Title: Florida Entomologist
ALL VOLUMES CITATION DOWNLOADS THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00247
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1945
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
 Notes
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00247
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Downloads
Full Text





5he


Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society


VOL. XXVIII


NOVEMBER, 1945


No. 2


NOTES ON THE GREAT ELM LEAF BEETLE 1
E. G. KELSHEIMER, Entomologist
Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton, Fla.
The great elm leaf beetle Monocesta coryli (Say), during
the spring of 1944, completely defoliated two trees of Florida
elm,2 Ulmus floridana, growing on the grounds of the Vegetable
Crops Laboratory, Bradenton, Florida. The beetles appeared
again in the spring of 1945. No damage occurred to the trees
that were so heavily attacked in 1944. Heavy egg deposition


Adults and egg mass of Monocesta coryli (Say). The beetle nearest the
leaf is a male, the other a female. Photograph by D. G. A. Kelbert.
1Det. by C. F. W. Muesebeck.
2 Det. by Erdman West.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


took place in the spring of 1945, but parasitism reduced the
numbers so greatly that little damage resulted. A group of
elm trees that escaped injury in 1944 were completely defoliated
later in the year of 1945. Most of the damage is done by the
larvae although the adults feed for a short time in the spring.

THE EGG
The eggs, 24 to 58 in number, are deposited in a hard yellow
crusty mass on the under surface of the elm leaf. The eggs
hatch in 14 days.
THE LARVA
The larvae hatch out inside and hollow out the entire mass,
leaving just a shell. The newly emerged larvae are greenish
yellow in color and average 3 mm. in length. When they chew
their way out from the egg mass they remain gregarious for
3 to 4 days before dispersal. The full grown larvae are orange
in color, averaging 20 mm. in length. They have a disagree-
able habit of releasing an orange liquid when distrubed.
Upon completion of feeding the larvae crawl down to the
ground and search around for a few days before crawling
down into the ground where they remain as curled up larvae
until pupation the next spring.

THE PUPA
The pupae are of a yellow to orange color. Larvae collected
July 19, 1944 remained in the ground as larvae from then
until Feb. 9, 1945, when the first pupa was observed. The first
insectary emergence was March 10, 1945.

THE ADULT
The adult beetles are from 13 to 17 mm. in length, dark
brown in color with a broad yellow band on the dorsum. The
adults, like the larvae, release an orange liquid when disturbed.
Field emergence was first noted April 8, 1945. CopLilation and
egg laying were observed May 11, 1945.
Further observations will be carried on.
Blatchley in his "Beetles of Indiana" mentions the beetle
as occurring in Virginia, Illinois and Kansas. In his "Chryso-
melidae of Florida" (The Florida Entomologist, Volume 8,
Number 1, page 4, July, 1924) he makes the following records:
"In Palmetto, July 3, 1918, the only record we have." [For









VOL. XXVIII-No. 2


Florida.] In "Forest Insects" by Doane, Van Dyke, Chamber-
lin and Burke, page 239, there is a note, quoted from Riley
(1878), on this beetle "doing great damage to slippery elm
in Missouri."


OBSERVATIONS ON THE ABATEMENT OF PEST
MOSQUITOES WITH DDT RESIDUAL SPRAYS
C. B. WISECUP 1 and W. D. SHILLINGER 2

During the investigations on the use of DDT (1-trichloro-
2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane) for the control of mosquitoes,
which were conducted in the vicinity of the Stuttgart Army Air
Field at Stuttgart, Ark., in the summer of 1944, observations
were made on the value of DDT residual sprays as a method
of abating the nuisance of pest mosquitoes, such as the Psoro-
phora spp. Studies by Gahan et al. (1, 2) had shown that these
sprays were effective against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say
and other mosquitoes when applied to their diurnal resting
places.
As a result of the alternate drying and reflooding of the
surrounding rice fields, enormous numbers of Psorophord mos-
quitoes invaded the cantonment area of the Stuttgart Army
Air Field during the summer of 1944. The annoyance was so
great that it became necessary to resort to daily treatment of
all halls and corridors in the hospital building by power spray-
ing of regulation Army issue insecticide containing Thanite
(a thiocyanate). This situation was undesirable because it dis-
rupted the regular hospital routine and tied up manpower and
equipment needed for other mosquito-control work, and because
of the rather disagreeable odor produced by the spray.
In July a 10 per cent DDT emulsion was applied to the
screens on all entranceways and windows with an ordinary de-
contamination-type spray cylinder. This spray was made from
a basic concentrate consisting of 25 per cent of DDT, 7 per cent
of Triton X-100 (an aralkyl polyether alcohol), and 68 per cent
of xylene. (Less than 2 gallons of liquid were used to treat
1Entomologist, U. S. D. A., Agr. Res. Adm., Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, working under a transfer of funds, recommended
by the Committee on Medical Research, from the Office of Scientific Re-
search and Development.
2 Lieutenant, Sanitary Corps, Eighth Service Command, United States
Army.



















