Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1941
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

VOL. XXIV JULY, 1941 No. 2

Bidessus rogersi, NEW WATER BEETLE FROM FLORIDA
(Coleoptera; Dytiscidae)
FRANK N. YOUNG
The original series of the small Bidessus described below
was collected from the burrows of a crawfish (Cambarus rogersi
Hobbs) in wet flatwoods about nine miles northwest of Blounts-
town, Calhoun County, Florida. However, no specimens were
found in burrows not directly connected with the surface, so
that this peculiar habitat seems to be fortuitous. At the time
when we collected the flatwoods were more or less flooded; a
shallow pool covered the entire surface and the beetles were
probably concentrated in the open burrows because of the pro-
tection afforded by the deeper water. Additional specimens were
taken in a swamp stream about seven miles northwest of Blounts-
town, and the rest of the specimens before me came from a small
pool in wet flatwoods similar to the original locality, but east of
the Apalachicola River and about three miles south of the Leon-
Wakulla County line in Wakulla County, Florida. I can detect
no significant differences in the specimens from the three local-
ities, and it is probable that the species extends across the area
between the Ochlochnee and Apalachicola rivers and into the
adjacent territory wherever suitable habitats occur.
Bidessus rogersi sp. n.
(Fig. 1; genitalia fig. la, Ib, Ic)
Diagnosis: Superficially very similar to Bidessus granarius (Aub6),
fig. 2, from which it may be distinguished by its smaller size, more narrowly
ovate form, finer and denser elytral punctation, less strongly reflexed and
carinate edges of the elytra above the epipleurae, and the subequal thoracic
and elytral plicae. The color pattern, general shape, and genitalia (see
figures) seem to indicate a close relationship between the two species. The
color pattern, punctation, general shape, and size will distinguish the
present form from other North American species of the genus. The thoracic
Contribution from the Department of Biology, University of Florida,
Gainesville.











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


and elytral plicae vary somewhat in relative length, but they are more
nearly subequal than in granarius. I have been unsuccessful in separating
the males and females on external characters. The anterior tarsi of the
male seem to be slightly more dilated than in the female, but the difference
is very slight.


2e


Fig. 1.-Bidessus rogersi, sp. n., dorsal view of male paratype from
Calhoun County, Fla. la. Right and left paramere, lb. right and left
apodeme, Ic. aedeagus of male genitalia. Fig. 2.-Bidessus granarius
(Aub6), dorsal view of male from Alachua County, Fla. 2a. etc., as la,
Ib, and Ic above. Dotted lines represent non-chitinous portions.

Detailed Description: Oblong, ovate, widest about the middle of the
elytra, convex above and below. Dorsum strongly shining, highly polished.
Head ridged along the median line with the sides and vertex planate as
in granarius. Thorax broader than long; ratio of greatest width (at base)
to length along middle about 2.4 (about 2.7 in granarius). Elytra widest
about the middle, with their lateral margins reflexed and carinate, but not
as strongly as in granarius. Antennae with the 6th and 8th segments
slightly more dilated anteriorly than the others. Color: Head and clypeus
light fuscous above with the clypeus lighter along the anterior ridge; both










VOL. XXIV-No. 2


light testaceous below. Antennae light testaceous at the base with the last
sex segments fuscous above, but light testaceous beneath. Pronotum very
light testaceous (appearing almost whitish) with the base between the
plicae and the margins darker, and the apex narrowly margined with
fuscous; uniformly light testaceous beneath. Elytra reddish-fuscous; the
reflexed margins and epipleurae testaceous. Venter dull, mostly uniformly
testaceous with slightly infuscate areas on hind coxae and metathorax.
Legs uniformly testaceous. Punctation and Vestiture: Head and clypeus
above finely, not closely punctate; minutely reticulate; occiput smooth.
Pronotum finely, somewhat sparsely punctate with a few fine recumbent
hairs. Elytra more coarsely and closely punctate than the head and prono-
tum; with scattered recumbent hairs; epipleurae coarsely and sparsely
punctate. Head and prothorax almost impunctate below. Meta- and mesa-
thorax finely somewhat sparsely punctate. Hind coxae finely, sparsely
punctate on the apical two-thirds while the basal third is almost impunctate.
Abdominal sternites finely and not densely punctate except on the hind
margins and the lateral portions where the punctations are coarser and
denser. Length, 1.3 to 1.6 mm.; width, about .76 to .8 mm.
Variation: The series before me varies little except in the coloration,
which differs mostly in intensity and in the degree of infuscation of the
undersurface. Length and general shape are rather constant.
Holotype Male: Calhoun County, Florida, 9 miles northwest of Blounts-
town, June 9, 1938, H. H. Hobbs, L. Berner, J. M. Martin, and F. N. Young,
deposited in collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard
College, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Paratypes: Thirty males and females, Calhoun Co., Fla., same data
as for holotype. Four males and females, Calhoun Co., Fla., 7 miles north-
west of Blountstown, June 8, 1938. Six males and females Wakulla County,
Florida, June 5, 1938, F. N. Young, et. al. The paratypes are in the col-
lections of the M. C. Z., the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology,
the United States National Museum, the American Museum of Natural
History, and the private collections of Mr. H. B. Leech, Mr. C. A. Frost,
and the writer.
I take pleasure in naming the above species for Dr. J. Speed
Rogers of the Department of Biology, University of Florida,
who has done much to encourage my work on Coleoptera.

