Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XXXI JUNE, 1948 No. 2
RESULTS OF THE USE OF CONCENTRATED SPRAYS
IN CITRUS GROVES IN FLORIDA1
By JOHN R. KING and JAMES T. GRIFFITHS, JR.2
Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida
During the late spring and summer of 1947, grasshoppers of
the species Schistocera americana (Drury) inflicted damage on
citrus groves in western Polk and southeastern Hillsborough
counties in Florida. The outbreak and recommendations for
grasshopper control in citrus groves were reported by Griffiths
et al (1947), who recommended three insecticides: chlordane at
11/. to 2 lbs. of technical chlordane per acre, chlorinated cam-
phene at 31,/ to 41/2 lbs. of toxicant per acre, and benzene hexa-
chloride at 0.4 to 0.5 lb. of gamma isomer per acre. All three
materials were used as dusts and as wettable powders. Chlor-
dane and chlorinated camphene were also tried as emulsions.
As dusts they were distributed both by airplane and by ground
equipment, while as sprays, they were applied with a "Speed
Sprayer." The "Speed Sprayer" is a power machine in com-
mon use in citrus groves in Florida. It delivers the spray under
low pressure through a large number of nozzles into an air
stream which is set up by a large fan. The sprayer is capable
of delivering enough air volume to completely replace the air in
and around a tree with new air. Leaves throughout the tree
are turned over and thorough coverage is obtained if the spray-
er is driven slowly enough and sufficient gallonage is used.
Usually the sprayer is pulled through the grove at about 11/2 to
2 miles per hour.
'The authors wish to take this opportunity to thank Mr. A. C. Brown
and Mr. H. S. McClanahan of the Florida State Plant Board for their help
and suggestions in carrying out these experiments.
SEntomologists with Florida State Plant Board and Florida Citrus
Experiment Station, respectively.
30 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
VOL. XXXI JUNE, 1948 No. 2
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1947-48
President... ................... --- ------E. G. KELSHEIMER
Vice President -..--...... -............................... M. C. VAN HORN
Secretary --............ .....-....--. --.--------.. LEWIs BERNER
Treasurer .-.... -....-..-......... -......................................... G. W DEKLE
Executive Committee--- --............................. J. C. GOODWIN
J. T. GRIFFITHS, JR.
H. K. WALLACE .---. _-----.----------... .--...-..---- Editor
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VOL. XXXI-No. 2
During recent months considerable experimental work has
been reported on the use of concentrated sprays on various
crops. It appeared possible that concentrated sprays might be
feasible for grasshopper control in citrus grove land. Since two
different machines were available to the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion, they were tested for grasshopper control.
The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (United
States Department of Agriculture) furnished a modified Buf-
falo Turbine spray and dust machine. This machine had been
redesigned by the Bureau as a spray machine for use in Jap-
anese beetle control work in the eastern United States. It was
capable of handling either wettable or emulsifiable materials at
concentrated levels. Basically, it consisted of a pump and tur-
bine blower. The fluid was pumped from two nozzles into the
air strearn under a pressure of 30 lbs. per square inch and dis-
tribution of the insecticide was dependent upon the air volume
coming from the blower. In the experiments reported below
two nozzles with 0.54 in. openings were used to deliver 10 gal-
lons of emulsion per acre.
The other machine was a Hession Microsol Generator. It
was built to deliver aerosol size particles into an air stream set
up by a fan and was designed for use with either emulsions or
solutions. In the experiments described below, it was set to
apply 10 gallons of emulsified spray per acre.
Two experiments were performed in citrus groves with these
machines in August and September 1947. In both instances the
spray machines were mounted on trucks which were driven at 2
to 3 miles per hour up and down each middle. The spray was di-
rected at the lower 6 to 10 feet of the trees and at the cover
crop, but no effort was made to cover the tops of the trees.
Both groves were heavily infested with fourth and fifth instar
In the first experiment, technical chlordane and chlorinated
camphene were used as concentrated emulsions. With the modi-
fied Buffalo Turbine machine, chlorinated camphene was used at
the rate of 4.5 lbs. of toxicant (derived from a 70% stock
emulsion) per 10 gallons of emulsion, and chlordane (40% stock
emulsion) was used at 1.5 lbs. of technical chlordane per 10 gal-
lons of emulsion. These were compared with 1.5 lbs. of chlor-
dane (40% stock emulsion) per 10 gallons of emulsion applied
with the Hession Microsol generator. In addition, a chlorinated
camphene dust was included as a standard grasshopper treat-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
ment. It was dusted with a conventional ground duster at 45
lbs. per acre of a 10% material (4.5 lbs. toxicant per acre).
All plots were one acre in size and unsprayed acre plots served
as buffers between treated plots. Results are summarized in
In the second experiment chlordane was used with both ma-
chines at 11/2, 2, and 21/2 lbs. of technical chlordane per acre.
As in the previous test, 10 gallons of emulsion were applied per
acre. Plots were randomized in single acre plots which were
adjacent to each other. Accurate pre-population counts were
not made, but there was apparently a uniform population
throughout the treated areas. Twenty-four and seventy-two
hours after the applications, estimates of control were made.
These were based on a comparison of the number of live grass-
hoppers remaining in the treated areas. Although dead in-
dividuals were present in all plots, the best treatment was ob-
tained with 21/2 lbs. of chlordane per acre distributed by the
Buffalo machine. In general, it took an additional 1/ lb. of toxi-
cant per acre for the Hession machine to equal the Buffalo Tur-
bine. This is in agreement with the data presented in Table 1.
These two experiments represent the first field scale trials
of concentrated sprays on citrus trees by the Citrus Experiment
Station in Florida. Although they demonstrated that grass-
hoppers could be controlled with such equipment, they also
demonstrated certain weakness which would appear to be in-
herent in concentrated spray equipment.
In order to produce satisfactory control of most insects on a
citrus tree, it is absolutely essential that thorough coverage of
leaves be obtained. Thorough coverage implies the application
of insecticide to both sides of the leaves and to the wood where
insects may be found. Where properly used, conventional grove
sprayers are capable of this type of coverage. Thus, where a
"Speed Sprayer" was driven at the proper speed (less than 2
miles per hour), but where only 10 gallons were used on a tree
that required twice that much, it was found that the insecticide
was applied only to the leaves on the outside of the tree. This
was in spite of the fact that at this speed there was more than
ample air volume available to replace all the air inside the tree.