p.

I









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


5 large entranceways, 10 doors, and 200 windows.) One-half
gallon of the spray was also applied to the entranceway and
interior walls of a large latrine and bathhouse which had be-
come almost untenantable because of mosquitoes.
The decrease in mosquito populations within these build-
ings on the following morning was remarkable. The halls were
almost entirely free of mosquitoes, and small numbers of dead
or struggling adults were present on most of the window sills.
As it is the habit of Psorophora mosquitoes to attempt to leave
a building, practically all had contacted the treated windows
in their efforts to escape. Owing to the absence of mosquitoes
the daily spraying was postponed. This postponement became
permanent, and no further treatments were necessary in this
building despite the continued abundance of mosquitoes in the
area. The bathhouse was completely free of mosquitoes for
2 weeks until an overzealous inspector ordered the somewhat
noticeable residue washed off.
A heavy application of the 10 per cent DDT emulsion at
the quarters of the post commander, including the exterior
walls of the house, the lawn, flower beds, and vegetable garden,
freed this limited area of pest mosquitoes for at least 10 days,
without any apparent injury to the vegetation.
These very definite evidences of control of Psorophora adults
prompted a series of tests to determine whether applications
to daytime resting places of the adults would free large areas
of the pests. A 5 per cent solution of DDT in kerosene was
applied to half the buildings in the bachelor officers' quarters
area, and a 5 per cent emulsion to the eastern half of the station
hospital area. In each case a comparable group of buildings
was left as arn untreated check. Treatments were made with
a power paint sprayer mounted on a truck. All entranceways
were sprayed, and applications were made to the foundations
and walls to a height of 6 feet, as well as to the weeds and grass
for a distance of 6 feet from the buildings. Deposits of slightly
over 130 mg. of DDT per square foot were laid down.
The daytime presence of mosquitoes was determined by
landing-rate counts at several stations within the treated and
untreated areas. It was evident that mosquitoes were much
less abundant during the daytime in the treated areas. Light-
trap records showed that the nighttime activity of these mos-
quitoes was similar in both the treated and untreated areas.








VOL. XXVIII-No. 2


From the results obtained in these studies it is concluded
that annoyance caused by Psorophora, and perhaps other mos-
quitoes having similar habits, can be greatly relieved by apply-
ing DDT residual treatments to window screens and screen
doors and to limited areas around the buildings.

LITERATURE CITED
1. GAHAN, J. B., B. V. TRAVIS, F. A. MORTON, and A. W. LINDQUIST. DDT
as a residual-type treatment against adults of Anopheles quadri-
maculatus Practical tests. Jour. Econ. Ent. 38(2) : 231-235.
2. GAHAN, J. B., and A. W. LINDQUIST. DDT residual sprays applied
in buildings to control Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 38(2) : 223-230.