A CORRECTION
An unfortunate misinterpretation of catalogue numbers
caused me to cite a wrong type locality for Bidessus falli Young,
described in the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, Vol. XXIII, No. 2,
page 30. The type locality is Madison County, Florida, on the
Aucilla River near Lamont, June 4, 1938, collected by the writer.
The Alachua County locality given in the original description
refers to a specimen of falli in the collection of Dr. H. C. Fall
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, Cam-
bridge, Massachusetts. .
FRANK N. YOUNG









Uhe
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida

VOL. XXIV JULY, 1941 No. 2

J. R. WATSON, Gainesville.-....-.......-....---............................ Editor
E. W. BERGER, Gainesville-..--.......--.......................Associate Editor
J. W. WILSON, Belle Glade--.......-.....................- Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.


OVOVIVIPAROUS MAYFLIES IN FLORIDA1
LEWIS BERNER
University of Florida
The phenomenon of ovoviviparity is present in several of
the metazoan phyla and is of fairly common occurrence among
the Arthropoda. Insects of many species give birth to either
nymphs or larvae instead of laying eggs, some parthenogene-
tically, others with bisexual reproduction. Among the latter
are representatives of the Ephemeroptera, Orthoptera, Hemip-
tera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, and Diptera.
Ovoviviparity in mayflies has been observed in Callibaetis
vivipara of South America and Cloeon dipterum of Europe. In
North America, the production of living young seems to be con-
fined to the genus Callibaetis. According to Needham, Traver,
and Hsu (1935: 85), a single female of an undetermined species
of Callibaetis, taken at McLean, New York, in 1924, was found
on dissection to contain first instar nymphs 0.6 mm. long; how-
ever, this adult was poorly preserved and the immatures were
consequently unsuitable for study.
In July, 1939, I collected at a lighted sheet placed near the
bank of a clear, calcareous stream, Blue Springs Creek, near
Marianna, just below an area which has been dammed to form
a rather long lake. Among the many insects which were at-
tracted to my light were numerous specimens of Callibaetis
floridanus, the nymphs of which, I assume, had lived in the
1A paper presented before the Florida Academy of Sciences, Novem-
ber, 1939.









VOL. XXIV-No. 2


artificial lake across the road from where I was lighting. Since
this is such a common species and there seemed to be so many
mayflies which I thought would be more interesting, only five
females were taken in order to record their occurrence in this
particular area.
After returning to the University at Gainesville, I examined
this material and found in the bottom of my dish numerous oval-
shaped objects which proved on closer study to be well-developed
eggs. Opening one, there was revealed a completely formed
mayfly nymph. Looking then at the female specimens of Calli-
baetis floridanus, I noted several of these eggs, some apparently
with the chorion ruptured, protruding from between the seventh
and eighth abdominal segments. These females were probably
ready to oviposit when collected and stimulated by immersion
in alcohol, had released some of their young.
Following the discovery of ovoviviparity in these five speci-
mens, I examined the remainder of my material of this species
and found some females with eggs which appeared to be un-
fertilized, some with young partially developed, and others with
young nymphs fully formed but still within the egg. I believe
that, following mating, the females remain quiescent until the
eggs have completed development within the abdomen, and that
the nymphs are normally released from the eggs at approxi-
mately the moment of laying.
The egg is oval shaped with a very thin, transparent chorion.
The nymph, tightly coiled within this shell, has the legs folded
beneath the thorax, the abdomen bent double so that the legs
are concealed, cerci are held beneath and the antennae close
against the head. The head is the most prominent feature of
the nymph and on it, five dark spots, the developing eyes stand
out clearly against the white body. Abdominal segments, mouth
parts, and the rather long legs are clearly discernible when a
specimen is uncoiled. Gills, of course, have not yet formed and
if they behave in this species as in others in which the post-
embryonic development has been studied, these structures will
probably develop in the second or third instar.
Longevity is probably correlated with ovoviviparity in may-
flies. Normally the life span of adults is from a few hours to
two to three days, but a female Cloeon dipterum, the European
ovoviviparous mayfly, was kept alive for twenty-one days. In
the summer of 1937, I kept a female C. floridanus alive in a
paper sack for eight days, a period which I believe would be









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


more than sufficient for development of eggs to occur. Males
of C. floridanus die within one to two days after the subimagal
molt.
The females of another Florida species, Callibaetis pretiosus
Banks, likewise contained fully developed nymphs. Further-
more, I found a female Callibaetis from Michigan whose abdo-
men was filled with eggs which were almost ready to hatch. It,
therefore, appears likely that many if not all of the species of
this genus are normally ovoviviparous.

REFERENCES
COMSTOCK, J. H. 1936. An Introduction to Entomology. Comstock Pub-
lishing Co., Ithaca, N. Y.
EATON, A. E. 1883-1887. A revisional monograph of recent Ephemeridae
or mayflies. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Sec. Ser. Zool. 3: 1-352, pls. 1-65.
NEEDHAM, J. G. and MURPHY, H. E. 1924. Neotropical mayflies. Bull.
Lloyd Lib. 24, Ent. Ser. 4: 1-79, pls. 1-13.
NEEDHAM, J. G., TRAVER, J. R., and Hsu, Y. 1935. The Biology of Mayflies.
Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca, N. Y.