However, there was not enough fluid volume to cover first the
outside and then the inside foliage of the tree. This phenome-
non demonstrates the inherent disadvantage of the use of a con-
centrated spray material. Actually, it is impossible to spread as
VOL. XXXI-No. 2 33
little as 10 gallons of a liquid evenly over the entire leaf surface
presented by an acre of citrus. An equal amount may be ap-
plied per tree, but this will be represented by small droplets of
insecticide on a relatively small number of leaves. This type of
distribution controlled grasshoppers and it is conceivable that it
would also control insects such as the southern green stink bug
or the leaf-footed plant bug (Leptoglossus gonagra) on citrus.
However, these are large, free moving insects and the control of
such forms as purple scale, citrus red mites, rust mites, etc.
presents an entirely different problem. They would not be
controlled unless insecticide thoroughly covered all of the leaves
and twigs. Therefore, lack of complete coverage would appear
to eliminate the use of concentrated sprays for routine grove
spraying. Since conventional dusters and sprayers do as good
or a better job than the concentrated spray machines used on
grasshopper control, and since the concentrated spray equipment
does not appear adaptable to other types of insect control on
citrus, it may be concluded that, as now constructed, such equip-
ment has no place in the citrus pest control program.
TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF GRASSHOPPERS BEFORE AND AFTER TREATMENT
Type of Toxicant Toxicant Before After
Machine per acre Spray Spray
Buffalo Turbine-..................... Chlorinated 4.5 130 4
Buffalo Turbine..---................. Chlordane 1.5 142 20
Hession.....--.....................----- .. Chlordane 1.5 95 27
Duster------... ----...--................. Chlorinated 4.5 89 1
of 5 plots)- -- -------..................... .---- ... 114 63
1 All counts based on 100 sweeps of insect net per plot.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
In the summer of 1947 two concentrated spray machines
were tested for the control of the grasshopper, Schistocera
americana (Drury), in citrus groves in Florida. The equip-
ment is described and the results of two experiments are pre-
sented. The machines demonstrated fair to good control where
chlordane (11/ to 21/2 lbs. per acre) and chlorinated camphene
34 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
(4.5 lbs. per acre) were used at 10 gallons per acre of a con-
centrated emulsion. It is concluded that although these types
of equipment offer some possibility for the control of insects
such as grasshoppers in a citrus grove, there are certain inher-
ent defects which prevent them from practical or general use in
GRIFFITHS, J. T. JR., J. R. KING and W. L. THOMPSON. Grasshopper
Control in Citrus Groves in Florida. Proc. Fla. Hort. Soc. (in press). 1947.
VOL. XXXI-No. 2
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF
NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERISTS: PART I
By STANLEY F. BAILEY
University of California, Davis, California
Since Fitch described Leptothrips mali in 1855, numer-
ous American entomologists have added many new species of
thrips to this order. The reviews and catalogs of Hinds, 1902,
Moulton, 1911, and Watson, 1923 are well known. During the
past forty years Hood has published about 129 papers on thrips
and Moulton approximately 73 titles. These authors also have
compiled many useful keys, catalogs and reviews of various
groups of thrips which largely remain in manuscript. The dif-
ficulty of publishing large monographs or finding outlets for
long papers is well known. One of the solutions to this problem
appears to be the publishing of reviews, compilations, keys, and
catalogs in parts or logical natural or related groups. There-
fore, for the convenience of present and future systematic
Thysanopterists we are presenting this annotated bibliography.
With the exception of the works of Hood, Moulton, and Watson,1
the authors are listed alphabetically with the species each de-
scribed and the most recent published synonymy known to me.
The synonymy of other species of thrips described by North
American entomologists previous to 1900 was reviewed by
Hinds, 1902. Certain invalid species, not listed below, are
Limothrips tritici Packard, 1872, L. poaphagus Comstock, 1875,
Thrips alii Sirrine and Lowe, 1894, and T. adonidum Cook, 1873-
74. In assembling this bibliography, Dudley Moulton and J. C.
Crawford have supplied several references unavailable to the
1936. Dudley Moulton and Floyd Andre. Four new Thysan-
optera, with a preliminary list of the species occurring in
Iowa. Iowa State Coll. Jour. Sci. 10(3) :223-234, 9 figs.
1939. A synopsis of the American species of Chirothrips Hali-
day (Thysanoptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 41 (6):
192-204, pl. 26, figs. 1-10, June.
1940. The nearactic species of Elaphrothrips Buffa (Thysanop-
SThe writings of the late J. R. Watson were recently listed by the
present writer in Fla. Ent. 30(3):17, 19-24, 1947; those of Hood and Moul-
ton are too lengthy to include in this part of the bibliography.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
tera: Phlaeothripidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 42(4):
75-90, pl. 11, figs. 1-6, Apr.
1941. Two new species of Chirothrips Haliday with notes on
Chirothrips frontalis Williams. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.
34(2) :451-457, pl. 1, figs. 1-5, June.
Chirothrips praeocularis Andre, 1941. No. Amer.
Chirothrips sensitivus Andre, 1939. No. Amer.
Chirothrips spinulosus ,Andre, 1941. U.S.S.R.
Chirothrips texanus Andre, 1939. No. Amer.
Eurythrips flavicinctus Moulton and Andre, 1936. No. Amer.
Frankliniella andropogoni Moulton and Andre, 1936. No. Amer.
Hoplothrips flavus Moulton and Andre, 1936. No. Amer.
Hoplothrips quercus Moulton and Andre, 1936. No. Amer.
ASHMEAD, WM. H.
1894. Notes on cotton insects found in Mississippi. U.S.D.A.,
Bur. Ent., Insect Life 7(1) :27. Sept.
1905. A new thrips from the Philippine Islands. Ent. News
16(1) :20. Jan.
Idolothrips tibialis Ashm., 1905. Philippine Is.
Thrips trifasciatus ,Ashm., 1894. No. Amer. Watson. 1923. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 168:44.
BACK, E. A.
1912. Notes on Florida Thysanoptera, with description of a
new genus. Ent. News, 23(2) :73-77, figs. 1-3, Feb.
Franklinothrips Back, 1912. Genotype: Aeolothrips vespiformis
D. L. Cwfd. 1909.
BAILEY, STANLEY F.
1931. A thrips new to California. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 7(4): 175-
1935. A list of the Thysanoptera of California. Pan-Pacif.
Ent., 11 (4) :163-169, Oct.
1936a. Additions to the List of California Thysanoptera. Pan-
Pacif. Ent. 12(2) :90, Apr.