A NEW HOST FOR Composia fidelissima vagrans Bates
One of Florida's most beautiful moths is Composia fidelis-
sima vagrans Bates. The hind wings and body are a most
beautiful purple. The fore wings are black with a bright red
band along the lower costal border. Both wings are margined
with a row of white spots suggesting those of the much smaller
and darker polka-dot wasp moth (Syntomeida epilaris Walker),
whose larvae, following a mild winter, are such a pest of
oleanders. The adult male measures 2.25 inches across the
outstretched wings. Composia fidelissima was described by
Herrich-Schaeffer and the variety vagrans by Bates in Psyche,
December 1933. The typical form is found from Cuba south,
but has not been recorded from Florida where it is represented
by the variety vagrans. This latter has been reported only
from south Florida. The larva described by Dyar in the Journal
of the New York Entomological Society, Volume IV, page 70, is
equally striking, in the last stage being a "beautiful crimson
and shining violet." Dyar gave the host plant as Echites um-
bellata Jacq. (Apocynacea, the family to which the oleander
belongs) but he states that Mrs. Slosson found it on Canavallia
obtusa, the sword bean. Dyar reports that it fed on oleander
in confinement but not "in nature". A specimen sent to the
author by Mr. MacDonnell from Miami was feeding on Stepha-
notis. Dyar quotes Brownell as stating that it is abundant in
Key West. This species has been taken at Miami, Lake Worth,
Key West and Coconut Grove between November and March.
Specimens from Stephanotis were collected in July of 1944.
-J. R. WATSON









U5he
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida

VOL. XXVIII NOVEMBER, 1945 No. 2

J. R. WATSON, Gainesville..---............-------....... .....--- ...........Editor
G. B. MERRILL, Gainesville-..---......---.--.............Assistant Editor
C. B. WISECUP, Box 3391, Orlando -.........-......Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.


ENTOMOGENOUS FUNGI
In a recent number of the Botannical Review is an article
that should be of special interest to Florida citrus growers. In
it, Dr. H. S. Fawcett, of the California Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion at Riverside, discusses the subject of entomogenous fungi.
He emphasizes the close dependence of these fungi on climate
and weather; especially the humidity. This often results in a
"hasty generalization that, because of failures to get outstand-
ing results with certain fungi in initial trials, the whole field
has little promise of practical results."
Dr. Fawcett, before California took him away from us, was
head of the Department of Pathology of the Florida Experiment
Station.


WHITEFLIES ON GARDENIAS
Among the worst pests of gardenias are the citrus whiteflies.
The injury to gardenias is more serious than that to citrus.
On the latter, it is mostly the comparatively young leaves that
are attacked and the leaf has to be heavily attacked in order
to cause it to drop. As the citrus leaf gets older and drier it is
not so attractive to whiteflies. It is usually exposed to only
one or two broods of the whitefly during a year. On the other
hand the gardenia leaf is attractive to whiteflies as long as it
clings to the plant. It is often so heavily infested as to have









VOL. XXVIII-No. 2


the under side almost completely covered with the larvae. As
a consequence, two or three of the yearly broods attack the gar-
denia which is often almost completely defoliated. Since the
gardenia is liable to be attacked by any one of the three main
broods it will often be necessary to spray the plant three times
a year. Since the gardenia leaf is decidedly more tender than
the citrus, the gardener should confine his sprays to the more
highly refined oil emulsions, which usually means the "white"
oil emulsion. The adult whiteflies are easily killed by dusting
with sulfur but since the sulfur would be active for only a few
days, in order that one may effectively control the whitefly by
killing off the adults it would be necessary to make several
applications for each brood.
-J. R. WATSON


DRAGONFLIES PREDACEOUS ON THE STABLEFLY
Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)
MIKE WRIGHT
(Continued from Vol. XXVIII, p. 13)
The fact that these dragonflies actually fed upon dog flies was
verified in the following manner: (1) A number of odonates,
especially Anax junius, were caught and identifiable remnants
of dog flies were found clasped in their mouth parts; (2) dragon-
flies were observed to catch dog flies which were swarming
about livestock; and (3) on several occasions dog flies that had
previously been feeding on the observer were seized by dragon-
flies as they flew away. Large numbers of dog flies were taken
while swarming in open areas and while perched on walls of
barns, houses, etc. In the open the dragonflies were observed
darting about at a height of 1 to 8 or 10 feet in search of prey.
These swarms contained hundreds of odonates and they were
constantly observed to seize their prey and dart away. Dog
flies commonly congregate about houses and especially barns
housing livestock, where they spend a good part of the time
perched on the walls. Many dragonflies were observed flying
up and down the walls and capturing perched dog flies. In the
majority of the cases noted the fly was eaten by the predator
during flight, but a number of dragonflies were noted to perch be-
fore feeding. During the periods of high dog fly population along
the beaches relatively few individuals of other species of insects









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


were encountered. In some localities a number of houseflies
were noted, but these were present constantly and were not
sufficiently numerous or attractive to hold the swarms of dragon-
flies after the dog flies were moved inland by a southerly breeze.
Thus, the fact that but few other species were present in the
dog fly swarms and that the swarms of dragonflies were con-
tinually feeding on the flies indicates the large numbers of dog
flies destroyed.
It is impossible to convey to one who has not seen these
dragonfly swarms a conception of the tremendous numbers of
dragonfly individuals present therein. A few examples will be
given here in an attempt to picture the populations. On Septem-
ber 10, 1943, large numbers of Anax junius were swarming
along the beach and the highway, which approximates the
beach, just east of Fort Walton, Fla. While the writer was
driving along the highway from a point 16 miles east to Fort
Walton, he collected about 20 specimens of A. junius on the
radiator and windshield wiper, while many more hit the front
and sides of the car and fell on the highway. Upon reaching
Fort Walton it was found that about a dozen dragonflies had
entered the opened windshield and were dead or in a dazed
state in the back of the car. While standing on the highway
or on the beach the air appeared to be literally filled with dragon-
flies darting about in search of prey. When one realizes that
such swarms occur at times from near Pensacola to beyond
Panama City, Fla. (over 100 miles), some idea of the uncount-
able numbers can be made. It might appear that so many
dragonflies would soon exterminate the dog flies. They un-
doubtedly kill countless numbers, but even as numerous as the
dragonflies are, the dog flies are many times more so. In addition,
the flies, when no control is carried on, produce new broods
approximately every 3 weeks, while the dragonflies take at least
three months for their nymphal existence.

LITERATURE CITED
DOVE, W. E., and SIMMONS, S. W. 1942. Control of stablefly, or "dog fly"
breeding in shore deposits of bay grass. Jour Econ. Ent. 35:
582-589, illus.
SIMMONS, S. W., and DOVE, W. E. 1941. Breeding places of the stablefly
or "dog fly" Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Northwestern Florida.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 34: 457-462.








VOL. XXVIII-No. 2


THE ECOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF
THE THYSANOPTERA OF THE GEENTON
By Geenton, we mean the material on the surface of the
earth but not intimately incorporated into the soil. Such ma-
terial as the leaves on the forest floor, lichens and mosses, dead
grass and weeds, Spanish moss and other epiphytes and fungi,
rotting wood and other material which has a relation to the
soil similar to that of plankton to water. It has not been as
much worked by students of thysanoptera as its importance
justifies. The reason for this will appear when we take up the
subject of geographical distribution of this fauna. In making
the collections referred to here, Berlese funnels have been used.
These are large funnels at least a foot across; made of tin, kept
bright and polished, but with a wire screen inside on which is
placed the material to be investigated. As this material dries
the insects follow their natural positive geotropic reaction,
which leads them to fall into the bottom of the funnel under
which is placed a dish containing alcohol. The writer has found
that the use of this funnel opens up a new world in the study of
thysanoptera; a very rich fauna but a variable one, depending
upon the material collected and the ecological situations in which
it is collected. These thrips are probably all fungus feeders.
Very few occur in the top layer of the leaves on the forest
floor, the large Elaphrothrips flavipes Hood being most common.
Under this top-more or less dry-layer is a layer of leaves
which are being actively attacked by a large variety of fungi.
It is in this layer that the vast majority of the thysanoptera
are found. Underneath this is a layer composed of the residue
of leaves which have been thoroughly broken down by the
fungi. This is the "duff" layer and contains practically no
thysanoptera. These thysanoptera are more abundant in leaves
on the floor of our "climax forest" containing many broad-
leaved evergreens such as magnolia, bay, holly, live-oak, and
laurel-oak, with a liberal mixture of deciduous trees; basket-
oak, sweet-gum, hop horn-beam and water beach. Leaves in
these situations are the richest in species, from 30 to 40
species being common per square yard. In hammocks where
the live-oak is almost the only tree found, there are usually
more individuals of thysanoptera but it is not as rich in species.
From this climax formation the number and variety of
thysanoptera rapidly diminishes toward both the wetter and