A SUICIDE HOST
The blue-tailed skink (Plestiodon fasciatus) often called the
"scorpion", is a true host of the immature stages of the black-
legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in the vicinity of Gainesville,
Florida. Two specimens collected in early May, 1939, were
infested with a total of 123 larvae and 8 nymphs all of which
were alive and in various stages of engorgement. The fence
lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) often called the pine lizard or
swift, is also attacked by the same stages of this tick. Death,
however, is the penalty for those that attach to this host. Seven
fence lizards collected in the same vicinity and during the same
period as the blue-tailed skinks mentioned above, were infested
with a total of 42 larvae and 6 nymphs of which 34 of the
larvae and 5 of the nymphs were dead and the condition of
some of the others indicated that the rest were destined to
succumb.
H. HIXSON









VOL. XXIV-No. 2


TOPPING COTTON IN EARLY FALL AS A POSSIBLE MEANS
OF REDUCING THE SPRING BOLL WEEVIL POPULA-
TION IN THE NORTHWESTERN PART OF THE FLORIDA
SEA ISLAND COTTON BELT
P. W. CALHOUN
An obvious and prominent factor tending to cause heavy
boll weevil infestations in the northwestern part of the Florida
Sea Island Cotton Belt is the large number of weevils that de-
velop in the bolls in the upper part of the plants. The writer
has seen more than one instance in which it seemed likely that
50,000 or more weevils per acre would emerge from bolls during
September and October, judging from the abundance of larvae
and pupae in them when the examinations were made. These
perhaps were exceptional cases but the development of from
10,000 to 15,000 weevils per acre in areas where soil and climatic
conditions favor a continuance of plant growth in the fall is not.
If any considerable acreage is planted to Sea Island cotton in
such areas the weevil population generally increases to a point
where control by means of poison applications is so difficult that
farmers discontinue to attempt to grow Sea Island cotton on a
large scale.
Last fall a limited series of experiments was instituted for
the purpose of developing a practicable method of reducing the
fall weevil population in an area such as described. Of the pro-
cedures tried, fall topping appeared to the writer to have most
promise of accomplishing the result sought.1
The topping tests were conducted under the jurisdiction of
the Florida WPA Statewide Sea Island Cotton Rehabilitation
Program,2 now discontinued. The area selected for the tests
was a part of Madison County in which the weevil infestation
was particularly heavy. None of the fields topped had produced
more than half a crop, and most of them had produced less.
Practically all bolls from the middle of the plants upward con-
tained from two to five weevil larvae or pupae when the topping
was begun about September 10, while the tops of the plants were
vigorous and producing an abundance of squares. Conditions
appeared ideal for the production of a tremendous fall weevil
population in each of the fields topped.
1A brief press report on the topping tests has been made, (1). (Num-
erals refer to literature citations.)
2 This was a cooperative progranr sponsored by the Florida State De-
partment of Agriculture.









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


The topping operation consisted in cutting off that part of
each plant that contained bolls badly infested with advanced
stage larvae or pupae about ten days before the cotton would be
ready for the final picking. In most instances about a third of
the plants was cut off. The principal idea at the time of topping
was to destroy as much of the squaring portion of the plants as
possible without discarding any sound bolls. It was realized of
course that the few apparently sound small bolls in the heavily
infested portion of the plants would be ruined before they
reached maturity so no attempt was made to save these. Since
the plants were green and soft, the topping was easily done with
pocket knives. The total acreage topped was about 200 acres,
in some 12 or 15 fields. This area, surrounded by heavily in-
fested untopped fields, was not large enough to constitute a con-
clusive field test of fall topping, since it is certain that weevils
migrated into it in considerable numbers from the outside in late
fall, and some overwintered weevils no doubt will migrate into
the topped area in the spring. It is also to be noted that the
work has been done only during one season. Nevertheless the
writer feels that observations made in the topped cotton in the
fall are significant and favorable.
As quickly as the discarded tops died the adult weevils feed-
ing on them moved to the live portion of the plants. In a few
days the few squares remaining on the plants were so riddled
with feeding punctures that they were practically worthless as
food. For several weeks young squares were killed by feeding
punctures before they were large enough to furnish much food.
All bolls that were not practically ready to open were attacked
heavily by weevils that appeared to be starving for food, mois-
ture, or both. However, no appreciable damage to the bolls
resulted. When the plants were topped the weevil population
had already been high several weeks and thus practically all
sound bolls were tough, fibrous, and almost ready to begin to
open. It is of course obvious that topping heavily infested cot-
ton while a large number of sound bolls are tender would cause
heavy boll damage from weevil attack, and in some instances
it might cause bolls to fail to mature properly, resulting in the
production of weak lint.
Beginning about two weeks after topping, adult weevils ap-
peared to become less and less numerous in the fields until only
a few remained. Whether the majority of them died or migrated
is not known. It was certain, however, that for several weeks.