1936b. Our knowledge of California Thysanoptera previous to
1900. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 12(3) :97-103, July.
1937a. The Jones collection of Thysanoptera. Pan-Pacif. Ent.,
13(1-2) :89-93, Jan.-Apr.
1937b. The composite thrips, Microcephalothrips abdominalis
(Crawford). Canad. Ent., 69(6) :121-126, June.
1937c. The genus Dactuliothrips Moulton. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 13
(3) :121-126, 15 figs., July.
VOL. XXXI-No. 2
1938a. Supplemental note to the paper following. Pan-Pacif.
Ent., 14(1) :18, Jan.
1938b. A redescription of two species of California thrips.
Pan-Pacific. Ent. 14(1) :19-23, fig. 1-11, Jan.
1939a. The six-spotted thrips, Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.).
Jour. Econ. Ent. 32(1) :43-46, fig. 1, A-D, Feb.
1939b. The Hinds' Collection of Thysanoptera. Pan-Pacif.
Ent. 15 (2) :91-93, Apr.
1939c. The mullein thrips. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 15(3) :111-116,
figs. 1-12, July.
1939d. A new species of thrips from the Mojave Desert. Pan-
Pacif. Ent. 15 (4) :168-172, 2 figs., Oct.
1939e. The lily thrips. Bul. Dept. Agr., State of Calif., 28 (7, 8,
9) :479-483, 2 figs., July, August-Sept.
1940a. Cocoon spinning Thysanoptera. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 16 (2)
1940b. The Black Hunter, Leptothrips mali (Fitch). Jour.
Econ. Ent. 33(3) :539-544, figs. 1-4, June.
1940c. A Review of the Genus Ankothrips D. L. Crawford.
Pan-Pacif. Ent. 16(3) :97-106, pls. I-III, July.
1942a. The grape or vine thrips, Drepanothrips reuteri. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 35(3) :382-386, 5 figs., June.
1942b. The prickly pear cactus thrips, Rhopalothrips bicolor.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 35(3):460-461, 3 figs., Aug.
1944. A review of D. L. Crawford's species of Thysanoptera.
Pan-Pacif. Ent. 20(3) :81-90, pls. I-II, July.
1947a. The genus Erythrothrips Moulton. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 23
(3) :103-109, figs. 1-12, July.
1947b. The works of J. R. Watson on Thysanoptera. Fla. Ent.
30 (3) :17, 19-24, Oct.
Ankothrips notabilis Bailey, 1940c. No. Amer.
Dactuliothrips boharti Bailey, 1937c. No. Amer.
Dactuliothrips diversus Bailey, 1939d. No. Amer.
Dactuliothrips xerophilus Bailey, 1937c. No. Amer.
BEACH, A. M.
1896. Contribution to a knowledge of the Thripidae of Iowa.
Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 3:214-227.
Sericothrips ? perplexa Beach, 1896. No. Amer. = Plesiothrips.
Hood, 1915. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 17:128-131.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Thrips inequalis Beach, 1896. No. Amer. = Pseudothrips. Hinds,
1902. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 27(1310) :146-147.
Thrips lactucae Beach, 1896. No. Amer.= T. nigropilosus Uzel,
1895. Hood, 1927. Ent. Amer. 7(4) :215-216.
Thrips maidis Beach, 1896. No. Amer. = Frankliniella tenuicornis
(Uzel), 1895. Hinds 1902. Ibid., pp. 155-156. Karny, 1912.
Zool. Ann. 4:335. Hood, 1917. Insec. Insc. Mens. 5(4-6) :55-56.
Hood, 1925. Bul. Brook. Ent. Soc. 20(2) :73.
Thrips pallida Beach, 1896. No. Amer. = Scolothrips sexmaculatus
(Perg.) 1888-91. Hinds, 1902. Ibid., pp. 157-158.
Thrips variabilis Beach, 1896. No. Amer. = Sericothrips variabilis
(Beach). Hinds, 1902. Ibid., pp. 143-146.
CRAWFORD, D. L.
1909. Some new Thysanoptera from Southern California. I.
Pomona Coll. Jour. Ent., 1(4) :100-108, figs. 45-48, Dec.
Some Thysanoptera of Mexico and the South. I. Ibid.
1 (4) :109-119, figs. 49-52.
Notes on California Thysanoptera. Ibid. 1(4) :120-121.
1910. Thysanoptera of Southern California. II. Ibid. 2(1):
149-152, fig. 62, Mar.
Thysanoptera of Mexico and the South. II. Ibid. 2(1):
153-170, figs. 63-70.
Aeolothrips longiceps D. L. Cwfd., 1909. No. Amer. = Aeolothrips
kuwanaii Moulton, 1907. Hood, 1915. Ent. News, 26:162. Bailey,
1944. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 20(3) :84.
Aeolothrips vespiformis D. L. Cwfd., 1909. Nicaragua = Franklino-
thrips. Back, 1912. Ent. News 23:74-76.
Anaphothrips longipennis D. L. Cwfd., 1910. No. Amer. Bailey,
1944. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 20(3) :86.
Ankothrips D. L. Cwfd., 1919. Genotype: Ankothrips robustus.
Bailey, 1940. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 16(3):97-106.
Ankothrips robustus D. L. Cwfd., 1909. No. Amer.
Anthothrips variabilis D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Cuba = Haplothrips
gowdeyi (Franklin). 1908. Hood, 1912. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.
Chirothrips mexicana D. L. Cwfd., 1919. Mexico = C. mexicanus.
Andre, 1939. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 41(6) :107.
Dictyothrips reticulata D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Mexico = Isochaeto-
thrips. J. C. Crawford, 1945. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 47(6) :179-
180. (See also Bailey, 1944. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 20(3):86, 88.)
Euthrips cephalicus D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Mexico = Frankliniella
cephalica (D. L. Cwfd.). Karny, 1912. Zool. Ann. 4:335.
Euthrips cephalicus reticulata D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Mexico = Frank-
kliniella cephalica. Hood, 1914. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 16:42.
Euthrips insularis Franklin var. reticulata D. L. Cwfd., 1909. Mexi-
co = Frankliniella insularis (Franklin), 1908. Hood, 1914. Proc.
Ent. Soc. Wash. 16:38.
VOL. XXXI-No. 2
Euthrips minutus var. setosus D. L. Cwfd., 1909. No. Amer.=
Frankliniella minute Moult., 1907. Hood, 1914. Proc. Ent. Soc.
