Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1948
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Volume ID: VID00239
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?'he


Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

VOL. XXX JANUARY, 1948 No. 4

A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE CONTROL OF THE
GREEN PEACH APHID ON SHADE GROWN
TOBACCO IN FLORIDA

By
J. W. WILSON, E. G. KELSHEIMER, J. T. GRIFFITHS and A. N. TIssOT'

FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
In April 1947, My:..:- persicae (Sulz.), commonly known as
the green peach aphid, was found to be present in large numbers
on shade grown tobacco in Gadsden County, Florida. The fol-
lowing is an account of the facts which are known concerning
the outbreak and a report on the testing of a number of insecti-
cides which will be available for use on the 1948 crop.
Chamberlin and Madden 2 have reported observing Myzus
persicae (Sulz.) on tobacco in noneconomic numbers in a few
instances during past years. In a conversation, Dr. R. R. Kin-
caid, Pathologist at the North Florida Experiment Station,
recalled that growers had observed small infestations of aphids
on tobacco at different times over the past fifteen years. They
were probably never of any economic importance until 1946.
During that season one grower in the western part of Gadsden
County suffered almost a complete crop loss. At the same time
there was considerable damage to some shades in the Madison
area of Madison County. There were several other small in-
festations in the western part of Gadsden County, but they
resulted in only minor damage.
Shade grown tobacco in Florida is characterized by an ex-
tremely high cost of production per acre. However, returns on
Entomologists at the Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford,
Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake
Alfred and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, respec-
tively.
Chamberlin, F. S., and Madden, A. H. Insect Pests of Cigar-type
Tobaccos in the Southern Districts. U.S.D.A. Circular 639, p. 51, 1942.










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


She
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

VOL. XXX JANUARY, 1948 No. 4


THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1947-48
President................................--...........----...........-. E. G. KELSHEIMER
Vice President....-.....-..........-......- .........................-M. C. VAN HORN
Secretary .....-------...............-.............- ........................... LEWIS BERNER
Treasurer -......................--...............................-..............G. W DEKLE
J. C. GOODWIN
Executive Committee-....- .......-- .....-- ....--- J. C. GOODWRIFFITHS JR
I J. T. GRIFFITHS, JR.
EDITORIAL BOARD
H. K. WALLACE-...- ..-..i--.-.....---..................... Editor
G. B. MERRILL .. ......-----.........-- .....-- Associate Editor
G. W. DEKLE- --------....---- Business Manager

Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the Society.
Subscription price to non-members $2.00 per year in advance; 50 cents
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Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
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tions, and orders for back numbers to the Secretary, Dr. Lewis Berner,
Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Dues to Mr.
G. W. Dekle, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida.
The actual cost of preparing cuts for all illustrations must be borne
by contributors. Reprints of articles may be secured by authors if they are
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furnished free to authors.

REPRINTS WITHOUT COVERS
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50 copies....................1.60 2.00 2.70 4.25 6.70| 7.25 9.40 10.40 12.05 12.80
100 copies..................... 1.95 2.40 3.20 5.10 7.801 8.60 11.00 12.95 15.10 16.20
Add 100 copies..................... .75 .751.101.60 2.701 3.10 3.70 4.80 5.85 6.20
In most instances whole numbers can be furnished more cheaply than
reprints.
Additional for Covers, with Titles and Author's Name
25 copies ..............................$3.50 100 copies ..............................$5.00









VOL. XXX-No. 4


investment are excellent, and they justify the expense involved.
It is estimated that by the time the tobacco has been transplanted
to the shade, from 60 to 85 percent of the cost of producing the
crop has been made. A 2 percent crop loss is considered to be
a commercial one. During the 1947 season when aphid injury
was severe, some shades were a total loss and the damage in
others ranged from practically nothing to almost complete de-
struction. Aphid injury was characterized by a brown necrotic
condition of heavily infested leaves. Honey dew, excreted by
the aphids dropped on the foliage, and when leaves with honey
dew were strung and dried, it was found that they stuck to-
gether, were dead and brittle, and would be unsatisfactory for
market. Therefore, it is obvious that methods must be found
for successfully combating this menace to the shade tobacco
industry in Florida.

HISTORY OF INFESTATIONS
Although the green peach aphid has been present in Florida
for many years, it was first recorded as breeding on tobacco by
A. N. Tissot in 1943.3 It has a wide variety of host plants in
Florida and has been collected from at least 70 different plants.
At present, there is no evidence to point to any particular plant
or crop as the source of the infestations which occurred in the
tobacco fields.
In 1946, the known aphid infestations were located in the
western part of Gadsden County and some were also reported
from Madison County. In 1947, the first aphid infestation was
reported to the North Florida Experiment Station on April 24
and it was located in western Gadsden County. Shortly there-
after other reports followed and a few came from the central
and eastern parts of the County. In general, although the
tobacco acreage is similar in the eastern and western parts of
the County, more and heavier infestations existed in the western
part, which was the same section in which the severe 1946
infestations occurred. By July 1947, all shades in the County
were believed to contain aphids.
It has been impossible to determine satisfactorily the sources
of the infestations in the shade grown fields. Two alternatives
exist: either the aphids were introduced on plants at the time
of transplanting, or winged aphids entered through the shade

3 Unpublished record based on slides in the collection of the Entomology
Department, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.






THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


cloth. There is some evidence to substantiate both contentions.
In some instances several shades were planted from a single
plant bed and all had aphid infestations. In one case, aphids
were found in a plant bed from which a shade had been set
about 2 weeks previously. At that time there were heavy aphid
populations in part of the plant bed. An examination of the
shade showed numerous plants with infestations consisting of
10-30 aphids. This appeared to be a definite instance where
aphids were carried into the shade with the plants.
One shade in which the aphids were first noted about July 1,
was a semi-isolated one near Scotland. On that date infested
spots were found in the shade and all were marginal. The size
of the colonies indicated that they were of less than a month's
standing. In this case, therefore, it appeared that the infesta-
tion was initiated by winged aphids which entered through the
shade. In many shades infestations were marginal and in others
they were scattered through the shades. Since aphids could
enter through the top as well as the sides of the shade, no definite
conclusions could be drawn. Shades free from aphids could
easily have aphids introduced by workmen coming from infested
shades. In general it appeared that shades were infested by
both methods and both must be considered in planning a control
program.
Within the shades the aphid infestations followed a regular
pattern. When an infestation was first found, it usually in-
cluded only a local area comprised of several adjacent stalks in
one row and an occasional plant in an adjacent row. The size of
the infestations grew in the same pattern, with most of the
spread lengthwise along the rows. This was probably accounted
for by the fact that aphids could easily move from one plant
to another in a given row. In addition, laborers in the shade
working along the rows would tend to scatter aphids to other
parts of the shade and even to other shades. It was noted that
the aphid populations on young, new leaves consisted almost
entirely of wingless forms, whereas there were many winged
individuals on older, more mature leaves. Thus, as the leaves
mature, more of the aphids grow wings and fly to other parts
of the shade. This factor explains why spot dusting as practiced
by some growers was often unsuccessful. By the time an in-
festation was found it had already served as a starting point
for several new infestations. Even if all the aphids in it were
killed, many other spots within the shade were already infested.









VOL. XXX-No. 4


At that time only good, over-all treatment could have prevented
general infestation.
Control methods in 1947 ranged from no treatment at all
to a systematic application of certain materials. Since the
growers were alarmed and often frantic, many control methods
were used that were not at all practical. Some of the new
chlorine compounds such as chlordane and benzene hexachloride
were used with varying results. Most of the materials were
compounded with tobacco dust which varied considerably in
quality. Some of it was damp and lumpy. Tobacco dust was
generally used as a diluent because the growers felt that it
deposited less undesirable residue than other diluents. Normally,
a thoroughly dry tobacco powder would remain usable through-
out the year, but if the container was left open, or if it was
exposed to the elements it would draw dampness and wouldn't
make a good dusting diluent.
Another material widely used was 1 percent and 2 percent
rotenone in tobacco dust. This mixture was primarily used
for the control of flea beetles. Three percent and 4 percent
nicotine dusts were used extensively. A few growers used
liquid nicotine sulfate and hexaethyl tetraphosphate for spot
spraying, with generally erratic results.
As stated previously, the effectiveness of these applications
varied with the operation. Chlordane at first gave an excellent
kill, but later applications (perhaps of a different compounding)
did not prove effective. Regular and thorough applications with
rotenone gave a fair degree of control. Benzene hexachloride
(1.5 percent gamma isomer) was perhaps as effective as any.
However, on young plants a temporary chlorosis sometimes
developed. Wherever any material piled up on a leaf a distor-
tion of the leaf resulted from which it apparently never re-
covered.
APHICIDE TESTS
Experiments to determine the efficacy of a number of differ-
ent aphicides were initiated on July 4, 1947, and were continued
through July and August. They were preliminary in nature,
but will serve as a guide to materials which are promising for
aphid control on shade grown tobacco.
METHODS.-Early experiments were performed on a small
scale on only a few heavily infested plants for each treatment.
All materials were applied as dusts with a hand duster. Aphid









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


counts were made by taking samples from each of five treated
plants. The plants were sampled by cutting a disk from the
same area of a leaf on each plant. The disks were two inches
in diameter and were cut from the tobacco leaf with a cookie
cutter. Each leaf disk was placed in a separate petri dish which
bore an appropriate number for purposes of. identification. The
petri dishes containing the tobacco leaf disks were taken to the
laboratory where the aphids were counted.
In the later tests conducted in growers' shades, heavily in-
fested plants in each plot were marked with red tags before
the aphicides were applied. Samples for determining the effec-
tiveness of the materials were taken from these plants. It was
necessary to use this method of marking infested plants because
even in heavily infested shades the infestations were spotted.
If a purely random method of sampling had been used a very
large number of samples would have been required in order to
obtain a representative sample of the aphid population. The
dust materials were applied with a Root hand duster operated
by an experienced laborer who did not know the meaning of
the marks used. Thus the marked plants received as nearly as
possible the same treatment as the remainder of the plants in
the plot.
In the experiment conducted on the seed beds, a procedure
developed by Dr. R. R. Kincaid in his blue mold investigations
was used. The plots were 3 x 5 feet in area. An 8-inch board
was set up at the boundary of each plot. The dust materials
were applied under a rectangular tent constructed to fit over
the plots, with a small plunger type dust gun manufactured by
H. D. Hudson Manufacturing Company. By this method meas-
ured quantities could be applied without any drift to adjacent
plots. Counts of aphids were made by plucking five leaves from
each plot, a leaf from each corner and one from the center. These
leaves were placed in numbered petri dishes and taken into the
laboratory where the aphids were counted. The plots were ar-
ranged according to a random design and replicated three times.
TEST AT THE NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION.-In-
secticides for this test were applied on July 4 in a shade grown
by R. R. Kincaid for seed production. Results of this test based
on aphid counts made 24 hours, 72 hours, 8 days, and 14 days
after application of the materials are presented in Table 1.
Two weeks after treatment the aphid populations in plots treated
with 20 percent and 10 percent toxaphene, benzene hexachloride










VOL. XXX-No. 4


TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF APHIDS PRESENT ON PLOTS TREATED WITH VARIOUS
APHICIDES AT THE END OF 24 HOURS, 72 HOURS, 8 DAYS AND 14 DAYS
AFTER TREATMENT.

