Title: Florida Entomologist
ALL VOLUMES CITATION DOWNLOADS THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00245
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1946
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
 Notes
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00245
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 2 MBs ) ( PDF )

PDF ( PDF )

PDF ( 1 MBs ) ( PDF )

PDF ( PDF )


Full Text



?She

Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XXVIII JUNE, 1946 No. 4


JOSEPH R. WATSON


Joseph R. Watson, a founder and charter member of our
Society, was born in Berea, Ohio, on August 1, 1874, and died
in Gainesville, Florida, June 6, 1946, after a brief illness.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


He received his early training in the Berea schools. In 1897
he was granted the B.S. degree from Baldwin College, and the
A.M. degree from Western Reserve, 1899. He attended several
summer sessions at the University of Chicago between 1903 and
1912. He served as assistant and instructor in biology at Adel-
bert College of Western Reserve from 1899 to 1901. During
1901 and 1902 he was instructor of botany, physics, and chem-
istry at Berea College, Kentucky. From Berea he moved to
Rochester College, Indiana, where he was head of the depart-
ment of Science. He taught in the Manitowoc, Wisconsin, High
School 1906-1907. The years 1907 to 1911 were spent as pro-
fessor of biology at the University of New Mexico. In 1911 he
came to Florida as head of the Department of Entomology of
the Agricultural Experiment Station, and served in that capacity
until his death.

Professor Watson's principal interest was in the field of
applied entomology as related to Florida agriculture. He did
extensive work on the biology and control of the velvet bear
caterpillar and the lubberly locust. Many of the insect pests
of citrus and vegetable crops received his attention, and he was
instrumental in developing more effective methods of combat-
ing them. He early recognized the importance of biological
control and initiated the introduction of a number of parasites
and predators of several crop pests. His work on the control
of root knot nematodes won him wide recognition. Some of his
recommended control measures are standard practice on Florida
farms.

In the field of systematic entomology, he was best known for
his work on Thysanoptera. He described some 30 new species
of thrips and built up a Department collection of these insects,
containing nearly 40 thousand slides. A bibiolography of his
Thysanoptera papers would contain at least 50 titles. His other
entomological writings include several Experiment Station bul-
letins and numerous papers in journals and magazines devoted
to citrus and other crops. Many Florida farmers became ac-
quainted with his work through his appearance on the Florida
Farm Hour program of the University of Florida radio station.
Making his first broadcast in 1928, he gave an average of at least
30 talks a year for 16 years.








VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


Professor Watson played a prominent part in the founding
of our Society in 1916, and he enjoyed a particularly close asso-
ciation with it until the time of his death. He was its first
president and he again filled that office in 1921. A year after
its organization the Society published the first issue of its of-
ficial organ, the Florida Buggist. After three volumes as the
Buggist, the name was changed to THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
From the first issue to this present number, Professor Watson
served as editor, faithfully and willingly, and it was almost
wholly due to his efforts and devotion that the journal survived
the adversities which so commonly beset scientific publications.

Professor Watson was a profound lover of Nature. At every
opportunity he would go to some favored spot in wood or field
to observe and enjoy. Usually he would carry a net to capture
some passing butterflies or moths while his eyes roved hither
and yon, seeking those secrets that Nature would reveal. He
was deeply touched by the beauty of tree, or flower, or bird,
and he wanted others to share with him the joy and happiness
that they created in his heart.

Professor Watson was a fellow of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science, a Fellow of the Entomological
Society of America, a member of American Ecological Society,
Florida State Horticultural Society, Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi,
and a member and past president of the Athenaeum Club of the
University of Florida.

On August 26, 1902 he married Elizabeth Prout, of Cleveland,
who died in 1938. He is survived by three daughters, Miss
Wilma Watson of Sarasota, Mrs. Chester Allen of San Mateo,
California, and Mrs. Clem Hailey of Orlando, one brother,
Charles Watson of Glassboro, New Jersey, one sister, Mrs. Will
Indoe of Omaha, Nebraska, and four grandchildren, Priscilla
and Susan Allen and Jerry and Patricia Hailey.

Friendly, helpful, and sincere, Professor Watson was re-
spected and admired by hundreds of farmers, entomologists,
and others in all parts of the state. With his passing the State
and Nation have lost a valuable public servant, and the Florida
Entomological Society a staunch and loyal supporter, while his
fellow workers and .other close friends feel a deep personal
loss.-A. N. T.














.:: ,. :+










. .
ig::I ....~~i ..:-? ^^





^''MA^









Ehe
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida


VOL. XXVIII JUNE, 1946 No. 4

J. R. WATSON, Gainesville-..----.--........................................Editor
G. B. MERRILL, Gainesville----------.................Associate Editor
J. W. WILSON, Everglades Exp. Sta., Belle Glade
-Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.


NEW SPECIES OF FLORIDA MAYFLIES
(EPHEMEROPTERA)1
LEWIS BERNER

During the period 1937-1941, a rather large series of Florida
mayflies was collected in the course of a study of the Ephemerop-
tera of the state. The descriptions of nine new species dis-
covered during the investigation are presented below; several
other forms in the collection probably represent new species,
but until the male images are obtained and associated with them,
the descriptions will be withheld.
Ordinarily, new species of Ephemeroptera are not named
when only the nymphal stage is known; however, the nymphs
of Ephemerella which have been named and described in this
paper are sufficiently distinctive to warrant such a radical
procedure.
The genus Choroterpes has not previously been recorded
from the southeast; Tricorythodes no closer to Florida than
Texas and West Virginia; Habrophlebiodes never before from
the southeast, other than in the mountainous areas; and Bra-
.chycercus no nearer than the Louisiana-Texas state line.
I wish to take this means of expressing my thanks to the
many friends who have collected specimens for me. Wherever

1Contribution from the Department of Biology, University of Florida.









VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


persons other than myself have collected mayflies, their names
are noted with the locality record. Professor T. H. Hubbell
has consistently given me many valuable suggestions during
the course of my work and has kindly criticized this manuscript.

HABROPHLEBIODES Ulmer
Habrophlebiodes brunneipennis n. sp.

Adults of Habrophlebiodes brunneipennis, both male and
female, can be separated from the closely related H. betteni by
the amber color of the wings and the strong, dark venation in
the former species. Male genitalia are similar in both species.
Nymphs differ from other described nymphs in the genus in
having spinules on the posterior margins of tergites 6-10. In
other species, the spinules occur on tergites 7-10 only.
Description of Holotypic Male Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-4.3 mm.; length of fore wings-4.4
mm.; length of caudal filaments-medium 6.3 mm., laterals 5.2 mm.
HEAD: Uniformly brown. Basal antennal segments dark brown,
flagellum lighter brown. Upper portion of compound eyes orange-brown,
lower part black.
THORAX: Thorax uniformly brown; pronotum outlined in blackish
brown. No other distinctive marking.
WINGS: Hyaline, clear amber in color. Long veins of fore wing brown
and clearly outlined; cross veins in stigmatic area strongly colored; others
much weaker (see figs. 5 and 6).
LEGS: Coxa, trochanter and femur of fore leg deep brown; tibia and
tarsus buff; tibia deep brown at proximal and distal ends. Coxa and
trochanter of mesothoracic leg paler than those of fore leg; entire leg
light tan marked with brown; small band in middle of femur and much
broader and heavier band at distal end. Metathoracic femur with broad
brown bands at middle and at distal end.
ABDOMEN: Purplish-brown in color. Median pale line on tergites 1-9;
small on tergite 1 and obsolescent on tergite 9. Pale line bordered by
geminate, dark purplish-brown lines. Segments 2-7 relatively translucent,
others opaque. Tergite 1 completely dark except for the small median pale
line. Tergites 2-7 extensively pale on anterior margin; a pair of large
basal triangles just lateral to geminate lines continuous with a lateral pale
area which extends almost to posterior border of segment. Pale areas on
tergite 8 much as those on tergites 2-7, but much less extensive. Tergites
9 and 10 almost entirely purplish-brown, except for lighter colored lateral
areas on 9 and a pair of anterior median pale spots and a single median
pale spot on the posterior margin of tergite 10. Sternites lighter in color
than tergites and extensively pale. Sternite 1 entirely dark; 2 with lateral
pale triangles. Pale anterior areas on sternites occupy about one-half of
each segment. A darker U-shaped mark on 9th sternite; arms of U open










62 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

anteriorly. Forceps base, forceps and penes brownish. Genitalia as in
fig. 7.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: White; joints in proximal half of filaments nar-
rowly annulate with brown.

