Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1945
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00248
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The


Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

VOL. XXVII CONTENTS AND INDEX


TABLE OF CONTENTS, VOLUME XXVII, 1945

Editors, Dr. Peter Henry Rolfs (Obituary) .......................................... 1

M ay Beetles of Georgia (Review) ............................... ......................... 34
Dr. E. W Berger (Obituary) ......................................................... ...... 41-43
Lieu, K. O. Victoria, The Study of Wood Borers in China ................61-100

Smith, Clyde F., Drepanaphis tissoti, A New Species of Aphid from
F lorida ........................................................................... ........................ 55-57

Smith, Marion R., Additional Ants Recorded from Florida with
Description of Two New Species ........................................ 14-17

Taylor, Doyle J., Life History Studies of the Sugarcane Moth Borer.... 10-13

Tissot, A. N., and J. O. Pepper, Two New Aphids from Rhododendron
and R elated Plants ................................................. ................................ 21-33
Tissot, A. N., Additions to the Lachnini of Florida .......................... 43-54

Cinara osborniana nom. n., A Correction ........................ 102
Watson, J. R., A New Cuban Pest of Citrus .................................... 13 and 18

The Mourning Cloak Butterfly in Florida ............... 17

Herse cingulatus Fab. as an armyworm ........................ 58

The Damage of Melipotis acontioides to the Royal
Poinciana ................................................................................... 58-59, and 103

Wright, Mike, Notes on Dragonflies in the Vicinity of New Smyrna
B each, F lorida ........................................................... .......................... 35-39

Wylie, W. D., Crambus haytiellus (Zincken) as a Pest of Carpet
Grass ............................................................................................ .......... 5-9









Uhe


Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

VOL. XXVIII AUGUST, 1945 No. 1

A BRIEF HISTORY OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY
IN FLORIDA 1
A. H. MADDEN, U. S. D. A., Agr. Res. Adm.
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

The present war has focused attention upon the importance
of medical entomology as never before during the history of
man. Under these circumstances it appears that a brief review
of the history of medical entomology in Florida should be of
interest and value to members of this Society.
Florida probably has suffered as severely from the ravages
of insect-borne diseases as any part of the United States. This
is due primarily to the subtropical climate extending over the
greater part of the State, which favors the propagation and
development of large numbers of disease-carrying and pestifer-
ous insects. A classic reference to the abundance of some of
these forms of insect life was made by the first Federal ento-
mologist, Townsend Glover, in his "Florida Litany":
From red bugs and bed bugs, from sand flies and land flies,
Mosquitoes, gallinippers and fleas,
From hog ticks and dog ticks and hen lice and men lice,
We pray thee, good Lord, give use ease.
All the congregation shall scratch and say Amen.
A secondary factor is the proximity of the State to the West
Indies, Mexico, Central and South America, which facilitates
the introduction of insect-transmitted diseases from these coun-
tries.
Obviously, it is impossible on this occasion to present a com-
plete account of the subject, which would involve a discussion
of extensive work performed in the State on the various phases
SPresidential address presented at the annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society, November 24, 1944. Most of the information used
in the preparation of this paper was obtained from the 1900-1942 annual
reports of the Florida State Board of Health.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


of medical entomology proper, including the control of pest
insects and the allied field of veterinary entomology. Instead,
I will mention only the more important insect-borne diseases of
man that have occurred in the State, and sketch the efforts and
progress that have been made in their control.
The most important of these diseases undoubtedly is malaria.
Malaria has caused more ill health and loss of life in Florida than
all other insect-borne diseases combined. It was the chief cause
of sickness and death among the Spanish expeditions and early
colonies. Furthermore, until comparatively recent times ma-
laria was one of the chief factors retarding the development of
the State. Even during the last 40 years the total number of
cases annually has often been as high as 41,000 to 94,000 and
the number of deaths from 205 to 470.
Although several malarial vectors occur in the State, only
one Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, is important in the trans-
mission of the disease (King, et al. 4). For this reason malaria
has never been prevalent in those sections of the State where
this species cannot breed.
The story of the real campaign against malaria in Florida
extends back only a little over 20 years. In the interim follow-
ing the discovery of its transmission by mosquitoes, only super-
ficial programs designed mainly for the education of the public
were carried out. The first substantial malaria-control project
was conducted between 1920 and 1921 at Perry, where 65 per
cent of the population were afflicted with the disease. It is
believed that this was the first time in the history of the United
States when all the then known means of malaria control were
utilized, including oiling, screening, stocking ponds with surface
minnows, administration of quinine, and extensive drainage.
The campaign was successful not only against malaria but also
against dengue, as will be mentioned later.
In 1930 the Division of Malaria Research was established
at Tallahassee by the Rockefeller Foundation under the direction
of Dr. Mark F. Boyd, and in 1931 the Division of Malaria Con-
trol was organized in the State by the United States Public
Health Service under the direction of Dr. T. H. D. Griffiths.
The same year Dr. W. V. King, of the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, who had just been stationed at Orlando
after returning from foreign service, agreed to act as consultant
in entomology to the State Board of Health. Thus the services
of three of the leading malariologists in the country were secured








VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


by the State. It should be noted that a portion of Dr. Boyd's
work has been the successful use of the malarial mosquito in
the treatment of paresis. Thus some measure of compensation
has been obtained for all the losses suffered by the people of the
State from this disease.
Beginning in 1934 large-scale malaria-control projects were
undertaken by the Civil Works Administration. This work was
continued under the Works Progress Administration until the
termination of that organization. An extensive demonstration
program of malaria control was conducted in Escambia County
from 1938 to 1940 as a cooperative project of the county, the
United States Public Health Service, and the Rockefeller Founda-
tion under the direction of Dr. J. E. Elmendorf, Jr.
In 1941 the Bureau of Malaria Control, supported jointly by
the United States Public Health Service, the Florida State Board
of Health, and the Rockefeller Foundation, was incorporated
within the State Board of Health organization. That Bureau
is concerned with the making of surveys, formulation, promo-
tion and supervision of control projects, and the training of
personnel. Since 1941 work at military bases in the State has
been given priority.
It is evident that considerable effort has been expended in
the control of malaria in Florida. However, although the re-
sults have been encouraging, progress has been slow. Even as
late as 1939 the death rate from malaria was third highest in
the United States, being 17.3 per 100,000 population as compared
with 2.6 for the entire country. During the last few years
malaria incidence has reached an all-time low over the entire
Southeast, but it appears that natural causes may be partially
responsible.
Before leaving the subject of malaria, I should like to men-
tion an interesting and important discovery which resulted from
the early attempts to combat the disease at a time when even
the causal organism was unknown. Early in the nineteenth
century at Apalachicola, Dr. John Gorrie invented the first ice-
making machine, in the course of his attempts to develop a cure
for malaria (Fairlie 3). The purpose of this device was to cool
the rooms of patients suffering from the disease. Thus indirectly
the struggle against malaria in Florida led to the development
of artificial refrigeration with all its attendant benefits.
Yellow fever undoubtedly has caused more panic and dis-
ruption of business, and probably more sickness and loss of







THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


life, than any other disease during the relatively brief periods
it has been prevalent in the State. Its common vector, Aedes
aegypti (L.), occurs over the entire State ready to spread the
disease whenever given an opportunity. However, climatic con-
ditions as a rule do not permit breeding throughout the year,
and this has prevented the disease from becoming endemic.
Yellow fever was introduced into Cuba from Central Amer-
ica in 1750 (Peabody 5). From there it spread to Florida.
One of the first records of the disease in the State is that of a
severe epidemic at Pensacola in 1822. The disease continued
to reappear in that city at intervals during the next 60 years,
the most severe outbreak occurring in 1882 with 2,200 cases
and 252 deaths.
An epidemic struck the thriving Gulf coast community of
St. Josephs (now Port St. Joe) in 1848 and is said to have de-
stroyed 75 per cent of the population (Dau 2). This was one
of the chief factors which led to the complete abandonment of
the town shortly thereafter.
The town of Fernandina suffered severely from the disease
in 1877, and 1,000 cases and 94 deaths occurred. The appear-
ance of the disease caused the usual panic, and for several weeks
all business was at a standstill.
By far the most widespread and devastating epidemic oc-
curred in 1887-88 (Chapin 1, Rerick 6). In May 1887 yellow
fever appeared in Key West, having been brought by ship from
Havana. From Key West it spread to Tampa, becoming epi-
demic by fall and spreading to Manatee and Plant City. Follow-
ing a mild winter, it sprang up again in the spring, appearing
in Jacksonville by August and spreading from there to Mac-
clenny, Sanderson, Fernandina, Gainesville, Enterprise, Live
Oak, and Green Cove Springs. There were several thousand
cases, and over 500 persons lost their lives, including many
prominent people of the State.
One of the methods tried against the disease during the early
stages of the epidemic in Jacksonville will serve to illustrate the
pitiful ignorance with respect to insect-borne diseases existing
at that time. This method was based on the theory that ex-
plosion of gunpowder at night would destroy the germs of the
disease by concussion of the atmosphere. A battery of six can-
nons was used, but after five nights the ammunition was ex-
hausted and before more could be obtained the artillery men
had fled the city and the test had to be terminated. It is re-








VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


ported (Rerick 6) that nothing was proved by the experiment
except that the patients could not endure the noise.
The seriousness and magnitude of the epidemic of 1887-88
was responsible for the establishment of the Florida State Board
of Health, whose chief function was to prevent a recurrence
of this terrible scourge. This function was conducted so thor-
oughly that between 1883 and 1905 three threatened epidemics
of the disease were averted. Since that time the Board has
maintained constant vigilance to prevent reintroduction of the
disease. It has also taken the lead in the prevention and control
of all other insect-borne diseases and has broadened its functions
to the point where it represents one of the most effective and
valuable organizations in the State. Thus yellow fever inad-
vertently made a great contribution to the welfare and develop-
ment of Florida.
Dengue, also transmitted by Aedes aegypti, is not a spectacu-
lar disease but has caused considerable sickness and suffering
in the State. Fortunately, the mortality from this disease has
been comparatively low. Records of its occurrence are rela-
tively recent, apparently because it was formerly confused with
yellow fever, malaria, or even typhoid. In 1905 there was a
heavy outbreak at Key West, Tampa, Miami, and Jacksonville,
and a total of about 11,700 cases was reported. In 1907 it was
reported from Hillsborough County, but also was known to
have been epidemic at Key West. The 1921 outbreak along
the lower East Coast stimulated such public interest in mosquito
control that a campaign was initiated at Miami in 1922. In
1922 there was heavy recurrence of the disease in 47 counties,
with a total of 82,681 cases and 69 deaths reported. A striking
example of the value of mosquito-control work was furnished
by the fact that Miami and Perry remained free of the disease.
It will be recalled that the malaria-control project at Perry was
completed in 1921. An epidemic at Miami in 1934 was respon-
sible for a State-wide clean-up of the breeding places of domestic
mosquitoes. Owing to closer attention to mosquito control, there
have been fewer cases of the disease in recent years.
Diseases carried by houseflies (Musca domestic L.) also
have caused much sickness and death in the State. Early in
the present century the newly established urban centers in keep-
ing with the times were equipped with very primitive sanitary
systems. Under these conditions houseflies were given every







THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


opportunity to spread such diseases as dysentery, typhoid, and
tuberculosis.
In 1899 there were 200 deaths from typhoid and 197 from
dysentery, and in 1900 typhoid was considered one of the most
dangerous diseases in the State. As late as 1913 inattention
to the screening of kitchens and dining rooms was said to have
resulted in a heavy toll of sickness and death from typhoid, and
in 1914 the State health officer reported that flies were mainly
responsible for the disease and recommended the screening of
all privies. In 1915 an outbreak of dysentery at Lakeland, cost-
ing the city about $20,000 and causing 8 per cent mortality, was
traced directly to transmission by houseflies. The records are
not so definite with respect to tuberculosis, but it is highly
probable that a great deal of the dissemination of this disease
during the same period may be attributed to houseflies. Since
1916 there has been a rather sharp decline in the incidence of
all these diseases except tuberculosis, and although other factors
are involved, the improvement of housefly control undoubtedly
has played a large part in bringing this about.
Flea-borne diseases have been absent from Florida until
comparatively recent times. Bubonic plague appeared at Pensa-
cola in June 1920 and there were 10 cases and 6 deaths, but
the disease was promptly eradicated.
Endemic typhus appeared in Florida about 12 years ago.
This disease, first discovered by Dr. Nathan Brill among im-
migrants at New York City in 1898, disappeared for over 20
years, and then spotted outbreaks began to appear in the South.
In 1932 four deaths from typhus were recorded in Florida, and
since that time the incidence has risen steadily. In 1937, 107
cases were reported, and in 1943 almost three times as many,
or 314 cases, occurred. The disease is being combated by ex-
tensive rat-control projects, and possibly the peak has been
reached.
Reference should be made to the recent work at the Orlando
laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
on the prevention of insect-borne diseases. This laboratory was
established in 1930 for research on mosquitoes, and in 1942
was reorganized for the purpose of discovering more effective
methods of protecting the armed forces from attack by these
diseases. For security reasons details of the work cannot be
given at this time, but it has been instrumental in reducing
sickness and loss of life among our own troops and those of








VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


our allies. Thus, research conducted in Florida has not only
been of considerable importance in the war effort, but has also
provided new and more powerful weapons for future use against
disease-carrying insects in the State.
In conclusion, it should be stated that, although considerable
progress has been made in the field of medical entomology in
Florida during the past 40 years, much remains to accomplished.
Several endemic insect-borne diseases are still of medical im-
portance. Furthermore, the danger of introducing additional
diseases of this nature or their insect vectors from other en-
demic areas, such as Africa and the Orient, has been greatly
increased by the development of more rapid means of trans-
portation. To offset these factors, however, recent research
has provided more effective means of combating the insects
involved.
Florida entomologists share the responsibility with the medi-
cal profession for the continued progress of the struggle against
insect-borne diseases in the State. Our primary obligation is
to provide continuous improvements in insect-control measures.
Even those of us not actively engaged in the field of medical
entomology may be of assistance in various ways. Probably
the chief manner in which we can help is by acquainting our
fellow citizens with the important bearing that the control of
insects of medical importance has upon the future health and
development of the State.


LITERATURE CITED

1. CHAPIN, G. M. 1914. Florida, 1513-1913, past, present, and future.
Vol. II, 628 pp. Chicago.
2. DAU, F. W. 1934. Florida, old and new. 377 pp., illus. New York.
3. FAIRLIE, M. C. 1935. History of Florida. 303 pp., illus. Privately
printed. Jacksonville, Fla.
4. KING, W. V., G. H. BRADLEY, and T. E. MCNEEL. 1942. The mosquitoes
of the Southeastern States. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 336, 96 pp.,
illus., rev.
5. PEABODY, J. E. (No date.) The conquest of yellow fever. 37 pp. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., Dept. Pub. Ed. New York City.
6. RERICK, R. H. 1902. Memoirs of Florida. Vol. II, 764. Atlanta.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


TWO NEW SPECIES OF CECIDOMYIIDAE FROM FLORIDA
O. A. JOHANNSEN
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
Lestodiplosis floridana n. sp.
MALE. Antenna a third longer than the insect, 2 + 12 seg-
ments, first and second approximated; the stems of the flagellar
segments subequal in length, their diameters gradually decreas-
ing toward the apex, the third being one and two-thirds, the
fourteenth four times as long as the corresponding width. The
necks of the segments, on the other hand, increase in length and
decrease in width toward the apex, the third measuring 0.05
by 0.02 mm., the thirteenth measuring 0.07 by 0.01. Dimen-
sions of the intermediate segments may be determined by inter-
polation. The basal node of each flagellar segment has one, the
distal node two, whorls of long circumfili with regular loops.
The node of the terminal segment is about a half longer than the
stem. The first palpal segment is nearly quadrate, the second
2.5 times as long as broad, the third nearly as long, the fourth
slightly longer than the second. Head, thorax, and abdomen
pale brownish, the mesonotum somewhat darker. Legs yellow,
coxae and fifth tarsal segments, and tips of second, third, and
fourth tarsal segments dusky, the darker coloring at the tips
of the intermediate tarsal segments owing to the presence of
dark hairs. In rubbed specimens the legs are wholly yellow.
Claws simple, strongly curved, not angulate, as long as the em-
podia. Wings hyaline with three dark spots in front of posterior
radial branch, one basal, one median, and one on apical fourth;
a spot at tip of this branch; three spots between radius and
cubitus opposite those in front; an alongate forked spot cover-
ing petiole and branches of cubitus, and an irregular spot cover-
ing the wing base, all rather illy defined. The spots may be
wholly or in part lacking in rubbed specimens because they
owe their origin to the sparsely distributed hairs on the wing
surface. Anterior branch of the radius ends about opposite
the cubital fork; its posterior branch ends very slightly behind
the wing tip. Halteres yellowish. Basistyle of terminalia fully
as long as the third tarsal segment of fore legs, with a well
developed, somewhat angulate, basal lobe; dististyle glabrous,
slender, curved, about half as long as basistyle. Dorsal plate
(so-called) emarginate, lobes rounded; ventral plate with rounded
apex.








VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


Length 1.8 mm. (alcoholic specimens) ; wing length 1.7 mm.,
width 0.9 mm.
The species resembles both L. ridipennis Johnson and L.
florida Felt, but differs in size, in leg and wing markings, and
in relative antennal length.
The pinkish larvae occur, presumably as predators, in the
flower heads of Bidens pilosa L. Reared January, 1944, at Engle-
wood, Florida, by Dr. J. G. Needham.
Holotype and paratypes in the Cornell University Collection.

Asphondylia bidens n. sp.
MALE. Antennae brown; 2 + 12 segments, the two basal
short, third (first flagellar) four times as long as broad, its
length 1/6 mm., fourteenth (twelfth flagellar) four times as
long as broad, its length 1/8 mm., total antennal length 1.9 mm.;
intermediate segments in slightly decreasing lengths. Circum-
fili with low loops as figured for A. monacha by Felt (31st Rept.
N. Y. State Ent. 1915, p. 115, fig. lla). Palpi three-segmented,
first basal short, second three times the first, third five times
the first in length. Head, including face, yellow to yellowish-
brown, mesonotum dark brown; submedian, longitudinal lines
yellow, very slender; scutellum brownish yellow; metanotum
yellow; humeri narrowly, over and in front of wing base, and
upper margin of the pleura, yellow; pectus brown. Abdomen
brownish yellow, incisures narrowly, pleural conjunctivae more
broadly yellow. Terminalia brown. Legs including coxae, yel-
low; tarsi darker apically; claws simple, strongly curved; em-
podium about as long as the claws. Wings hyaline, sparsely
hairy, radial veins yellow; costa ends at the apex of the wing,
anterior branch of the radius ends about opposite the cubital
fork. Halteres whitish, stem pale yellow. Terminalia promi-
ent, slightly wider than long; terminal clasp robust, but little
longer than wide, each with a pair of stout, triangular, pointed,
blackish teeth that are about as wide at the base as the length;
aedeagus Y-shaped, the up-curved, caudad projecting stem longer
than the arms; dorsal plate deeply cleft, lobes broad with rounded
apices.
Length (alcoholic specimens) 2 mm.; wing length 2 mm.,
width two-fifths of length.
FEMALE. Antennae with 2 + 12 segments; total antennal
length 1.6 mm.; third segment 5.8 times as long as the diameter,
fourth to tenth in gradually decreasing lengths, the tenth about








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


3/4 as long as the fourth, the terminal segments (tenth to four-
teenth) measure 0.12 0.10 0.075 0.056 0.035 mm.; four-
teenth slightly wider than long. Palpi 3-segmented, first a little
longer than broad, second nearly three times, third about four
times as long as the first. Coloring similar to that of the male
but somewhat darker, the thorax and abdomen brown; legs pale
brown, basal part of the femora yellow, tarsi darker brown
especially apically. Immature specimens somewhat paler. Ovi-
positor with very slender, aciculate terminal segment the base
of which, when retracted, reaching forward to the second ab-
dominal segment.
Length 2.35 mm. (alcoholic specimens); wing 2.50 by
1.08 mm.
EXUVIAE. Light brown; anterior horns short, stout, conical,
pointed, and contiguous at base. Mesonotum, scutellum and first
tergite without spinules; remaining tergites with transverse
rows of spinules; the second to seventh with a regular, closely
set row on the distal third and with a transverse belt on the
proximal third which on the more anterior segments is com-
posed of two irregular rows of sparsely set spinules, becoming
more sparse on the posterior segments. The eighth segment has
a dozen or more spinules on the disc and near the posterior
margin a closely set row of stouter ones.
Length 2.8 mm., width near middle 0.9 mm. Pupa a third
shorter than the exuviae.
This species differs from A. florida Felt in being smaller,
and in the paler coloring and the smaller length-width ratio of
the third antennual segment of the male.
Reared January, 1944, at Englewood, Florida, by Dr. J. G.
Needham. The larvae make top-shaped galls in the corollas of
some of the marginal flowers of Bidens pilosa L.
Holotype, allotype, and paratypes in the Cornell University
Collection.


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VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


DRAGONFLIES PREDACEOUS ON THE STABLEFLY
Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)
MIKE WRIGHT
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

There are considerable data in the literature, both from field
observations and actual analyses of stomach contents, on dragon-
flies as predators on mosquitoes, houseflies, and gnats, but the
only reference known to us that lists dragonflies as predators
of Stomoxys calcitrans is by Dove and Simmons (1942). These
writers state . .when the adult fly populations were re-
duced to a low point, three species of dragonflies, Anax junius
(Drury), Pachydiplax longipennis (Burm.), and Tramea lace-
rata (Hagen), appeared to be effective in obtaining a further
reduction of the pests. The dragonflies were most abundant
during October, and about sunset they were observed to capture
dog flies."
In regard to outbreaks of the stablefly, or dog fly, along
the Florida Gulf beaches, Simmons and Dove (1941) state that
under favorable conditions the insect may occur in large num-
bers from the middle of August to the middle of October in the
littoral extending from the Alabama-Florida boundary line
eastward 400 miles to Cedar Keys, Fla. In this area the
heaviest concentration of the flies occurs within a section 200
miles long between Pensacola and Carrabelle.
Large swarms of dragonflies were observed along the beaches
at Fort Walton, Apalachicola, and Carrabelle, Fla., in 1941.
These swarms were composed mostly of Anax junius with some
individuals of Tramea and Pachydiplax longipennis. At Panama
City, Fla., during the period from September 30 to October 2,
1942, large swarms of Anax junius were again encountered
and, as during 1941, the dragonflies were observed to capture
and eat large numbers of dog flies. It was noted, especially
during the 1941 season, that these swarms of dragonflies were
not constantly present along the beaches but appeared at ir-
regular intervals. The significance of these sporadic appear-
ances was not appreciated until the 1943 season, during which
time daily observations were possible on the dragonfly popula-
tions from Panama City west to Navarre, Fla.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