Number of Aphids on 5 Leaf
Treatment Samples After Treatment
24 72 8 14
Hours Hours Days Days

Methoxy DDT 3% (in pyrophyllite) ...---- 160 30 67 73
Toxaphene1 20% (in pyrophyllite) ............ 45 5 9 13
Toxaphene 10% (in pyrophyllite) .............. 81 6 17 25
T 65 2 ...........................--- .........- ... .............. 24 9 44 108
T 66 3 ..............................................-.................. 18 25 86 172
BHC', 1.5% gamma isomer (in pyro-
phyllite) .......................................................... 4 1 7 25
Isotox 5, 1.5% gamma isomer (in pyro-
phyllite) .....-................................---. ... 43 8 47 160
Chlordane 6 5% (in pyrophyllite) ................ 100 33 48 39
Fixed Nicotine 3% (in pyrophyllite) '-----_ 7 8 39 77
Activated Nicotine 4% .................................. 0 3 98 81
Rotenone 1% (in tobacco dust) .................... 65 13 10 26
Rotenone 2% (in pyrophyllite) ..........-........ 109 10 6 3
Check ..................... -----......--------. 156 151 112 305
Chlordane 6 5% (in pyrophyllite) ................ 87 24 23 27
Chlordane 5% (in tobacco dust) .................. 15 19 17 37


I A chlorinated camphene having the formula Cio Hio Cla.
2Contains 0.625% piperonyl cyclohexenone and 0.05% pyrethrins.
3 Contains 0.625% piperonyl butoxide and 0.05% pyrethrins.
4 Benzene hexachloride.
5 Refined benzene hexachloride made from a high-gamma base and
objectionable odor.
6 The chlordane came from different sources.


having less of the


(1.5 percent gamma isomer), 1 percent rotenone, 2 percent
rotenone, and 5 percent chlordane were still low in comparison
with the check plot and plots treated with other materials.
TESTS CONDUCTED IN MR. CHARLES THOMAS' SHADE.-On
July 10 the materials listed in the first section of Table 2 were
applied in Mr. Charles Thomas' shade. The dust materials
were applied with a Root hand duster. The liquid materials
were applied with an atomizing machine manufactured by the
Hession Microsol Corporation and supplied by the Gulf Fer-
tilizer Company.
For the application of liquid materials to shade grown tobacco
this machine has a number of disadvantages: (1) The machine
is too large to be used in mature tobacco. (2) The high speed
fan used to break up the liquid into small particles draws numer-
ous leaves against the guard screen, thus destroying too much
tobacco. (3) The machine does not give a good coverage on
mature tobacco. Since growers report that tobacco free of










52 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

TABLE 2.-SUMMARY OF DATA FROM TESTS CONDUCTED IN MR. CHARLES
THOMAS' SHADE. MATERIALS APPLIED JULY 10, 14 AND 18, 1947.

Total Number of
Date of Aphids on 5 Leaf Sam-
Material and Concentration Applica- ples After Treatment
tion 48 72 8
Hours Hours Days

Chlordane, 5% dust ........-...-................. 14 11 -
3422 1% dust ..---.........-.......................... 0 0 1
Nicotine Sulphate 1-400 .......................... 47 52 -
Chlordane emulsion 40 oz.-100 gal.... July 46 99 -
Chlordane emulsion 80 oz.-100 gal. .... 10 52 40 -
Nicotine Sulphate 1-800 .......................... 49 60 -
Check ........................................ ......... 121 147 345


Check ......... -----------........................ 82 49
HETP 2 1-1600 ...........--..---..........- ..-..-- 164 65
HETP 1-800 --- ---..................- ........ July 4 10
TEP 1-3200 ...............................-.......... 14 70 19
TEP 1-1600 ... ....-- ..--------- ---- -----.. 11 6
TE P 1-800 ........................................... 3 9


Dusts:
Toxaphene 10% ......-...............--...-------. 18 0
Toxaphene 5% ......---- ---...................... .. 15 2
BHC 1.5% gamma ................................. 0 0
Isotox 1.5% gamma isomer ................. July 17 5
Chlordane 10% ......................................... 18 138 65
Fixed Nicotine 4% .............--.......-----..... 86 93
3422 1% .-----------.................................... 5 3
Check ............. ................................... 99 167

1 0, o-diethyl o-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate. 3422 is known now as Parathion.
2 Hexaethyl tetraphosphate.
2 Tetraethyl pyrophosphate.
4 Benzene hexachloride.
5 Trade name for refined BHC. Dust made up from material originally containing 85%
gamma isomer.
6 No counts were made in plots where figures are not given as casual observations
showed high aphid populations in all of them. No counts were made at 8 days in plots
treated July 14 and 18.

aphids to within 3 to 4 weeks of maturity suffered serious
damage as a result of aphid attack after the plants were almost
mature, a machine designed for use in shade grown tobacco
must be capable of covering both the young and mature plants.
(4) The machine requires large quantities of water to cover
an acre. This requires frequent filling and increases the weight
to be drawn by a mule.
A summary of the data gathered from these tests is presented
in Table 2. Eight days after treatment there were practically
no aphids on the plot treated with 3422 (0, o-diethyl o-p-nitro-










VOL. XXX-No. 4 53

phenyl thiophosphate). The comparatively poor results ob-
tained with the liquid sprays of HETP and TEP were believed
to be due to poor coverage. Counts of aphids could not be made
after July 20 because the tobacco in the treated plots was
harvested on that date.
TESTS CONDUCTED IN MR. EDMOND CORRY'S SHADE.-These
tests were performed in a shade of late planted tobacco. The
owner, Mr. Edmond Corry, set aside approximately a half acre
for the experiment. The data gathered from the tests conducted
in Mr. Corry's shade are summarized, in Table 3. On August 4
a heavy rain began falling immediately after the application of
the materials was completed. Still an excellent control of aphids
was obtained in the plot treated with 3422 where only 14 pounds
per acre was applied.

TABLE 3.-SUMMARY OF DATA FROM THREE APPLICATIONS OF APHICIDES
APPLIED TO THE SAME PLOTS IN EDMOND CORRY'S SHADE JULY 21, 29
AND AUGUST 4, 1947.
Pounds
Applied Total Number of Aphids
Material and Concentration per Acre July 21 1 July 29 1 August 4
July Aug.] 48* 72* 48* 72* 48* 9*
2_9 4 Hrs. Hrs. Hrs. Hrs. Hrs. Days
Check ................... .............. 219 224 102 241 171 86
Toxaphene 10% .................... 28 21 50 29 54 61 103 43
Toxaphene 5% ................ 17.5 31.5 99 55 66 75 69 38
BHC1 1.5% gamma isomer 21 28 97 68 16 28 27 56
Isotox2 1.5% gamma isomer 14 14 29 39 56 50 36 42
Chlordane 5% ............... 31.5 164 174 **3 27
Fixed Nicotine 4% .............. 14 17.5 74 115 145 81
34223 1% ........................... 14 0 0 0 0 ***5 3

In all of the above materials tobacco dust was used as a diluent except
the dust containing Chlordane. Talc was used as a diluent in this mixture.
Records of amounts of materials applied July 21 were not kept.
After treatment.
** Treated with 1% 3422 at the rate of 14 pounds per acre.
*** Not treated.
SBenzene hexachloride.
2 Refined BHC. Dust made from 85% gamma isomer.
3 0, o-diethyl o-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate.

SEED BED TREATMENTS.-A seed bed at the North Florida
Experiment Station was made up and fertilized in accordance
with the standard practices of the area. The seed were planted
on July 5 and began coming up July 13. The plants grew very
rapidly and were ready for transplanting August 6. The bed










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


was dusted on July 28 at the rate of 20 pounds per acre with
5 percent DDT for flea beetle control and on August 6 with 50
percent arsenate of lead in tobacco dust for fall army worm
control. Applications of 20 percent Fermate in talc, at the rate
of 20 pounds per acre, were made to the whole seed bed area
on the following dates: July 30, August 4, 6, 12, and 14. Aphids
were introduced by placing heavily infested tobacco leaves in
each plot on July 27, 30 and August 5. Applications of the aphi-
cides were made at the rate of 33 pounds per acre on July 29,
August 2 and 8. Check plots were treated with 20 percent
fermate on these dates. Counts of aphids made July 31 and
August 4, 48 hours after the first and second applications of the
materials, indicated that the aphid population was too small
for the data to be valid. For this reason only the counts made
following the third application are given in Table 4. Table 5
presents the composition of the materials used. After three
applications of these materials there was no indication of injury
to the young seedlings. It will be noted from Table 4 that 3422,
rotenone, Isotox, benzene hexachloride, and toxaphene, with and

TABLE 4.-SUMMARY OF THE DATA FROM COUNT MADE 24, 48 AND 72 HOURS
AFTER APPLICATION OF VARIOUS MATERIALS FOR APHID CONTROL IN SEED
BEDS. MATERIALS APPLIED AUGUST 8, 1947. FIGURES GIVEN ARE MEANS
OF THREE APPLICATIONS.

Mean Number of
Treat- Aphids at Intervals
ment After Treatment Materials
No. 24 48 72
Hours Hours Hours_

1 0 0 0.33 3422 1% and 20% Fermate
'2 1.50 0.66 0 Rotenone 1.6% and 20% Fermate
3 0.33 0 0 Isotox 1.5% gamma isomer and 20% Fermate
4 0 0 0 BHC 1.5% gamma isomer and 20% Fermate
5 0 1.33 0.33 Toxaphene 10% and 20% Fermate
6 4.33 6.33 10.33 Fixed Nicotine 4% and 20% Fermate
7 1.66 2.66 3.33 Chlordane 5% and 20% Fermate
16 3.00 4.33 4.00 HETP 5% and 20% Fermate
8 0 0 0 3422 1%
9 0 0 1.66 Rotenone 2%
10 0.33 0 0 Isotox 1.5% gamma isomer
11 0.33 0 0 BHC 1.5% gamma isomer
12 0.66 0 0 Toxaphene 10%
13 13.33 7.66 4.66 Fixed Nicotine 4%
14 4.33 3.33 5.00 Chlordane 5%
15 13.33 16.33 9.66 Check
17 1.66 1.00 2.66 HETP 5%

For the 72-hour count differences between means required for signifi-
cance at the 1% point are 6.1 and 5% point 4.5.











VOL. XXX-No. 4


TABLE 5.-COMPOSITION OF THE VARIOUS MATERIALS USED FOR APHID
CONTROL IN THE SEED BED AT THE NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION.


Treat-
ment
No.



1

2
3


4


5
6

7
8

9
10


11


12
13

14
15
16
17


Made Up
from
Concen-
trate
Con-
taining
Percent

1

2

25


6

40
14

50
1

2

25


6

40
14

40

Unknown
Unknown


Source of
Concentrate


Active Ingredient
Percent



DNTP 0.8% ....-...-

Rotenone 1.6 ---..
Isotox 1.5%
gamma isomer ..

BHC 1.5%
gamma isomer ..

Toxaphene 10% ....
Fixed Nicotine 4%

Chlordane 5% ......
3422 1% .-...-........

Rotenone 2% ........
Isotox 1.5%
gamma isomer ..

BHC 1.5%
gamma isomer _

Toxaphene 10% ...
Fixed Nicotine 4%

Chlordane 5% ......
Check .
HETP 5% ...........
HETP 5% ............


1 The diluent used in the concentrates is unknown. Attaclay or other inert clays are
commonly used. Talc was used in all the mixtures prepared at the Experiment Station.
2 Prepared by the Company furnishing the materials; diluent used unknown.

without 20 percent fermate, gave practically a complete control
of the aphids. Although statistically there is no significant
difference between the HETP dust and the other materials listed
above, it is believed that the number of aphids found in the
HETP plots is too high for seed beds. The HETP dust also
has the serious disadvantage of being very unstable. This
particular mixture of HETP was of very poor quality. It con-
tained lumps and foreign material. Since these results were
obtained under conditions prevailing in July and August, they
may not be comparable to 'results obtained during the normal
growing season.


Fer-
mate
Per-
cent


American Cyanamid
Co. .................... ..
Unknown ............--

Calif. Spray-Chem.
Co. .........................

Calif. Spray-Chem.
C o. .........................
Hercules Powder Co.
Tobacco By-Products
Co. ..........................
Dow Chemical Co. ....
American Cyanamid
Co. .......- ....-...- ...- -
Unknown ..........

Calif. Spray-Chem.
Co. ...................

Calif. Spray-Chem.
Co ...................... ....
Hercules Powder Co.
Tobacco By-Products
C o ..........................
Dow Chemical Co. ..

Walker Fertilizer Co.
Walker Fertilizer Co.
I


Talc or
Other1
Inert
Clay
Percent


79.22
78.42


78.5


78.5
70.0

76.0
75.0

99.0
98.02


98.5


98.5
90.0

96.0
95.0

75.02
95.02









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Although the green peach aphid had been observed on shade
grown tobacco prior to 1946 it had never been of economic im-
portance until that season.
During the 1946 crop season, crop losses resulting from
the attack of the green peach aphid were reported from re-
stricted localities in Gadsden and Madison Counties.
Severe damage resulting in an almost complete loss of the
crop was experienced by a number of growers in the shade
tobacco area during the 1947 season. Very few growers passed
through the season without some aphid damage to their crop.
Investigation of methods of control of this aphid were ini-
tiated at the North Florida Experiment Station during June
1947. Results of experiments conducted in a shade grown for
seed production and in two late planted commercial shades, show
that a dust containing 1 percent 0, o-diethyl o-p-nitrophenyl
thiophosphate is superior to other materials used.
Data from the experiment conducted in the seed bed showed
that dusts containing 1 percent 3422, 1.6 percent rotenone,
1.5 percent gamma isomer in both the crude and refined forms
of benzene hexachloride and 10 percent toxaphene with and
without 20 percent fermate gave excellent control of aphids
without any injurious effect upon the plants.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The writers wish to express their appreciation to Mr. J. D. Warner,
Vice-Director in Charge of the North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy,
and to Dr. R. R. Kincaid and other members of the staff for their help
and courteous cooperation in this work. To Mr. Ted Basset, Farm Super-
intendent at the North Florida Experiment Station, recognition is due for
his untiring efforts and skill in the management of the seedbed. Mr. F. S.
Chamberlin of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine gave
valuable and helpful suggestions and advice. Mr. A. G. Driggers, County
Agent of Gadsden County, rendered helpful service in many ways. To
Mr. Frank Holland of the Florida Agricultural Research Institute, credit
should be given in expediting equipment and materials used in our tests.
Mr. Leonard Vance of the Southern Chemical Sales and Service Company
was always Willing to help us secure material and meet growers. The
authors are indebted to the Companies mentioned in Table 5 for supplying
various insecticides. Finally, the growers cooperated in every way to help
in this survey.









VOL. XXX-NO. 4


A PRELIMINARY KEY TO THE WORKER ANTS OF
ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
ARNOLD F. VAN PELT

The following key is an outgrowth of a study on the ecology
of the ants of the Gainesville region and vicinity in Alachua
County, Florida. It is based, with modifications, on the work
of Cole (1940), Creighton (1939), Gregg (1944), Smith (1936,
1942a, 1942b, 1943, 1944, 1947), and Wheeler (1910).
Certain groups, such as the subgenus Diplorhoptrum of the
genus Solenopsis, contain more representatives from the region
studied than the key indicates. These forms have not been in-
cluded because of the uncertainty of their taxonomic status.
They differ only slightly from other forms in the key. Under
certain other genera forms are listed as "Species A" or "Species
B". These are not to be considered new until further diagnoses
can prove or disprove their correspondence with known species,
subspecies, or varieties. The term "var." indicates that the
specimens involved are atypical of the species or subspecies.
The record of Iridomyrmex humilis is included on the au-
thority of Wheeler (1932), but Smith (in litt) states that he
questions its validity.
The ant list for Alachua County as here presented cannot
be considered complete, but it is felt that it will serve as a basis
for future myrmecological work in Florida, if not in the most
northern and southern districts, at least in the central district.
Thanks are due the members of the Department of Biology
of the University of Florida for suggestions and aid. I am
particularly indebted to Dr. M. R. Smith of the United States
National Museum for aid in the determination of the more
difficult forms and for his permission to redraw the figures
appearing in his 1947 paper. The American Midland Naturalist
has also kindly granted permission for the redrawing of Smith's
figures. Miss Esther Coogle, of this department, has ably exe-
cuted the drawings. In some cases the ants represented are
not found in Alachua County, but these are included to show
subgeneric characters.

1Contribution from the Department of Biology, University of Florida.










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES 2
1. Abdominal pedicel composed of two segments, the petiole and post-
petiole ............................ ...................................... .......................... 2
1'. Abdominal pedicel composed of a single segment, the petiole ....---.....--.. 4
2(1). Frontal carinae located very close to each other and not covering
the antennal insertions ..........--- .........-------------.... ..................... 3
2'. Frontal carinae not placed close to each other and each often bearing
a lobe which more or less conceals the antennal insertion; clypeus
almost always prolonged back between the frontal carinae ................
MYRMICINAE
3(2). Eye remarkably large, reniform or subelliptical, occupying approxi-
mately half the length of the side of the head; ocelli usually
present; clypeus not prolonged back between the frontal carinae
PSEUDOMYRMINAE
3'. Eye either absent or vestigal, ocellus-like; no ocelli ...------. DORYLINAE
4(1'). Cloacal orifice circular, terminal, surrounded by a fringe of hairs
FORMICINAE
4'. Cloacal orifice not as described above .....---....-.......----------..-------..---- 5
5(4'). No constriction between the first and second gastric segments; in-
tegument usually soft, flexible; sting rudimentary or absent; anal
glands present which produce a characteristic "tapinoma odor"
DOLICHODERINAE
5'. A pronounced constriction between the first and second gastric segments
PONERINAE
KEY TO THE DORYLINAE
1. Head distinctly shining, never densely sculptured or opaque ............
Eciton opacithorax Emery
1'. Head, thorax, petiole, and postpetiole densely punctate, opaque, with
scattered foveolate impressions (Plate I, Fig. 1) ............................
Eciton nigrescens (Cresson)

KEY TO THE PONERINAE
1. Mandibles inserted at the corners of the head; petiole rounded or
flattened above ........................ ---------------- ----- -----------2

SThe subfamily Cerapachyinae is not represented in Alachua County.