Description of Allotypic Female Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-5.2 mm.; length of fore wings-5.7
mm.; length of caudal filaments-median 7.7 mm., laterals 5.3 mm.
HEAD: Light brown, marked with purplish-brown. U-shaped mark
on frontal shelf; broad band extends laterally from median ocellus to base
of antenna; another broad band extends across head connecting lateral
ocelli; posterior portion of head purplish-brown. Antennae purplish-brown.
THORAX: As in male.
WINGS: As in male, except that amber color is not quite so deep.
Cross veins stronger than in fore wings of male.
LEGS: Marked as in male, except that tibiae and especially tarsi are
darker.
ABDOMEN: Tergites purplish-brown. Very faint median pale line on
tergites 1-6; lateral to this on tergites 2-10 a pair of median pale lines
extending posteriorly from anterior border; they are longest on tergite 5,
where they reach the middle of segment. Pale lines become relatively large
on tergite 10. Tergites 1-9 with longitudinal pale stripe on lateral border.
Sternites with a median pale line extending from segments 2-7. Large,
lateral, pale triangles on 4-7; pair of small pale triangles on anterior
borders of 2-7 just lateral to .the median line. Immediately posterior to
submedian triangles, another pair of pale spots are present. Middle por-
tion of posterior border of sternites 1-7 pale. Sternites 8 and 9 paler than
other. Ovipositor almost as long as 8th sternite.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Brown tinged; joints narrowly annulate with
brown in basal half.

Description of Nymph (in alcohol)
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-3.8- 4.9 mm.; length of caudal fila-
ments-median 5.7 6.5 mm., laterals 4.8 5.9 mm.
HEAD: Uniformly fusco-rufous. Grayish-brown stippling between
lateral ocelli.
THORAX: Fusco-rufous. Some irregular grayish-brown stippling on
pronotum; lateral and posterior borders of pronotum marked and colora-
tion extending onto the antero-lateral corners of mesonotum. A pair of
small grayish-brown spots anterior to mesothoracic wing pads, and a large
median spot on posterior border of mesonotum.
LEGS: Femur of fore leg grayish-brown, tibia and tarsus much lighter.
Femur of middle leg light brown with small grayish-brown spot in middle
and much larger band on distal end; tibia and tarsus unmarked. Hind
femur with broad, heavy bands in middle and on distal end; tibia and
tarsus unmarked.
ABDOMEN: Fusco-rufous, overlaid with dark stippling. Median dorsal
pale line present; some specimens with a pair of pale dashes extending









VOL. XXVIII-NO. 4


posteriorly from anterior border of middle segments. Sternites much
lighter than tergites.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Light brown, unmarked.
Holotype-male imago, in alcohol. Alachua Co., Florida. Small creek
2Y2 miles west of Gainesville on Fla. Hwy. No. 14 (June 18, 1938). In
collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Allotype-female imago, in alcohol. Alachua Co., Florida. Same
locality as male (March 5, 1938). In collection of Museum of Comparative
Zoology.
Paratypes--63 males, 35 females; 25 males, 20 females in collection
of Museum of Comparative Zoology, others in author's collection. Alachua
Co., Fla., same locality as for holotype (1 female, March 5, 1938; 6 males,
13 females, June 18, 1938; 2 females, January 7, 1939; 22 males, 2 females,
March 10, 1939; 2 males, November 11, 1939; 6 males, March 18, 1940; 7
males, 1 female, March 19, 1940); Devil's Mill Hopper (2 males, 7 females,
March 5, 1938) ; Jackson Co., Fla., 3.6 miles south of Altha on Hwy. No. 6
(11 males, 9 females, June 9, 1938); Leon Co., Fla., 11.2 miles west of
Tallahassee on Fla. Hwy. No. 500 (7 males, March 18, 1939).

LOCALITY RECORDS: Alachua Co., Devil's Mill Hopper (April
18, 1933; October 25, 1937, Coll. F. N. Young; March 5, 1938;
all nymphs); Worthington Springs (Feb. 5, 1939, Coll. W. M.
Beck and A. C. Chable, nymphs) ; 21/2 miles W. Gainesville on
Fla. Hwy. No. 14 (Jan. 16, 1938, nymphs and adults; Jan. 29,
1938, nymphs and adults; Feb. 6, 1938, adults; March 5, 1938,
nymphs and adults; June 18, 1938, nymphs and adults; Jan.
7, 1939, nymphs and adults; Jan. 28, 1939, nymphs and adults;
March 10, 1939, nymphs and adults; November 11, 1939, nymphs
and adults; Feb. 5, 1940, nymphs and adults; March 18, 1940,
adults; April 17, 1940, adults; Jan. 30, 1941, nymphs and
adults); Experiment Station, Univ. of Florida (Jan. 15, 1939,
coll. F. N. Young, nymphs). Bay Co., 5.6 miles north of Pana-
ma City (Nov. 5, 1938, nymphs; May 30, 1940, nymphs). Colum-
bia Co., Falling Creek (Nov. 13, 1938, nymphs). Hamilton Co.,
8.3 miles south of Jasper (Feb. 4, 1938, nymphs). Jackson Co.,
2.9 miles north of Altha (July 1, 1939, nymphs and adults);
3.6 miles north of Altha (June 9, 1938, nymphs and adults).
Jefferson Co., Drifton (Feb. 5, 1938, nymphs). Leon Co., 11.2
miles west of Tallahassee (March 17, 1939, nymphs and adults) ;
16.9 miles west of Tallahassee (March 17, 1939, nymphs) ; 7
miles north of Tallahassee (March 18, 1939, coll. H. H. Hobbs
and F. N. Young, nymphs) ; 13 miles west of Tallahassee (Nov.
30, 1939, nymphs). Liberty Co., Sweetwater Creek (June 10,
1938, nymphs). Santa Rosa Co., 7.1 miles west of Milton (April
4, 1938, coll. H. H. Hobbs and L. J. Marchand, nymphs). Wa-











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


/ 5










8






12



to



14

15






16 17 18 19 20


PLATE I









VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


kulla Co., Smith Creek (June 6, 1938, nymphs). Walton Co.,
7.3 miles west of Ebro (June 7, 1938, nymphs); 5.4 miles west
of Freeport (April 2, 1938, coll. H. H. Hobbs and L. J. Marchand,
nymphs) ; 13.8 miles west of Freeport (June 7, 1938, nymphs);
10.6 miles west of Washington Co. line (May 31, 1940, nymphs).
2.1 miles west of Washington Co. line (May 31, 1940, nymphs).

CHOROTERPES Eaton
Choroterpes hubbelli n. sp.2

The adult of Choroterpes hubbelli can be distinguished from
all other species of the genus by its dark abdomen and pale,
unbanded caudal filaments. Characters differentiating the
nymphs from those of other species are unknown.
Description of Holotypic Male Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-6 mm.; length of fore wings-6
mm.; length of caudal filaments-median 7 mm., laterals 5.5 mm.
HEAD: Brown. Ocelli pale, ringed basally with dark brown. Upper
part of compound eyes orange-brown, ringed with narrow brown line;
lower part of eyes black. Basal segments of antennae brownish; flagella
paler.

2 I take pleasure in naming this species for Professor T. H. Hubbell,
Department of Biology, University of Florida.


PLATE I

Fig. 1. Choroterpes hubbelli, fore wing.
Fig. 2. Choroterpes hubbelli, hind wing.
Fig. 3. Choroterpes hubbelli, 3rd gill.
Fig. 4. Choroterpes hubbelli, genitalia of male imago.
Fig. 5. Habrophlebiodes brunneipennis, fore wing.
Fig. 6. Habrophle6iodes brunneipennis, hind wing.
Fig. 7. Habrophlebiodes brunneipennis, genitalia of male imago.
Fig. 8. Pseudocloeon bimaculatus, abdomen of nymph.
Fig. 9. Pseudocloeon bimaculatus, 7th gill.
Fig. 10. Ephemerella trilineata, maxilla of nymph.
Fig. 11. Ephemerella trilineata, genitalia of male imago.
Fig. 12. Ephemerella trilineata, fore wing.
Fig. 13. Ephemerella trilineata, hind wing.
Fig. 14. Tricorythodes albilineatus, genitalia of male imago.
Fig. 15. Brachycercus maculatus, maxilla of nymph.
Fig. 16. Ephemerella choctawhatchee, maxilla of nymph.
Fig. 17. Centroptilum hobbsi, 1st gill.
Fig. 18. Centroptilum hobbsi, 7th gill.
Fig. 19. Centroptilum hobbsi, Labial palp of nymph.
Fig. 20. Centroptilum hobbsi, Tarsal claw of 3rd leg of nymph.