The following is a list of dragonfly species, with their relative
abundance, noted in this area during August, September, and
October of 1943.
Abundant: Anax junius (Drury), Tramea carolina (Linnaeus),
and Pantala flavescens (Fabricius).
Common: Erythemis simplicicollis (Say) and Pachydiplax
longipennis (Burmeister).
Occasionally common: Coryphaeschna ingens (Rambur).
Occasional: Argia fumipennis (Burmeister) and Ischnura
ramburii (Selys).
Rare: Celithemis amanda (Hagen), Libellula vibrans Fabricius,
L. auripennis Burmeister, L. pulchella Drury, and Enallagma
durum (Hagen).
As can be seen from the above list, three species, Anax
junius, Pantala flavescens, and Tramea carolina, were found
in large numbers, and our observations showed these to form
almost 100 percent of the swarms noted along the beaches. The
other species of Anisoptera found in this area did, undoubtedly,
eat dog flies, but their relatively small numbers made them
ineffective in control as well as inconspicuous.
The presence of adult dog flies along the beaches in appre-
ciable numbers always follows a northerly (offshore) breeze
which blows them out of the wooded interior, where they had
previously sought refuge after being dispersed from their beach
breeding areas by south winds. During the 1943 season the
first appreciable population of dog flies along the beaches ap-
peared during the afternoon of August 15, and lasted until
August 21, at which time the wind changed to a southerly breeze
and drove the flies inland. During the period of high fly popula-
tions considerable swarms of Anax junius, Tramea carolina,
and Pantala flavescens were noted daily. They patrolled the
beaches and adjoining highway continuously in search of dog
flies. On August 21 the wind changed and blew the flies inland
so that by late afternoon few if any of the pests could be found
along the beaches. It was noted that the swarms of odonates
were still present on the beaches at dusk on this date, and were
catching what few dog flies could be found. When the area was
visited early on the morning of August 22 only a few dragon-
flies (the normal population) were seen. This disappearance
within so short a time after the change of wind together with
our previous knowledge of the sporadic appearances of the








VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


dragonfly swarms led us to believe that there might be a definite
correlation between the appearances of high populations of dog
flies and dragonflies.
During the early part of the morning of September 8 the
wind, which had been from the south for several weeks, suddenly
shifted to the north. By noon a sufficient number of dog flies
had appeared to cause annoyance to animals on the beaches,
and they continued to increase during the remainder of the day.
Dragonflies were relatively rare until just before dusk, when
large swarms suddenly appeared. At about 3:00 P.M. on Sep-
tember 13 the wind changed and began blowing from the south,
and by dusk almost all the dog flies had disappeared. The dragon-
flies remained in large numbers throughout the day but had
disappeared by the next morning.
It would appear from these observations that the presence
of swarms of dragonflies along the beaches during period of
high dog fly populations was due to one or a combination of the
following two factors: (1) A congregation of the odonates
due to wind action, or (2) a definite migration of the insects
to a point of high concentration of food. It should be pointed
out (1) that the three species of dragonflies concerned are very
strong flies, (2) that the swarms apparently break up as they
leave the beaches, because no such congregations of dragonflies
have been regularly observed inland, and (3) that although there
are northerly winds before and after the dog fly season, the
dragonfly swarms appear only when numbers of dog flies are
present. It is of interest to note that when the dog flies are
moved inland they are scattered over a wide area, but when the
northerly winds appear they are congregated in a relatively small
area, hence the appearance of high populations. From these
observations, therefore, it seems logical to conclude that the
swarming of dragonflies along the beaches is a definite migration
for the purpose of obtaining food.








'he
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida

VOL. XXVIII AUGUST, 1945 No. 1

J. R. WATSON, Gainesville ..-..--.. ----..-----...----..............--.......Editor
G. B. MERRILL, Gainesville -.....--.. ---................ Assistant Editor
C. B. WISECUP, Box 3391, Orlando-...-....--........Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.


PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Winter Park, Florida, November 24-25, 1944
The beautiful campus of Rollins College was the scene of
the 1944 annual meeting of the Society, which was held in con-
junction with the annual meeting of the Florida Academy of
Sciences. President A. H. Madden presided at the first session
which was held in Annie Russell Theatre on Friday afternoon.
A most interesting and inspiring feature of this session was Mr.
Madden's presidential address. He chose as his subject, A
Brief History of Medical Entomology in Florida. Following
this address, members of the staff of the Orlando Laboratory
of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine presented
a symposium on new methods developed for controlling insects
of medical importance affecting the armed forces. The topics
discussed and the workers presenting them were: (a) Investi-
gations on the Control of Lice Attacking Man, by Laurence C.
McAllister, Jr.; (b) DDT in Residual Sprays, in Aerosols, and
in Concentrated Spray for the Control of Houseflies, Mosquitoes,
and Bedbugs, by Arthur Lindquist; (c) DDT as a Mosquito
Larvicide by Christian C. Deonier; and (d) Insect Repellents
by Fred A. Morton. On Saturday morning the remaining papers
were given. A paper entitled, DDT as a Vegetable Insecticide,
prepared by Lt. Jack C. Russell, was read. Professor J. R.
Watson presented two papers: Some Lepidoptera of the Great









VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


Smoky Mountains National Park as compared with Florida
Forms; and Melipotis acontioides as a Pest of Royal Poinciana,
Dr. H. T. Fernald gave an informal talk on ants, bringing to
the attention of his audience the growing importance in Florida
of the little fire ant Wassmannia auropunctata (Roger). On
Friday evening, members of the Society, their wives, and friends,
joined the members of the Florida Academy of Sciences at their
annual dinner, and with them enjoyed good food, good fellow-
ship, and a good address by the retiring President of the Acad-
emy, Dr. L. Y. Dyenforth. Twenty members and about thirty
visitors attended the sessions of the Society. The Society was
particularly honored by the presence of three distinguished
members of the National Health Administration, Chungking,
China, in addition to visitors from a number of other states in
this country.
BUSINESS MEETING
The business session of the Society convened at ten o'clock
Saturday morning, November 25, 1944.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY
The report of the Secretary was read and approved as read.

REPORT OF THE TREASURER-BUSINESS MANAGER
For the Period December 1, 1943 to November 1, 1944
Receipts:
Balance on Hand, December 1, 1943 ...............-----... ...-- .............$136.28
From Dues of Members ......----..........................- ............. 68.50
From Subscriptions to the Florida Entomologist ......--------.................... 50.50
From Advertising in the Florida Entomologist .......--................ .. -------75.00
From Sale of Back Numbers of the Florida Entomologist ..-....... 122.01
From Members for Reprints, Cuts, etc ......... ----......... ............... 24.30

Total .........--....--- ........ ----------------..$476.59
Expenditures:
Printing Three Issues of the Florida Entomologist .................----......$174.47
Postage, Stationery, and Other Supplies ---......- .....-........................ 22.88
Flowers (for Funerals) ..............---........------ --................. 12.00
Exchange on Checks and Money Orders at Bank ...........................-------3.25

Total ......---..............--- ------ -----. ...-. ...---$212.60
Balance on Hand, November 1, 1944 ................... ..---------...........$263.99
Respectfully submitted,
C. B. WISECUP, Treasurer-Business Manager








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


On motion the report of the Treasurer-Business Manager
was accepted, subject to approval of the Auditing Committee.

REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE
I have examined the books of the Treasurer-Business Man-
ager and report that I found the accounts accurate and in order.
Respectfully submitted,
R. L. MILLER
On motion the report of the Auditing Committee was ac-
cepted.

REPORT OF THE MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE
The Membership Committee recommends that the following
associate members be raised to the rank of active membership:
J. M. Crevasse, Jr., Lt. R. G. Dahms, Lt. James E. Gillaspy,
Lt. E. S. Herald, H. S. McClanahan, and Paul T. Riherd. The
committee further recommends that the following persons be
elected to associate membership: W. G. Bruce, Douglass Burnett,
Jr., Sgt. Nathan B. Carson, Lt. Geo. A. Edwards, Miss Margaret
Greenwald, A. W. Morrill, Jr., Fred Morton, Howard B. Reit-
meyer, Wesley Foster Taylor, and Lt. D. C. Thurman, Jr.
Respectfully submitted,
C. B. WISECUP, Chairman
A. H. MADDEN
R. L. MILLER
On motion the report was accepted and the persons named
were declared elected to membership as indicated.

REPORT OF THE RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE
Professor J. R. Watson, Chairman, presented the report of
the Resolutions Committee. On motion the report was approved.

OLD BUSINESS
T. H. Hubbell, acting as a committee of one to investigate
the desirability of affiliation of the Florida Entomological So-
ciety with the Florida Academy of Sciences, reported that the
Academy has no provisions for accepting affiliate societies. He
recommended that the Society take no action toward affiliation,
but simply continue to hold its annual meetings in conjunction
with those of the Academy when such seems desirable.
On motion this recommendation was approved.








VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


NEW BUSINESS
There was no new business to come to the attention of the
Society.
REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE
The committee nominates the following members to fill the
designated offices and positions for the year 1945:
President-A. C. Brown
Vice-President-Norman C. Hayslip
Secretary-A. N. Tissot
Editor of the Florida Entomologist-J. R. Watson
Associate Editor-G. B. Merrill
Members of the Executive Committee-A. H. Madden (for
1 year) ; T. H. Hubbell (for 2 years).
Respectfully submitted,
H. S. MCCLANAHAN, Chairman
C. C. DEONIER
E. G. KELSHEIMER
There were no further nominations from the floor and on
motion the report of the Nominating Committee was accepted
and the Secretary was instructed to cast an unanimous ballot
for the election of the persons named.
Following the transaction of the above business, the meet-
ing adjourned.
Respectfully submitted,
A. N. TISSOT, Secretary

REPORT OF THE RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE
I
WHEREAS, the Florida Entomological Society lost two of its
oldest and most distinguished members when it pleased Almighty
God to call from our midst on February 23, 1944, Peter Henry
Rolfs, and, on August 23, 1944, Edward William Berger, whose
long and distinguished careers as public servants won for them
fame in this country and abroad for their achievements in re-
search and investigation, to the end that agriculturists might
produce profitable crops in spite of the menace of plant pests
and diseases, and
WHEREAS, in the death of these two beloved members, who
did so much for our Society, we have suffered an irreparable
loss,