PLATE I
Fig. 1. Eciton (Neivamyrmex) nigrescens (Cresson), worker.
Fig. 2. Euponera (Trachymesopus) gilva (Roger), worker.
Fig. 3. Ponera coarctata pennsylvanica Buckley, worker.
Fig. 4. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) elongata (Buckley), worker.
Fig. 5. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) treatae Forel, worker.
Fig. 6. Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel, worker.
Fig. 7. Crematogaster (Orthocrema) minutissima missouriensis Emery,
worker.
Fig. 8. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) laeviuscula var. clara Mayr, worker.
Fig. 9. Monomorium (Monomorium) minimum (Buckley), worker.
Fig. 10. Xenomyrmex stolli floridanus Emery, worker.
Fig. 11. Solenopsis (Solenopsis) xyloni McCook, soldier.
Fig. 12. Solenopsis (Euopthalma) globularia littoralis Creighton, worker.










VOL. XXX-No. 4


PLATE I






1























4 10








.5 ,J II 5
,-" s' 2










60 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

1'. Mandibles inserted close together at the middle of the oral border;
petiole terminating in a spine or point above .................................
Odontomachus haematoda insularis Guerin
2(1). Claws pectinate (similar to Plate I, Fig. 4) .....--.-------------..-......
Leptogenys elongata manni Wheeler
2'. Claw s sim ple .................................................. ............. 3
3(2'). Tibiae of middle and hind legs each with a single spur....Ponera Latr.
3'. Tibiae of middle and hind legs each with 2 spurs, the smaller being
sometimes difficult to discern (Plate I, Fig. 2) ................--------
Euponera gilva (Roger)

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Ponera
1. Petiole when viewed in lateral profile slender, sub-triangular (that is,
narrower dorsally than ventrally) ........ trigona var. opacior Forel
1'. Petiole when viewed in lateral profie robust, sub-rectangular (that is,
approximately as wide dorsally as ventrally) ................................ 2
2(1'). Head with dense, coarse punctures, subopaque (Plate I, Fig. 3) ...
coarctata pennsylvanica Buckley
2'. Head densely, but more finely punctate, thus giving the general surface
a subopaque appearance but lacking the coarse granular effect ....
opaciceps Mayr

KEY TO THE PSEUDOMYRMINAE
1. Color red-brown to dark brown; about 4.0 mm. in body length ................
Pseudomyrma brunnea F. Smith
1'. Color light to dark yellow; about 5.0 mm. in body length ..................
Pseudomyrma flavidula F. Smith

KEY TO THE MYRMICINAE
1. Antennae with six segments ...................... Strumigenys louisiana Roger
1'. Antennae with more than six segments ................. .......-----------------.....--- 2




PLATE II
Fig. 13. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) pergandei Forel, worker.
Fig. 14. Leptothorax (Dichothorax) sp., worker.
Fig. 15. Trachymyrmex septentrionalis obscurior seminole Wheeler, worker.
Fig. 16. Dolichoderus (Hypoclinea). taschenbergi Mayr, worker.
Fig. 17. Dorymyrmex (Conomyrma) pyramicus flavopectus M. R. Smith,
worker.
Fig. 18. Brachymyrmex (Brachymyrmex) sp., worker.
Fig. 19. Camponotus (Myrmothrix) abdominalis floridanus (Buckley),
major worker.
Fig. 20. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) caryae nearcticus Emery, major
worker.
Fig. 21. Camponotus (Colobopsis) etiolatus Wheeler, soldier.
Fig. 22. Paratrechina (Paratrechina) longicornis (Latreille), worker.
Fig. 23. Paratrechina (Nylanderia) parvula (Mayr), worker.
Fig. 24. Formica (Neoformica) pallidefulva schaufussi Mayr, worker.










VOL. XXX-No. 4

PLATE II


101'4










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


2(1'). Antennae with ten segments, the last two segments of the funiculus
forming a distinct club ...................................... Solenopsis Westwood
2'. Antennae with more than ten segments .................................................... 3
3(2'). Antennae with eleven segments ..............------------- ..-----..-----..-- 4
3'. Antennae with twelve segments .........-............-............----------.......---- 7
4(3). Postpetiole attached to dorsal surface of the base of the gaster;
gaster subcordate, more convex ventrally than dorsally and with
an acute apex ..............-..............--.......- ............. Crematogaster Lund
4'. Postpetiole attached to basal surface of gaster; gaster not as above .... 5
5(4'). Region between mandible and inner border of eye with a longitudinal
carina which extends posteromesially (Plate II, Fig. 15) ............
Trachymyrmex septentrionalis obscurior seminole Wheeler
5'. Region between mandible and inner border of eye without a longitudinal
carina ......................-......--..... . ..-- -------. -...- .------.. ----- 6
6(5'). Epinotum unarmed; integument smooth or very weakly sculptured
(Plate I, Fig. 10) .................... Xenomyrmex stolli floridanus Emery
6'. Epinotum armed; part of integument, at least, with well-developed
sculpture ..---...............---................ Leptothorax bradleyi Wheeler
7(3'). Clypeus elevated in the form of a carina or ridge in front of the
antennal socket ............-.........-- .....--- ....-- ..-- Tetramorium Mayr
7'. Clypeus otherwise; if clypeus appears somewhat similar to that de-
scribed above, then the spurs of each middle and hind tibia are
pectinate, the mesoepinotal constriction on the dorsal surface of
the thorax is usually absent or obsolescent, and the ventral surface
of the head may bear a psammophore ...................-.. --.......---...... 8
8(7'). Spurs of each middle and hind tibia very distinctly pectinate ........
.Pogonomyrmex badius (Latr.)
8'. Spurs of each middle and hind tibia simple or absent ........................... 9
9(8'). Epinotum unarmed .-............... .................-----.. Monomorium Mayr
9'. Epinotum armed -----....---.. ........ .................------------------- 10
10(9'). In profile, clypeus strongly projecting above mandibles; each middle
and hind tibia without spurs; body clothed with closely appressed
pubescence; erect hairs almost, if not entirely, absent from the
dorsal surface of the body except on the clypeus, mandibles, and
apex of gaster; monomorphic; small (1.6-2.5 mm.) .........--- .........
Cardiocondyla Emery
10'. Differing in one or more characters ............................ ..... ............. 11
11(10'). Antennae without a 3-segmented club ....... Aphaenogaster Emery
11'. Antennae with a 3-segmented club .............................-............ 12
12(11'). Dimorphic (or polymorphic), the soldier with an abnormally
large head ....-...-.............- .. ... ................... Pheidole W estwood
12'. Monomorphic form which lack the large-headed soldier (Similar to
Plate II, Fig. 14) ....--.......................... Leptothorax floridanus Emery
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Aphaenogaster
1. Base of antennal scape lobed or with an extension ....--------...............................--- 2
1'. Base of antennal scape not lobed ......--------- ...---------------............................... 3











VOL. XXX-No. 4 63

2(1). Color yellow to yellow-brown; postpetiole elongated; well-developed,
protruding lobe at base of antennal scape ...... floridana M. R. Smith
2'. Color ferruginous red to dark brown; postpetiole not elongated; more
node-like ......................................... .... ----. .------ 5
3(1'). Body length under 4.0 mm .............----.........--......... texana nana Wheeler
3'. Body length 5.0 mm. or over .................... ................................ 4
4(3'). Dorsal portion of head rugulose-punctate, the rugulae being very
low ......--------.....---..... -------- .---------- texana silvestrii Menozzi
4'. Dorsal portion of the head rugulose punctate, the rugulae being promi-
nent and running longitudinally ...........---................ lamellidens Mayr
5(2'). Lobes at base of antennal scapes extending for a short distance up
the scape; lobes convex away from carinae; dark brown in color
(similar to Plate I, Fig. 5) ........................ treatae ashmeadi Emery
5'. Lobes at base of antennal scape short, convex toward carinae; ferru-
ginous red in color ........................--- ----------- lamellidens Mayr

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Pheidole
1. Epinotal spines vestigal, or very short and blunt in the worker ..........
morrisi Forel
1'. Epinotal spines distinct ............................. ....... .............................-- 2
2(1'). Color black, with a metallic appearance; gaster, occiput, and median
longitudinal line on thorax shining .................... metallescens Emery
2'. Color other than black, metallic appearance lacking .............................. 3
3(2'). Color dark brown or reddish brown; minor worker about 3.0 mm.
in body length .................................................... ........ 4
3'. Color yellow or very light brown ................ Species B, cf. floridana Emery
4(3). Size of major worker about six millimeters; major worker slender;
epinotal spines short but distinct in minor worker, longer in major
worker ...................--- ....-- ------- ..................... --------Species A
4'. Size of major worker only slightly larger than that of minor worker,
or about 4.0 mm. .....-......-- ...... -............................. ... ...........-------- 5
5(4'). Posterior half of head, not merely occiput, dorsum of the prothorax
and mesothorax, and dorsum of the petiole and postpetiole smooth
and shining .................................................................. commutata M ayr
5'. Posterior half of head, etc., not as above ............................ dentata Mayr

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Cardiocondyla

1. Petiolar node, from above, very distinctly longer than broad, compressed
(Plate I, Fig. 6) .......................................... ................ em eryi Forel
1'. Petiolar node, from above, not as described, more sub-globular and
lacking the distinctly compressed appearance; gaster a deep uni-
form brown or black .................................... nuda var. minutier Forel

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Crematogaster
1. Antennal club 3-segmented; postpetiole with an impression or longi-
tudinal furrow dividing it into two more or less distinct lobes .... 2










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


1'. Antennal club 2-segmented; postpetiole without an impression or longi-
tudinal furrow ...................... .....----------..... ...... ---....-...-...---- .. 3
2(1). Epinotal spines about one-half as long as the distance that separates
their bases and rather strongly directed upward; pronotum with
the rugae usually lateral in position (Plate I, Fig. 7) .......-------
minutissima missouriensis Emery
2'. Epinotal spines less than half as long as the distance which separates
their bases and directed more backward than upward; pronotum
with two prominent rugae near middle ........................................
minutissima minutissima Mayr
3(1'). Thorax with reticulate-rugose sculpturing i....... lineolata (Say) var.
3'. Thorax smooth and shining, or only slightly sculptured ........................ 4
4(3'). Epinotal spines robust and incurved; deep brown to blackish in
color ............................................ ............. ......... ashm eadi M ayr
4'. Epinotal spines long; head and thorax brown, gaster black (similar to
Plate I, Fig. 8) ............... ........-................ laeviuscula Mayr

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Monomorium
1. Clypeal teeth prominent; color brown or black ....................-- ............------ 2
1'. Clypeal teeth indistinct; color straw yellow to yellowish red .......---
pharaonis (L.)
2(1). Antennal fossa with concentric rugulae; pronotum about twice as
wide as dorsum of epinotum; color dark brown ................ Species A
2'. Antennal fossa without rugulae, shining; pronotum less than twice as
large as epinotum; color very dark brown or black (Plate I,
Fig. 9) ..........................----- ..........-------- minimum (Buckley)

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Solenopsis

1. Width of postpetiole from the dorsal aspect, twice as great as that of
the petiole; monomorphic (Plate I, Fig. 12) ....................................
globularis littoralis Creighton
1'. Width of postpetiole from the dorsal aspect the same, or only slightly
larger than that of the petiole ..................... .....................- 2
2(1'). Body length 2 mm. or less; monomorphic ............................................ 4
2'. Body length of minor worker about 3 mm.; polymorphic, body length
of major worker being more than 3 mm. .......................................... 3
3(2'). Head and rest of body dark brown, or head slightly tinged with
reddish brown; mesosternum of the thorax without a spine or
projection (similar to Plate I, Fig. 11) .................... geminata (F.)
3'. Head a light reddish yellow, with the abdominal segments narrowly
bordered with brown; mesosternum of the thorax with a spine or
projection (similar to Plate I, Fig. 11) .... geminata rufa (Jerdon)
4(2). Postpetiole appearing subglobular from above (Plate II, Fig. 13)
pergandei Forel
4'. Postpetiole not appearing subglobular from above .................................. 5
5(4'). Head and gaster deep brown and usually darker than the thorax;











VOL. XXX-No. 4 65

petiolar node not at all, or only slightly, extended laterally over
the peduncle from dorsal view; from side view, node rounded
above, about the same width above as below ................ picta Emery
5'. Color of body and shape of head, not as above .................. molesta (Say)

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Tetramorium
1. Hairs on head, thorax, petiole, and postpetiole short, erect, enlarged
apically; head longitudinally rugulose with alveoli between the
rugulae; length 1.75-2.25 mm. .......................... simillimum F. Smith
1'. Characters not as described above .............................----...... guineense (F.)

KEY TO THE Dolichoderinae
1. Epinotal declivity strongly concave; integument stiff and brittle; at
least the epinotum more or less strongly sculptured (similar to
Plate II, Fig. 16) ........ Dolichoderus plagiatus pustulatus Mayr var.
1'. Epinotal declivity not as above ....-- --............ ...... ............ ---....-- 2
2(1'). Petiolar scale vestigal or absent .................... Tapinoma sessile (Say)
2'. Petiolar scale well-developed .....--..-........ ..-----------...---....------- 3
3(2'). Epinotum with a conical elevation (similar to Plate II, Fig. 17) ....
Dorymyrmex pyramicus flavus McCook
3'. Epinotum rounded, without a conical elevation ........ Iridomyrmex Mayr

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Iridomyrmex
1. Head subrectangular; head and thorax brownish ........ pruinosus (Roger)
1'. Head not subrectangular; head, thorax, and gaster reddish brown ......
humilis Mayr

KEY TO THE FORMICINAE
1. Antennae 9-jointed (similar to Plate II, Fig. 18) ......................
Brachymyrmex depilis Emery
1'. Antennae with more than 9 joints ...................... .-----.............-- 2
2(1'). Workers di- or polymorphic .----.................................. Camponotus Mayr
2'. Workers not polymorphic though often of variable size ........................ 3
3(2'). Clypeal fossa distinctly separated from the antennal fossa .........-- 4
3'. Clypeal fossa confluent with the antennal fossa ................ Formica Linn.
4(3). Pronotum with stiff bristles .....................-............ Paratrechina Emery
4'. Pronotum smooth or with fine hairs --...----............--........... Prenolepis Mayr

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Camponotus
1. Head of the major worker truncated anteriorly; truncated surface cir-
cular; intermediate forms between the largest and smallest workers
lacking or extremely rare (similar to Plate II, Fig. 21) ..............
(Colobopsis) sp. A
1'. Head of the major worker not truncated anteriorly; truncated surface
not circular; intermediates nearly always present .......................... 2










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


2(1'). Anterior median clypeal margin with a distinct but narrow notch;
whole body black (Plate II, Fig. 20) ........ caryae nearcticus Emery
2'. Anterior clypeal margin entire, or at most feebly and broadly excised
or sinuate in the middle; whole body not black ..................-....-........ 3
3(2'). Clypeus ecarinate, or with a very feeble or blunt carina ................
castaneus Latr.
3'. Clypeus carinate ................-.-..................... ... .................. 4
4(3'). Middle and hind tibiae without a row of graduated bristles on the
flexor surface; thorax yellowish to reddish brown, gaster very dark
brown or black (Pate II, Fig. 19) ..................................
abdominalis floridanus (Buckley)
4'. Middle and hind tibiae with such a row; coloring different than above.. 5
5(4'). Dorsal surface of the first to third gastric segments pale yellow,
separated from the pale posterior border by a narrow dark brown
band .................................. ......................... socius osceola W heeler
5'. Dorsal surface of only the first and second gastric segments yellow;
yellow spot on the dorsal surface of the second segment interrupted
in the m middle .......................... ..... ..... ...... ........ ..... socius Roger

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Paratrechina
1. Antennae and legs usually long, the scape extending more than one-half
its length beyond the posterior border of the head; body slender;
long, coarse, suberect or erect hairs normally absent on the scape;
integument with a metallic luster (Plate II, Fig. 22) ..............----
longicornis (Latr.)
1'. Unlike the above in one or more respects; tibiae and scapes, especially
the former, usually with coarse, suberect hairs (similar to Plate
II, Fig. 23) .............................. ..... .................. (Nylanderia) sp. A

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Prenolepis
1. Body piceous black; mandibles, antennae, tibiae, and tarsi lighter -....
imparis (Say)
1'. Body brownish or reddish yellow; gaster and occipital region darker ...
imparis testacea Emery

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Formica
1. Erect hairs absent on gula and petiole .................. pallidefulva Latr. var.
1'. Erect hairs present on gula and petiole .................................................... 2
2(1'). Gaster distinctly infuscated, darker than head and thorax (close
to Plate II, Fig. 24) ................... pallidefulva schaufussi Mayr var.
2'. Gaster scarcely darker than the head and thorax, its pubescence longer
and denser ............................ pallidefulva schaufussi dolosa Wheeler

LITERATURE CITED
COLE, A. C., JR.
1940. The Ants of the Great Smoky Mountains. Amer. Mid. Nat.
24: 1-88.










VOL. XXX-No. 4


CREIGHTON, WM.
1939. A New Subspecies of Crematogaster minutissima with Revisionary
Notes Concerning that Species. Psyche 46: 137-140.
GREGG, R. E.
1944. The Ants of the Chicago Region. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 37 (4):
447-480.
SMITH, M. R.
1986. Ants of the Genus Ponera in America, North of Mexico. Ann.
Ent. Soc. Amer. 29 (3): 420-430.
1942a. Legionary Ants of the United States belonging to the Eciton
Subgenus Neivamyrmex Borgmeier. Amer. Mid. Nat. 27 (3):
537-590.
1942b. A New North American Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum). Proc. Ent.
Soc. Wash. 44 (9): 209-211.
1943. Ants of the Genus Tetramorium in the United States, with De-
scriptions of New Species. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 45: 1-5.
1944. Ants of the Genus GOrdiocondyla Emery in the United States.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 46 (2): 30-41.
1947. A Generic and Subgeneric Synopsis of the United States Ants,
Based on Workers. Amer. Mid. Nat. 37 (3): 521-647.
WHEELER, W. M.
1910. The North American Ants of the Genus Camponotus Mayr. Proc.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 55: 207-260.
1932. A List of the Ants of Florida, with Descriptions of New Forms.
Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 40: 1-17.







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