Heterothrips decacornis D. L. Cwfd., 1909. Mexico. Bailey, 1944.
Pan-Pacif. Ent. 20(3) :84-86.
Idolothrips angusticeps D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Cuba, Mexico, Nica-
ragua Elaphrothrips. Moulton, 1929. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 6(1):
12. Bailey, 1944. Ibid. 20(3) :90.
Liothrips bakeri D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Cuba = Gynaikothrips uzeli
(Zimm.), 1900. Hood, 1913. Insec. Insec. Mens. 1(12) :152-154.
Liothrips mcconnelli D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Mexico = Leptothrzps mali
(Fitch), 1855. Hood, 1912. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 25:61-62.
1914, ibid. 27:162-164.
Liothrips umbripennis var. mexicana D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Mexico =
L. mexicanus. Hood, 1918-21. Mem. Queensld. Mus. 6-7:132.
Bailey, 1944. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 20(3) :89-90.
Phloeothrips raptor D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Mexico = Hoplandrothrips
Hood, 1915. Entom. 48:102-107. Bailey, 1944. Pan-Pacif. Ent.
Phyllothrips fasciculata D. L. Cwfd., 1909. No. Amer. = Haplo-
thrips. Hood, 1927. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 3(4) :174-175.
Phyllothrips fasciculata var. stenoceps D. L. Cwfd., 1909. No.
Amer. = Haplothrips fasciculatus. Hood, 1912. Proc. Biol. Soc.
Wash., 25:61. Bailey, 1937. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 13(1-2):90.
Rhaptothrips D. L. Cwfd., 1909 Unrecognizable
as based on a
larval form. Bag-
(nall, 1910. Ann.
SEnt. Soc. Belg.
Rhaptothrips peculiaris D. L. Cwfd., 1909. Mexico 54:462.
Thrips abdominalis D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Mexico = Microcephalo-
thrips. Bagnall, 1926. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 9, 18:98,
113-114. Bailey, 1937. Canad. Ent. 69:121-126.
CRAWFORD, J. C.
1938a. Some new or little known Thysanoptera. Proc. Ent.
Soc. Wash. 40(2) :35-43, Feb.
1938b. A new genus and species of Thysanoptera from green-
houses. Ibid. 40(4) :109-111, Apr.
1939a. A new Hoplothrips (Trichothrips) from Yugoslavia
(Thysanoptera). Ibid. 41(3):92-93, Mar.
1939b. Thysanoptera from Northern New Jersey with descrip-
tions of new species. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 47(1) :69-81,
1940a. A new Stomatothrips from the United States (Thysanop-
tera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 42(2) :45, Feb.
1940b. The male of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouch6) (Thy-
sanoptera). Ibid. 42(4) :90-91, fig. 1, Apr.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
1941a. A new Isoneurothrips from New Zealand (Thysanoptera:
Thripidae). Ibid. 43(3) :63-64, Mar.
1941b. The genus Zonothrips in North America (Thysanoptera).
Ibid. 43(5) :105-107, fig. 1, a-b, May.
1941c. A new Taeniothrips from Michigan (Thysanoptera). Ibid.
43(6) :142-143, June.
1941d. A new Taeniothrips from Panama (Thysanoptera). Ibid.
43(8) :184-186, fig. 1, Nov.
1942a. A new Heterothrips found on Oak (Thysanoptera: He-
terothripidae). Ibid. 44(7) :140-141, Oct.
1942b. Two new South American species of Merothrips Hood
(Thysanoptera: Merothripidae). Ibid. 44(7) :150-154,
1943a. A new Sericothrips on Elm. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).
Ibid. 45 (2) :39-41, Feb.
1943b. A new Heterothrips on Prosopis (Thysanoptera: Hetero-
thripidae). Ibid. 45(4) :93-94, Apr.
1943c. A new genus and species of Thysanoptera from New
Zealand (Family Thripidae). Ibid. 45(6) :151-153, fig. 1,
1943d. A new genus and species of Hoplothripini (Thysanop-
tera: Phlaeothripidae). Ibid. 45 (9) :221-225, pl. 20, Dec.
1944. A new Sericothrips from Brazil (Thysanoptera: Thripi-
dae). Ibid. 46(7) :200-201, Oct.
1945a. A new genus and species of Thripinae from Bulbs.
(Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Ibid. 47(4) :92-94, Apr.
1945b. The North American species of the genus Isochaeto-
thrips (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Ibid. 47
(6) :179-182, June.
1947a. The North American species of the genus Megalothrips
Uzel. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae). Ibid. 49(7):
1947b. A new species of the genus Metriothrips (Thysanoptera:
Phlaeothripidae.) Ibid. 49(8) :229-230, Nov.
1947c. A new species of the genus Haplothrips subgenus Hado-
thrips. (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Ibid. 49(9):
Asprothrips J. C. Cwfd., 1938b. Genotype: Asprothrips raui.
Asprothrips raui J. C. Cwfd., 1938b. No. Amer.
Bolbothrips J. C. Cwfd., 1945a. Genotype: Bolbothrips aztecus.
Bolbothrips aztecus J. C. Cwfd., 1945a. Mexico.
Gnophothrips piniphilus J. C. Cwfd., 1938a. No. Amer.
Haplothrips (Hadothrips) omani J. C. Cwfd., 1947c. No. Amer.
Haplothrips (Xylaplothrips) subterraneus J. C. Cwfd., 1938a.
Heterothrips prosopidis J. C. Cwfd., 1943b. No. Amer.
Heterothrips quercicola J. C. Cwfd., 1942a. No. Amer.
VOL. XXXI-NO. 2 41
Hoplothrips (Trichothrips) pallicornis J. C. Cwfd., 1939a. Yugo-
Hoplothrips (Trichothrips) fields J. C. Cwfd., 1939b. No. Amer.
Hoplothrips (Trichothrips)myceticola J. C. Cwfd., 1939b. No. Amer.
Isochaetothrips gardeniae J. C. Cwfd., 1945b. Mexico.
Isoneurothrips obscuratus J. C. Cwfd., 1941a. New Zealand.
Megalothrips schuhi J. C. Cwfd., 1947b. No. Amer.
Merothrips plaumanni J. C. Cwfd., 1942b. So. Amer.
Merothrips mirus J. C. Cwfd., 1942b. So. Amer.
Metriothrips secundus J. C. Cwfd., 1947a. Trinidad.
Othinanaphothrips J. C. Cwfd., 1943c. Genotype: Othinanapho-
Othinanaphothrips spilleri J. C. Cwfd., 1943c. New Zealand.
Phlaeothrips picticornis J. C. Cwfd., 1939b. No. Amer.
Sericothrips andrei J. C. Cwfd., 1943. No. Amer.
Sericothrips sidae J. C. Cwfd., 1944. So. Amer.
Sericothrips walteri J. C. Cwfd., 1938a. No. Amer.
Stomatothrips brunneus J. C. Cwfd., 1940a. No. Amer.
Taeniothrips aberrans J. C. Cwfd., 1941d. Panama.
Taeniothrips betulae J. C. Cwfd., 1939b. No. Amer.
Taeniothrips walteri J. C. Cwfd., 1941c. No. Amer.
Thrips walteri J. C. Cwfd., 1938a. No. Amer. = T. helianthi Mor-
gan, 1913. (This synonymy was called to my attention in con-
versation with Dr. J. D. Hood on July 11, 1938 to whom it
should be credited).
Zaxenothrips J. C. Cwfd., 1943d. Genotype: Zaxenothrips pecul-
Zaxenothrips peculiaris J. C. Cwfd., 1943d. No. Amer.
Zonothrips osmundae J. C. Cwfd., 1941b. No. -Amer.
DANIEL, S. M.
1904. New California Thysanoptera. Ent. News 15(9):293-
Caliothrips Dan., 1904. Genotype: C. woodworthi =Hercothrips.
Hood, 1927. Psyche 34(6):233-234.
Caliothrips woodworthi Dan., 1904. No. Amer. = Hercothrips
fasciatus (Perg.), 1895. Moulton, 1907. U.S.D.A., Tech. Ser.,
No. 12, Part III, p. 39.
Criptothrips californicus Dan., 1904. No. Amer. = Leptothrips
mali (Fitch), 1855. Hood, 1912. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 25:61-
62. Hood, 1914. Ibid. 27: 162-164.
Euthrips pyri Dan., 1904. No. Amer. = Taeniothrips inconsequens
(Uzel), 1895. Bagnall, 1916. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 8)
Sericothrips apteris Dan., 1904. No. Amer. =Anaphothrips sec-
ticornis (Trybom), 1896. Hood, 1927. Pan-Pacific Ent. 3(4):
1855a. The apple thrips, Phloeothrips mali. Report on the Nox-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
ious, Beneficial, and other Insects of the State of N. Y.
Trans. N. Y. State Agri. Soc. 14:806-808.
1855b. The wheat thrips, Thrips tritici, the three banded thrips,
Coleothrips trifasciata.. Country Gentlemen 6(1):385-
1856a. The wheat thrips, Thrips tritici. The three banded
thrips, Coleothrips trifasciata. Report on the Noxious,
Beneficial, and other insects of the State of N. Y. Trans.
N.Y. State Agr. Soc. 15:536-541.
1856b. The Hickory Thrips, Phloeothrips caryae. Third Re-
port on the Noxious Insects of the State of N.Y. Ibid.
Coleothrips trifasciata Fitch, 1855. No. Amer. = Aeolothrips fas-
ciatus (L.), 1758. Hinds, 1902, pp. 127-130.
Phloeothrips caryae Fitch, 1856b No. Amer. = Liothrips. Hood,
1914. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:160-162.
Phloeothrips mali Fitch, 1855a. No. Amer. = Leptothrips mali
(Fitch), 1855. Hood, 1914. Ibid. 27:162-164.
Thrips tritici Fitch, 1855b. No. Amer. = Frankliniella. Karny,
1912. Zool. Ann. 4:335. Hood, 1914. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash.,
FRANKLIN, H. J.
1903. Notes on Acanthothrips. Psyche, 10:221-223, Oct.-Dec.
1907. Ctenothrips, new genus. Ent. News 18(6) : 247-250, figs.
1908. On a collection of Thysanopterous insects from Barbados
and St. Vincent Islands. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 33
(1590) :715-730, pls. LXIII-LXV, March 4.
1909. On Thysanoptera. Ent. News, 20(5):228-231, 2 figs.,
Aleurodothrips Franklin, 1909. Genotype: Cryptothrips fascia-
Anthothrips gowdeyi Franklin, 1908. West Indies = Haplothrips.
Hood, 1912. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 25:62.
cryptothrips fasciapennis Franklin, 1908. West Indies = Aleuro-
dothrips Franklin, 1909.
Ctenothrips Franklin, 1907. Genotype: Ctenothrips bridwelli
Ctenothrips bridwelli Franklin, 1907. No. Amer.
Euthrips insularis Franklin, 1908. West Indies =Frankliniella.
Karny, 1912. Zool. Ann. 4:335.
Trichothrips niger Franklin, 1908. West Indies.
HERRICK, G. W.
1924. The genus Limothrips (Thysanoptera) in America. Ann.
Ent. Soc. Amer. 17(2) :231-232, figs. 1-3, June.
1925. Notes on some little known thrips (Thysanoptera).
Ent. News 36(6):180-183, 2 figs., June.
VOL. XXXI-No. 2 43
1927. Two new species of thrips (Thysanoptera). Ent. News
38(9) :276-287, figs. 1-2, Nov.
Microthrips leucus Herrick, 1927. No. Amer. = Leucothrips nigri-
pennis Reuter, 1904. Medd. Soc. Fauna Flora Fenn. 30:108.
Hood, 1931. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 7(4) :170-171.
Thrips veratri Herrick, 1927. No. Amer. = Thrips herricki Bagn.,
1926. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9) 18:545. Hood, 1931. Pan-
Pacif. Ent. 7(4) :171-172.
HINDS, W. E.
1900. The Grass thrips, Anaphothrips striata. (Osb.). 37th
Ann. Rpt. Mass. Agr. Coll., Public Document No. 31, pp.
83-97, 4 plates, Jan.
1902. Contribution to a monograph of the insects of the order
Thysanoptera inhabiting North America. Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus. 26(1310) :79-242, 11 plates.
1905. A New Tobacco Thrips. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 18:197-
Acanthothrips magnafemoralis Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Neuro-
thrips. Hood, 1924. Ent. News 35:315.
Aeolothrips bicolor Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Cephalothrips yuccae Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Bagnalliella.
Karny, 1920. Acta Soc. Ent. Cech. 17:41.