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


the drier situations. Although the magnolia is a prominent
member of this association the magnolia leaves themselves
are not particularly rich in thysanoptera. The decaying
deciduous leaves are more important as a source of food for
the thrips which are mostly of the sub-order tubilifera, that is,
thysanoptera that do not possess a sharp, saw-like ovipositor
for piercing plant tissue but have the abdomen ending in a tube.
In the more moist hammocks, such as the flood plains of streams
or margins of swamps, where red maples, myrtles, willows, and
sour gums are the dominant trees, there is but one genus of
thrips that is at all abundant, Adraenothrips. It is evident
that the material in these situations is too moist to support a
rich and varied thysanopterous fauna. In somewhat drier
situations where the box elder and the hackberries are the
dominant trees, such as at Buzzard's Roost, Adraenothrips
decora is still the dominant form but other genera begin to
appear, especially Hoplothrips, the most common of which in
this situation is H. anomocerus Hood. In drier situations, but
still moist, where the water beach, Carpinus is the dominant
tree, a considerable richer fauna is found although the Adraeno-
thrips is still the dominant form. A square yard of this material
will yield up to 250 individuals, of which the vast majority are
the Adraenothrips but in a typical location bordering Lake
Al:ce, eight other species are found.
In a typical low hammock where oaks and sweet gum are
the dominant trees, from 100 to 200 thrips will be found per
square yard. There are about eight species of which the domi-
nant one is Hoplothrips pergandei Hood. In the hammock in
the bottom of Goldhead where Gordonia is a common species of
tree, one collection consisted 80% of Eurythrips batesi (Watson).
Hoplothrips pergandei was also present. In a collection of leaves
underneath magnolias and red cedars and both the cabbage
and saw palmetto (at Jena) there were no Adraenothrips. The
dominant species was Hoplothrips anomocerus with Trachy-
thrips watsoni Hood as the second most abundant. In the dense
climax forest where, as previously stated, the most species occur,
a square yard of material will usually contain between 30 to 40
species. Hoplothrips pergandei is most abundant in Devil's
Mill-hopper and in a hammock at Astatula, but other collections
at the Mill-hopper showed Hoplothrips anomocerus Hood as most
abundant. In "Sugarfoot hammock" the most common species
in this situation is Eurythrips batesi. It is the only species









VOL. XXVIII-No. 2


present in one collection from Gulf Hammock. The closely
related Eurythrips reticulatus was also common in the Hopper.
Allothrips flavus was also common. Around the margin of the
"Green Sink" on the Horticultural grounds of the Experiment
Station, 81% were Allothrips nubillicauda Hood.
Going towards the drier associations, the red oak-hickory
forest, Hoplothrips pergandei is usually the most common form,
closely followed by Eurythrips batesi. In the dead leaves under
laurel oaks six species are common, Hoplothrips pergandei
being still dominant as it is in the next drier situation, in the
turkey oak-pine woods. A square yard from this latter situation
will average about 17 thysanoptera of four species. In collec-
tions where the needles of long-leaf pine were dominant, Eury-
thrips batesi was the most abundant species. Where mixed
with gallberries, as in Goldhead State Park where 150 thrips
per square yard was the average, the dominant thrips was
Hoplothrips pergandei. Collections from under scrub pine
yielded 64 per square yard with the common species Eurythrips
reticulata. Ground fire running through this pine forest de-
stroyed practically the entire thysanopterous fauna.
The woody fungi of the genera Polypterus, Pleurotus, Poly-
porus, Polysticus, Ozonium, Lentinus and Aedalia yielded on
the average about six species, the common and perhaps the most
consistent genus was Mesothrips, which was also very common
in rotting sticks. Indian pipe blossoms on the forest floor
yielded six species.
SEASONAL VARIATION: Thrips in Geenton material become
more abundant during the dry spring season, in early June.
With the coming of the heavy rains of summer they decrease
in numbers, reaching a low point in late August or early Septem-
ber. This, in connection with the fact that comparatively few
thrips are found in a moist situation, practically none in areas
ever flooded, shows that this fauna is particularly sensitive to
excessive moisture.
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
The geographical distribution of this fauna is very interest-
ing. It reaches its climax in the southeastern states, rapidly
diminishes if one goes west, and especially north. Collections
from the Cherokee National Forest in northern Georgia pro-
duced 150 per square yard of six species. Collections from
Petersburg, Virginia, 100 per square yard, also with six species.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Collections from southern New York produced very few but
among them was Trachythrips watsoni Hood. Particularly in-
teresting is the situation in the Great Smoky Mountain National
Park. From the western slope of the main range-the Ten-
nessee side-numerous collections produced not a single thy-
sanopteron (again showing the sensitiveness of this fauna to
excessive moisture), but a parallel, but much lower, range just
west of the town of Gatlinburg was moderately rich in this
fauna, as were several locations near Laurel Falls in the Park.
Going west, a collection of oak leaves from 125 miles northeast
of San Antonio, Texas, produced 70 per square yard of seven
species, of which Trychothrips pergandei was the dominant one,
again showing as in the case of the live oak hammock that this
species is able to survive in relatively dry situations. A collection
of oak leaves taken near Jonesboro, Arkansas, in late August pro-
duced but one species, Hoplothrips angusticeps Hood. A collec-
tion from the banks of the Missouri River at Omaha, Nebraska,
also in late August produced but a single individual. A collec-
tion of leaves under the Pifion on the brink of the Grand Canyon
in Arizona produced one species, an undescribed one. The red-
wood forest of California produced none, as did also collections
of leaves from the Sandia mountains of New Mexico. These
two failures, however, may have been due to the drying of the
material before it could be placed in the funnels.
The data given here is the result of some hundreds of col-
lections taken over a period of 15 years.
-J. R. WATSON


EFFECTS OF THE REFLECTED SOLAR RADIATION
ON INSECTS
ORAZIO QUERCI and LYCAENA ROMEI
(Continued from Vol. XXVIII, p. 21)

The intensity of the rays depends upon that of the rays reach-
ing the ground from the sun, and varies in accordance with the
geological nature, color and temperature of the reflecting surface.
It depends also upon the difference of temperature between the
air and ground. Both humidity and living vegetation absorb
the radiations, attenuating their effects. The winds, when they
are cold, have the single effect of reducing the temperature of
the soil.








VOL. XXVIII-No. 2


The reflected radiations act in accordance with the other
factors of the climate. Strong radiations are suitable to the
insect life at a low temperature, while they are injurious at a
temperature moderately high. It seems that the best living con-
ditions, for most species of insects, occur when the temperature
is high and the solar radiation intense but abundantly absorbed
either by the wet soil or luxuriant vegetation, or better, by both.
Of course there are some species of insects which react to the
climate in a manner opposite to the majority.
Now we are trying to explain what we noted at Cuba about
the abundance and scarcity of the insects (9).
By the end of October 1929, while travelling eastwards from
Havana, we saw everywhere plenty of butterflies. Afterwards,
we collected for eleven months near Santiago (10), until Novem-
ber 12 a storm occurred almost every day about at noon. Both
before and after these heavy rains the sun was shining so that
we were able to go into the country and collect, the soil always
remained moist. High temperature, great humidity and feeble
reflected radiations (as the solar ones were largely absorbed
and scantily reflected by the ground), formed the most favor-
able conditions for the development of insects, which emerged
and flew in large number both day and night.
On November 13, when the rains suddenly ceased, there were
certainly in the country a large amount of eggs, larvae, pupae
and adults. Little by little the soil dried and began to emanate
its radiations, injuring most species of insects which became
more and more scarce. The Lepidoptera almost disappeared.
We suppose that when the country became barren the eggs con-
tinued to hatch, while most larvae and chrysalides were killed.
Only a few larvae and pupae, set in some humid places, or where
dense vegetation, absorbing the radiations, attenuated their
hurtful effects, fell into dormancy and survived. Also some mated
females of Lepidoptera aestivated (11). The insects in any
stage, which remain long in lethargy, are exposed to parasites
and predators which cause the mortality to increase.
Similar massacres are unavoidable, otherwise, as Uvarov states
(12) : "any insect should be able to multiply its numbers within
a short time to limits verging on the absurd, and the earth's
surface appears too small for the theoretical progeny of a single
pair."
After a period of severe drought, some rainy days alternated
with sunny ones and the climate seemed to be favorable, while








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


most species of insects were all but missing. We now realize
that those rains were unaccompanied by high winds and that
they fell in the morning so that the water soon evaporated and
generally the soil remained damp for no longer than three or
four days. Even though the larval cycle, in that subtropical
zone, is very rapid, it is doubtful that the larvae could mature
in so short a time.
Only on May 18 and July 12, did the storms occur after after
sunset and a large amount of water penetrated deeply into the
soil during the night and the country remained moist for about
a week. Many larvae, pupae and dormant adults broke off their
lethargy not only because of the humidity and scarcity of re-
flected radiations, but perhaps under the influence of the ionized
air and dropping of the barometric pressure.

REFERENCES
(1) Lambillionea, 38, p. 107, (1938).
(2) Lamb. 38, p. 105, (1938).
(3) Lamb. 38, p. 61, (1938).
(4) Entomologist's Record, 47, pp. 47, 60, 87, 111, (1935).
(5) Ent. Rec., 49, p. 74, (1937), and Lamb., 37, p. 237, (1937).
(6) Ent. Rec., 49, p. 74, (1937), and Lamb., 37, p. 237, (1937).
(7) Ent. Rec., 44, p. 170, (1932).
(8) Lamb., 37, p. 236, (1937).
(9) Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 57, p. 305, (1931).
(10) Lamb., 38, p. 89, (1938).
(11) Ent. Rec., 48, p. 122, (1936).
(12) Trans. Ent. Soc., London, 79, Part I, p. 136, (1931).
Rome, Italy, May 12, 1945.




PRINTING
FOR ALL PURPOSES



Carefully Executed Delivered on Time



PEPPER PRINTING COMPANY


GAINESVILLE


FLORIDA








VOL. XXVIII-No. 2


BAYARD FRANKLIN FLOYD
A former member of our Society, and an authority and
leader in the citrus industry of Florida died on November 23.
Although his training was primarily in plant physiology, he
wrote and was well versed in all phases of citrus culture in-
cluding citrus insects and wrote extensively on this subject
for the state journals. He was a beloved leader in citrus circles.
He was born at Kempton, Indiana, March 18, 1882; received
his A.B. from the University of Indiana in 1905; was associate
botanist of the University of Missouri from 1905-1907, receiving
the degree of A.M. from this university in 1907. He came to
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in 1907 as plant
physiologist, a position he held until 1920 at which time he left
the state employment to become horticulturist and vice-president
of the Wilson-Toomer Fertilizer Company. During most of this
time he has resided in Davenport, Florida. He was a member
of the AAAS; of the Amer. Society of Plant Physiology; Amer.
Chemical Society and was very active, indeed was the very life
of the Florida Horticultural Society and its secretary from 1917
on. He will be sorely missed in the Society and in the citrus
circles throughout the state.
While serving the Experiment Station, he wrote a number
of bulletins and press bulletins. Among them was "Dieback,
or Exanthoma of Citrus Trees," Bulletin 140, 1917; "Fertilizing
the Potato Crop" in conjunction with Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, Bul-
letin 158, 1920; "Some Cases of Injury to Citrus Trees Appar-
ently Induced by Ground Lime-stone," Bulletin 137, 1917 (Before
this bulletin appeared it was the general opinion that one could
not give a citrus tree too much lime-stone.) ; "Melanose and Stem
End Rot" in conjunction with H. E. Stevens, Bulletin 111, 1912.
In the annual reports of the Station from 1908 on until 1919 he
recorded results of his work in the Experiment Station.
The press bulletins he wrote are No. 90, "Dieback", 1908;
No. 93, "Dieback", 1908; No. 104, "Yellow Spotting of Citrus
Leaves", 1908; No. 116, "The Air in the Soil", 1909; No. 128,
"How Fertilizer Injures Citrus Trees", 1909; No. 135, Protec-
tion of Citrus Trees from Drought", 1909; No. 142, "Melanose",
1910; No. 165, "Melanose", 1911; No. 247, "Air in the Soil", 1916.
He was married on June 29, 1910, in Columbia, Missouri.
Mrs. Floyd survives him.
We will include a cut of Mr. Floyd in the next number of the
ENTOMOLOGIST as part of this memorial.--J.R.W.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs