CROP PLOTS APRIL 26, 1939.
TEN SAMPLES OF 1 SQ. FT. 6 INCHES DEEP TO THE PLOT AND OCTOBER
7, 1939, AFTER COVER PLOWED UNDER.
per acre 4/26/39
per acre 10/7/39
Velvet Beans, No. 4
Mr. R. N. Lobdell, formerly of the Everglades Experiment
Station, has advanced the theory that adult M. communis fe-
males would not lay eggs on land planted to velvet beans. An
experiment was designed to test this theory using the follow-
ing treatments: velvet beans, weeds and grasses, fallow, cow-
peas, and soybeans. These are the usual plants used for sum-
mer cover excepting fallow cultivation. The field plots were laid
out in a Latin square, each plot 40x50 feet. A crop of spring
peas, No. 3 Speckled
*Treatment No. 1 Fallow, No. 2 Iron Cow
Grass and Weeds, No. 5 O-too-tan Soybeans.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
beans was plowed under in early April, the plots laid out and
10 samples of one foot square and six inches deep taken in each
plot to determine the wireworm population.
TABLE 3.-INCREASE IN WIREWORM POPULATION AFTER SUMMER COVER
CROP AND FALLOW TREATMENT. CONDENSED FROM TABLE 2.
Grass and W eeds .............~~...........-. ...-- ..... +19,221
Soybeans ........----...-...... ..... ..-..-..........------- + 1,960
Cowpeas ........---- ......- ......- -...-.......-- ...---.. .... ........ 1,252
Velvet Beans ---......----...-.. --. -----...... .--- .....-- 1,742
Fallow .........-..-- ..---... ....-----...-...--- ..... 1,961
On October 12 the plots were planted with four rows each
of celery, string beans, Lima beans, corn and potatoes to de-
termine the effect of the wireworms on these crops. Usually
the noticeable damage to celery is inflicted on the newly trans-
planted seedlings. No damage to any of the crops has yet been
observed. This may be due in part to the fact that the wire-
worms present in my plots are about 12 mm. long while the wire-
worms observed in celery fields last year were 24 to 36 mm. long.
Another factor is that of population. In the most heavily in-
fested of my plots there are only about ten thousand wireworms
to the acre while in.the celery field losing 20 percent of stand
there were about 22 thousand wireworms to the acre.
HAWKINS, J. H., 1936. The Bionomics and Control of Wireworms in Maine.
Maine Agric. Exp. Sta. Bul. 381, p. 1-146, 18 figs. 13 pls.
HEADLEE, T. J., 1929. New Jersey Agric. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rept. p. 193-198.
MILLS, H. W., et al, 1938. Investigations on Wireworms and Their Control.
First Ann. Rept. Warburton, Cheshire Univ. of Manchester Research
Sta. Rept. for 1937 31 pp. 8 figs.
THOMAS, C. A., 1930. A Review of Research on the Control of Wireworms.
Penn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 259, 52 pp.
WOODWORTH, C. E., 1938. The Reaction of Wireworms to Arsenicals. J.
Agr. Research, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 229-238.
A THIRD OF A CENTURY OF EXPERIENCE
W. W. OTHERS
457 Boone Street, Orlando, Fla.
Advisory Work Confined to Citrus
Citrus Literature Bought and Sold Without Profit
REPORTS AND APPRAISALS OF CITRUS PROPERTY
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XXIII FEBRUARY, 1940 No. 1
J. R. WATSON, Gainesville-.............-.--------............----.......Editor
E. W. BERGER, Gainesville--..-----...........------...Associate Editor
J. W. WILSON, Belle Glade-.-----...... ---------.Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.
PRELIMINARY REPORT ON LUBBERLY LOCUST CONTROL
J. R. WATSON & H. E. BRATLEY
For several years there have been bitter complaints from
farmers living in the neighborhood of bulb farms, particularly
those raising narcissus, that the bulbs were responsible for heavy
infestations of lubberly locusts. These complaints were par-
ticularly bitter and consistent from Doctors Inlet. In response
to these appeals a study was undertaken of this problem. The
lubberly locust is found all over Florida, more particularly in
muck lands and certain types of flat woods and low hammock
country. It is recognized as more or less of a pest but only in
certain regions does it reach enormous numbers.
The question as to whether the bulb farms were responsible
for the outbreaks lead to a close study of the places of egg de-
position. This was best done in the early spring when the hop-
pers were hatching. For a day or two after hatching they usual-
ly remain in a compact group very close to the place where they
hatched. These observations developed the fact that they did
not lay their eggs in low flat woods as many of the farmers con-
tended. Neither do they lay their eggs in land which has re-
cently been plowed, but by choice in the type of mixed pine and
oak where the soil was fairly loose and sandy but not on the ex-
tremely sandy ridges where the turkey oak grows nor in "scrub."
They also avoided the more compact soils of the lower type of
flatwoods where pines are the only trees to be found. We found
practically no eggs in the narcissus fields where digging and
1 Paper read before the Fla. Entomological Society, Dec., 1939.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
cultivation kept the soil loose. However, they were very abun-
dant along ditch banks and road sides in suitable soils. At both
Penney Farms and Doctors Inlet the first hatching was observed
about the middle of March and by the middle of April it was
mostly over. In the southern part of the state, of course, hatch-
ing was much earlier. Adults were observed near Hollywood
on April 19th.
A most remarkable migration of the young hoppers was ob-
served at Doctors Inlet. A favorite place of egg deposi-
tion was in a field that was in a transitional stage between flat-
woods and high pine with several live oak trees, numerous
blackberries and broom sedge. The oviposition was so abundant
in this patch that the ground was almost covered with young
hoppers in late March. About a month later scarcely a hopper
was to be found here. They had migrated to the narcissus fields
across the hard road. This migration was a most remarkable
and interesting sight. In two tenths of a mile eleven migrating
columns were observed crossing this asphalt road. The con-
clusion was almost irresistible that the young hoppers could
smell the narcissus as, in spite of the fact that they were sev-
eral hundred feet away, the hoppers were practically all mak-
ing for the fields, and travelled in definite columns or trails. By
the last of April the narcissus was literally black with hoppers.
As the narcissus died down, matured and the bulbs were dug,
the young hoppers scattered in all directions, but a large num-
ber of them returned to the field in which they were hatched.
Mating was first observed about the middle of June and egg
laying started soon afterwards and by the first of August the
numbers began to markedly decrease although some adults were
observed along the Santa Fe River near the alluvial flood plain
on Oct. 21. There is but one generation per year, at least in this
part of Florida.
Practically no predators nor parasites were observed to at-
tack this ill smelling locust, but fishermen on the St. Johns River
discovered that catfish took them eagerly and they were literally
taken by the bushel from narcissus fields for catfish bait.
For control measures we found that some of the pyrethrum
extracts were very effective against the young and freshly
moulted hoppers when they were clustered near the places
from which they hatched. We used chiefly Gulf Spray. This
clustering habit for a few days after hatching and also after
moulting makes this method of killing them very efficient and
VOL. XXIII-No. 1
the cost of the material is comparatively low. Of course the
labor of spraying them is somewhat more expensive. Control by
means of torches was tried but was found to be too slow. Spray-
ing was much more rapid.
They will take poisoned bran baits as will other grasshop-
pers but because of their immense numbers and their continual
migrations from bulb fields, surrounding farmers found they
had to continue the poisoning over a long period, so much so
that they became discouraged with this method of control.
It was found that a trench about a foot deep made a very
effective barrier for the locusts. They cannot fly and in crawling
around they will blunder into the trenches and if a post hole is
dug in the trench every rod or two they can readily be trapped
and destroyed at leisure.