66 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

THORAX: Nearly uniformly fusco-rufous. Sternum slightly paler than
notum. All sutures pale brown.
WINGS: Wings hyaline; stigmatic area of fore wings opaque. Bases
of wings brown tinged; in fore wing, tinge extends to humeral brace.
Long veins of fore wing brownish basally; brownish tinge of R1 extends
to wing tip. Costal angulation of hind wing prominent. (See figs. 1 and 2).
LEGS: Femora of all legs yellowish-brown; darker brown at base and at
knee; brown band at middle of femur. Proximal end of tibiae of all legs
narrowly ringed with brown; ring about equal in width to width of tibia.
Tibiae and tarsi of all legs pale.
ABDOMEN: Dorsally, grayish-brown; tergites 8-10 darker than others.
Prominent, median-dorsal pale line on segments 2-7; reduced to spot on
posterior border of tergite 1. Two pairs of pale spots on anterior border
of tergites 2-8; another pair of pale spots in middle of tergite lateral to
median line on tergites 2-7. Pleural fold dark brown, giving appearance
of lateral brown line. Tergites 8-10 unicolorous. Sternites pale except
for U-shaped reddish-brown marking on 9th sternite; marking extends
onto forceps base. Forceps white; penes brownish (see fig. 4).
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: White, unmarked.
Description of Allotypic Female Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-6 mm.; length of wings-6.7 mm.;
length of caudal filaments-median 7 mm., laterals 5.5 mm.
Female similar to male, except that the dorsum of the abdomen is
unicolorous grayish-brown and there is no U-shaped marking on the 9th
sternite.

Description of Nymph (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-5-6 mm.; length of caudal fila-
ments-6.5 7.5 mm.
HEAD: Brown; sutures pale. Pale areas border anterior margin of
median ocellus and lateral margins of lateral ocelli; the latter pale areas
continuing to borders of compound eyes. Antennae light brown with gray-
ish tinge.
THORAX: Uniformly brown, except for lateral flanges of pronotum,
which are faintly brownish. Sternum light grayish-brown.
LEGS: Light brown, marked with darker brown. Anterior and pos-
terior edges outlined in brown. Femora with large brown spot in middle;
knee spot present on all legs. Tibiae with small brown basal marking;
median band on all tibiae slightly darker than ground color. Tarsi with
median brown band; tips of all tarsal claws brown.
ABDOMEN: Dorsally, uniformly brown with blackish-brown stippling.
Pale median dorsal line extends length of abdomen on most specimens, but
tends to become obliterated on tergite 10. Venter pale; may have lateral
brown stripes in older specimens. Lateral abdominal spines prominent
on all segments, becoming progressively stronger from anterior to posterior
segments. Gills on segment 1 long, unbranched; gills on segment 3 as
shown in fig. 3. Other gills resemble those on segment 3.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Light brown, slightly darker at base.
Holotype-male imago, in alcohol. Alachua Co., Florida. Jerome Sink,









VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


21/2 miles north of Newberry (March 1, 1940). In collection of Museum of
Comparative Zoology.
Allotype-female imago, in alcohol. Same data as holotype (April 22,
1939). In collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Paratypes-6 males, 4 females; 3 males, 3 females in collection of
Museum of Comparative Zoology, others in author's collection. Putnam
Co., Red-water Lake (1 male, 1 female, March 26, 1939). Alachua Co.,
Jerome Sink, 2/ miles north of Newberry (2 males, 1 female, April 22,
1939; 2 females, March 1, 1940). Walton Co., 91/2 miles west of Portland
(3 males, May 31, 1940).
LOCALITY RECORDS: Alachua Co., Jerome Sink, 21/2 miles
north of Newberry (April 21, 1939, nymphs and adults, coll.
F. N. Young; April 22, 1939, nymphs; March 1, 1940, nymphs;
March 5, 1946, nymphs); Hatchet Creek (May 6, 1939, imago).
Bay Co., 5.6 miles north of Panama City (May 30, 1940,
nymphs). Duval Co., 11 miles north of Jacksonville (Aug. 28,
1938, nymphs, coll. H. H. Hobbs). Marion Co., Rainbow
Springs (March 9, 1940, nymphs). Putnam Co., Redwater
Lake (March 26, 1939, nymphs; October 20, 1940, nymphs).
Walton Co., 2.1 miles west of Walton Co. line (May 31, 1940,
nymphs); 9.5 miles west of Portland (June 7, 1938, nymphs;
May 31, 1940, nymphs and adults).

EPHEMERELLA Walsh
Ephemerella trilineata n. sp.
Adults of Ephemerella trilineata may be distinguished from
other species of the bicolor group by the coloration of the tenth
tergite, by the presence of a median, and a pair of submedian,
dorsal abdominal stripes, and by the presence of ruddy bands
on the distal ends of the femora, as well as reddish markings
on the femora. The species is close to E. doris and is also
related to E. temporalis, but differs from the latter by its
much paler coloration.
Description of Holotypic Male Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-8.4 mm.; length of fore wings-8.7
mm.; length of caudal filaments-11.7 mm.
HEAD: Large, V-shaped, red mark located between lateral ocelli and
beginning just behind median ocellus; narrow red line running across head
from posterior border of one lateral ocellus to the posterior border of the
other and just touching the base of the V-shaped mark. Upper portion
of compound eyes dull orange. Basal antennal segment reddish brown;
pedicel pale; flagellum reddish-brown basally, becoming pale distally.
Large black spot below the antenna at corner of each eye.










68 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

THORAX: Pronotum marked with black and reddish-brown; a black
spot near lateral margin and another near posterior margin; posterior
margin marked with red and black. Mesotum yellowish-brown; a pair of
small submedian black dashes on scutellum. Metanotum darker than
mesonotum with black marking along margins. A poorly defined brown
line extends anteriorly from base of fore wing onto coxa of fore leg. Pro
and metasterna blackish, mesosternum light brown.
WINGS: Hyaline; venation colorless. Costal border opaque; stigmatic
cross veins anastomosed. (See figs. 12 and 13).
LEGS: Yellowish. A prominent black spot on outer side of each coxa.
Each femur with a ruddy band on distal end; in addition, fore femur has
a blackish-brown spot just proximal to the band on the outer side of the
leg. Tarsal joints with narrow dark lines; claws brownish.
ABDOMEN: Ground color yellowish, markings blackish-brown. Con-
spicuous median and submedian blackish-brown lines running length of
tergites 1-8, becoming fainter on tergite 9, and median line completely
absent from tergite 10 and submedian lines extending only half the length
of the segment. Tergites 1-4 bordered by black, which is especially heavy
on lateral margins of segments 2-4; tergite 9 also bordered laterally with
a black line. An oblique black line present laterally on tergites 1-8, and
lateral to the oblique line on 1-3 is another longitudinal line. A blackish-
brown triangle extends forward from posterio-lateral portion of tergite 8
for about % of segment. A small ruddy line runs posteriorly from antero-
lateral border of tergite 10. A pair of submedian brownish spots present
in middle of sternites 1-7, becoming very faint on 7; lateral to these spots
on 2-7 are a pair of oblique blackish-brown dashes extending from anterior
margin; on sternite 8, the dashes are reduced to spots on the anterior
border of the segment; sternite 9 unmarked. Genitalia pale (see fig. 11).
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Pale, joints beyond basal portion narrowly ringed
with brown.
VARIATIONS: Ruddy marking on head obsolescent. Thoracic and ab-
dominal markings may be reddish instead of black and less pronounced.
Anterior portion of mesonotum may be dusky or the entire thorax may be
overlaid with dusky coloration. Ruddy markings on anterior and posterior
borders of femora frequently present; distal end of fore tarsi may be
tinged with reddish coloration. Mid-dorsal line sometimes ruddy instead of
blackish-brown; line may be obliterated on tergite 5; may extend to pos-
terior margin of tergite 10. Tergites 1-8 may have extensive blackish
or reddish shading. Lateral margins of sternites may be strongly out-
lined in blackish-brown and sternites sometimes tinged with red.
Description of Allotypic Female Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-7.7 mm.; length of fore wings-8.4
mm.; length of caudal filaments 8.9 mm.
HEAD: Markings and coloration similar to that of male, but much
more extensive, especially blackish-brown marking along occipital border
of head.
THORAX: Similar to that of male. Reddish median dorsal line present.
WINGS: As in male.
LEGS: As in male.










VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


ABDOMEN: Pattern similar to that of male. Dark, median-dorsal line
almost obscured by reddish line which appears to enclose it; submedian
lines much darker at anterior border of each segment, becoming fainter
toward posterior border. Median dorsal line continues to the posterior
end of tergite 10. Entire dorsum and most of venter with a reddish tinge.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: As in male.
VARIATIONS: Three dorsal lines on abdomen tending to be obsolescent.
All markings may be lighter than in allotype and reddish tinge may be
lacking. Ruddy bands on femora sometimes very faint. Median dorsal
line of thorax may be black.
Description of Nymph (in alcohol):
The nymph of E. trilineata is very similar to that of E. doris as de-
scribed by Traver (1934: 209-211) and illustrated in "The Biology of
Mayflies" (1935: plate 38). The color pattern of the nymphs is extremely
variable and of little value taxonomically. Structurally, there appear to
be no differences between my specimens and those described and illus-
trated by Traver as E. doris. West of the Appalachicola River in north-
west Florida, I have taken nymphs which are very similar in appearance
to E. trilineata nymphs, but the spines on the dorsum of the abdomen are
more erect and thinner and the body length is slightly less than that of
E. trilineata (which is the same as that of E. doris); however, I am con-
sidering the west Florida nymphs to be E. trilineata.
Holotype-male imago, in alcohol. Alachua Co., Florida, Hatchet
Creek (April 13, 1939). In collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Allotype-female imago, in alcohol. Same data as holotype (April 1,
1939). In collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Paratypes-20 males, 16 females; 12 males, 9 females in collection of
Museum of Comparative Zoology, others in author's collection. Alachua
Co., Lake Santa Fe (1 female, April 7, 1937; 3 females, Jan. 30, 1940);
22 miles west of Gainesville on Fla. Hwy. No. 14 (1 male, Feb. 5, 1940);
Hatchet Creek (2 females, Feb. 26, 1938; 1 female, April 2, 1938, 1 male,
May 5, 1938; 1 male, March 22, 1939; 10 males, 6 females, April 1, 1939;
4 males, 1 female, April 13, 1939; 1 female, May 6, 1939; 1 male, June 24,
1939). Hamilton Co., 0.6 miles north of Live Oak road on Fla. Hwy. No. 2
(1 female, Feb. 4, 1938). Putnam Co., Red-water Lake (2 males, 1 female,
March 26, 1939).

LOCALITY RECORDS: Florida-Alachua Co., Santa Fe Lake
(April 2, 1935, nymphs, coll. A. M. Laessle; April 7, 1937,
nymphs and adults; Jan. 30, 1940, nymphs and adults) ; 1 mile
west of Newnan's Lake (May 11, 1937, nymphs; Jan. 8, 1938,
nymphs; Jan. 25, 1938, nymphs; Jan. 30, 1940, nymphs and
adults) ; 3 miles north of Paradise (Feb. 12, 1938, nymphs,
coll. G. Van Hyning); Worthington Springs (Feb. 5, 1939,
nymphs, coll. W. A. Beck dnd A. C. Chable); Hatchet Creek
(March 22, 1937, nymphs; Feb. 8, 1938, nymphs; Feb. 26, 1938,
adults; March 23, 1938, adults; April 2, 1938, adults; April 18,









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


1938, adults; May 5, 1938, adults; Nov. 13, 1938, nymphs; March
5, 1939, nymphs and adults, coll. M. Carr; March 22, 1939,
adults; April 1, 1939, nymphs and adults; April 5, 1939, adults;
April 13, 1939, nymphs and adults; May 6, 1939, adults; June
24, 1939, adults; Feb. 16, 1940, nymphs and adults) ; 21/2 miles
west of Gainesville on Hwy. No. 14 (Feb. 4, 1940, nymphs and
adults). Bay Co., Juniper Creek, 28.7 miles north of Panama
City (June 8, 1938, nymphs). Columbia Co., Falling Creek
(Nov. 13, 1938, nymphs). Escambia Co., Bayou Marquis (June
1, 1940, nymphs). Gadsden Co., River Junction (March 17,
1939, nymphs) ; 41/2 miles south of River Junction (March 17,
1939, nymphs). Hamilton Co., 0.6 miles north of Live Oak Road
on Fla. Hwy. No. 2 (Feb. 4, 1938, nymphs and adults). Hills-
borough Co., Hurrah Creek at Picnic (March 26, 1938, nymphs).
Holmes Co., Sandy Creek (Dec. 11, 1937, nymphs). Jefferson
Co., Drifton (Feb. 5, 1938, nymphs). Liberty Co., Hosford
(March 17, 1939, nymphs); Little Sweetwater Branch (Dec.
10, 1937, nymphs); Sweetwater Creek (Nov. 4, 1938, nymphs;
Dec. 1, 1939, nymphs). Marion Co., Oklawaha River at Eureka
(Feb. 12, 1938, nymphs). Okaloosa Co., 5.1 miles west of Wal-
ton Co. line on Fla. Hwy. No. 10 (May 31, 1940, nymphs). Put-
nam Co., Red-water Lake (March 26, 1939, nymphs and adults).
Santa Rosa Co., 4.8 miles north of Navarre (June 1, 1940,
nymphs). Walton Co., Portland (April 3, 1938, nymphs) ; 9.5
miles west of Portland (May 31, 1940, nymphs) ; 2.6 miles
west of Freeport (June 7, 1938, nymphs) ; 13.8 miles west of
Freeport (June 7, 1938, nymphs); 15.6 miles west of Freeport
(June 7, 1938, nymphs); 10.6 miles west of Washington Co.
line on Hwy. No. 10 (May 31, 1940, nymphs). Alabama-Bald-
win Co., Dyas Creek (June 3, 1940, nymphs). Escambia Co., 4.6
miles east of Wawbeek (June 4, 1940, nymphs). Mobile Co.,
3.5 miles south of Irvington (June 2, 1940, nymphs); Bayou
La Batre (June 2, 1940, nymphs) ; 2.1 miles south of Kushla
(June 3, 1940, nymphs).
Ephemerella hirsuta n. sp.
This species is known from only two nymphs, one mature
and the other immature. It falls clearly into the simplex group
of the genus Ephemerella, and is characterized by the presence
of gills on segments 4-7 only; gills on segment 4 semi-operculate;
presence of maxillary palps; and the fact that segment 9 is no
longer than segment 8. The banding of the legs of E. hirsuta









VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


differs from that of E. attenuata, the only other species with
which it might be confused. The mesonotum and head especially
are covered with long coarse hairs.
Description of Holotypic Nymph (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-7.5 mm.; length of caudal fila-
ments-3.1 mm.
HEAD: (Mounted on slide in balsam; mouth-parts dissected out) Occi-
pital tubercles prominent, covered with long coarse hairs. Hairs on re-
mainder of head somewhat shorter. Maxillary palp well developed; second
segment relatively small.
THORAX: Entire thorax covered dorsally with long, coarse hairs, which
are particularly noticeable on mesonotum and wing pads. A pair of sub-
median tubercles located near posterior margin of prothorax.
LEGS: Blackish-brown spot at juncture of trochanter and femur on
all legs. Femora with two brown bands, one located in basal third and
the other in distal third; proximal band much lighter in color than distal
band, and on femur of prothoracic leg it is very faint. Tibiae of all legs
with brown knee spot and brown band in outer half. Tarsi banded with
brown in basal half; twelve denticles on each claw.
ABDOMEN: Flattened dorso-ventrally. Distinct dorsal submedian spines
present on posterior margins of tergites 4-7. Lateral abdominal spines
relatively blunt; lateral margin of 8th segment pronouncedly sinuate, 7
and 9 with just a suggestion of being sinuate. Median dorsal line clearly
defined on tergites 6-9. A pair of dark brown spots on segments 1-9 about
half-way to lateral margin and just medial to gills on tergites 5-8; pro-
duced into long thin lines on tergite 9. Submedian dark lines present
on tergite 10. Ventrally, a large dark spot on antero-median border
of sternites 3-8; a pair of dark brown spots or dashes present about
half-way to lateral margin on sternites 2-9; on anterior margin of stern-
ites 3-8, a pair of submedian oblique dashes and posterior to these, a pair
of submedian spots.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Pale, unmarked. Basally covered with spines,
distally with long, fine hairs.
Holotype-nymph (head, mouthparts, and right legs mounted in bal-
sam; remainder of body preserved in alcohol). Escambia Co., Alabama,
Perdido Creek (April 5, 1938, coll. H. H. Hobbs and L. J. Marchand).
In collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Paratype-1 nymph, immature. Same data as holotype. In author's
collection.
Ephemerella choctawhatchee n. sp.
Although this species is known only in the nymphal stage,
it is believed to be sufficiently distinct to warrant specific rank.
Ephermerella choctawhatchee clearly falls into Traver's need-
hami group of the genus and appears to be most closely related
to E. catawba, which is known from the mountains of North
Carolina. The nymphs of E. choctawhatchee can be distin-
guished by the leg markings in which the tibiae have a pale band










72 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

at the apex; tarsi banded in basal third; and by the presence of
a pair of small submedian spines on the posterior margins of
segments 4-7.