Chirothrips crassus Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Chirothrips obesus Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Cryptothrips aspersus Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Leptothrips mali
(Fitch), 1855. Hood, 1914. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:162-164.
Eurythrips Hinds, 1902. Genotype: Eurythrips ampliventralis.
Eurythrips ampliventralis Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Eurythrips osborni Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Euthrips fuscus Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Frankliniella fusca
(Hinds). Karny, 1912. Zoo. Ann. 4:335-336.
Euthrips nicotianae Hinds, 1905. No. Amer. = Frankliniella fusca
(Hinds). Karny, 1912. Zoo. Ann. 4:335-336.
Heliothrips fasciapennis Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Hercothrips
Hood, 1927. Psyche 34(6) :233.
Limothrips avenae Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Limothrips cereal-
ium Hal, 1836. Bagnall 1909. Jour. Econ. Biol. 4:35.
Malacothrips Hinds, 1902. Genotype: Malacothrips zonatus.
Malacothrips zonatus Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Phloeothrips pergandei Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Hoplandro-
thrips. Hood, 1915. The Ent. 48:106.
Phloeothrips uzeli Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Hoplandrothrips.
Hood, 1915. The Ent. 48:106.
Pseudothrips Hinds, 1902. Genotype: P. inequalis (Beach).
Rhaphidothrips fuscipennis Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Sericothrips cingulatus Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Scolothrips Hinds, 1902. Genotype: Scolothrips sexmaculatus
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Trichothrips ambitus Hinds, 1902. No. Amer.
Trichothrips beach Hinds, 1902. No. Amer. = Hoplothrips. Hood,
1915. The Ent. 48:105.
The present status of the Hinds collection and types was re-
viewed by Bailey, 1939. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 15(2):91-93.
JONES, P. R.
1912. Some new California and Georgia Thysanoptera. U. S.
D. A., Bur. Ent., Tech. Ser., No. 23, pt. I, pp. 1-24, pls.
Aeolothrips nasturtii Jones, 1912. No. Amer.
Anaphothrips albus Jones, 1912. No. Amer. = Scirtothrips. Karny,
1912. Zoo. Ann. 4:334.
Anthothrips flavipes Jones, 1912. No. Amer. = Cephalothrips er-
rans Moulton, 1911. (This synonymy was first called to my
attention by Dr. F. Andre in 1938. See also Priesner, 1939.
Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, ser. B, 8 (part 4) :74).
Anthothrips nigricornis Jones, 1912. No. Amer. = Haplothrips
fasiculatus (D. L. Cwfd.), 1909. Hood, 1927. Pan-Pacif. Ent.
3(4):174-175. (Nec. A. nigricornis Bagn., 1910).
Cryptothrips salicis Jones, 1912. No. Amer. = Cephalothrips er-
rans Moulton, 1911- (see A. flavipes above and Hood, 1927.
Pan-Pacif. Ent. 3(4) :176-177.
Euthrips costalis Jones, 1912. No. Amer. = Taeniothrips (Physo-
thrips) albus Moulton, 1911. Karny, 1912. Zoo. Ann. 4:344.
J. C. Crawford, 1941. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 43(6) :143.
Euthrips longirostrum Jones, 1912. No. Amer. = Mycterothrips.
Karny, 1921. Treubia 1(4) :216 = Physothrips. Hood, 1915.
Insec. Insc. Mens. 3(1-4) :25.
Limothrips setariae Jones, 1912. No. Amer. = Limothrips anguli-
cornis Jablon, 1894. Bagnall, 1914. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser.
Phleothrips armiger Jones, 1912. No. Amer. =Hoplandrothrips.
Hood, 1915. The Ent. 48(624):106.
Phloeothrips jennei Jones, 1912. No. Amer. =Hoplandrothrips.
Hood, 1915. Ibid, p. 106.
Sericothrips albus Jones, 1912. No. Amer.
Sericothrips moultoni Jones, 1912. No. Amer.
Thrips femoralis Jones, 1912. (nec. Thrips femoralis Blanchard,
1851). No. Amer. = Thrips (Microcephalothrips) abdominalis
D. L. Cwfd., 1910. Hood, 1912. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 25:62.
Additional detailed synonymy on Jones species may be found
in the reference: Bailey, 1937. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 13(1-2) :89-
MASON, A. C.
1922. Cryptothrips laureli, a new thrips from Florida. (Thy-
sanoptera). Ent. News, 33(7) :193-199, July.
1926. Two new species of Thrips from California. Pan-Pacif.
Ent. 2(3) :155-157, Jan.
VOL. XXXI-No. 2 45
Cryptothrips laureli Mason, 1922. No. Amer.
Hoplandrothrips sycamorensis Mason, 1926. No. Amer. Bailey,
1938. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 14(1) :20-23, figs. 6-11.
Zygothrips californicus Mason, 1926. No. Amer. = Haplothrips.
Bailey, 1938. Ibid. 19-20, figs. 1-5. The writer has not seen
the type of H. distalis Hood, 1925, but believes it to be the
same species. Priesner studied my material in 1936 and does
not consider californicus a valid species.
MORGAN, A. C.
1913. New genera and species of Thysanoptera with notes on
distribution and food plants. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 46
(2008) :1-55, figs. 1-79, Aug.
1925a. A new Genus, a new sub-genus and seven new species of
Thysanoptera from Porto Rico. Fla. Ent. 9(1) :1-9,
1925b. Six new species of Frankliniella and a key to the Ameri-
can species. Canad. Ent. 57(6) :136-147, June.
1929. A new genus and five new species of Thysanoptera for-
eign to the United States. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 31
(1) :1-9, Jan.
Anaphothrips arizonensis Morgan, 1913. No. Amer.
Anaphothrips bicolor Morgan, 1925a. Puerto Rico = A. flavicinc-
tus Karny. Letter from F. Andre, Nov. 16, 1938. (Nec. Ana-
phothrips bicolor Moulton, 1926, lapsus calami. Pan-Pacif.
Anomalothrips amygdali Morgan, 1929. Australia. (To the writer's
knowledge the genus Anomalothrips was never described ac-
cording to the present rules of nomenclature. Monobasic.)
Celetothrips Morgan, 1929. (Genotype: C. breviceps) = Pristo-
thrips. Hood, 1938. Rev. de Ent. 8(1-2) :166.
Celetothrips breviceps Morgan, 1929. Honduras = Pristothrips.
Hood, 1938. Ibid.
Cercyothrips Morgan, 1925a. Genotype: Cercyothrips striatus.
Cercyothrips striatus Morgan, 1925a. Puerto Rico.
Diceratothrips wolcotti Morgan, 1925a. Puerto Rico.
Echinothrips americanus Morgan, 1913. No. Amer.
Eupathithrips bagnalli Morgan, 1929. Honduras.
Eurythrips hindsi Morgan, 1913. No. Amer.
Euthrips tritici var. bispinosa Morgan, 1913. No. Amer. = Frank-
liniella cephalica (D. L. Cwfd.). Hood, 1925. Bul. Brook. Ent.
Euthrips floridensis Morgan, 1913. No. Amer. = Frankliniella
stylosa Hood, 1912. Hood, 1917. Insec. Insc. Mens. 5(4-6):57.
Euthrips gossypii Morgan, 1913. No. Amer. = Frankliniella gos-
sypiana Hood, 1936. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 49:68.
Euthrips hawaiiensis Morgan, 1913. Hawaiian Is. = Thrips.
Priesner, 1934. Natur. Tidjschr. Nederld.-Indie. 94(3)266-268.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Sakimura and Krauss, 1944. Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc. 12(1):116-
Euthrips runner Morgan, 1913. No. Amer.= Frankliniella. Hood,
1914. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 16:38.
Frankliniella australis Morgan, 1925b. So. Amer.
Frankliniella canadensis Morgan, 1925b. No. Amer. = F. califor-
nica Moulton, Pan-Pacific Ent. 5(3) :128.
Frankliniella claripennis Morgan, 1925b. No. Amer. = F. califor-
Frankliniella gilmorei Morgan, 1925b. No. Amer.
Frankliniella morrilli Morgan, nomen nudum. No. Amer. (MS
name only; see A. W. Morrill, 1917. Ariz. Com. Agri. and
Hort., 9th Ann. Rpt., pp. 38-39, Dec. 30).
Frankliniella trehernei Morgan, 1925b. No. Amer.
Frankliniella unicolor Morgan, 1925b. No. Amer. Watson 1942.
Fla. Ent. 25(2) :18.
Frankliniella vaccinii Morgan, 1930. No. Amer. (The MS of
Morgan was published by C. R. Phipps, 1930. Univ. Maine,
Agri. Exp. Sta. Bul. 356, pp. 125-128, Dec.)
Gastrothrips anolis Morgan, 1925a. Puerto Rico. Hood, 1935.
Rev. de Ent. 5(2) :186, figs. 5-6.
Gastrothrips fuscicauda Morgan, 1925a. Puerto Rico.
Heliothrips bruneri Morgan, 1929. Cuba = Hercothrips insularis
Hood, 1927. Hood, 1940. Jour. Ent. So. Afr. 3:37.
Heliothrips braziliensis Morgan, 1929. So. Amer.= Hercothrips.
Hood, 1940. Jour. Ent. So. Afr. 3:37.
Holopothrips fulvus Morgan, 1929. So. Amer. Hood, 1941. Rev.
de Ent. 12(3) :583-584.
Horistothrips Morgan, 1913. Genotype: Horistothrips australiae.
Horistothrips australiae Morgan, 1913. Australia.
Leptothrips russelli Morgan, 1913. No. Amer. = Haplothrips fas-
ciculatus (D. L. Cwfd.). Hood, 1927. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 3(4):
Lissothrips (Prolissothrips) stratulus Morgan, 1925a. Puerto
Microthrips Morgan, 1913. (Genotype: M. pierce) =Leucothrips
Reuter, 1904. Hood, 1931. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 7(4):170.
Microthrips pierce Morgan, 1913. No. Amer. = Leucothrips
pierce (Morgan). Hood, 1931. Bul. Brook. Ent. Soc. 26:153.
Physothrips eucharii Morgan, nomen nudum. Bermuda. (MS
name only; see H. H. Whetzel, 1923. Rpt. P1. Path. Jan. 1 to May
31, 1922. Rpt. Bd. Agr. Bermuda 1922, pp. 30-31.
Prolissothrips Morgan, 1925a. (subgenus of Lissothrips Hood,
Rhipiphorothrips Morgan, 1913. Genotype: Rhipiphorothrips pul-
Rhipiphorothrips pulchellus Morgan, 1913. Phillipine Is.
Sericothrips portoricensis Morgan, 1925a. Puerto Rico.
Thrips helianthi Morgan, 1913. No. Amer.
Thrips quinciensis Morgan, 1913. No. Amer.
VOL. XXXI-No. 2
Thrips spinosus Morgan, 1913. No. ,Amer.
Trichothrips amlipennis Morgan, 1913. No. Amer. = Treherniella.
Hood, 1931. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 7(4) :172.
Trichothrips flavicauda Morgan, 1913. No. Amer.
Trichothrips fuscus Morgan, 1913. No. Amer. = Liothrips. Hood,
1918-21. Mem. Queensld. Mus. 6-7:132.
Trichothrips hoodi Morgan, 1913. No. Amer.
Zygothrips femoralis Morgan, 1913. No. Amer. = Z. harti Hood.
Hood, 1917. Insec. Insc. Mens. 5(4-6) :64.
1883. Notes on Thripidae, with descriptions of new species.
Canad. Ent. 15(8) :151-156, Aug.
1896. Note on a new species of Phleothrips, with description.
Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 3:228.
Chirothrips antennatus Osborn, 1883. No. Amer. = Chirothrips
manicatus Hal, 1836. Uzel 1895. Monogr. Ord. Thys., p. 80.
Priesner, 1926. Thys. Eur., pp. 138-139.
Phloeothrips nigra Osborn, 1883. No. Amer. = Haplothrips sta-
tices (Hal.), 1836. Hood, 1914. Insec. Insc. Mens. 2(2):19.
Priesner, 1928. Thys. Eur., p. 615.
Phloeothrips verbasci Osborn, 1896. No. Amer. = Neoheegeria
verbasci (Osb.). Priesner, 1920. Jahrb. Mus. Francisco Carol-
inum, No. 78, p. 62.
Thrips striata Osborn, 1883. No. Amer. = Anaphothrips obscurus
(Muller), 1776. Hinds, 1900. 37th ,Ann. Rpt. Mass. Agr. Coll.,
pp. 84-86. Priesner, 1926. Thys. Eur. pp. 183-187.
1888-91. Footnote from article "Transformation of a Carabid
(Plochionus timidus), and observations on a coccinellid
enemy of the red spider" by J. C. Duffey. Trans. Acad.
Sci., St. Louis, 5(3-4) :539.
1895. Observations on certain Thripidae. U.S.D.A., Div. Ent.,
"Insect Life," 7(5) :392-395.
1896. Description of a new species of Idolothrips. Ent. News
Euthrips occidentalis Perg., 1895., No. Amer. = Frankliniella.
Karny, 1912. Zool. Ann. 4:335. Hood, 1914. Proc. Ent. Soc.
Heliothrips cestri Perg., 1895. No. Amer. = Hercinothrips femor-
alis (Reuter), 1891. Meddel. Soc. Fauna et Flora Fenn. 17:166.
Hinds, 1902. p. 172. Bagnall, 1932. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser.
Heliothrips fasciata Perg., 1895. No. Amer. = Hercothrips fascia-
tus (Perg.). Hood, 1927. Psyche 34(6) :233.
Idolothrips coniferarum Perg., 1896. No. Amer. = Elaphrothrips.
Hood, 1927. Ent. Amer. 7(4) :238-239. Andre, 1940. Proc.
Ent. Soc. Wash. 42(4):76, 84-86, April. Hood, 1940. Escuela
Nac. de Cien. Biol. 1(3-4) :499.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Thrips 6-maculata Perg., 1888-91. (Duffey, 1888-91). No. Amer.
= Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.). Hinds, 1902. pp. 157-158,
pl. IV, figs. 42-45.
PREER, J. R.
1938a. Watson, J. R. and J. R. Preer. A new Frankliniella
(Thysanoptera) from Florida. Fla. Ent. 21(2):17-19,
2 figs., July.
1938b. Sericothrips langei Moulton in Florida. Ibid. 21(2) :30,
1939. Watson, J. R. and J. R. Preer. Two new Thysanoptera
from Florida. Ibid. 22(1) :1-5, 2 figs., Feb.
Eurythrips robustisetis Watson and Preer, 1939. No. Amer.
Frankliniella pontederiae Watson and Preer, 1938a. No. Amer.
Sophiothrips bicolor Watson and Preer, 1939. No. Amer.
SHULL, A. FRANKLIN
1909. Some apparently new Thysanoptera from Michigan.
Ent. News 20(5) :220-228, fig. 1-7, May.
Baliothrips basalis Shull, 1909. No. Amer. = B. dispar (Hal.),
1836. Hood, 1927. Ent. Amer. 7(4) :220-221.
Heterothrips salicis Shull, 1909. No.' Amer.
Scirtothrips Shull, 1909. Genotype: Scirtothrips ruthveni.
Scirtothrips ruthveni Shull, 1909. No. Amer.
Trichothrips brevicruralis Shull, 1909. No. Amer.
Trichothrips tridentatus Shull, 1909. No. Amer. = Rhynchothrips.
Hood, 1912. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 14:141-142; 1914. Proc.
Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:159-160.
STEINWEDEN, J. B.
1930. Steinweden, J. B. and D. Moulton. Thysanoptera from
China. Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Fukien Christian Univ.,
1931. Moulton, D. and J. B. Steinweden. A new Taeniothrips
on gladiolus. Canad. Ent. 63(1) :20-21, fig. 1, Jan.
1932. Moulton, D. and J. B. Steinweden. New Marquesan Thy-
sanoptera. Pac. Ent. Sur. Pub. 1, Art. 17, pp. 165-168.
Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bul. 98, Nov.
1933a. Moulton, D. and J. B. Steinweden. Thysanoptera from
the Society Islands. Pac. Ent. Sur. Pub. 6, Art. 6, pp.
29-33, fig. 1, a-d. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 113, Jan.
1933b. Moulton, D. and J. B. Steinweden. Two new species of
Cryptothrips (Thysanoptera) from the Marquesas, Pac.
Ent. Sur. Pub. 7, Art. II, pp. 163-165, fig. 1, a-f. Bernice
P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 114, Sept.
1933c. Key to all known species of the genus Taeniothrips Amyot
and Serville (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Trans. Amer.
Ent. Soc. 59, (978) :269-295, pl. 9, figs. 1-12, Nov.
Bolothrips nigra M. and S., 1932. Marquesas Is., Hivaoa.
Cryptothrips constans M. and S., 1933b. Marquesas Is., Uapou.
VOL. XXXI-No. 2
Cryptothrips niger M. and S., 1933b. Marquesas Is. = Dichae-
tothrips setidens (Moulton), 1928. Moulton, 1944. Occ. Papers
Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 17(22):267, 308.
Horistothrips palidispinosus S. and M., 1930. China.
Isoneurothrips brevicornis M. and S., 1932. Marquesas Is., Hivaoa
Neoheegeria hibisci M. and S., 1933a. Society Is., Moorea.
Rhynchothrips fuscus S. and M., 1930. China.
Sericothrips dentatus S. and M., 1930. China.
Taeniothrips gladioli M. and S., 1931. Canada = T. (Physothrips)
simplex Morison, 1930. Steele, H. V., 1935. C.S.I.R. Comwlth.
Australia, Pam. 54, pp. 33-36, April. Priesner, 1938. Treubia
Thrips aleuritis M. and S., 1933a. Tahiti.
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Aeolothrips auricestus Treherne, 1919b. No. Amer.
Frankliniella nubila Treherne, 1924. No. Amer.
Taeniothrips orionis Treherne, 1924. No. Amer.
Taeniothrips lemanis Treherne, 1924. No. Amer.
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Stephanothrips fusiantennatus Watts, 1935. No. Amer.
50 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
NOTES ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN CUBA
L. C. Scaramuzza, Entomologist, Atlantic Gulf Sugar Com-
pany, Mercedes, Province Matanzas writes that he is working
on the biological control of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea
saccharalis F., by means of the artificial multiplication and mass
releases of the Cuban Fly, Lixophaga diatraeae Towns., of which
44,500 were released last year in six plantations. This is the
third year of this project and we have been able to reduce the
joint infestation by more than 50 per cent and increase the rate
of parasitization by more than 100 per cent.
SUGARCANE BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN CUBA
Percentage of Total Lixophaga
Infested Joints Parasitization Flies
Year Average Per Cent Liberated
1945 ........-----.. ---................ 16.4 1.0 7,420
1946 .......------............---.... 10.1 8.7 16,195
1947 .--..--..........- .......-- 7.9 12.2 13,245
1945 ...----...........................No data 1.6 8,397
1946 --............................. 15.4 6.8 16,331
1947 ... -------......................... 4.9 17.2 13,441