One grower at Penney Farms who was more or less isolated
was able to practically eliminate any damage to his bulbs from
them this year. When they were young he sprayed them with
Gulf Spray as recommended. Later on he collected them in
buckets or simply smashed them with a paddle when they became
less abundant. Collecting them in a bucket with a little kerosene
as a killing agent is facilitated by their habit of climbing upon
tall herbs in the middle of the day. In June or July the tem-
perature near the ground is apparently too hot for them and
they will climb any tall herb to get away from the more intense
heat reflected from the ground. The experience of this grower
shows that they can be controlled at no excessive cost.
A problem then in such areas as Doctors Inlet calls for
community cooperation. The bulb grower at Doctors Inlet could
easily have prevented practically all the migration into his fields
by simply digging a trench between the fields and the flatwoods
in which the vast majority of them were hatched. These same
trenches would serve to catch any adults which attempted to
return to the breeding ground after the narcissus were dug.
Cultivation of the ground in June prevents egg laying. This
could be practiced on ditch banks and road sides. We have
found, however, that in a field of early corn where cultivation
ceased about the first of June the soil was favorable for egg de-
As for food habits besides narcissus, they were found too
on various species of lilies, they attack eagerly cow peas, pea-
nuts, and are quite destructive to corn, particularly corn which
is just silking out as they attack the silk and destroy it and the
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
end of the ear, thus of course preventing all formation of ker-
nels; or if the attack is a little after the silking period, they
severely damage the tip of the ear and expose the developing
corn to predators and fungus rots. They are also very fond of
cantaloupe and other melons.
A rather curious observation is that they did not much trou-
ble the bulbs in storage, although at Doctors Inlet bulbs
were stored in open sheds to which the grasshoppers had easy
access. This seems to be because they cannot readily bite their
way through the hard outer layers of the dry bulbs. Any bulbs
dropped out in the field or in the open about the sheds where they
were exposed to rain were readily eaten by the hoppers.
There remains the problem of why they get so extremely
abundant in the neighborhood of bulb fields. It looks as if nar-
cissus was a particularly favorable food and of course abundant
in the field. Perhaps in the mixed vegetation of the uncultivated
land they cannot get enough favorable food to bring large num-
bers of them to maturity.
It is planned another year to conduct a series of experiments
using different plants as food to find if they do thrive better on
certain types of vegetation. In our experimental cages where
they were bred to observe oviposition, instars, etc., they were
fed largely on polkweed, of which they were fond.
THE SYNONYMY, SYSTEMATIC POSITION AND BIOGEO-
GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF A FLORIDAN
By B. P. UVAROV, British Museum (Natural History).
In 1927 Hebard described a remarkable new genus and spe-
cies, Hubbellia praestans, from Liberty County, Florida, refer-
ring it to the Decticinae in the vicinity of Pediodectes. The col-
ored figure of the insect reminded me of a species described as
Locusta marginifera Walker 1869 and considered by me in 1924
(Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1924, p. 493, footnote) as belonging
to an undescribed genus but temporarily left in the genus Tet-
A very careful comparison of the type of Locusta margini-
fera Walker with the description of Hubbellia praestans Hebard
did not enable me to discover any difference between the two,
except that the length of the ovipositor in the type is 28.5 mm.,
as against 31.2 mm. given by Hebard; such a trivial difference
VOL. XXIII-No. 1
cannot be of taxonomic value. The only difficulty in the way of
regarding the two insects as synonymous appeared to be geo-
graphical, since Hubbellia was described from Florida while
Walker's type is labelled "Africa." However, the type specimen
of marginifera was one of three Orthoptera included in a large
collection of miscellaneous insects belonging to Mr. N. A. Vig-
ors which, after his death in 1840, was presented to the British
Museum in 1859. The other two specimens are Euryphymus
haematopus L. from South Africa, and Chortophaga viridifas-
ciata DeGeer, without a locality label, but a well-known North
American species. This means that Vigors' collection included
some North American insects, and one is justified in regarding
the locality label of the type of Locusta marginifera as erron-
eous. The following synonymy can therefore be established:
Hubbellia marginifera (Walker 1869).
1869. Locusta marginifera, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. Brit. Mus., ii,
1906. Phasgonura marginifera, Kirby, Syn. Cat. Orth., ii, p. 219.
1927. Hubbellia praestans, Hebard, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., liii, p. 3
Hebard had definitely referred Hubbellia to the subfamily
Decticinae; but I have pointed out (Trans. Ent. Soc. London,
1924, p. 492) that the only character separating the Decticinae
from the Tettigoniinae is the greater development of the free
plantulae of the posterior metatarsi in the former, and Zeuner
in his recent revision of the subfamilies (Proc. R. Ent. Soc.
London, B, vol. 5, 1936, p. 106) has endorsed my view that there
is no clear dividing line between the two subfamilies. In any
case, even if the two are kept separate, Hubbellia should cer-
tainly be included in the Tettigoniinae, since it has the free
plantulae quite as short as in Tettigonia itself, and certainly more
reduced than in any member of the true Decticinae. Indeed,
Hubbellia is extremely close to Tettigonia, though it differ.
strongly in the shape and particularly the texture of the elytra,
while an important point of resemblance is provided by the type
of structure of the female subgenital plate and of the vertex.
This assignment of Hubbellia makes it a member of one of
the most interesting and unquestionably ancient groups, which
includes only a few genera occurring discontinuously in the Old
World. Its nearest relatives are Tettigonia, a Palaearctic genus
particularly well developed in the west of the Mediterranean
region; Calliphona, an endemic genus of the Canary Islands;
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
and Psalmatophanes, a recently described Madeiran endemic
genus. The discovery of Hubbellia in Florida, in an environ-
ment characterized by such plants as Magnolia, Taxus, etc.,
suggests strongly that it may be considered as a Tertiary relic.
Supplementary Notes on Hubbellia marginifera (Walker)
BY T. H. HUBBELL
The female described as Hubbellia praestans Hebard was
taken on the night of July 29, 1925, at "Camp Torreya," Liberty
County, Florida. I have since repeatedly visited that locality
at all seasons of the year, in the unsuccessful attempt to find
additional specimens, and especially the unknown male. During
the last few years lumbering operations have greatly altered the
environment, and the upper slopes of the ravine have been de-
vastated to such an extent that on my last visit, in November,
1938, I had difficulty in finding the spot where the insect was
collected. Instead of the tall forest over-arching the road along
the brink of the ravine, there is now in most places a thicket of
tree-seedlings and brambles growing up from among felled logs.
The deeper parts of the ravine were apparently less damaged.
Fortunately a similar ravine just to the north of the one at
"Camp Torreya" has been included in the recently established
Torreya State Park, and it is hoped that this will be maintained
in natural condition.
The reduced condition of the plantulae of the caudal meta-
tarsi to which Dr. Uvarov has called attention above, together
with observations on the behavior of the female taken in 1925,
make it highly probable that Hubbellia marginifera is normally
thamnophilous, or even arboreal (cf. Uvarov, 1. c., 1924, p. 492).
If the latter be true it would help to account for my failure to
find additional specimens in spite of most careful and prolonged
search, by day and night, during which I was on the alert for
any strange song which might have been made by the males.
Although the unique female was taken on the lip of the ra-
vine, and adjacent to a grassy, pine-studded field, I believe that
the species inhabits the ravine forest rather than the dry, oak-
and pine-covered sandy uplands of the neighborhood. Dr. Uva-
rov's conclusion that Hubbellia probably represents a Tertiary
relic makes this the more likely, and is itself strengthened by
the fact that these ravines, in addition to coastal plain species
and glacial relics, harbor other endemic species of plants and
animals known or believed to be of great antiquity. The best
VOL. XXIII-No. 1
known of these relic forms is the small conifer, Tumion taxi-
folium (Arr.) Greene, which forms much of the undergrowth
of the ravine forests. This species is known only from the ra-
vines along the east bank of the Apalachicola river and from a
single locality a short distance west of the river. It belongs
to a genus which was widespread in the upper Cretaceous and
early Tertiary, but which is today represented only by four
widely disjunct species-one in Florida, the others in California,
Japan and China. Besides Hubbellia, two other Orthoptera en-
demic to the ravine forests of the Apalachicola region are be-
lieved to be relic species. One is a grouse-locust, Tettigidea em-
pedonepia Hubbell 1938, a wingless form apparently most close-
ly allied to Central American species. The other is a cricket-
locust or camel-cricket, Ceuthophilus umbrosus Hubbell 1936,
which shows many generalized features, and cannot be assigned
to any of the more modern groups of the conservative and pre-
sumably ancient genus Ceuthophilus.
The fact that Vigors' specimen must have been collected prior
to 1840, together with the comparative inaccessibility of the
Apalachicola ravines in those days, suggests the possibility that
it was taken elsewhere, and that Hubbellia marginifera may
occur, or have once occurred, in other isolated relic colonies in
the southeastern United States.
REPORT OF THE 1939 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society
was held at Gainesville, Florida, on December 8 and 9, 1939.
This was one of the best attended meetings of the Society, there
being 67 names on the register of attendance. During the ses-
sions 17 papers dealing with a wide range of entomological sub-
jects were presented and discussed.
The entomological dinner was held Friday evening with
President J. H. Montgomery acting as toastmaster. An enjoy-
able after-dinner feature was a motion picture made in Mexico
by Professor J. R. Watson and daughter, Wilma Watson.
At the business session the Society adopted a new Consti-
tution and By-laws by which it will be governed in the future.
Herbert Spencer, U. S. D. A., Fort Pierce, Florida, was elected
President for the coming year; Homer Hixson, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Vice-President; A. N. Tissot, Agricultural
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Experiment Station, Gainesville, Secretary; and J. W. Wilson,
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, was continued as
Treasurer-Business Manager. (Signed) A. N. TIOT
(Signed) A. N. TISSOT
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND INDEX TO VOLUME XXII
Anon., Welcome, Entomologists .-.......................---..... ..... ----
Creighton, John T., The Newell Entomological Society --------.....
Editor, Arthur P. Jacot ......... ................. ...-......
Editor, Carlos C. Goff ................ ............. -. .........................-. ..
Goin, Coleman J., A Report on the Disposition of the Collection and
Library of M r. C. C. Goff ...................................... ............. ..........
Princis, K., A Case of Reduction of the Right Tegman in a Male of
Syrbula admirabilis Uhler ....................................... ... .........
Thompson, W. L., Notes on Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton)
Found Attacking Citrus Fruit in Florida ......................................
Tissot, A. N., A Brief History of the Florida Entomological Society
Tissot, A. N., Notes on the Lachini of Florida. 2 pls. .................-....
Watson, J. R., Two New Thysanoptera from Mexico. 3 figs. ..............
Watson, J. R. and H. E. Bratley, Some Ecological Notes on the
Lubberly Locust-Romalea microptera Beauv. ......................
Watson, J. R. and J. R. Preer, Two New Thysanoptera from Florida.
2 figs ............. ..... ..................... ............. ............. ...........................
Young, F. N. and C. C. Goff, An Annotated List of the Arthropods
Found in the Burrows of the Florida Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus
polyphem us (Daudin) .........................-......... ..- .............................
Ziegler, L. W., The Physiological Effects of Mineral Oils on Citrus.
4 tbs ........ ... .... ........... -- ................
Acrostilicus hospes Hubbard, 59
American Association of Economic
Entomologists, 6, 7, 9
Amblyomma tuberculatum Marx, 57
Anthicus ictericus Laf., 61
Aphidius bicolor Ashm., 38
Aphodius geomysi Cartwright, 61
troglodytes Hubbard, 61
Arpediothrips mexicanus Watson,
n. sp., 19
Ataenius abditus Hald., 61
Bratley, H. E., 31
Camponotus abdominalis s u b s p.
floridanus Buckley, 37, 38, 41
socius var. oceola Wheeler, 37
Ceuthophilus latibuli Scudder, 58
walker Hubbell, 58
Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moul-
ton), 65, 66, 67
Chelanops affinis Banks, 57
Chelyoxenus xerobatis Hubbard, 60
Choeridiwm lecontei Harold, 60
Cinara australi (Ashmead), 35
carolina Tissot, 37
juniperivora (Wilson), 37
longispinosa Tissot, 38
newelli Tissot, n. sp., 38
taedae Tissot, 41
tujafilina (Del Guercio), 42
watsoni Tissot, n. sp., 43
Copris gopheri Hubbard, 58, 60
minutus Drury, 61
Cotton States Branch Meeting,
6, 9, 11
Creighton, John T., 10
Crematogaster laeviuscula Mayr., 37
Epizeuxis gopheri Smith, 59
Essigella pini Wilson, 33
Eurythrips robustisetis Watson and
Preer, n. sp., 3
Florida Entomological Society, 6, 8,
Geomys, 54, 57, 58, 59, 61, 63, 64, 65
Goff, C. C., 53
Biographical sketch, 12
Disposition of collection and
library of, 63
Gopher frog, 57
tortoise, 53, 58
Gophers polyphemus (Daudin), 53,
Heterothrips cuernavacae Watson,
n. sp., 17
Homalota sp., 60
VOL. XXIII-No. 1
Jacot, Arthur P., 20
death notice, 20
Lachini of Florida, 33
Lachnus australi Ashmead, 35
juniperi (De Greer), 42
pini L., 37
tujafilinus (Del Guercio), 42
Lee County Entomological Society, 9
Leptetrum quadrimaculatum L., 51
Leptocera sp., 58
Linolathra dimidiata (Say), 59
Longistigma carae (Harris), 48
Lubberly locust, 31
Lycosa carolinensis Walck., 57
rabida Walck., 57
Metrioptera roeselii (Hgb.), 51
Mineral oils, 21
physiological effects on citrus, 21
symptoms of damage on citrus, 25
Newell Entomological Society, 6, 10
Nossidium sp., 60
Onthophagus polyphemi Hubbard, 61
tuberculifrons Harold, 61
Ornithodoros turicata Duges, 57
Paederus floridanus Austin, 59
Pegomya gopheri Johnson, 58
Flowers of Sulphur
Lime Sulphur Solution
Also a Complete Line of
Copper Materials, Nico-
Stauffer Chemical Co.
Peromyscus, 63, 64
Phalangodes n. sp., 57
Phanaeus floridanus D'Ols, 60
Philonthus cautus Er., 59
gopheri Hubbard, 59
Preer, J. R., 1
Princis, K., 49
Ptomophagus consobrinus (Lec.), 59
ulkei Horn, 59
Rana capitol, 57
Romalea microptera Beauv., 31
Saprinus ferrugineus Marseul, 60
Sophiothrips bicolor Watson and
Preer, n. sp., 1
Sosilaus spiniger, 57
Syrbula admirabilis Uhler, 49, 50
The Florida Buggist, 9
Thelyphonus giganteus Lucas, 56
Thompson, W. L., 65
Thysanoptera from Mexico, 17
Tissot, A. N., 9, 33
Trichopteryx n. sp., 60
Unilachnus parvus (Wilson), 47
Watson, J. R., 1, 17, 31, 65
Young, F. N., 53
Ziegler, L. W., 21
Delivered on Time