VOL. XXIV-No. 2


before frost the weevil population in the topped field was low.
Moreover, there was a relatively small amount of palatable food,
such as fresh foliage, squares and blossoms, on which they
could feed.
One of the surprises encountered was the extent to which
the immature weevil stages died in the young bolls on the re-
moved tops. All except the large almost rotten bolls dried into
hard leathery knots and most of the immature weevil stages
in them perished. It is not known what the percentage of emer-
gence from these bolls was, but it was a great deal lower than
it would have been had the tops remained on the plants.
Apparently the weevil-damaged, but not completely ruined,
bolls on the live portion of the plants opened quicker and more
fully as a result of the topping, which seemed to result in less
waste cotton being left in the field on the final picking. It is
thought probable that enough extra cotton was thus harvested
to more than pay for the topping operation. Naturally the
cotton picked from these damaged bolls was badly stained.
Considerable data have been accumulated in the past which
the writer interprets as indicating that very probably an abund-
ance of squares and blossoms in the fall enhance the weevil's
chance of surviving the winter, although so far as he knows this
has not been demonstrated as a certainty. Hunter and Hinds (3)
reported that over-wintered female weevils do not oviposit when
deprived of squares, and also reported greater longevity for
weevils fed squares than for weevils fed other parts of the plant.
Isley (4) reported that females oviposited much more freely
when fed squares than when fed bolls. He also stated (5) that
weevils are more numerous in the spring in areas where cotton
squared freely the previous fall, but he apparently attributed
this to a greater fall population which would be found where an
abundance of squares was produced. Grossman (2-page 17)
suggested the possibility that a scarcity of squares in the fall
might explain an apparently shortened longevity in certain
hibernation tests. It is well known that weevils do not long
remain abundant in cotton in the fall after squares have dis-
appeared. Apparently they either largely die out or migrate
in search for cotton containing an abundance of squares.
While employed by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion the writer conducted a series of feeding experiments (data
unpublished) in which weevils newly emerged from squares were
divided in lots and fed exclusively on one of three diets, viz:









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


(A) Small tender cotton leaves, (B) mature but green healthy
leaves or (C) cotton squares. On each of these diets some of
the groups were fed 5 days, some 10 days, some 15 days, and
some 20 days. Each weevil was kept in an individual container
and weighed daily. At the expiration of the feeding period they
were preserved in 70% alcohol for crude dissection, principally
to determine roughly the relative development of the ovaries or
testes for the several groups. About 400 weevils completed
the feeding tests and were dissected. The notes taken are not
at present available, but several factors stood out plainly and
can be reported from memory.
The gain in weight was about equal for each diet, but it was
somewhat more rapid for weevils fed squares than for the foliage
fed groups, especially during the first few days. The ultimate
gain was about 20% of the original weight of the weevil, and
most of the gain took place during the first ten days of the feed-
ing period. The average length of life for the three diets, as
judged by the percentage of weevils still alive at the expiration
of the feeding periods, did not differ markedly, but was greatest
for the square fed groups.
However, while removing the elytra during the dissection
operation it was noted that the elytra of weevils fed foliage were
much more fragile than those of weevils fed squares. A large
number of the removed elytra were weighed, and it was found
that those of square fed weevils were considerably heavier than
those of foliage fed weevils. This would seem to indicate a
definite physiological deficiency in the case of the foliage fed
groups.
The ovaries and testes of square fed weevils developed much
more rapidly, and final development appeared much more com-
plete, than those of foliage fed weevils. The writer would not
judge from the appearance of the ovaries of the foliage fed
weevils that they could have oviposited normally.
At the end of the feeding period, the weevils were dropped
in the alcohol alive. When removed for dissection it was noted
that in the case of the square fed groups a considerable per-
centage of the ovipositors protruded from the bodies of the
females, while none protruded in the case of the foliage fed
weevils. The significance of this was not understood.
In instances in which the weevils were stored any consider-
able period before being dissected, the abdominal tissues of the
foliage fed weevils appeared darker and more fragile than did









VOL. XXIV-No. 2


the abdominal tissues of the square fed weevils. This was
thought to be due to a higher fat content for the latter than for
the former, though no tissue analyses were made to verify this
supposition.
In another series of experiments 3 field captured adults were
placed individually in containers and were given access to water
but not to food, and each weevil was weighed daily until death.
It was noted that a low and moderately constant mortality rate
prevailed, generally speaking, until the weevils lost about 15%
of their body weight, after which the mortality rate for the
group increased rapidly. Very few of the weevils remained alive
more than a few days after losing 20% of their weight. Loss
of weight was generally slow and regular until two or three
days before death but for the last few days of the weevil's life
loss of weight often became irregular and rapid, probably because
they would be weak not consuming water.
When the number of weevils alive each day was graphed on
a semi-logarithmic scale the curve produced bore considerable
resemblance to graphs published by Grossman (2-page 14) por-
traying mortality curves of field captured weevils stored in
Spanish moss in chilled constant temperature compartments.
The feeding and longevity tests discussed above were conducted
at room temperature during the summer and early fall of 1933.
The weevils were kept in the cooler parts of the room, however,
so they were never very active. The average life of the field
captured weevils under these conditions was about 30 days.
While the above evidence as to the importance an abundance
of squares in the fall might have in enabling the weevil to sur-
vive the winter is admittedly indirect, when viewing it in the
light of a great many field observations in many parts of Flor-
ida, the writer feels constrained to believe that very likely it is
a factor of no small consequence. If so, the scarcity of squares
in the topped fields during the fall without doubt decreased very
considerably the percentage of survival of the relatively few
weevils that remained in them. If this is true, the combined
factors of fewer weevils emerging in the fall and a reduced per-
centage of survival, over the winter should go far towards pre-
venting such extremely heavy spring weevil populations as now
are common in some areas in the northwestern part of the
Florida Sea Island Cotton Belt, provided a large majority of
growers in these heavily infested areas can be induced to top
3 This experiment was suggested by a laboratory assistant, R. A. Graff.









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


their cotton in the fall as soon as it is safe to do so without
danger to the sound bolls, that is, about ten days before they
intend to commence the final picking.
As a final precaution, however, the writer wishes to state
that he does not consider the experiments here reported to be
justification for a recommendation to top Sea Island cotton in-
discriminately. In the central and southern parts of the Florida
Sea Island Belt early picking followed by the destruction of the
stalks is undoubtedly much better than fall topping. In the
northwestern part of the belt, however, it has not yet been
demonstrated that Sea Island stalks can be destroyed sufficiently
early in the fall to prevent heavy infestations the following
spring, though no doubt they could be reduced appreciably by
this means. It is in the northwestern part of the Florida Sea
Island Belt that the writer believes fall topping might prove
especially beneficial by considerably reducing what would other-
wise be extremely heavy spring weevil populations. At present
these very heavy populations make control by poison applica-
tions, for the average Sea Island Cotton grower at any rate,
impracticable.
LITERATURE CITED
1. CALHOUN, P. W. Early September topping as a means of reducing boll
weevil population. Madison (Fla.) Enterprise-Recorder: Feb. 27,
1941.
2. GROSSMAN, EDGAR F. Hibernation of the cotton boll weevil under con-
trolled temperature and humidity. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tec. Bul.
240: Oct. 1931.
3. HUNTER, W. D. and W. E. HINDS. The Mexican cotton boll weevil.
U. S. D. A. Bur. Ent. Bul. 51: 1905. Pp. 45-46.
4. ISLEY, DWIGHT. Oviposition of the boll weevil in relation to food. Jour.
Econ. Ent. Vol. 21: Feb. 1928.
5. Abundance of the boll weevil in relation to summer
weather and to food. Ark. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 271: May 1932.


MIGRATIONS AND FOOD PREFERENCES OF THE
LUBBERLY LOCUST
J. R. WATSON
We spoke at last year's meeting of the breeding grounds and
remarkable migrations of the young Lubbers to neighboring
narcissus fields at Doctor's Inlet. We pointed out that the

SPaper given before the Florida Entomological Society. December
13, 1940.









VOL. XXIV-No. 2


breeding grounds where the females lay their eggs are restricted
to rather narrow limits as to the character of the soil; that they
avoid alike as a place for oviposition the lower, more compact
soils of the flatwoods and the extremely dry, sandy soils of the
scrub or long-leaf pine-turkey oak association. Their favorite
soils are the upper edges of the flatwoods where the pines are
beginning to be mixed in with live oaks. There is usually but
little suitable food for the young hoppers in this plant associa-
tion and when a week or so old there is a heavy and almost
complete migration, doubtless induced by need of more succulent
food. As pointed out last year this migration is almost complete.
A week or ten days after the last hoppers have hatched there
will be very few left on the original breeding grounds.
The hoppers are quite generally found in low and swampy
land where they cannot possibly have hatched. Doctor Tissot
called our attention to such a colony just this side of Cedar Keys
last summer. It was evident that they could not have hatched
there, but within an eighth or a quarter of a mile there were
what appeared to be suitable breeding grounds although at that
date no hoppers were found in these dry situations. As pointed
out last year the hoppers migrated toward a narcissus field
at Doctor's Inlet to the northeast of the breeding grounds and
approximately a quarter of a mile away from the center of the
grounds. They traveled in definite trails and there were fifteen
of these trails within one-fifth of a mile over an asphalt road.
We expressed the opinion that they must have located the nar-
cissus by smell or kindred sense. This year that field was not
planted to narcissus, but a field adjoining the breeding grounds
on the west was planted and this year the migration was not
to the northeast as last year's, but almost due west, again
towards the narcissus field. As was the case last year they
practically all left the breeding grounds by the time they were
a week old. This migration is not a haphazard scattering in
all directions, but a very definite movement along definite trails
toward the field of narcissus. In one trail this year there were
about seventy-five hoppers per yard of the trail which was only
two or three inches wide, but extended the full length from the
breeding grounds to the narcissus field. Hatching and breeding
this year were about two weeks later than last year, due un-
doubtedly to the cold, damp spring.
Mr. Bratley took up the problem of feeding the hoppers at
Gainesville on different food plants. Some were raised on nar-









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


cissus, others on tread-softly, others on poke berries, and still
others on a mixture of grasses and weeds growing in an un-
cultivated field on the Station grounds. By June 26th about
nine-tenths of those fed on narcissus had become adults; a few
of those fed on tread-softly were also adults, but comparatively
few of those that were fed on the mixture of grasses and weeds
had completed their growth. Those fed on poke berries were
intermediate. Also a larger proportion of those fed on narcissus
lived to maturity. It is thus seen that the character of the food
has much to do with the rapidity of development and the number
that reach maturity. The hoppers all came from the same
batches of eggs. Of the different foods tried, the most favorable
was narcissus; the second, tread-softly, a plant, by the way, not
at all related to narcissus; the third, poke berries, again very
different botanically; and the poorest of all those fed were the
grasses and weeds. If offered a choice of the four in a cage,
the hoppers would first consume the narcissus, then tread-softly,
then poke berry. It is thus seen that there is truth in the con-
tention of the farmers that neighboring fields of narcissus do
cause a marked increase in the amount of Lubberly Locusts in
the neighborhood where no measures are taken to combat them.
As during last year a ditch as much as a foot deep with
straight, steep sides made an effective barrier for the migrating
hordes. This year the main breeding grounds at Doctor's Inlet
was burned over during the time of the active hatching of the
hoppers with a very marked effect on their numbers. If the
hoppers emerged more uniformly in time, this burning of the
fields just after the eggs had hatched would be a very effective
means of control. It would take a very hot fire to kill the un-
hatched eggs or nymphs in the ground. The grower at Penney
Farms who last year took active measures against the hoppers
suffered very little damage this year, whereas last year the
damage was severe.
In addition to the host plants mentioned above they were
about as fond of crinums as of narcissus. They fed on gladiolus,
but much less eagerly than on narcisus or crinums; for day lilies,
they did not seem to care. In the swamps their favorite foods
were Pickerel Weed, Cyperus (a sedge), Lizards' Tail (Sauru-
rus), and Sagittaria. They were seen also feeding on the flowers
of Chamaecrista.