Description of Holotypic Nymph (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-6.3 mm.; length of caudal fila-
ments-4 mm.
HEAD: Smooth; mottled with brown. Basal antennal segments brown;
extreme base of flagellum brown, remainder pale. Maxilla as in fig. 16.
THORAX: Non-tuberculate. Pronotum mottled with brown; antero-
lateral angles pale. Mesonotum evenly mottled with brown; a pair of
pale, submedian triangles at anterior border; a brown spot at base of wing
pad. Sternum lightly mottled with brown.
LEGS: Brown. Femora with some paler mottling, but tibiae uniformly
brown. Tarsi brown in basal half, pale distally; tarsal claws with six or
seven denticles.
ABDOMEN: Light brown with darker brown markings. Median portion
of posterior border of-tergites 2-8 slightly indented and on 4-7 the arms
produced by the indentation project posteriorly into small spines. Tergites
7-9 reddish brown. Broad, geminate reddish-brown lines running length
of dorsum, leaving a pale mid-dorsal stripe. Reddish-brown lateral line
on segments 2-10, covered by gills on segments 4-7 and partly covered on 8.
Ventrally, abdomen mottled very much like sternum; a brown longitudinal
line is present laterally on each abdominal sternite. Gills on segments
3-7, each one partially covering the one behind, all fitting closely to the
abdomen between the rounded dorsum and the segmental flanges.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Light brown, except for a small brown band in
the distal portion of the filaments.
VARIATIONS: Tibiae may have pale band at distal end. Geminate lines
may be absent from abdominal tergites, but pale median dorsal line re-
mains. Dark brown areas may be present laterally on tergites 3, 4, 6, 7,
and 8. Some specimens with a pair of pale spots on posterior margins of
tergites 2-9; large pale areas may be present on tergites 5 and 6 just lateral
to pale spots. Four brown spots sometimes present in a row on sternites
2-7 and two spots on sternites 1 and 8. Caudal filaments may have four
broad bands in distal half.
Holotype-nymph, in alcohol. Okaloosa Co., Florida, 5.1 miles west
of Walton County line at Hwy. No. 10 (May 31, 1940). In collection of
Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Paratypes-9 nymphs; 5 in collection of Museum of Comparative
Zoology, others in author's collection. Okaloosa Co., 3.6 miles north of
Niceville (April 3, 1938, 1 nymph, coll. H. H. Hobbs and L. J. Marchand).
Gadsden Co., 4% miles south of River Juncton (March 17, 1939, 3 nymphs).
Liberty Co., 10.3 miles south of River Junction (March 17, 1939, 3 nymphs);
Sweetwater Creek (Dec. 1, 1939, 2 nymphs).

Tricorythodes albilineatus n. sp.
Certain minor color differences separate this species from
previously known forms of Tricorythodes. This is the first









VOL. XXVIII-No. 4 73

record of the genus occurring south of West Virginia or east
of the Mississippi River in the United States, although it has
been recorded from South and Central America. T. albilineatus
appears to be close to T. atratus but the Florida species has
more limited dark markings on the abdomen and is characterized
by a pale median line on the dorsum of the abdomen.
Description of Holotypic Male Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-4.1 mm.; length of fore wings-4.6
mm.; length of caudal filaments-median 17 mm., laterals 11.8 mm.
HEAD: Head pale, shaded with gray. Posterior margin bordered with
black; blackish shading around antennal bases. A pair of small tubercles
medial to lateral ocelli, near occipital border. Antennae pale, shaded with
gray.
THORAX: Mesothorax rather uniformly blackish-brown. Pro- and
metanotum lighter in color than mesonotum. Prosternum pale, shaded
with gray; metasternum lighter in color than prosternum. Large gang-
lionic areas of thoracic sternum faintly smoky and outlined in black.
WINGS: Hyaline, whitish. Subcosta and radius with purplish shad-
ing which fades out toward wing tip; purple shading extends into costal
border.
LEGS: Coxae and trochantera blackish-brown. Femora heavily shaded
with purplish-brown, with a strong concentration at distal end forming
a dark band on all legs; edges of femora outlined in dark brown. Proximal
end of fore tibiae dark, remainder shaded with gray; tibiae of other legs
shaded with purplish-brown, tending to form into dark spots in middle
of tibiae. Fore tarsi shaded with gray; other tarsi shaded with purplish-
brown.
ABDOMEN: Grayish-white, heavily marked with black. 1st tergite
almost completely covered with black strippling, except on lateral margins.
Lateral borders of all tergite extensively pale; blackish longitudinal line
at pleural fold on 2-9, becoming rather strong on 2 and 7. Black, germinate,
longitudinal lines present on tergite 2-9, tending to coalesce on the posterior
border of 9, and continuing onto 10 as a single dark line. Area between
geminate lines forms a pale, whitish, longitudinal line extending length
of tergites 2-9. Connected with, and extending laterally from the geminate
lines is a less concentrated blackish area on tergites 2-8. The blackish
areas are -restricted to the posterior portion of the anterior tergites, but
gradually suffuse the middle portions of the posterior segments, extending
all the way to the anterior border on tergite 8. The dark area also extends
laterally on the posterior margin of tergite 7 to connect with the dark line
at the pleural fold. Tergites 9 and 10 are darker because of the under-
lying tissues, and tergite 10 is rather uniformly tinged with black. Ster-
nites same color as tergites, and marked with blackish stippling which
tends to form bands on posterior margin of 1-9 and becomes more extensive
on posterior segments. A black lateral dash next to pleural fold on all
sternites. Sternite 9 brownish in anterior half, blackish posteriorly. A
small black median spot present on intersegmental membranes of venter.
Forceps base blackish; forceps smoky, penes brownish (see fig. 14).
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Smoky basally, becoming white distally.










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Description of Allotypic Female Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-3.9 mm.; length of wings-4.6 mm.;
length of caudal filaments-median 4.1 mm., laterals 2.7 mm.
HEAD: Similar to that of male, except occipital border darker.
THORAX: Blackish dorsally; pronotum with a few irregular pale areas
laterally. Sternum much lighter than notum. Prosternum stippled with
black between coxae; mesosternum less deeply colored, and metasternum
still lighter. Ganglionic areas not differentiated as in male.
WINGS: As in male.
LEGS: Fore femur shaded with dark purplish coloration, which is
concentrated into an irregular band on distal end; tibia crossed by two
bands; tarsus smoky. Mid and hind femora more extensively colored
with purplish shading, the color tending to concentrate into a basal and
distal band. Mid and hind tibiae black at proximal end, distal half pur-
plish, the two bands thus formed connected by a fine line which continues
onto tarsi. Tarsi smoky.
ABDOMEN: Color pattern similar to that of male, except that the
dorsum is much more deeply and extensively colored. Lateral margins
of tergites pale, and median dorsal white line is clearly defined. Ventrally,
dark shading tends to concentrate toward middle of segment.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Basally blackish merging into smoky and then
becoming white distally.

Description of Nymph (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-male nymphs 3.6-3.8 mm., female
nymphs 5.2-5.5 mm.; length of caudal filaments-male nymphs 2.4-2.6 mm.,
female nymphs 3.4-3.9 mm.
HEAD: Extensively mottled with black, which may tend to concentrate
near the posterior border in very mature nymphs. Heavy black line ex-
tending from posterior margin of compound eye obliquely inward to occiput.
Antennae either pale or dusky.
THORAX: Dorsum extensively mottled with black. Lateral borders of
pronotum with wide pale areas. Mesonotum with irregular, pale areas
anterior to the base of wing pads. Sternum pale; there may be some
blackish shading on the prosternum and mesosternum, leaving ganglionic
areas pale.
LEGS: Pale; femora dark-banded distally and there may be a con-
centration of black proximally giving the appearance of an irregular basal
band. Tibiae with black basal band and suggestion of dusky median band.
Tarsi with light brownish tinge basally, remainder pale; "claws pectinate.
ABDOMEN: Color pattern similar to that of adult. Lateral flanges of
segments 3, 4, 5, and 7 almost completely black except for the posterior
border; posterior half of lateral flange on sixth segment pale. Median-
dorsal, white line clearly defined in most specimens but may tend to be-
come obliterated on some. A heavy black transverse line present at
posterior border of tergite 2 and just anterior to operculate gill. Elytroid
gill black or mottled with black spots, except for narrow hyaline border.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Light brown, darker basally. In some specimens
filaments may be dark brown.









VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


VARIATIONS: Femora of many male nymphs extensively spotted with
black, forming an irregular pattern instead of bands. Tibiae may be con-
siderably darkened in the middle, and tarsal bands clearly defined.
Holotype-male imago, in alcohol. Alachua Co., Florida, Santa Fe
River at Poe Springs (March 4, 1939). In collection of Museum of Com-
parative Zoology.
Allotype-female imago, in alcohol. Same locality as male (Feb. 28,
1939). In collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Paratypes-8 males, 52 females; 4 males, 32 females in collection of
Museum of Comparative Zoology, others in author's collection. Alachua
Co., Fla. Same data as for holotypes (2 males, incompletely molted,
March 4, 1939; 1 male, 52 females, February 28, 1939; 5 males, 3 incom-
pletely molted, February 18, 1939).

LOCALITY RECORDS: Alachua Co., Santa Fe River at Poe
Springs (May 14, 1934, nymphs, coll. J. S. Rogers; May 21,
1934, nymphs, coll. J. S. Rogers; March 19, 1935, nymphs, coll.
A. M. Laessle; March 24, 1937, nymphs; March 12, 1938, nymphs
and adults; March 18, 1938, adults; May 14, 1938, nymphs;
Feb. 11, 1939, nymphs and adults; Feb. 18, 1939, nymphs and
adults; March 4, 1939, adults; March 25, 1939, nymphs and
adults; Oct. 25, 1939, nymphs and adults; April 6, 1940, nymphs
and adults). Bay Co., 27.4 miles north St. Andrews (May 30,
1940, nymphs) ; Pine Log Creek (May 31, 1940, nymphs). Cit-
rus Co., Withlacoochee River (April 2, 1937, nymphs). Gads-
den Co., 10 miles south River Junction (July 1, 1939, nymphs).
Gilchrist Co., Suwannee River at Fannin Springs (April 5,
1938, nymphs). Hernando Co., County line at south end of
county (March 27, 1938, nymphs) ; Weekiwatchee Springs (Au-
gust 20, 1938, adults, coll. T. H. Hubbell and J. J. Friauf).
Hillsborough Co., Six-Mile Creek (March 26, 1938, nymphs);
Hillsborough River (Feb. 11, 1939, nymphs, coll. L. J. March-
and); Jackson Co., Blue Springs Creek near Marianna (June
9, 1938, nymphs). Leon Co., 7 miles south Hwy. No. 19 on
Hwy. No. 127 (June 5, 1938, nymphs). Liberty Co., Sweet-
water Creek, Torreya State Park (June 10, 1938, nymphs;
Nov. 4, 1938, nymphs; July 1, 1939, nymphs). Madison Co.,
at Jefferson Co. line, Aucilla River (June 4, 1938, nymphs and
adults). Marion Co., Silver Springs (May 7, 1934, nymphs,
coll. R. R. Shepard) ; Rainbow Springs (March 9, 1940, nymphs;
Feb. 26, 1939, nymphs, coll. L. J. Marchand) ; Ocklawaha River
at Hwy. No. 38 (March 19, 1938, nymphs and adults). Oka-
loosa Co., 5.1 miles west of Walton Co. line (June 7, 1938,
nymphs; May 31, 1940, nymphs). Wakulla Co., Wakulla Springs
(May 29, 1940, nymphs and adults). Walton Co., 13.8 miles









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


west of Freeport (June 7, 1938, nymphs and adults) ; 9.5 miles
west of Portland (May 31, 1940, nymphs) ; 10.6 miles west of
Walton Co. line (May 31, 1940, nymphs). Washington Co.,
Holmes Creek at Holmes Co. line (July 2, 1939, nymphs).

BRACHYCERCUS Curtis
Brachycercus maculatus n. sp.
In the adult stage, Brachycercus maculatus can be distin-
guished from other known species of the genus only by the use
of colorational differences. The nymph can be differentiated
both by morphological and color pattern differences. In the
adult male (female unknown), tergites 1-6 are prominently
mottled; there is a mid-dorsal line present on segments 6-9;
the anterior margins of sternites 1-9 are blackish and there
are no spots on the sternites. The nymph, known from a single
cast skin, lacks prothoracic tubercles, the head tubercles are less
prominent than in B. lacustris, and the legs are not dark banded.
Description of Holotypic Male Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-5.0 mm.; length of wings-4.2 mm.;
length of caudal filaments-12.8 mm.
HEAD: Buff colored, marked with blackish-brown. Transverse line
present just above median ocellus, another on dorsum of head connecting
lateral ocelli; heavy black posterior border of head interrupted at middle;
narrow geminate lines on dorsum of head paralleling epicranial suture.
Blackish spot just below lateral ocellus. Dark brown spot on outer side
of basal antennal segment; remainder of antenna pale.
THORAX: Pronotum mottled with purplish-brown. Mesonotum brown,
tinged with purple which is more intense in scutellar area; median line
present with two longitudinal lines meeting posteriorly just before the
scutellum. Metanotum mottled with purplish-brown. Prosternum shaded
with purplish-brown. Mesosternum brown with some purplish shading
in anterior half. Metasternum lighter brown with faint purplish-brown
transverse line on anterior margin.
WINGS: Semi-hyaline, whitish and lightly shaded with purple. Sub-
costa and R1 heavily shaded with purplish-brown except in outer
fourth; shatling extends well into costal border. All other longitudinal
veins in anterior half of wing deeply colored basally, but color tends to
disappear apically.
LEGS: Fore coxa shaded with purplish-brown on outer side; trochanter
and femur purplish-brown; tibia smoky; tarsus slightly lighter in color
than tibia and narrowly ringed with brown at joints. Mid and hind legs
light brown with smoky shading; tarsi unbanded.
ABDOMEN: Tergites 1 and 2 heavily shaded with blackish-brown, which
tends to be slightly darker in median and posterior parts of segments.
Tergites 3-6 almost entirely covered with blackish-brown, but lighter in
color than tergites 1 and 2; laterally, these segments predominantly pale,
except for narrow blackish line on anterior border; line extends to pleural










VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


fold and then projects posteriorly along lateral border of segments. Pos-
terior margins of tergites 6-9 margined with blackish-brown, which is
most pronounced on tergite 8. Tergites 7-9 predominantly pale; broad
median dorsal line on 7-9, which is faintly evidenced on tergite 6 as well;
7-9 with heavy black marking on antero-lateral border extending to pleural
fold. Tergite 10 slightly darked in color than 9; very narrow median-
dorsal line and some brownish marking on posterior margin. Sternum
pale; anterior margins of 1-9 blackish, with the shading tending to be
darker laterally. Forceps light brown.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: White, unmarked.
VARIATIONS: Tergites 1 and 2 may be extensively pale with black
confined to a median line and the posterior margin. Median dorsal line
on abdominal segments may be confined to tergite 7 and anterior half of
8. Pronotum sometimes pale with irregular black areas.
Description of Nymphal Exuviae (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-7.4 mm.; caudal filaments missing.
HEAD: Three tubercles on head; one frontal, placed between antennal
bases; two others just medial to compound eyes. Tubercles less prominent
than those of B. lacustris, and somewhat rounded in shape. Maxilla as in
fig. '15.
THORAX: No prothoracic tubercles present. No other differentiating
characters on the exuviae.
LEGS: Unbanded, except for tibiae in which outer half is slightly
lighter in color than basal half.
ABDOMEN: Lateral projections on segments 2-5 strongly upcurved.
Holotype-male imago, in alcohol. Alachua Co., Florida, Santa Fe
River at Poe Springs (Feb. 28, 1939). In collection of Museum of Com-
parative Zoology.
Paratypes-5 male images, in alcohol. Same data as holotype. 2
males in collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology, others in author's
collection.
Nymphal exuviae in collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology.

CENTROPTILUM Eaton
Centroptilum hobbsi n. sp.3
Only the female of Centroptilum hobbsi is known in the
adult stage. It can be distinguished from the only other known
Florida species, C. viridocularis, by the absence of extensive
reddish areas on abdominal tergites 2-6. The nymphs are easily
separated from those of viridocularis by means of the gill struc-
ture, which in hobbsi includes a recurved flap on the 1st ab-
dominal segment only; by the shorter, stouter claws in hobbsi;
the presence of spines on the lateral margins of abdominal
segments 8-10 only; and the unmarked abdominal sternites in
hobbsi.

SI take pleasure in naming this species for Professor H. H. Hobbs,
Department of Biology, University of Florida.