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Now, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that we the members of
the Florida Entomological Society in meeting assembled in
Winter Park, Florida, this 25th day of November, 1944, make
this record in testimony of our appreciation of Doctors Rolfs
and Berger with full realization of the loss we have sustained,
and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the Secretary of the Society
be and hereby is instructed to inscribe this resolution in the
Society's minute book and to send a copy to the daughters of
Doctor Rolfs, Miss Clarissa Rolfs and Mrs. Robert Hargrave,
and to Mrs. Emily Berger and daughter, Mrs. Helen Berger
(Dale) Hume.
II
WHEREAS, the 1944 annual meeting of the Florida Entomo-
logical Society has been one of pleasure and profit through the
united efforts and cooperation of various individuals and or-
ganizations,
Now, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that the thanks of the
Society be extended to:
The President and faculty of Rollins College for making
available to us a suitable meeting place and other facilities and
for assisting in many ways;
The officers and members of the Florida Academy of Sciences
for their kindness and cooperation in our joint meeting;
The speakers who contributed to our program;
The officers and members of committees for their services
during the past year.


THE DAMAGE OF MELIPOTIS ACONTIOIDES TO THE
ROYAL POINCIANA
J. R. WATSON
(Continued from last issue)
One might surmise that this is due to temperature; that
the same temperature which causes the buds to burst also
hatches the eggs. But when we come to consider the leaf
case bearer of pecans the explanation will not hold. It so
happens that different varieties of pecans will vary as much
as a month in the time of leafing. Nevertheless, the caterpillars
will come out of their hibernacula on any variety when the buds








VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


begin to break and not before.* Here then we may have two
varieties of pecans in the same orchard on certainly similar soils
and exposed to the same degree of heat and moisture; yet the
caterpillars on the late leafing varieties may be a month behind
those varieties that leaf early. The conclusion must seem in-
escapable, in this case, that the bursting buds give off something
that stimulates the emergence of the worms from the hiber-
nacula. Perhaps some similar explanation applies to the Poin-
ciana caterpillars. Leastwise, it is very interesting that when
a defoliated tree puts out leaves at an abnormal time, in January,
the caterpillars also appear at the abnormal time.
How many generations will we see in a year is a question
that we cannot answer readily. April 3rd of this year, Mr.
Singleton reported small worms on the Poincianas but they
seemed to disappear and not a worm was noticed on these trees
until October 16th, when they re-appeared. There must un-
doubtedly have been several generations of caterpillars between
those dates but their numbers were probably so small that Mr.
Singleton did not notice them.
This insect seems to be about a widely spread in Florida as
the Royal Poincianas; i.e., from St. Petersburg to Key West.
Holland in his Moth Book records the insect under the name
Melipotis sinualis Harvey, as occurring from Texas and Arizona,
south. He does not mention Florida as in its range, nor say
anything about its food plant. However, in Grosbeck's list of
Lepidoptera of Florida, it is recorded from Miami, without giv-
ing its host plant.
In a letter dated August 22, 1945, Dr. Philip J. Westgate of
the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station at Homestead, makes a
further contribution to our knowledge of this insect. "In the
past week our big Poinciana tree in our front yard has been
practically defoliated by thousands of these caterpillars. In the
morning there is a steady migration from the leaves down the
trunk. During the day the trunk is covered with thousands of
the caterpillars. I have killed thousands of them with a 5 %
DDT dust.

Data supplied by A. M. Phillips of the laboratory for the study of
pecan insects at Monticello, Fla.







THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


EFFECTS OF THE REFLECTED SOLAR RADIATION
ON INSECTS
ORAZIO QUERCI and LYCAENA ROMEI

The caterpillars of many species of Lepidoptera exposed to
the light near a white wall become excited, and if the surface is
metallic, collapse in a short time even if the temperature of the
air is moderate (1).
Larvae of Pieridae, shut within a box of white paper and
exposed to the sun on barren soil, collapse in a short time, but
if the box is set in the sun above dense masses of living vege-
tation most larvae, and chiefly the big ones, are not injured (2).
When the sky is cloudless after a storm the soil dries rapidly
in places where the rainfall has been scanty. In such situations
we have seen, in several countries, some caterpillars of different
species crawling along the paths and on the stems of the bushes,
though generally they remained hidden. Returning a few hours
later, we perceived some rotten larvae dangling from the stems
and others almost carbonized in their living position. This
sudden mortality occurred, from our observations, at a moder-
ate temperature. At Lisbon (Portugal), on April 24, 1933, a
strong wave of heat arose while the maximum temperature
reached only 23.80 (74.80 F.), but the emanation of radiant
energy from the ground and buildings was so burning that
about a thousand larvae of different species of Pieridae, that
we were rearing at home, collapsed in a short time (3). After
similar heat-waves, the Lepidoptera in the country always be-
came very scarce. -We suppose that the larvae were killed by
the combined action of the ionized air and the radiations spring-
ing from the soil joining those coming from the sun.
At Philadelphia, Pa., we reared many larvae of Pieridae from
May to October, 1932. While the streets around our home re-
mained moist from the showers these caterpillars grew and
pupated rapidly, even within a week after hatching, when the
temperature was about 32 (89.6 F.). However, as soon as
the soil of the city became barren from lack of rain, the larvae
in our rooms died at 250 (77.00 F.). In summer rarely the soil
remained damp for the seven days that those larvae need to
mature, and therefore the mortality in our breeding cages was
very high (4).
We tried to prevent the death of some larvae by putting a
batch of them, during the hottest periods of each day, within








VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


a half-shut icebox, and another batch into a well shut icebox,
but with little ice, in order to keep the temperature moderately
low. Invariably, the larvae in the open in our rooms died within
a short time, and those in the half-open icebox, where the tem-
perature was about 150 (590 F.), ceased to be active and died
in a few days. Only the caterpillars in the other ice-box, into
which the burning air of the outside did not penetrate, remained
alive (5).
At Salonika (Greece), in 1935, those larvae of Pieridae,
which at Philadelphia, during the heat waves, collapsed even
in a room at 150 (590 F.), fed actively and pupated within
an incubator at 40-44o (1040-111.20 F.) both in a dry or
very wet room. Other larvae of the same species, which re-
mained without care for ten days in an electric thermostat at
380 (100.40 F.), matured there, formed chrysalides and produced
butterflies, in spite of the dry heat and lack of light and air,
eating up the roots of the dry plants which were in the box (6).
During the above recorded trials the sky was cloudy and the
ground was always moist from the frequent rains, so that the
feeble solar radiations were absorbed by the humidity of the
soil, and the larvae developed well as the high temperature com-
pensated for the low radiation.
Eggs and larvae, kept at Philadelphia in a refrigerator at
00 (320 F.), which was opened from time to time to place in
or to take out some specimens, died there after some days, both
in May and June, during which time it often rained and the
soil remained generally wet. On the contrary in July, when the
soil was barren, and the strong radiant energy in the air oc-
casionally came into contact with those organisms, though for
a short time only and at a low temperature, it supported their
vitality for about a month. Also in July, some eggs in an ice
house, where the temperature varied from 70 (44.60 F.) to 100
(50 F.), hatched there after two weeks (7). On the other
hand, at Lisbon, while the weather was generally cloudy and
raining, eggs and larvae of the same species died after some
days in a room at 10' (8). In this latter case, the feeble radi-
ations were not sufficient to balance the depressing effects of
the rather low temperature.
From what we have recorded it seems that radiations re-
flected from the ground are an important factor of the climate.
(To be continued)









VOL. XXVIII-No. 1


INDEX OF VOLUME XXVII, 1944


Abutilon theophrasti Medic., 99
Aedes sollicitans (Walker), 35, 36, 38
taeniorhynchus (Wied.), 35, 38
Aleurodes nubifera Berger, 42
Amphorophora, 21
azaleae Mason, 28
kalmiaflora n. sp., 27, 28
mitchelli Mason, 28
rhododendronia Mason, 28, 32
rhokalaza n. sp., 22, 28, 32
Anax junius (Drury), 35, 38, 39
Anomalagrion hastatum (Say), 36
Ants, 14
Apha enogaster (Attomyrma) flori-
dana M. R. Smith, 14
(Attomyrma) texana macrospina
M. R. Smith, 14
Aphis saligna Gmelin, 48
Aschersonia, 42
Azalea canescens Mich., 27
nudiflora L., 27
viscosa L., 27
Azalea, Wild, 26

Berger, Dr. E. W., obituary, 41

Cannacria gravida (Calvert), 35
Cardicondyla venustula Wheeler, 15
Celithemis eponina (Drury), 35
ornata (Rambur), 35
Chelidonium sp., 63, 74
Chreonoma dioica, Fairmaire, 63
Cinara carolina Tissot, 44
juniperivora (Wilson), 44
longispinosa Tissot, 44
osborni n. sp., 45
osborniana nom. n., 102
saligna (Gmelin), 48
tujafilina (Del Guercio), 52
wacasassae n. sp., 49
watsoni Tissot, 54
Coryphaeschna ingens (Rambur), 35,
36, 38
Crambus haytiellus (Zincken), 5
profanellus Walker, 5
Cryptocephalus marginicollis Suffr.,
13
Culicoides furens (Poey), 38

Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), 42
citrifolii (Morgan), 42
Diatrea saccharalis Linn., 10
Dormyrmex pyramicus flavopectus n.
subsp., 15
Dragonflies, 35
Drepanaphis nigricans Smith, 55
sabrinae Miller, 55
tissoti Smith, 55


Enallagma civil (Hagen), 35, 36
Erythemis simplicicollis (Say), 35
Erythrodiplax berenice (Drury), 35
connada minuscule (Rambur), 35
Essigella pini Wilson, 43
Eulachnus rileyi (Williams), 43
Euponera (Trachymesopus) gilva
(Roger), 14
Formica pallidefulva archboldi n.
subsp., 16

Herse Cingulatus Fab., 58

Ischnura posita (Hagen), 36
ramburii Selys, 35, 36

Kalmia latifolia L., 27, 28

Lachnini, 43
Lachnus, 48
Laurel, mountain, 26
Libellula auripennis Burm., 35
vibrans Fab.
"Limneria" pattoni Ashm., 9
Longistigma caryae (Harris), 54

May beetles, 34
Melanauster chinensis Forster, 62
Melipotis acontioides Guen., 58, 103
Monomorium sp., 70, 83
Mourning Cloak Butterfly, 17

Nadezhdiella cantori Hope, 63, 74
Nehalennia integricollis Calvert, 35,
36

Pachydiplax longipennis (Burm.),
35, 38
Pantala flavescens (Fab.), 38, 39
Paradoxecia pieli Lieu, 62, 69, 84
Pheidole dentigula M. R. Smith, 14
Proceratium croceum (Roger), 14
Psacothea hilaris Pascoe, 62, 69, 84
Psorophora columbiae (D. & K.), 38
Pterochlorus, 48

Rhododendron, 21
Rhododendron maximum L., 26
Rolfs, Dr. Peter Henry, obituary, 2

Solenopsis pergandei Forel, 15
Stomoxys calcitrans (Linn.), 39
Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) dietrichi
M. R. Smith, 15
Sugarcane moth borer, 10

Tramea carolina (Linn.), 35, 36, 38
Tuberolachnus, 48

Unilachnus parvus (Wilson), 54




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