VOL. XXIV-No. 2


ARTHUR PAUL JACOT
Arthur Paul Jacot was born on Staten Island, New York,
March 28th, 1890. As a child he attended the Staten Island
Public Schools; Mount Hermon School, Mount Hermon, Mass.,
was his Preparatory School,. and Cornell was the college of his
choice because there he was allowed to elect all those subjects
in biology and natural history which attracted him most and
of which he had been deprived in his classical preparatory school
training.
He graduated from Cornell in 1917 with a B.S. While a
senior at Cornell, he did some summer research work at the U. S.
Bureau of Fisheries, at Beaufort, North Carolina. In 1918 he
was married and shortly after took charge of the shell collection
at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City,
which position he held until August 1920, when he sailed for
China to teach Biology at Chee Loo University, Tsinanfu, Shan-
tung, China. While on furlough in 1925-1926 he secured his
M.A. degree from Columbia University. In 1931 he returned
from China and registered as graduate student at Yale Univer-
sity, studying under Professor Petrunkevitch. In the autumn of
1932 he registered at Cornell and there finished the work re-
quired for a Ph.D. which he obtained in 1933.
For six months he worked on Dutch Elm Disease in White
Plains, N. Y., after which he went to Asheville, North Carolina,
where for two years he was connected with the Appalachian
Forest Experiment Station. There he did some pioneer work
on the fauna of the forest floor in connection with soil erosion
control. In 1937 he was appointed by the U. S. Forest Service
to the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station at New Haven,
Conn., where he continued his forest floor research until his
death on March 24th, 1939.
He published about 120 scientific and professional articles
and papers.

Scientific and Professional Papers by Arthur Paul Jacot
1. Christmas Bird Census, Monroe, Conn., Bird Lore ........................ 1914
2. "W hisper" Song of Birds, Bird Lore ................................................ 1914
3. Method of Tabulating Notes, Bird Lore .......................................... 1914
4. Bird Photography and Suet Stations, Bird Lore ...........-.......... 1914
5. Christmas Bird Census, Monroe, Conn., Bird Lore ..............---------..... 1915
6. Some Marine Mollusca about N. Y. City, Nautilus ........................ 1919
7. On the Land Shells of Monroe, Conn., Nautilus --.............................. 1919
8. Marine Mollusca of Staten Island, N. Y., Nautilus ........................ 1920










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


9. Age, Growth and Scale Charaters of the Mullets (Mugil cephalus
and Mugil curema), Trans..Am. Micro. Soc. ................................ 1920
10. Notes on Marine Mollusca about N. Y. City, Nautilus .................... 1920
11. Some Marine Molluscan Shells of Beaufort and Vicinity, Jour.
Elisha M itchell Sci. Soc. ...................................- ......... ............ 1921
12. Review of Marine Millusca Found about N. Y. City, Nautilus ...... 1922
13. Oribatoidea Sinensis I, Jour. N. China Branch of the Royal
Asiatic Soc. .---------................................ .... .- -.......-----...-- ---. -- 1922
14. Shantung Coleoptera I, China Jour. of Sci. and Arts .......----.....- 1923
15. Revision of the Ginglymosoma (Acarina), Jour. of Sci. and Arts 1923
16. Shantung Herpetology, China Jour. of Sci. and Arts .................... 1923
17. On the Fresh Water Shells of Monroe, Conn., Nautilus ................ 1923
18. Oribatoidea Sinensis II, Jour. N. China Br. R. Asiatic Soc. ....... 1923
19. A New Oribatid Mite: Galumna samodensis sp. n., Trans. Am.
Micr. Soc. ........-..........------........... -----------------.. 1924
20. Oribatid Mites: Euphthiracarus depressculus sp. n. and Euph-
thiracarus flavus (Ewing), Trans. Am. Micr. Soc. .................. 1924
21. Biological Survey by Provinces, China Jour. Sci. and Arts ....-- .. 1924
22. Oribatoidea Sinensis III, Jour. N. China Br. R. Asiatic Soc ........ 1924
23. Marine Mollusca of the Bridgeport, Conn., Region, The Nautilus 1924
24. Life Zones and Temperature Conditions in Shantung, China,
Jour. Sci. and Arts ................ ---------......... ........----- ... 1924
25. Chinese Opalinidae, China Jour. Sci. and Arts ....----........ ----.. ---. 1925
26. Phylogeny in the Oribatoidea, Am. Naturalist ..........................---.. 1925
27. Shantung Foraminifera, Jour. N. China Br. R. Asiatic Soc .-...... 1925
28. Some Biological Problems, Mid-Pacific Magazine ........--................. 1926
29. Contributions of Biological Principles to Business, Tsingtao
Times .-.......------............... ..... -------..... --- .-..-......---...-...---- ..-- 1928
30. The Genus Gueldenstaedtia (Leguminoseae), Jour. N. China Br.
R A siatic Soc. ......................... .......... ........... ......... .................. 1927
31. Cepheus (Oribatoidea), especially in the Eastern U. S., Am.
M icr. Soc. Trans. ...................... ...------- ...... ......----- .....--. 1928
32. Contributions from the Herbarium of the Shantung Christian
University: I. Life Zones in Northeastern China, II. Summer
Flora of Bruce Hill, Peking Region, Jour. N. China Br. R.
A siatic Soc. ....................-.....- ................ ......-..................... .... 1928
33. American Oribatid Mites of the Subfamily Galumninae, Bull.
Museum Comparative Zool. ............. .. .................... .... 1929
34. New Oribatoid Mites, Psyche ..............................-- ..-- ........-- ...... 1929
35. Concerning the Genus Neoliodes (Oribatoidea, Acarina), Trans.
A m M icr. Soc. ................................................................ 1929
36. Range of Donax variabilis, Nautilus ........-........................................ 1929
37. Xenillus clypeator Robineau-Desvoidy and Its Identity, Psyche .... 1929
38. Annotated Bibliography of the Moss-Mites (Oribatoidea, Acarina) 1929
39. Insular Biota and Dispersal Agents, Science .................................... 1929
40. Genera of Pterogasterine Oribatidae (Acarina), Trans. Am.
M icr. Soc. .................................. ............. --.-- ..------------ .... 1929
41. A New Lepidium from North China, Rhodora ..................--...----....... 1930
42. Moss-Mites as Spore-bearers, Mycologia ...................................... .. 1930
43. Biological Notes on the Moss-Mites, Am. Naturalist ...................... 1930
44. Precollegiate Drawing, Educational Review (Shanghai) --............ 1930










VOL. XXIV-No. 2 45

45. Contributions from the Herbarium of the S. C. Univ.: III. Spring
Flowers of the Tsinan Plain, IV. The Shantung Dandelions
(Taraxacum), V. The Violets of Northeast China, Jour. N.
China Br. R. Asiatic Soc. ........... ....... ............... 1930
46. Nomenclature and Me, Science .........................-- ...-------....---- 1930
47. Oribatid Mites of the Subfamily Phthiracarinae of the North-
eastern U. S., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist .....--....................--...... 1930
48. Coordination, Bull. Dept. Biol., Yenching Univ., Peking ..... 1929-1930
49. Comparative Notes on the Japanese Mullets, Mugil cephalus and
M. haematochilus, Sci. Rpts. of the Tohoku Imp. Univ. .-..-...... 1931
59. Annotated Bibliography of the Moss-Mites (Oribatoidea, Aca-
rina), A pp. I ...........-.....- .................. .......... ......... 1926-1930
51. Our Fauna, Science .....................-.......-.....-....-. ..-...... -.........-... 1931
52. Rheotropism and Evolution, Peking Nat. Hist. Soc. Bull. ........... 1931
53. Zoogeographical Status of the North China Plain ..................... 1931
54. Asamushi Hillside Ferns; Lingnan Sci. Jour. ........--...-...-........ 1931
55. A Common Arboreal Moss-Mite, Humerobates humeralis, Occ.
Papers of the Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. ....-............- ... ............... 1931
56. Contributions from the Herbarium of the S. C. Univ.: VI.
Autumn Flowers of the Tsinan Plain, Jour. N. China Br. R.
A siatic Soc. .......---..............-.................... ............ ...... 1931
57. Tree Twist, Science ........................................ ......-....-... ...... 1931
58. Moss-Mites, Bull. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. ...................... .....-....-..-- 1932
59. The Status of the Species and the Genus, The Am. Nat. -..-..... 1932
60. A Knockdown "Berlese Funnel", Science --...---.. -............. ............ 1932
61. Concerning Oudemans' Kritisch Historisch Overzicht der Acaro-
logie in Its Bearing on Nomenclature of the Moss-Mites,
Psyche ..........................................---.................-........... ......... 1932
62. Evaluation of the Forest Flora Population, Canadian Entomolo-
gist .....--- ---...........----- . ................-----......---...... ........---- 1932
63. Ordinal Status of the Oribatoidea (Acarina) Entomological News 1933
64. Phthiracarid Mites of Florida, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. ... 1933
65. Examination of the Reverse Side of Micromounts, Science .......... 1933
66. Two Winged Moss-Mites of the Nilgiri Hills, Records of the
Indian Museum -----------....... --...-...............--- ........---------- 1933
67. The Primitive Galumninae (Oribatoidea-Acarina) of the Middle
West, The American Midland Naturalist .................................... 1933
68. Aparity Among the Oribatidae (Acarina), Canad. Ent. ...-.......... 1933
69. Earliest Genera of Mites and Their Types, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 1933
70. Zur Systematik der Oribatiden (Acarina) nach Willmann (May
1930) Ent. News ...-...-........-....-.. --------... -.. -...........-------....-- .... 1934
71. Some Hawaiian Oribatoidea (Acarina), Bernice P. Bishop Mu-
seum B ull. .................--............--...... -..... ................. .................. 1934
72. Some Tyroglyphina (Sarcoptiformes) of the Marquesas Islands,
Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bull. -------.............----------------........... 1934
73. Two Tyroglyphina (Sarcoptiformes) of Tahiti, Bernice P.
Bishop M useum Bull. ............................................. .................... 1934
74. The Galumnas (Oribatoidea-Acarina) of the Northeastern U. S.,
Jour. N Y Ent. Soc. ...............................---...-.............. 1934
75. Micro Mounts, Reverse and Converse, Science ................................ 1934











46 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

76. Acarina as Possible Vectors of the Dutch Elm Disease, Jour.
E c. E nt. ......................................................... ............ ........ ..... .. 1934
77. The Mite Oribata lamellata and Related Species, Records of the
Australian Museum -----................ -..........- .--.. .........-----. .-----..-----.. 1934
78. Two Species of Lichen-Mining Moss-Mites, Annals Ent. Soc. Am. 1934
79. A New Four-Horned Moss-Mite (Oribatoidea-Acarina), The Am.
M island N at .................................. ... ........................... 1934
80. An Intertidal Moss-Mite in America, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc ........ 1934
81. Two Unrecorded Subspecies of Moss-Mites (Oribatoidea-
Acarina) from the Northeastern U. S., Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 1934
82. The Species of Zetes (Oribatoidea-Acarina) of the Northeastern
U. S., Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash .............................................. .... 1934
83. Galumna alatus Willmann (Acari, Oribatidae), Ann. and Mag.
of N at. H ist. ................................................................................... 1935
84. Nothrus kornbuberi (Oribatoidea-Acarina) rediscovered through
a Grant of the Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund, Sci. Rpt.,
Tohoku Imperial University, Japan .................................... 1935
85. Wild Life of the Forest Carpet, Sci. Mo. .. ........................ 1935
86. 1, 2, 3. The Large-Winged Mites of Florida, The Florida Ent..... 1935
87. Fuscozetes (Oribatoidea-Acarina) in the Northeastern U. S.,
Jour. N Y Ent. Soc. .... .................................... ......................... 1935
88. Molluscan Populations of Old Growth Forests and Rewooded
Fields in the Asheville Basin of North Carolina, Ecology ........ 1935
89. On Some Large-Winged Mites of the Southwestern States,
Pomona College Journal of Ent. and Zool. .................................. 1935
90. Les Phthiracaridae de Carl Ludwig Koch, Revue Suisse de
Zoologie ................... ...............-......-.................. .1936
91. Spruce Litter Reduction, Canad. Ent. ..................................... .. 1936
92. Undescribed Moss-Mites, Chiefly Midwestern, Am. Midl. Nat. .... 1936
93. New Moss-Mites, Chiefly Midwestern, Am. Midl. Nat. .................. 1936
94. Soil Populations, Sci. M o. ................................................................. 1936
95. Some Rake-Legged Mites of the Family Cheyletidae, Jour. N. Y.
Ent. Soc. ...........-------------....................-.........----.......... 1936
96. Quantitative Litter Sampling, Ecology ...................................... 1936
97. An Undescribed Pediculoided Mite from the Southern Appala-
chians, Canad. Ent. .......................-.....-.......-.......... -- .- ---- 1936
98. Why Study the Fauna of the Litter? Jour. Forestry .................... 1936
99. Three Undescribed Pediculoidid Mites from the Southern Ap-
palachians, Canad. Ent. ................................... ...---.......-- ... -- 1936
100. Some Primitive Moss-Mites of North Carolina, Jour. Elisha
M itchell Sci. Soc. ........................................ ....... ................. 1936
101. Soil Structure and Soil Biology, Ecology ........................................... 1936
102. Two Unrecorded Species of Scutacaridae from the Southern
Appalachians, Canad. Ent. ....-------............................------ 1936
103. More Primitive Moss-Mites of North Carolina, Jour. Elisha
M itchell Sci. Soc. .......................-- ............................................. 1936
104. Three Possible Mite Vectors of the Dutch Elm Disease, Ann.
Ent. Soc. A m --.....- --..... ................-... .. ... ................................. 1936
105. New Moss-Mites, Chiefly Midwestern, II, Am. Midi. Nat. ............ 1937
106. Principles of Scientific Publication, N. Y. Ent. Soc. .................... 1937
107. Types of Forest Carpets, Sci. Mo. ................-----.....--.-- ..-- ...... 1937









VOL. XXIV-No. 2


108. Six New Mites from Western North Carolina, Proc. Ent. Soc.
W ash. .... ......... . . ... .... ....... ... ... ..... ..... ......... ........... 1937
109. Evolutionary Trends, Ecological Notes, and Terminology of the
Large-Winged Mites of North America, Am. Midi. Nat ... ..... 1937
110. Journal of North-American Moss-Mites, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. _.. 1937
111. Some New Western North Carolina Moss-Mites, Proc. Ent. Soc.
W ash. ... .......... ...--............ .... .. .. ... .. .... ..-- 1938
112. A Pseudogarypin Pseudoscorpion in the White Mts., Occ. Papers,
Boston Soc. N at. H ist. ...... ....................-....-............. ...... 1938
113. New Moss-Mites, Chiefly Midwestern, III, Am. Midi. Nat.. -........ 1938
114. More Primitive Moss-Mites of North Carolina, III, Jour. Elisha
M itchell Sci. Soc ......................... .....- ... ........... .. ... .......... 1938
115. More Box-Mites of the Northeastern U. S., Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 1938
116. Authority Citations in Biological Nomenclature, Science --.......-. 1938
117. Thomas Say's Free-Living Mites Rediscovered, Psyche ............... 1938
118. Four New Arthropods from New England, Am. Midl. Nat. --.... 1938
119. The Geenton Mites of Florida, The Florida Ent ... -.........-- ...... 1938
120. New Mites from the White Mountains, Occ. Papers, Boston Soc.
Nat. Hist. .......-...-....... -...... --....... 1939


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