78 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Description of Holotypic Female Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-5.3 mm.; length of fore wings-4.7
mm.; length of caudal filaments-6.2 mm.
HEAD: Light buff' in color; ruddy markings medial to lateral ocelli;
small pair of longitudinal red-brown lines medial to compound eyes. Basal
antennal segments whitish, flagellum dusky.
THORAX: Pronotum light brown. Mesonotum buff with no distinctive
markings. Metanotum'slightly darked than mesonotum. Sternum whitish,
unmarked.
WINGS: Costal border of fore wings subhyaline, remainder of wings
clear. Hind wings long and thin, extending to posterior border of fore
wings. Hook of hind wing prominent.
LEGS: Unmarked; slightly paler than mesonotum.
ABDOMEN: Dorsally light brown, becoming paler on tergites 7-10. A
pair of reddish-brown stripes extend laterally on posterior borders of all
abdominal segments leaving a clear median area on posterior border, which
give impression of a median pale line extending length of abdomen. Stripes
especially well defined on tergites 1-4, becoming progressively less promi-
nent posteriorly, until they become very faint on tergite 10. Each stripe
extends about half way to lateral border of its respective segment. Venter
pale, unmarked.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: White, unmarked.
Description of Nymph (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-4.1-4.8 mm. (male nymphs smaller
than female); length of caudal filaments-1.5-1.7 mm.
HEAD: Grayish-brown and without distinctive markings. Distal seg-
ment of labial palp dialated, but not quite so much as that of C. viri-
docularis (see fig. 19).
THORAX: Grayish-brown, marked with an irregular pattern which is
slightly darker than ground color. Narrow, median, pale line extends
length of notum. Sternum pale. Pleurae marked with reddish brown.
LEGS: Buff colored. Femora pale at base, in middle and at distal end;
remainder banded with light brown. Tibiae with broad, light-brown band
in middle. Tarsi darker at base, pale distally; tarsal claws relatively
short and thick (see fig. 20).
ABDOMEN: Dorsally, abdomen brown, except for median and lateral
pale areas on anterior borders of segments 2-8; lateral pale areas covered
by gills. Posterior median pale area present on tergites 1-7; a pair of
reddish-brown stripes lie along posterior border of tergites 1-7, separated
by the posterior median pale area; each stripe extends laterally about half
way to lateral margin of segment. Posterior border of tergites 8-9 mar-
gined with an uninterrupted reddish-brown stripe which extends almost
to lateral margin of segments. Venter buff colored, unmarked. Spines
on lateral margins of segments 8-10. Gills on 1st abdominal segment
with recurved flap, all other gills single (see figs. 17 and 18). Branches
of main tracheae of gills predominantly directed medially.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Yellowish-white, annulate with brown.









VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


Holotype-female imago, in alcohol. Alachua Co., Florida, Santa Fe
River at Poe Springs (March 25, 1939). In collection of Museum of
Comparative Zoology.
Paratypes-2 female images, in alcohol. Alachua Co. Same data as
holotype (Feb. 11, 1939; March 25, 1939). 1 female in collection of Mu-
seum of Comparative Zoology, 1 female in author's collection.
LOCALITY RECORDS: Alachua Co., Santa Fe River at Poe
Springs (May 21, 1934, nymphs, coll. J. S. Rogers; March 12,
1938, nymphs; May 14, 1938, nymphs; Feb. 11, 1939, nymphs;
Feb. 18, 1939, nymphs; March 25, 1939, nymphs). Hillsborough
Co., Six-Mile Creek (March 26, 1938, nymphs); Hillsborough
River (Oct. 21, 1940, nymphs, coll. L. J. Marchand). Jackson
Co., 12.2 miles southeast of Marianna (June 9, 1938, nymphs).
Marion Co., Rainbow Springs (March 9, 1940, nymphs).

PSEUDOCLOEON Klapalek
Pseudocloeon bimaculatus n. sp.
Pseudocloeon bimaculatus is known from numerous nymphs,
five females, and one male. The male adult may be separated
from other species of the genus by its small size and the presence
of a pair of small red spots on its abdominal tergites. In many
respects, the male resembles P. veteris as described by Traver
in "The Biology of Mayflies," but differs chiefly in the size of
the wings, and its genitalia are more like those of P. dubium,
as illustrated in Fig. 168 of the above reference. The paired
red spots are present on the abdomen of females as well as
males. Nymphs may be separated from others of the genus
by the fact that the seventh pair of gills is deeply colored with
reddish brown -and, in addition, the banding of the caudal fila-
ments and the length of the median caudal filament in relation
to the width of the laterals are distinctive. The nymphs and
very clearly marked and can be identified with the naked eye
among other Florida species, since it is the only Pseudocloeon
found in this region in which the venter of the terminal ab-
dominal segments is deep red-brown.
Description of Holotypic Male Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-3.4 mm.; length of wings-3.3 mm.;
length of caudal filaments-7.3 mm.
HEAD: Uniformly brown. Turbinate eyes large, almost contiguous
basally; separated by a narrow brown line. Antennae brown.
THORAX: Dark brown; no distinctive maculation.
WINGS: Hyaline; stigmatic area whitish. Extreme base of subcosta
and RI brown, colorless distally; all other veins colorless.










80 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

LEGS: Fore legs missing. Coxae and trochantera brown; remainder
of legs yellowish white; tarsal claws brownish.
ABDOMEN: Abdominal segments 2-6 semi-hyaline, yellowish-white. A
pair of small submedian red spots in center of tergites 3-6; tergite 7 dark
brown, 8-10 lighter in color. Sternites 4 and 5 with median reddish
marking on posterior border. Sternites of segments 7-9 slightly paler
than tergites. Spiracular openings of pale segments marked with black
spot, which is continued forward as a dark line. Genitalia very similar
to those of P. dubium as illustrated in Fig. 168, "The Biology of May-
flies."
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: White, unmarked.

Description of Allotypic Female Imago (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-3.9 mm.; length of wings-4.3 mm.;
length of caudal filaments-7.0 mm.
HEAD: Light brown; no distinctive marking. Antennae brown.
THORAX: Pronotum light brown in median area, darker laterally.
Meso- and metanotum brown. Sternum brown, but paler than notum.
WINGS: Hyaline; stigmatic area whitish. Costal brace and that part
of subcosta and radius enclosed by brace are brownish; venation pale.
LEGS: Fore femur dusky, tibia and tarsus somewhat lighter in color.
Mid and hind legs yellowish white.
ABDOMEN: Dorsally, uniformly light brown. A pair of submedian
reddish spots near anterior margin of tergites 2-8. Venter pale, unmarked.
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Yellowish-white, unmarked.
VARIATIONS: Some females have reddish lines along posterior borders
of middle tergites.

Description of Nymph (in alcohol):
MEASUREMENTS: Length of body-3.4-4.0 mm.; length of caudal fila-
ments-1.8-2.5 mm.
HEAD: Brownish, with scattered, pale spotting. Basal antennal seg-
ments tinged with gray; a faint grayish band in outer fourth of flagellum.
THORAX: Dorsally light brown. Pronotum without special markings.
A pair of longitudinal, submedian, reddish dashes on mesonotum just
anterior to scutellum. Metanotum also with a pair of submedian reddish
spots. Pleurae pale except for deep reddish-brown marking covering area
anterior to middle and hind legs and extending from notum to sternum;
these are much more extensive in male nymphs than in female, and in the
latter may be considerably reduced in extent, sometimes the anterior
reddish-brown area may be reduced to a spot. In some of the more
strongly colored male nymphs, the areas may meet on the venter. Sternum
either pale or with some reddish-brown shading, which becomes rather
heavy in those specimens where pleural markings extend onto sternum.
LEGS: Pale, except for reddish-brown spot in middle of posterior face
of femora.
ABDOMEN: Light brown, strongly marked with reddish brown (see
fig. 8). A pair of small, submedian spots present on tergites 2-9; some-
times obscured on segment 2 and also on 6 and 7 in male nymphs. Pos-
terior margin of 1st tergite reddish-brown; median area of tergite 2 reddish










VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


brown. Tergites 6 and 7 in male nymphs almost entirely reddish brown,
with still darker areas in middle of tergite 6; some specimens with tergite
6 pale in anterior half, or with a pair of pale triangles projecting pos-
teriorly into reddish-brown areas. In other specimens, tergite 6 has heavy
reddish-brown, median marking and lateral lines with two longitudinal
pale areas separating the median and lateral markings. Female nymphs
normally lack extensive reddish-brown coloration on tergites 6 and 7,
but there may be a rather restricted red-brown area on tergite 6. Ven-
trally, there is frequently a large median dark brown spot on sternites
2-7. Sternites 1, 6 and 7 often reddish-brown, others pale. Sternite 1
nearly always reddish brown, even if 6 and 7 are pale; this is true of
both sexes. If sternites 6 and 7 are colored, the median spot is obscured
or absent. In some specimens, sternite 6 dark colored only on posterior
border and rarely sternites 8 and 9 are dark and 6 and 7 pale. If this
occurs, the same is true of the tergites and segments 8 and 9 are then
completely reddish-brown. The abdominal coloring is variable, but nearly
always two segments are dark colored. Gills 1-6 semi-hyaline, uncolored;
gill 7 deeply tinged with red-brown in basal % (see fig. 9).
CAUDAL FILAMENTS: Stub of median filament longer than width of
laterals at base. Lateral filaments yellowish-white, banded with brown
at middle and outer % brown.
Holotype-male imago, in alcohol (genitalia mounted on slide). Jack-
son Co., Florida, Blue Springs Creek at Marianna (July 1, 1939). In
collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Allotype-female imago, in alcohol. Mobile Co., Alabama, 2.3 miles
east of Irvington on U. S. Hwy. No. 90 (June 2, 1940).
Paratypes-3 female images, in alcohol. Same data as allotype. 2
females in collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1 female in
author's collection.
LOCALITY RECORDS: Bay Co., Fla., 16.8 miles north of Pana-
ma City (June 8, 1938, nymphs); 26 miles north of Panama
City (June 8, 1938, nymphs) ; 27.4 miles north of St. Andrews
(May 30, 1940, nymphs). Escambia Co., Bayou Marquis (June
1, 1940, nymphs). Jackson Co., 12.2 miles southeast of Mari-
anna (July 1, 1939, adults). Okaloosa Co., 5.1 miles west of
county line (June 7, 1938, nymphs; May 31, 1940, nymphs);
Crestview (Dec. 12, 1937, nymphs); Niceville (June 7, 1938,
nymphs). Walton Co., 7.3 miles west of Ebro (June 7, 1938,
nymphs) ; 5.4 miles west of Washington Co. line (May 31, 1940,
nymphs). Mobile Co., Alabama, 2.3 miles east of Irvington on
U. S. Hwy. No. 90 (June 2, 1940, nymphs and adults).

REFERENCES
BERNER, LEWIS. 1940. Baetine mayflies from Florida (Ephemeroptera).
Fla. Ent. 23: 33-45, 49-62, pls. 1 and 2.
.1941. The mayflies of Florida (Ephemeroptera). Ms. of
Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Fla., Pp. 1-446, 89 text figs., maps 1-21.









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


MCDUNNOUGH, J. 1931a. The bicolor group of the genus Ephemerella,
with particular reference to the nymphal stages. Canad. Ent. 63: 30-42,
61-68, plates 2-5.
- 1931b. The eastern North American species of the genus
Ephemerella and their nymphs. Canad. Ent. 63: 187-197, 201-216,
plates 11-14.
1931c. New North American Caeninae with notes. Canad.
Ent. 63: 254-268, plates 17-18.
NEEDHAM, J.G., TRAVER, J. R., and Hsu, Y. 1935. The Biology of Mayflies.
Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca.
TRAVER, J. R. 1934. New North American species of mayflies (Epher-
merida). Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 50: 189-254, pl. 16.
-. 1937. Notes on the mayflies of the Southeastern states.
(Ephemeroptera). Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 53: 27-86, pl. 6.


CUBAN LAUREL THRIPS CONTROL ON FICUS BENJAMIN
D. O. WOLFENBARGER
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead
An infestation of the Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips
uzeli (Zimm).1 became very severe on a Ficus benjamin Linn.
tree growing in the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station species
block. This tree, 131/2 inches in diameter at six inches above
ground level, was severely injured by a hurricane in 1945. As
a result the principal leaders of the tree were lost, and many
suckers began growing about on the large branch stubs. In
view of the severe infestation conditions must have been very
favorable for the thrips. These insects feed on the top leaf
surfaces in a manner characteristic for the group. This causes
the leaves to fold and/or to roll enclosing the thrips. Protection
and favorable conditions are therefore provided for the eggs,
young, and adults, living within the enveloping leaves.
Efforts to control this insect within the rolled leaves using
nicotine sulphate were only partially successful, according to
Professor Watson (personal correspondence). These efforts
were made some years ago, and before the advent of the more
recent organic insecticide developments.
It seemed worthwhile to try two new materials, DDT (1-
trichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane) and hexachlorocyclo-
hexane (HCCH ) in comparison with nicotine sulphate for
control of these thrips. Spray mixtures were prepared and
applied with a knapsack sprayer. Different materials were put
on different branches of the same tree by covering all branches

1 Kindly determined by Professor J. R. Watson.
2 This terminology is used although others, benzene hexachloride, "666",
and gammaxane, have been employed.
3The letters HCCH are herewith suggested to shorten and possibly
simplify the terminology of the name.









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


MCDUNNOUGH, J. 1931a. The bicolor group of the genus Ephemerella,
with particular reference to the nymphal stages. Canad. Ent. 63: 30-42,
61-68, plates 2-5.
- 1931b. The eastern North American species of the genus
Ephemerella and their nymphs. Canad. Ent. 63: 187-197, 201-216,
plates 11-14.
1931c. New North American Caeninae with notes. Canad.
Ent. 63: 254-268, plates 17-18.
NEEDHAM, J.G., TRAVER, J. R., and Hsu, Y. 1935. The Biology of Mayflies.
Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca.
TRAVER, J. R. 1934. New North American species of mayflies (Epher-
merida). Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 50: 189-254, pl. 16.
-. 1937. Notes on the mayflies of the Southeastern states.
(Ephemeroptera). Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 53: 27-86, pl. 6.


CUBAN LAUREL THRIPS CONTROL ON FICUS BENJAMIN
D. O. WOLFENBARGER
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead
An infestation of the Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips
uzeli (Zimm).1 became very severe on a Ficus benjamin Linn.
tree growing in the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station species
block. This tree, 131/2 inches in diameter at six inches above
ground level, was severely injured by a hurricane in 1945. As
a result the principal leaders of the tree were lost, and many
suckers began growing about on the large branch stubs. In
view of the severe infestation conditions must have been very
favorable for the thrips. These insects feed on the top leaf
surfaces in a manner characteristic for the group. This causes
the leaves to fold and/or to roll enclosing the thrips. Protection
and favorable conditions are therefore provided for the eggs,
young, and adults, living within the enveloping leaves.
Efforts to control this insect within the rolled leaves using
nicotine sulphate were only partially successful, according to
Professor Watson (personal correspondence). These efforts
were made some years ago, and before the advent of the more
recent organic insecticide developments.
It seemed worthwhile to try two new materials, DDT (1-
trichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane) and hexachlorocyclo-
hexane (HCCH ) in comparison with nicotine sulphate for
control of these thrips. Spray mixtures were prepared and
applied with a knapsack sprayer. Different materials were put
on different branches of the same tree by covering all branches

1 Kindly determined by Professor J. R. Watson.
2 This terminology is used although others, benzene hexachloride, "666",
and gammaxane, have been employed.
3The letters HCCH are herewith suggested to shorten and possibly
simplify the terminology of the name.









VOL. XXVIII-No. 4


with a heavy canvas except the one being treated. After a
branch leader was sprayed it was covered and another was left
uncovered for treatment. The treatment materials used, in
order of application, and in percentage of active ingredient, are
given as follows:
Nicotine sulphate .--. --... ...-...... ................... 0.125
DDT em ulsion* .......................................--.. 0.125
DDT emulsion* plus Lethane 60* ...--.- 0.125 and 0.250
HCCH** ...... --------........ -- ......------........ 0.10
Check ........................................ .......... -
Furnished by Rohm & Haas Company. Philadelphia.
** Furnished by E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Wilmington.
Periodically after treatment the thrips on each of 10 leaves
taken from branches of each of the different treatment materials
were counted. The total thrips recorded on the 10 different
leaves, for each count day, and for each treatment is given as
follows:

No. Days Treatment material
After Treatment DDT + Nicotine Check
to Count HCCH Lethane 60 DDT Sulphate

2 0 5 26 88 190
5 0 0 3 122 150
7 0 1 0 84 145
10 1 0 0 180 195
14 0 3 0 60 240
Totals 1 9 29 534 920

In order of fewest thrips per treatment count, the HCCH
ranked first, having given almost perfect control, followed by
DDT plus Lethane 60, DDT, nicotine sulphate, and check. The
data suggest that the DDT plus Lethane 60 gave a quicker
knockdown and kill than the DDT alone, especially over the
first five days following the treatment. The nicotine sulphate
count was less for each day's record than the check, and its
average of control, based on totals, was 42 percent.
There was no apparent foliage injury from any treatment.
A slight whitish residue remained from the HCCH; no observ-
able residue remained from the other treatments. By 12 to 14
days after treatment new leaves had developed to the extent
that thrips had infested them. Thorough treatment of the entire
trees on a nearby place with DDT emulsion indicates that a
reinfestation time of longer than two weeks may be expected
where more complete control is obtained through treatment of
all infested leaves. Mailed July 5, 1946




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs