Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XXXI DECEMBER, 1948 No. 4
NEW SPECIES OF LOUISIANA APHIDIDAE, AND
NOTES ON Sanbornia juniperi Pergande 1
By H. BRUCE BOUDREAUX
Five species are here described as new, and a redescription
of Sanbornia juniperi Pergande is presented. The types of
the new species are in the collection of the writer at Louisiana
State University. The measurements given are in millimeters.
The species in question have been examined by the follow-
ing, for whose opinions concerning the identity of the specimens
the writer is deeply grateful: A. N. Tissot, Gainesville, Florida
(all five new species) ; P. W. Mason, Washington, D. C. (Macro-
siphum tissoti and M. verbesinae); A. C. Maxson, Longmont,
Colorado (Georgiaphis maxsoni) and H. H. Ross, Urbana, Illi-
nois (M. verbesinae, compared with type of M. ruralis H. & F.).
Cinara louisianensis new species
COLOR.-Alate viviparae green; head dusky green; eyes black; ocelli
black-bordered; antennae dusky black, with bases of segments paler; head
powdery below; rostrum green, tinged with dusky, black at tip. T'r-ox
dull green to dusky black, brown between lobes; coxae green, femora green
at base, becoming dusky brown at apex; tibiae lightly infuscated, dark at
tips; tarsi similar in color to tibiae. Abdomen dark green with transverse
powdery areas behind cornicles; cornicles light brown; cauda and anal plate
lightly infuscated. Apterous viviparae similar to alatae except that the
first three antennal segments are lighter, the white powdery areas are
scattered more widely over the abdomen and the thorax is green.
MEASUREMENTS.-Alate vivipare.-Length of body, 1.8 to 2.03; width
across eyes, .49 to .50; antennal III, .21 to .22; IV, .10 to .12; V, .11
to .13; VI, .11 to .12 plus .02; width of cornicle base, .14 to .20; rostral
SContribution from the Department of Zoology, Physiology and Ento-
mology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Contribution
2 Aided by research grant from the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science through the Louisiana Academy of Sciences.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
VOL. XXXI DECEMBER, 1948 No. 4
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1947-48
President.--..--.......-...... ............---E. G. KELSHEIMER
Vice President..................----- M. C. VAN HORN
Secretary ...--....---....--.......... --------..... ..... .. LEWIS BERNER
Treasurer ------- ---- .-----. ----------G. W. DEKLE
ti(e Comm J. C. GOODWIN
Executive Committee--- ........---- J. T. GRIFFITHS, JR.
H. K. WALLACE ............------------------. -----.........-.......Editor
G. B. MERRILL-......--- ---.--...... ...Associate Editor
G. W. DEKLE _-_. .------.------...........Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the Society.
Subscription price to non-members $2.00 per year in advance; 50 cents
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Dr. H. K. Wallace, Biology Department University of Florida. Subscrip-
tions, and orders for back numbers to the Secretary, Dr. Lewis Berner,
Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Dues to Mr.
G. W. Dekle, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida.
The actual cost of preparing cuts for all illustrations must be borne
by contributors. Reprints of articles may be secured by authors if they are
ordered before, or at the time proofs are received for correction; 25 copies
furnished free to authors.
REPRINTS WITHOUT COVERS
Pages 1 2 3...41 5...819...12113...16117...20121...24125...28129...32
50 copies..................... 1.60 2.00 2.7014.251 6.70 7.25 9.40 i0.401 12.05 12.80
100 copies............... 1.95 2.403.20 5.101 7.80 8.60 11.00 12.951 15.10 16.20
Add 100 copies..................... .75 .751.1011.601 2.701 3.10 3.701 4.801 5.85 6.20
In most instances whole numbers can be furnished more cheaply than
Additional for Covers, with Titles and Author's Name
25 copies ..............................3.50 100 copies ..............................$5.00
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
Co' W. A.P.
'm '.-AA 4LA. ANT
W. H. a ANT. / /
SO, 2 VIEWS CA. AP
o A. H. 8 ANT FROM BELOW
SANBORNIA JUNIPER PERGANDE
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 uu.
' ''. '1,..1.. 11. ..1. .111m' ` ill 1 1 ', l '`' '' l m1' ll
A.-Apterous viviparous female
W.-Winged viviparous female
IV plus V, .15 to .21; hind tibia, 1.04 to 1.15; hind tarsus, .25 to .29.
Apterous viviparae.-Length of body, 1.66 to 2.10; across eyes, .44 to .48;
antennal III, .16 to .20; IV, .08 to .11; V, .09 to .12; VI, .10 to .13 plus
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
.02; width of cornicle base, .14 to .16; rostral IV plus V, .17 to .21;
hind tibia, .75 to .88; hind tarsus, .22.
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS.-Antennae short, about half as long as the
body; secondary sensoria near tips of segments, 1 to 4 on III, 0 to 1 on
IV, 0 to 1 on V, and none on VI of alatae; apterae without secondary
sensoria; the primary sensorium on VI with 3 or 4 accessory sensoria
near it; vertex prominently convex; fore wings with media usually once
forked, some specimens having it twice forked on only one side, others
having it twice forked on both sides; media less prominent than other
veins; both media and cubitus present in hind wings; cornicles small for
TAXONOMY.-This species can be separated from the other
Louisiana Aphid which feeds on Arborvitae, Cinara tujafilina
(Del Guercio), by its smaller size, its green color instead of
brown, and by the usually once-forked media. C. louisianensis
has fewer secondary sensoria on III and lacks the brown dorsal
abdominal markings of C. tujafilina. It differs from C. utahensis
Knowlton in that the alates have more secondary sensoria on
antennal segment III, the apterae are without secondary sensoria
and there are much fewer and shorter hairs on the antennae.
From C. occidentalis Davidson it differs in having much shorter
antennae and tarsal segments and more protuberant vertex.
NOTE.-Specimens of this species are very hard to see on
the green branches of Arborvitae. They were collected by
breaking off the branches and placing them under a strong
light, which makes them more active, whereupon they can
easily be seen and taken.
Holotype alate vivipara on slide with morphotype apterous
vivipara (marked) and one paratype apterous vivipara, col-
lection number L-245-46. Collections as follows: L-245-46,
Baton Rouge, La., February 23, 1946; L-254-46, Baton Rouge,
February 24, 1946; L-267-46, Lafayette, La., March 4, 1946;
L-280-46, Baton Rouge, March 15, 1946. All on Thuja sp.
(Arborvitae), collected by the writer.
Cinara melaina new species
COLOR.-Alate viviparae very dark shiny brown, almost black. Head,
thorax and eyes black; antenna I and II black, basal part of III, IV and
V whitish, distal two-thirds of III, tip of IV, almost all of V and all of
VI black; legs black except bases of femora and middle portions of tibiae,
which are yellowish brown; hind tibiae with yellowish portion short and
near basal end; rostrum whitish at base, III, IV and V black; wings light
smoky, costal margin black; posterior border of both wings black; abdomen
very dark brown; cornicles, cauda and anal plate black; slight powdery
secretion on lower thoracic lobes, scutellum and side of thorax. On some
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
specimens the powdery secretion is more extensive and covers a large part
of the body. Apterous viviparae very dark shiny brown (black to naked
eye); antennae, legs and head as in alate; pro- and mesothorax black, a
pair of oblong black patches on metathorax and first abdominal segment;
numerous black irregular patches around hair bases on abdomen; spiracles
black with a white powdery spot posterior to each; cornicles black on
steeply sloping bases; posterior abdominal segments black.
MEASUREMENTS.-Alate viviparae.-Length of body, 2.63 to 3.20; across
eyes, .62 to .72; antennal III, .42 to .51; IV, .17 to .24; V, .21 to .27;
VI, .11 plus .05; rostral IV plus V, .27 to .29; width of cornicle base,
.29 to .53; hind tibia, 1.90 to 2.36; hind tarsus, .33 to .35. Apterous vivi-
parae.-Across eyes, .70 to .74; antennal III, .42 to .49; IV, .18 to .22;
V, .22 to .25; VI, .11 to .12 plus .04 to .05; rostral IV plus V, .28 to .30;
width of cornicle base, .44 to .63; hind tibia, 2.0 to 2.26; hind tarsus, .33.
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS.-Secondary sensoria 3 to 7 on III, 1 to 3 on
IV and 1 on V in alatae, 1 each on III, IV and V in apterae; rostrum in
alatae reaching cornicles; media of fore wings faint, with the second fork
much closer to the first fork than to the end of M1, the branches of the
first and second forks running close together and nearly parallel; cornicle
bases bearing a few long hairs, with steeply sloping sides. The cornicle
hairs are arranged in two groups as follows: a circle of hairs around the
base of the cone, with another circle of hairs grouped around the. apex.
There is usually an area between these groups without hairs.
TAXONOMY.-Cinara melaina is very similar to C. carolina
Tissot, but can be distinguished from it by its usually nearly
black, shiny color, fewer average number of secondary sensoria,
smaller and more sloping cornicle bases in the alate form, with
fewer hairs on the cornicles, and the close apposition of the
second and third branches of the media in the fore wings. The
apterae of C. melaina bear two transverse pigmented areas on
the dorsum posterior to the cornicles. Such a condition is also
found in C. carolina, but in the latter the more anterior trans-
verse area is divided into two separate areas. From C. osbor-
niana Tissot, C. melaina differs in having much shorter antennal
and tibial hairs, more sensoria on III of alatae, and in lacking
the irregular large pigmented areas on the dorsum of the
Holotype alate vivipara on slide, collection number L-252-46.
Morphotype apterous vivipara on slide with one alate, collection
number L-251-46. Collections as follows: L-42-45A, February
18, 1945 on Pinus taeda; L-44-45C, March 12, 1945, P. glabra;
L-45-45, March 17, 1945, P. glabra; L-46-45, March 17, 1945,
P. palustris; L-251-46, February 24, 1946, P. glabra; and
L-252-46, February 24, 1946, P. caribaea; all these at Baton
Rouge. One collection from Jackson, La., L-319-46, April 4,
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
1946 on P. taeda, mixed in a colony of Cinara carolina Tissot.
All collected by the writer.
Macrosiphum tissoti new species
COLOR.-Body green; cornicles, legs and antennae black; cauda light.
MEASUREMENTS.-Alate viviparae.-Body, 2.33 to 3.23; across eyes, .45
to .51; antennal III, .73 to .98; IV, .60 to .84; V, .55 to .80; VI, .14 to .15 plus
1.08 to 1.25; hind tibia, 1.95 to 2.80; rostral IV plus V, .18; cornicle, .51 to
.85; reticulations on cornicle, .20 to .40; cauda, .39 to .65. Apterous vivi-
parae.-Body, 2.40 to 3.05; across eyes, .51 to .55; antennal III, .84 to
1.00; IV, .75 to .83; V, .63 to .76; VI, .15 to .17 plus 1.00 to 1.16; hind
tibia, 2.27 to 2.68; cornicle, .70 to .88; reticulations on cornicle, .29 to .38;
cauda, .58 to .70.
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS.-Hairs pointed or slightly capitate; reticula-
tions on cornicles covering about two fifths of the cornicle length; cauda
narrow and pointed beyond last pair of lateral hairs; secondary sensoria
scattered, tuberculate, covering all of III in alatae and the basal one
half to two thirds of III in apterae. Secondary sensoria on III, 34 to 51
in alatae, 26 to 35 in apterae; antennal III much shorter than combined
lengths of IV plus V, about two thirds the length.
TAXONOMY.-This species runs to M. luteola Williams in
Patch's key (1919). It differs from M. luteola in being green
instead of yellow, has a proportionately shorter antennal III
and a larger number of larger secondary sensoria.
NOMENCLATURE.-This species is named in honor of Dr.
A. N. Tissot, of Gainesville, Florida. Dr. Tissot has for long
been a leading authority on Southern Aphids and has freely
given the writer his most valuable help in studying Louisiana
Holotype alate vivipara, dorsal view, on slide with morpho-
type apterous vivipara and paratype alate vivipara seen from
side view, collection number L-146-45, September 6, 1945, on
Solidago. Collections as follows: 216-La., Lafayette, La., May
21, 1936, on Solidago; L-17-40, Baton Rouge, La., June 18,
1940, on Solidago; L-3-42, Lafayette, April 18, 1943, on Soli-
dago; L-4-42, Lafayette, April 18, 1942, on Aster. All collected
by D. C. Elliott. L-118-45, Baton Rouge, August 11, 1945;
L-139-45, Baton Rouge, September 2, 1945; L-146-45, Baton
Rouge, September 6, 1945, all on Solidago and collected by the
writer. Thirty-five individuals on 12 slides.
Macrosiphum verbesinae new species
COLOR.-Shiny black or bright shiny red; bases of femora yellow, the
rest of the legs black; antennae black; ocelli bordered with black in red
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
W. VERTEX a ANT
WH. I ANTA
W H. &AN-T
'A. ANT. A CO.
"" A. CA. a A.P
SR. W CO. \ &
W CA. 8A.P
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 MM.
I,,,, ,,,,, h ,,, ,,,i. ,, ,,,Ilb-l- 1 ,,, ,,,I .i I. l.,, ,
forms; eyes dark brown; rostrum black; red apterous forms with dusky
patches around the cornicle bases; cornicles and cauda entirely black.
Both red and black varieties show the same cuticular pigmentation when
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
MEASUREMENTS.-Alate viviparae.-Body, 2.00 to 2.95; across eyes,
.50 to .59; antennal III, .65 to 1.00; IV, .60 to .95; V, .62 to .95; VI,
.16 to .27 plus 1.03 to 1.40; hind tibia, 2.00 to 2.78; rostral IV plus V,
.23; cornicle, .82 to 1.10; reticulations on cornicles, .22 to .28; cauda,
.31 to .56. Apterous viviparae.--Body, 2.35 to 3.24; across eyes, .50
to .61; antennal III, .78 to .98; IV, .65 to .86; V, .58 to .85; VI, .15 to
.25 plus 1.02 to 1.29; hind tibia, 2.10 to 2.80; cornicle, .85 to 1.09; reticula-
tions on cornicles, .20; cauda, .54 to .63. Apterous oviparae.-Across
eyes, .51 to .54; body, 2.52 to 2.90; antennal III, .80 to .84; IV, .64 to .72;
V, .65 to .73; VI base, .19 to .21; unguis, 1.09 to 1.20; hind tibia, 2.10
to 2.35; hind tarsus, .09 to .13; rostrum IV plus V, .22 to .23; cornicle,
.80 to .98; cornicle reticulations, .22 to .28; cauda, .43 to .50.
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS.-Secondary sensoria scattered, tuberculate,
25 to 36 along all of III in alatae, 14 to 20 on the basal three fourths
of III in apterae and 12 to 20 on basal two thirds in oviparae; oviparae
with about 45 to 85 sensoria on basal half of hind tibia, which is slightly
swollen; lateral tubercles present on prothorax and all abdominal segments
anterior to the cornicles, those just ahead of the cornicles more prominent
than the others; rostrum reaching or surpassing hind coxae; reticulations
at tip of cornicles covering about one fourth of the length; cornicles
cylindrical, not much wider at base than at middle; cauda tapering, with
a slight neck; hairs on body and appendages conspicuous and pointed, and
not surrounded with pigmented spots at bases.
TAXONOMY.-This species keys out to M. ruralis in the key
of Hottes and Frison (1931). It differs from M. ruralis in the
following particulars: M. ruralis has secondary sensoria mostly
on the basal two thirds of III in alatae, on basal one third of
III in apterae, fewer in number (13 to 27 alate, 5 to 17 aptera) ;
the body color is green; the cauda is green at the base; the
antennal segments, cauda and cornicles are longer in proportion
to body size. M. verbesinae has the secondary sensoria covering
practically all of III in alatae and two thirds of III in apterae,
more in number than ruralis (25 to 36 alate, 14 to 20 aptera) ;
the body color is black or red; the cauda is entirely black; the
antennal segments, cauda and cornicles are shorter in proportion
to body size. In addition, ruralis feeds preferably on the stem
of its host, getting on the leaves when crowded, while verbesinae
usually feeds under the leaves, getting on the stems when
crowded on the leaves. The number of sensoria on the hind
tibiae of oviparae of verbesinae is less than one-half the number
found on ruralis.
NOTE.-There seem to be two color varieties of this species,
a condition perhaps of the same nature as in the pink and green
forms of M. solanifolii (Ashm.). Some colonies contain all
black individuals, or entire plants may have only black individ-
uals, while the same is true of the red variety. On the other
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
hand, mixed colonies are often found. However, there is no
structural difference between the two color varieties, and once
cleared and on slides the two are indistinguishable.
Holotype alate viviparous female (marked) on slide with
two other alatae and one apterous female, collection number
L-316-46, April 5, 1946, on Verbesina virginica. Morphotypes.
-Apterous viviparous female (marked) on slide with four
other apterae, collection number L-364-46, May 4, 1946; ap-
terous oviparous female, collection number L-386-46, October
27, 1946, both on Verbesina virginica. Collections as follows:
L-12-44, July 26, 1944; L-87-45, June 6, 1945; L-96-45, July 17,
1945; L-147-45, September 6, 1945; L-148-45, September 6,
1945; L-315-46, April 4, 1946; L-316-46, April 4, 1946; all at
Baton Rouge, La.; L-364-46, May 4, 1946, at Shreveport, La.,
and L-386-46, at Perry, La. All on Verbesina virginica, collected
by the writer. Two slides from this series are in the collection
of the Illinois Natural History Survey at Urbana, Illinois, and
two more in the collection of A. N. Tissot, Gainesville, Florida.
Georgiaphis maxsoni new species
COLOR.-Not recorded before mounting. Body of apterae covered with
white, mealy secretion.
MEASUREMENTS.-Alate viviparae.-Body, .97 to 1.14; across eyes,
.24 to .28; antennal III, .17 to .19; IV, .06 to .07; V, .07; VI, .06 to
.07 plus .02; hind tibia, .36 to .43; hind tarsus, .08 to .11; rostral IV
plus V, .07 to .09. Apterous viviparae.-Body, 1.02 to 1.25; across eyes,
.29 to .31; antennal III, .17 to .20; IV, .07 to .08; V, .08 to .09; VI, .06
to .08 plus .02; hind tibia, .42 to .51; hind tarsus, .11 to .14; rostral IV
plus V, .10.
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS.-Secondary sensoria hardly exceeding the
diameter of the segments, 13 to 18 on III, 2 to 4 on IV and none on V and
VI in alatae, none in apterae; primary sensorium on VI with 1 or 2 smaller
sensoria near it; alatae with media of fore wings once forked; the hind
wings with a distinct media, the cubitus absent or rudimentary; two small
wax pore plates of a few facets on head between the eyes, a large oval
wax pore on the mesonotum just ahead of the scutellum and a larger
one almost covering the scutellum; apterae with wax pore plates on
dorsum of head, thorax and abdomen quite extensive, nearly covering each
segment and consisting of many small facets irregularly arranged; alate
nymphs with abdominal wax pores similar to the apterae; compound
eyes absent in apterae, but the ocular tubercles are very large, each with
three large facets; tarsus in all forms longer than antennal IV, V or
VI. The ocular tubercles of the alatae are strikingly large, also with three
distinct facets each.
TAXONOMY.-This form was examined by Mr. A. C. Maxson,
who believed it might be an undescribed species. It differs from
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
G. ulmi in having the length of antennal III only about three-
fourths the length of IV, V and VI combined instead of sub-
equal, antennal VI is longer than IV or V instead of shorter
than either one, and the body is smaller.
The species is placed tentatively in the genus Georgiaphis
on the basis of secondary sensorium and wax gland structure
as suggested by Mr. A. C. Maxson. Until the complete life
history is known, this seems to be the best generic position.
NOMENCLATURE.-The specific name was chosen in honor
of Mr. A. C. Maxson of Longmont, Colorado, who has done much
to further knowledge of the Eriosomatinae.
Holotype alate vivipara on slide with morphotype apterous
vivipara, and with 3 other apterous viviparae and 3 alate vivi-
parae (marked), L-74-45, Port Hudson, La., May 18, 1945, on
Ulmus americana. Only one collection, taken by the writer.
A slide of this collection is in the collection of Mr. Maxson.
Sanbornia juniperi Pergande
Sanbornia juniperi Pergande, 1920, in Baker,
U. S. D. A., Bul. 826: 50.
A single large collection of Sanbornia juniperi Pergande
was made on red juniper in Baton Rouge, March, 1946, and
isolated dead parasitized specimens were observed in Lafayette.
Since the original description of this remarkable species is
rather brief, it is here redescribed and figured in detail.
COLOR.-Green; head and thorax of alatae light brownish green; eyes
dark brown; ocelli bordered with dusky; tip of antennal III and all of IV
and V dusky; tarsi and tips of tibiae dusky; wing veins well marked;
dorsum of apterae covered with a brittle film of transparent secretion
which breaks into flakes upon handling. Nymphs with black wing pads.
MEASUREMENTS.-Alate viviparae.-Body, 1.27 to 1.40; across eyes,
.32 to .38; antennal III, .15 to .22; IV, .09 to .11; V, .10 to .13 plus
.08 to .11; hind tibia, .49 to .52; rostral IV plus V, .07 to .08; cauda,
.16 to .18. Apterous viviparae.-Body, 1.20 to 1.53; across eyes, .40;
antennal III, .16 to .21; IV, .08 to .11 plus .07 to .10; hind tibia, .38 to
.44; cauda, .17 to .25.
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS.-Secondary sensoria 4 to 6 on III and 2
on IV in alatae, none in apterae; apterae with an imbricated rectangular
bilobed projection on the vertex, on each side of which is a broadly conicle
protuberance, and with the first antennal segment bearing a finger-like
process; eyes of apterae below the expanded sides of the head, body with
similar expanded sides, and with the dorsum highly arched, bearing a
tubercle at the highest point, the venter flattened; alatae with the vertex
and antennal tubercles variable, usually the vertex with a short rectangu-
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
lar projecton; wing venation variable; media of fore wings usually once
forked, but sometimes simple; cubitus forked at tip in one case; hind
wings usually without a cubitus, but some specimens bear a trace of it,
while other specimens have neither media nor cubitus in the hind wing.
In some cases the alatae have 4-segmented antennae and in one case the
aptera has 5-segmented antennae.
NOTE.-The Louisiana material of this species was com-
pared by the writer with cotypes borrowed from the United
States National Museum. There were 2 alates and 5 apterae
in the cotypic material which were in a condition good enough
for study. The Louisiana forms differ from the cotypes in being
relatively larger and in having irregularities in the wing vena-
tion. A slide bearing specimens exhibiting most of the irregu-
larities described above has been deposited in the United States
National Museum, Catalog number 17280.
1919. Patch, Edith M. Three Pink and Green Aphids of the Rose. Maine
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 282.
1920. Baker, A. C. Generic Classification of the Hemipterous Family
Aphididae. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 826.
1931. Hottes, F. C., and T. H. Frison. The Plant Lice, or Aphiidae, of
Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin XIX: 3.
INSECTICIDE TESTS FOR THE CONTROL OF FALL
ARMYWORM ON CORN1
By A. N. TISSOT and L. C. KUITERT
Reports of heavy damage to lawns, peanuts, and corn by
the fall armyworm, Laphygma frugiperda (A. & S.) during
May and the early part of June 1948, indicated the necessity
of further investigations for a more effective method of con-
trolling this pest. Early in June Parathion, Chlordane, and
DDT were used in several small scale experiments for the con-
trol of this pest in grass. Parathion gave kills far superior
to those produced by the other materials. This was surprising
in view of the fact that an earlier insecticide test on tobacco
showed Parathion to be ineffective against the tobacco bud-
worm, Heliothis virescens (F.).
An excellent opportunity for a more extensive test was pre-
sented when Doctor F. H. Hull of the Agronomy Department
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station made avail-
1 Contribution from Entomology Department, Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, Gainesville.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
able a 1.6-acre field of young corn for an insecticide experiment.
This field was bordered on one side by a field of older corn
which had a very heavy infestation of the fall armyworm. Moths
were constantly emerging and moving into the young corn to
lay eggs. At one time there was a heavy migration of larvae
from the old corn into the experimental planting. It thus is
evident that the insecticides were tested under the most severe
conditions possible, in so far as opportunities for reinfestation
MATERIAL USED.-All of the insecticides were applied in the
form of dusts. The materials tested, the formulations used,
and the source of the materials, were as follows: (1) Isotox
1.5 percent gamma isomer, from California Spray Chemical
Corporation; (2) Parathion 1 percent, prepared from 25 per-
cent wettable powder, furnished by American Cyanamid Com-
pany; (3) Rhothane 3 percent, prepared from 50 percent
wettable powder produced by Rohm and Haas Company; (4)
Toxaphene 10 percent, prepared from a 20 percent dust made
by Hercules Powder Company; (5) Lead arsenate, Corona Dry
(98 percent) from Corona Chemical Division of Pittsburgh
Plate Glass Company, mixed with diluent in proportion of 1:5
by weight; (6) Kryocide (90 percent sodium fluoaluminate)
from Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company, mixed with
diluent in proportion of 1:1; (7) Chlordane 5 percent prepared
dust obtained from a local insecticide store; (8) DDT 3 percent,
prepared from 5 percent purified DDT dust made by Geigy
Company, Incorporated; and (9) Methoxychlor 3 percent, pre-
pared from Geigy Company 5 percent dust for the first two
applications, from 50 percent Marlate obtained from E. I. duPont
de Nemours and Company Grasselli Chemicals Department for
the third application, and a commercially prepared dust made
from Marlate, for the fourth application. In all cases where
it was necessary to dilute the available materials to produce dusts
of the desired concentrations, Pyrax was used as the diluent.
METHOD OF APPLICATION.-The insecticides were applied
with rotary type hand dusters equipped with single discharge
nozzles. An attempt was made to blow the dust directly into
the bud whorls of the corn plants as most of the armyworm
larvae were found there. Applications of insecticides were made
June 19, 25, July 3, and July 16. In all cases the dusts were
applied early in the morning between six and nine o'clock. At
the beginning of the dusting operations the air was usually calm
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
and the corn was wet with dew. By the time the last material
was applied the corn was almost dry and often there was a light
breeze. In no case was the air movement strong enough to
seriously interfere with the dust application. Later observa-
tions indicated that the slight drift of dust from one plot to
another was of little consequence. To offset in a measure the
effects of changing conditions during the application periods,
the order of application of the various materials was reversed
from one period to the next. The corn was about eight inches
tall when the first dust application was made. A few tassels
were beginning to show at the time of the last application.
An attempt was made to keep the rates of application as
nearly uniform as possible, but in spite of all efforts to adjust
the dusters, there was considerable variation in the amounts
used of the different materials. This was due to the difference
in bulkiness and ease of flow of the different insecticides. The
rates of application for each material and the total amounts
used during the course of the experiment are shown in Table 1.
PLOT ARRANGEMENT.-The corn planting made available to
the writers for this test was a narrow field 640 feet long and
115 feet wide and containing 36 rows. A 20-foot buffer plot
was marked off at each end of the field and the remainder was
divided into three blocks of equal size. Each block was sub-
divided into 10 plots, each 20 feet in length and extending the
entire width of the planting. The plots were separated by nar-
row furrows to facilitate dusting operations. This plot arrange-
ment provided for three replications of the insecticides. The
nine materials used and the untreated check were located at
random among the 10 plots of each block. The corn was also
being used for breeding purposes and only 19 rows known as
the "June Composite" were harvested. Most of the larval
counts were also made in these rows as the corn was more
uniform since migrating larvae had severely injured several
rows of the test plots on the side bordering the older corn.
EFFECTIVENESS OF INSECTICIDES.-On June 23, four days
after the first insecticide application, larval counts were made
to determine the effectiveness of the various materials. In
each plot 10 plants, each in a separate row, were examined
carefully for larvae. The plants were selected at random and
all were taken well in from the plot borders to avoid any
possibility of contamination by a neighboring insecticide. This
same procedure was followed in subsequent larval counts.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Lc7- CO ll
ri t0 t- I CM'
0 01 C0 0 L-
^-< 10 CM 0 CM -
't ce CM CID 1- -5
CM -1 --1 l
CO 1- 10
r- 0 CO
CO 00 '
> M -6 A
k0 C~ rl 0 0)
ho Q )o ^
g(T (^ (^ &1 oT
01 00 '*' 10 tO
to 1 Cr-
C- 10 CO
00 VD O- 00
00 CM CO CO
T l .I
Ti 1- 00 0
CO 0 C0 0
00 0 0
*3' C^ 00
0 H- S C)'-
>a, 0 ) Lv
'^-', a Q
Z-2 Q Q 0
17- 00 CO 0
C0 Om CZ CD C>
006 C 01 '-4 0"
,-l tf m O 0 I t
>^ 4 CO
.5 a (g
> a c m
0p C S"
n o aQI
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
When the results of the first count were tabulated it was
obvious that larval counts alone would not be a good criterion
of the effectiveness of the different materials. There was no
correlation between the number of larvae found and the amount
of insect damage in the corn. It was therefore decided to ex-
amine the corn in all the plots at frequent intervals and attempt
to rate the different materials on the basis of the general
appearance of the corn and the amounts of larval feeding noted.
These observations soon showed that the plots receiving Toxa-
phene and Parathion were outstandingly better than the others,
and this superiority continued to the end of the experiment.
There was some difference of opinion from time to time as to
which was the better but when the entire period was considered
they were rated equally good.
The next group in order of effectiveness included Isotox,
DDT, Methoxychlor, and Rhothane. There was a noticeable
variation in the different plots receiving the same treatment
but when all plots were considered the materials were rated
in the order named. The Chlordane plots showed the greatest
amount of variation. The plants were very uneven in size and
the larval damage also was spotted. On the whole the Chlordane
plots were definitely inferior to those named in the group im-
Kryocide and Lead Arsenate treated plots were only slightly
better than the check plots. All of the plants in these plots
were severely injured by the larvae and many were completely
When the first larval counts were made it was noted that
many of the larvae were very small and that they obviously
had hatched after the insecticide application was made. The
insecticides apparently had no deterrent effect on the moths,
which continued to lay eggs in large numbers. It also was
evident that none of the materials used had any appreciable
residual effect under the conditions of this test, since young
larvae could be found in all plots four days after the insecti-
cides were applied.
In the second and third larval counts an attempt was made
to differentiate between the larger larvae which were believed
to have been on the corn at the time the insecticides were ap-
plied and the small ones which presumably hatched after the
insecticide application. The two groups of larvae were counted
separately and they are thus recorded in the larval counts shown
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
in Table 1. It will be noted that when only the larger larvae
are considered there is a close correlation between the number
of larvae found on the corn and the evaluation of the effective-
ness of the insecticides on the basis of larval damage to the
As a further aid toward evaluating the different insecticides,
yield records of the corn were taken. Where the insecticides
gave effective armyworm control, the corn made a large, vigor-
ous stalk growth. The plants in the Parathion and Toxaphene
plots averaged about 10 feet in height; however, even in the
best plots very few ears were produced. The corn was planted
June 4, and the lateness of planting undoubtedly was the factor
most responsible for the poor yield. Other factors which may
have contributed to the low production were a heavy infesta-
tion of the corn lantern-fly, Peregrinus maidis (Ashm.), and
some damage caused by armyworm larvae entering the ears.
As stated above, the corn from only 19 rows was harvested.
The yields given in Table 1 represent the combined production
for the three plots of the same treatment, or an area of 3477
square feet. Although the yields are too low to have much
significance, it is interesting to note that the Toxaphene and
Parathion plots produced far more corn than any other treat-
ment. The table also indicates that there was a rather close
correlation between the yields for the other materials and the
rating of the insecticides made on the basis of larval counts
and armyworm damage.
INSECTICIDE PHYTOTOXICITY.-Kryocide was the only insecti-
cide tested that caused observable injury which could be at-
tributed definitely to the insecticide. In the plots receiving
this material, the corn showed extensive dead, brown areas in
the lower leaves while the upper, younger leaves were chlorotic
in appearance. These symptoms were so pronounced that the
Kryocide plots could easily be recognized by them.
It was mentioned that the Chlordane plots had an uneven
and spotted appearance. Groups of plants scattered about the
plots were as large and healthy as those in the Parathion and
Toxaphene plots. Neighboring plants often were only half as
large and some plants were twisted or otherwise deformed.
This was most noticeable toward the end of the experiment
when it served to identify the Chlordane plots. The cause
of this disturbance was not determined but it seemed probable
that the insecticide in some manner was responsible.
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
DISCUSSION.-The distribution of armyworm larvae among
the various plots was very puzzling at first. When all the
larvae were counted together without regard to size, it was
noticed that there was no correlation between the number of
larvae present and the amount of damage to the corn. In
later counts when the late instar larvae and the newly hatched
ones were counted separately, the situation became more clear.
Reference to Table 1 shows that the combined totals of the last
two counts for the three Parathion plots totaled only 15 late
instar larvae, and for the Toxaphene plots 16 larvae. The same
plots showed early instar larvae totals of 189 and 304 respec-
tively. In contrast, the three check plots had 118 late instar
larvae and only 53 newly hatched ones, while the poorest in-
secticide, Lead Arsenate, showed counts of 107 large larvae
and 132 small ones.
A possible explanation of this situation is that the female
moths avoided plants having late instar larvae and accumula-
tions of frass in the buds and went elsewhere to lay their eggs.
It also is possible that the larger, uninjured leaf area and the
more healthy condition of the plants in plots treated with the
more effective insecticides actually rendered them more at-
tractive to the moths. It was noted that moths frequently were
found hiding in the buds of uninjured plants while they were
seldom seen in badly eaten ones.
About the time of the third insecticide application it was
noticed that a heavy infestation of the corn lantern-fly was
developing in the corn. Enormous numbers of these insects
were found in the Check and Rhothane plots and they were
fairly numerous in most of the other treatments. They were
considerably less numerous in the Parathion and Toxaphene
plots. In heavily infested plants the honey dew excreted by
the lantern-flies collected in the whorls of the plants in large
quantities. This honey dew fermented and sometimes scalded
the tender leaves and caused them to turn white. In extreme
cases the buds of the plants were completely destroyed.
CONCLUSIONS.-The insecticide tests reported here demon-
strate that dusts containing 10 percent Toxaphene and 1 per-
cent Parathion .give effective control of the fall armyworm on
corn under the most severe conditions of infestation. Isotox
dust containing 1.5 percent gamma isomer, 3 percent DDT dust,
3 percent Methoxychlor dust, and 3 percent Rhothane dust,
though somewhat less effective, show promise and probably
THE FLORIDA. ENTOMOLOGIST
would give satisfactory control under conditions commonly
found. Five precent Chlordane dust also was fairly effective
in controlling the armyworm but apparently it somehow affects
the corn adversely. Kryocide and Lead Arsenate are quite
ineffective against the armyworm and the former is definitely
phytotoxic to the corn.
TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES ON THE
HYDROMETRIDAE OF FLORIDA (Hemiptera)
By JON L. HERRING
Department of Biology, University of Florida
The family Hydrometridae is represented in the United
States by seven species. One of these, Hydrometra lillianis
Bueno, is confined to southern California. The other six, H.
martini Kirkaldy, H. myrae Bueno, H. barei Hungerford, H.
wileyi Hungerford, H. australis Say, and H. hungerfordi Bueno
have been recorded from Florida. Most of the records, however,
represent isolated collections. In the case of wileyi, the only
record is "collected in Florida" (Hungerford 1934). Further,
the recording of martini for peninsular Florida is doubtless
an error. The following account is a summary of all of the
known locality records for the species and a possible explana-
tion for the erroneous recording of martini. The records of
Blatchley (1926) have been omitted since the only two Hydro-
metrids known by him from Eastern North America were
martini and australis and his descriptions indicate that he
probably had several species involved.
KEY TO THE HYDROMETRIDAE OF FLORIDA1
1. Pits on pro- and meso-acetabula normally 2 ............................................ 2.
1'. Pits on pro- and meso-acetabula 4 or more ......-........---........................ 4.
2. 2nd antennal segment 2% times segment one ................ H. myrae Bueno
2'. 2nd antennal segment not more than twice segment one ...................... 3.
3. Male processes on ventral side of sixth abdominal segment linear,
oblique and located near anterior margin; female spine long, sharply
acuminate, surpassing tip of body by almost 1/ its length, segment
including spine %ths of preceding segment ............ H. barei Hungerford
3'. Male processes thin, transverse platelike elevations; female spine short,
surpassing tip of body by not more than %rd its length ............................
-................ ......... .... -......------ ............ ............ H. martini Kirkaldy
4. More than 4 pits present, usually 8-10 .................... H. wileyi Hungerford
1 H. martini is included for completeness.
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
4'. Pits norm ally 4 .-- --... ........... ..... ..--........--........................-...................... 5.
5. Anteocular distance subequal to postocular distance; metanotum /2
length of pronotum ..... ---........ ---............. .............. H. hungerfordi Bueno
5'. Anteocular distance 21/2 times postocular distance; metanotum %rds
length of pronotum ...................................... ................... H. australis Say
Hydrometra martini Kirkaldy
This is probably the best known North American species
of the genus. It has been reported from almost the entire
Eastern United States, from the Cayman Islands (Hungerford
1940) to Canada. It appears, however, in view of its generalized
aspect, that it has been cited in error from many localities.
Two years collecting in the state and the examination of certain
specimens collected previously in Florida has yielded not one
specimen that can be referred to martini. Very little collecting
has been done in west Florida, and the species may occur in
that region, since some piedmont forms occur there and nowhere
else in the state.
Hydrometra myrae Bueno
This species was described by Bueno (1926) from Billy's
Island, Okeefeenokee Swamp, Georgia. Although Blatchley
(1928) lists this species in his supplement to the Heteroptera
of Eastern North America, he gives no Florida records. Myrae
is closely related to martini but its more elongated general
aspect, particularly the more exaggerated outlines of the ter-
minal segments of the abdomen, distinguishes the species im-
mediately. In addition, the second antennal segment is two
and one-half to three times the length of segment one, while
in martini, it is only twice as long. Since myrae was not de-
scribed until 1926, many of the records of martini previous
to that time are naturally referable to this species. Myrae is
the most prevalent Hydrometra in the state.
Specimens of myrae from southern Florida appear to be
extreme in exaggeration of the terminal segment of the abdomen
and in the length of the second antennal segment which, in
many specimens, is very nearly three times the length of seg-
ment one. This form was taken on two occasions from salt-
water tide pools. These pools were five to ten feet from the
open gulf and were covered by salt water at high tide. The
margins of these ponds were surrounded by thick growths of
fern. There was hardly any living vegetation in the water.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Specimens were taken from small rafts of decaying stems of
Juncus roemerianus Scheele.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: 2 Alachua Co.: Pond "C", 3 miles southwest of
Gainesville, May 18, 1933 J. Kilby 2 8, 3 9, 1 nymph; March 1, 1937 R. B.
Van Dame 1 39; Lake Alice, May 24, 1938 S. H. Spurr 1 29 In;
San Felasco Hammock Pond, October 5, 1948 F. N. Young 1 o ; Sinkhole
Pond, March 20, 1947 15 8, 17 9, Rocky Creek, 8 miles north of Gainesville,
February 7, 1948 3 2 9; Twin Oaks Pond, August 8, 1946 18, 19;
August 13, 1946 H. G. Dowling 1 ; Blues Creek, 6 miles northwest of
Gainesville, February 3, 1948 39, April 10, 1947 9 7 September 11,
1947 1 9 ; Woods Pond, west end of Payne's Prairie, March 27, 1943 J. S.
Rogers 1 9; Lake Wauberg, April 30, 1938 J. Preer 2 8, August 15, 1946
1 9; Lake Santa Fe, December 4, 1947 E. D. McRae 1 9; Cypress-Gum
Swamp, 5 miles southeast of Gainesville, January 31, 1948 1 S ; Santa Fe
River, May 14, 1934 H. T. Townsend 1 9 ; Flatwoods Pond, 500 yards
north of River Styx, April 13, 1947 8 S, 12 9, 2n; River Styx, April 13,
1947 4 6 January 31, 1948 2 2 ; Payne's Prairie, April 13, 1947
5 8, 2 9, November 23, 1947 3 a, 1 9; Biven's Arm of Payne's Prairie,
March 2, 1946 W. Beck 19; March 6, 1947 24S, 159, August 12, 1947
6$, 8 In, November 13, 1947 1 19, In; Hogtown Sink, 4 miles south-
west of Gainesville, January 5, 1947 1 March 13, 1947 11 &, 3 9, May 1,
1947 6 8, 3 9 ; Sinkhole Pond, 3 miles southeast of Gainesville, March 9,
1934 H. T. Townsend 25, 39, May 25, 1934 H. T. T. 18, 19, October 17,
1934 H. T. T. 1 1 9, November 10, 1934 H. T. T. 1 November 22, 1934
H. T. T. 2 December 8, 1934 H. T. T. 1 S, January 3, 1935 H. T. T.
2 &. Baker Co.: Roadside ditch, 4 miles south of Baxter, April 17, 1947
3 5 9. Dade Co.: Paradise Key, September 1, 1925 T. H. Hubbell 1
(University of Michigan Collection). Dixie Co.: Little Fannin Springs,
May 23, 1947 6 S, 3 9, Suwannee River, U. S. Highway 19, September 9,
1947 4 6 9, In. Franklin Co.: Dog Island, April 16, 1947 F. N. Young
1 19. Hernando Co.: Bayport, Flatwoods pond, September 26, 1948
2 ; Bayport, Palm Point, March 20, 1948 1 9 ; Bayport, tide pool, March
20, 1948 1 8, 1 9; Bayport, Coogler Dock, April 25, 1948 1 9 ; Salt Creek,
2 miles east of Bayport, January 29, 1948 9 $, 11 9, June 20, 1948 1 S, 19,
April 25, 1948 2 9, May 22, 1948 8 5, 39; Weekiwatchee River, November
1, 1947 45, 59, In, November 2, 1948 1 19. Highlands Co.: High-
lands Hammock State Park, September 4, 1948 J. C. Moore 1 Levy Co.:
Williston, Hammock Pond, March 22, 1947 J. Grant and K. Strawn 1$,
1 9 ; roadside stream, 4.8 miles north of Cedar Key, October 12, 1947 1 8,
flatwoods pond, 10 miles northeast of Cedar Key, October 12, 1947 5 S,
99, In; freshwater marsh, 4 miles east of Cedar Key, April 19, 1947 I. J.
Cantrall 2 12 9. Marion Co.: Sinkhole Pond, Ocala National Forest,
February 26, 1938 J. R. Preer 1 8. Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, limestone
pit, November 27, 1947 1 S. Palm Beach Co.: 1 mile north of Okeechobee
road (Fla. Hy 716), West Palm Beach Canal, June 11, 1947 48, 59.
Putnam Co.: Little Orange Creek, January 18, 1948 2 S, 2 9.
2 All specimens were collected by the author and are in the author's
private collection unless otherwise noted.
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
Hydrometra barei Hungerford
This species was described by Hungerford in 1927 from
two pair taken at Plant City, Hillsboro County, Florida. It is
the smallest of the Florida forms and is easily distinguished
from myrae and martini. Available collections show that it
inhabits the southern tip of the state and probably occurs along
the Gulf Coast as far west as Franklin County and as far north
as Seminole County along the Atlantic Coast. Hungerford
(1934) reports that specimens from the following localities
are in the University of Kansas Collection: Alachua Co.: Archer;
Collier Co.: Naples; Dade Co.: Homestead; Seminole Co.: San-
ford. These specimens were collected by the University of
Kansas Entomological Expedition in July and August 1930.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Palm Beach Co.: Military Trail, 1 mile north
of Okeechobee road, West Palm Beach Canal, June 11, 1947 9S, 19.
Franklin Co.: Dog Island, freshwater marsh, April 16, 1947 F. N. Young
Hydrometra wileyi Hungerford
This species, the largest of the Florida Hydrometra, was
described by Hungerford (1923) from 362 specimens collected
by Mrs. Grace Wiley, near Rock Island, Colorado County, Texas.
Since that time it has been recorded from "Florida".3 The
only records that I have are from Salt Creek, a clear, calcareous
stream in Hernando County. Most of the specimens were
collected from rafts of leaf debris that had collected in small
coves along the shore. Occasional specimens were taken from
the leaves of Cladium sp., which grows along the shore and in
the edge of the water.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Hernando Co.: Salt Creek, 2 miles east of
Bayport, January 29, 1948 11$, 169, March 20, 1948 4$, 49, May 23,
1948 3S, June 19, 1948 28, 22, June 20, 1948 13. (All of the above
collected by the author and J. Kilby.)
Hydrometra australis Say
Australis does not appear to be a common species in Florida.
Although it has been collected from a calcareous stream in
company with wileyi and from a hammock pond with myrae,
it has been taken most frequently in cypress-gum swamps and
acid streams. The banks of the latter usually are covered with
growths of sphagnum moss.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Alachua Co.: Rocky Creek, 8 miles north of
Gainesville, February 7, 1948 1 &, 3 9; Blues Creek, 6 miles northwest
of Gainesville, February 3, 1948 19; April 10, 1947 7 49; Sugarfoot
Hammock Pond, 3 miles west of Gainesville, August 8, 1947 1 &. Hernando
Co.: Salt Creek, 2 miles east of Bayport, January 29, 1948 19, May 22,
1948 1 September 26, 1948 18, 1 Levy Co.: 4.8 miles northeast of
Cedar Key, October 12, 1947 1 Putnam Co.: Little Orange Creek,
January 18, 1948 18, 19.
Hydrometra hungerfordi Bueno
H. hungerfordi was described by Bueno (1926) from Atchin-
son and Leavenworth Counties, Kansas. I have not seen this
species. The only Florida record is from Hilliard, Florida
(Hungerford, 1934). The specimens were collected by R. H.
Beamer and Paul Oman in 1930 and are in the University of
Blatchley, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera of Eastern North America. In-
dianapolis. Nature Pub. Co.
1928. Notes on Heteroptera of Eastern North America with Descrip-
tions of New Species. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI: 21.
Hungerford, H. B. 1923. Some Studies on the Genus Hydrometra in
America North of Mexico with Description of a New Species. Can.
Ent. LV: 53-58.
1927. A New Species of Hydrometra from North America. Annals
Ent. Soc. Amer. XX: 262.
1934. The Hydrometridae of the Hungarian National Museum and
other Studies in the Family. Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici
1940. Results of the Oxford University Cayman Islands Biological
Expedition of 1938 (Aquatic Hemiptera). Ent. Monthly Mag.
Torre-Bueno, J. R. de la. 1926. The Family Hydrometridae in the Western
Hemisphere. Entomologica Americana VII (n.s.) (2): 83-128.
PARATHION TOXICITY TO LIVESTOCK, PRELIMINARY
By KELVIN DORWARD
SEntomologist, North Florida Experiment Station
The use of parathion spray from airplanes for the control
of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.) in cigar-
wrapper tobacco shades is receiving serious consideration. This
study was begun to determine the effect such a spray might
have upon livestock grazing in pastures adjacent to treated
shades. When the sprays showed no apparent ill-effects upon
the stock it was decided to subject the animals to tests using
1 percent parathion dust.
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
One scrub yearling Jersey bull, 1 scrub yearling Jersey
heifer and 1 hog, were used in tests 1 and 2. Only the 2 cattle
were used in the remaining tests since the hog escaped at the
beginning of the third. No ill-effects were noted on the hog
at any time. During the course of each test the animals con-
sumed only food which had been subjected to application of
the insecticide. The oat plots had been seeded at the rate of
5 bushels per acre and were 8-10 inches in height at beginning
Due to limited number of animals and test plots it was
impossible to conduct experiments which would meet strict
research standards but it is believed that the animals were
subjected to more severe conditions than will ever be en-
countered in normal situations. No check animals were used,
the test was of relatively short duration, and feed supply was
limited, however, it is hoped that some worthwhile knowledge
will be derived from the work.
TEST NO. 1
On February 12, 1948, 1 yearling bull and 1 hog were put
on a plot of green oats 201/2 x 80 feet. The oats and animals
were sprayed with parathion applied by airplane. Formulation
used: 1.6 pounds 25 percent wettable parathion, 1 pint glycerin,
plus water to make 2 gallons of solution. The material was
applied at the rate of 1 gallon of solution per acre. Temperature
at time of application was 700 F.
Immediately after application of the spray, 1 Jersey heifer
was placed on the plot with other animals. After 4 days the
animals were removed from oat plot because all feed had been
consumed. At time of removal the animals appeared to be in
One pound of green oats was taken within 5 minutes after
application, packed in dry ice and shipped by air to American
Cyanamid Company, Stamford, Connecticut, for analysis. Sam-
ple showed 1.4 p.p.m. of parathion.
To determine the green peach aphid kill in this test, 2 potted
tobacco plants were placed at each end of test plot. Results of
this test, based on number of aphids on 1 leaf to each plant,
are shown in Table 1.
TEST NO. 2
Test animals were the same as used in Test No. 1. Feb-
ruary 17, 1948, the yearling Jersey bull and the hog were put
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
TABLE 1.-APHID COUNTS-TEST No. 1-25 PERCENT WETTABLE
Plant Application After Application
Number 2/12/48 2/13/48 J 2/15/48 | 2/16/48 I
1 100 10 0* 0* Flights made from
2 97 92 69 25 south to north, height
3 77 9 0* 0* above ground about
4 103 37 0* 0* 14 feet or 5 feet
Check 93 85 80 78 above shade.
'* Aphids on other portion of plant.
on plot of oats 201/2 x 80 feet, then parathion spray applied by
airplane. Formulation used: 1 pint 20 percent parathion emul-
sion (70 percent amyl acetate solvent), 1 gallon of water. Spray
was applied at rate of 1 gallon per acre. Temperature at time
of application was 700 F.
Immediately after application of spray the Jersey heifer
was placed on plot with .other animals. All animals were re-
moved from plot after 4 days because of lack of food. Animals
appeared in excellent condition at time of removal.
One pound of green oats was taken within 5 minutes after
application and placed in a refrigerator. The sample was packed
in dry ice February 18, 1948, and shipped to Stamford, Con-
necticut, for analysis. This sample showed 2.5 p.p.m. of
To determine the aphid kill, 1 potted tobacco plant was
placed at each end of the oat plot and 4 plants under the ad-
jacent tobacco shade, Storm King Slat cloth being used for
shade. Results of this test based on counts as in Test No. 1
are shown in Table 2.
TEST NO. 3
Test animals were the same cattle as had been used in Tests
1 and-2. On February 24, 1948, the yearling bull was placed
on plot of oats 611/2 x 80 feet then 1 percent parathion dust
applied with hand duster at the rate of 30 pounds per acre.
Dust used was American Cyanamid Company formulation TA
consisting of: 1 percent parathion, 89 percent filter dust, and
10 percent of a mixture of Attaclay and Pyrax. Temperature
at time of application was 660 F.
Immediately after application of dust the heifer was placed
on the oat plot. The animals remained on treated oats for 1
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
TABLE 2.-APHID COUNTS-TEST No. 2-20 PERCENT PARATHION
Location of Plant Application After Application
2/17/48 2/18/48 2/19/48 2/20,/48
North end of oat plot ...................... 176 95 81 120
South end of oat plot .-......- ---- 160 0* 1 4
Sec. No. 1 from east side of shade 130 133 135 176
Sec. No. 3 from east side of shade 140 13 11 21
Sec. No. 4 from east side of shade 94 53 57 71
Sec. No. 5 from east side of shade 180 165 168 146
Check .................. ........................ 70 105 164 217
Flight made south to north, height above ground about 14 feet or 5
feet above shade.
Aphids on other portion of plant.
week and at time of removal showed no apparent ill-effects.
Three oat samples were taken from this test. The first
sample was taken immediately after application, packed in dry
ice and shipped to Stamford, Connecticut, for analysis. This
sample showed 2.7 p.p.m. of parathion. The second sample
was cut February 27, 1948, and air dried until being shipped
March 1, 1948. This sample showed 5.5 p.p.m. of parathion.
The third sample was cut March 1, 1948, air dried until March
5, 1948, when it was shipped for analysis. 2.6 p.p.m. of
parathion was found on the sample. A word of explanation
is necessary for the second sample. About 2/3 of this sample
was destroyed by rats while it was being dried and it is possible
that the rodents were selective in the material taken, leaving
the straw with the larger amount of parathion.
To determine the aphid kill, 3 potted tobacco plants were
placed in the oats plot and all given equal applications. Results
of this test based on counts as in Test No. 1 are shown in
TABLE 3.-APHID COUNTS-TEST No. 3-1 PERCENT PARATHION DUST.
Plant Application ____After Application
Number 2/24/48 2/25/48 1 2/26/48 I 2/27/48 [ 2/28/48
1 100 23 0 0 0
2 100 20 0 0 0
3 100 28 0 0 0
Check 100 100 100 100 100
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
TEST No. 4
Cattle used in the 3 previous experiments were used for
this test. Both were feeding on oats at time of application,
March 4, 1948. Six 201/2 x 80 feet plots were in test area.
Only 1 of these plots had not previously been treated with some
type of parathion application. Entire area was hand dusted
with 1 percent parathion dust at rate of 50 pounds per acre.
Dust was mixed by American Cyanamid Company as their TP
formulation. The formulation contained 1 percent parathion,
75 percent filter dust, and 24 percent of a mixture of Attaclay
Only 1 sample of oats was taken from Test No. 4. This
sample was taken immediately after application and air dried
until March 9, 1948, when it was shipped to Stamford, Con-
necticut, for analysis. Residue of 9.5 p.p.m. of parathion was
The test animals remained on the dusted oats until March 8,
1948, at which time they were removed due to scarcity of food.
Rain amounting to 0.23 inches fell during the 24 hours pre-
ceding 9 A. M. March 5, 1948; 0.34 for the 24 hours preceding
March 6, 1948, and 2.02 inches during the 24 hours preceding
9 A. M. March 7, 1948. At time of removal from oats cattle
appeared in excellent condition.
No aphid kill tests were made since the 30-pound per acre
application had given complete control.
EFFECTS ON TEST ANIMALS
After the test animals were removed from the oat plots on
March 8, 1948, they were placed on clover pasture until time
of slaughter March 15, 1948. Weight for yearling bull at
time of purchase, January 14, 1948, was 240 pounds. Weight
at time of slaughter March 15, 1948, was 390 pounds. Weight
for yearling heifer at time of purchase January 14, 1948, 355
pounds. Weight at time of slaughter March 15, 1948, was
375 pounds. Doctors H. V. Porter and R. W. Porter sub-
mitted the following antemortem and postmortem report on
the test animals:
"Herewith is submitted for your information a report of
antemortem and postmortem findings at the Florida Packing
Company of 2 animals:
"Bull: Antemortem--animal showed no apparent noticeable
physical disturbance. Skin and appendages normal-eyes bright
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
-no lacrimal or nasal discharge-respiration normal-bowel
regular for animal on grazing.
"Postmortem-gross anatomy normal with following excep-
tions: 1. Liver hypertophied 21/2 times normal size with de-
generated areas. 2. Portal lymph glands enlarged and congested
slightly-gall bladder and contents normal. 3. All organs of
digestion normal except highly parasitized.
"Heifer: Antemortem-general physical condition normal.
"Postmortem-gross anatomy normal exception: 1. Hyper-
tophy of 200 percent of liver. 2. Colon congested slightly.
"Summary: Information we have concerning dosage and
toxicity of drug is vague. We have no way of determining
amount, if any, of this, insecticide consumed by these animals.
Therefore, conditions found on postmortem cannot be attributed
directly to the effect of this insecticide as producing the patho-
logical condition found in the livers of these animals."
(Signed) H. V. Porter, D.V.M., R. W. Porter, D.V.M.
Table 4 summarized the tests as pertaining to livestock.
This preliminary work shows that livestock is not im-
mediately affected when sprayed with or consumes feed treated
with normal applications of parathion. At no time were the
animals off feed and for the type of animals involved the gains
are considered normal. Only by long range intensive studies
will it be possible to determine the ultimate harmful effects,
if any, to livestock from parathion when used in crop protective
work. In no way should this work be considered conclusive.
The writer is indebted to the following individuals and com-
panies who made this work possible: Mr. J. D. Warner, Vice
Director, Dr. R. R. Kincaid, Plant Pathologist and Mr. F. S.
Baker, Jr., Assistant Animal Husbandman of the North Florida
Experiment Station and Mr. Frank S. Chamberlain of the U. S.
D. A. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine for their
advice and assistance. To Dr. A. N. Tissot for editing and re-
viewing this manuscript. To Mr. Henry Weinberg and associates
who provided the test animals, Mr. Arthur Corry of Aero To-
bacco Sprayers who did the airplane spraying, the American
Cyanamid Company which furnished the insecticide and made
analysis for parathion residue on oats and Doctors H. V. and
R. W. Porter who performed the autopsy on the test animals.
TABLE 4.-SUMMARIZED TESTS AS PERTAINING TO LIVESTOCK.
Date Rate of Animals Date p.p.m. Condition of Animals
Test Insecti- Material Used How Applica- Fed on Sample Parathion at Time of Removal
Number cide Applied tion Treated of Oats on Oat from Oats
Applied _Oats Taken Sample
1 2/12/48 1.6 lbs. 25% wet- spray 1 gal. 4 2/12/48 1.4 Apparently in excellent
table 3422, 1 pint from of condition-all oats in
glycerine water airplane solution test area consumed
to make 2 gals. per acre
2 2/17/48 1 t. 20% 3422 spray 1 gal. 4 2/17/48 2.5 Apparently in excellent
emulsion (70% from of condition-all oats in
amyl acetate sol- airplane solution test area consumed
______vent) 1 gal. water ___per acre____
3 2/24/48 1% parathion 89% dust from 30 7 2/24/48 2.7 Apparently in excellent
filter dust 10% rotary pounds 2/27/48 5.5* condition-all oats in
Attaclay and hand per 3/1/48 2.6 test area consumed
Pyrax duster acre
1% parathion 75%
filter dust 24%
Apparently in excellent
condition-all oats in
test area consumed
Animals used in Tests No. 1 and 2: one scrub yearling bull, one scrub yearling heifer, one hog.
Animals used in Tests No. 3 and 4: same cattle as in Tests 1 and 2, hog escaped.
Bull at beginning of experiment weighed 240 pounds, at close 390 pounds.
Heifer at beginning of experiment weighed 355 pounds, at close 375 pounds.
Postmortem showed hypertrophy of livers on both animals which might have been caused by the insecticide.
* Rate destroyed about two-thirds of sample.
VOL. XXXI-No. 4 123
A NEW METROBATES FROM FLORIDA
By ROLAND F. HUSSEY
Metrobates anomalus, n. sp.
SIZE.- 4.1 x 1.7 mm., 2 4.3 x 2.3 mm.; the widths measured across
the mesothoracic acetabula. Alate form unknown. *
COLOR.-Velvety black, the dorsum with very short appressed grayish
pile, much more sparse on a broad median vitta of mesonotum and anterior
lobe of metanotum; pronotum with the depressed orbicular median area
ivory white (rarely with only a small yellow spot); head with an oblique
dark rust-colored spot each side on vertex; sub-basal band on first antennal
segment yellow or white; abdominal tergites each with a basal transverse
wedge-shaped whitish area reaching each lateral margin, and in females
also with a median quadrangular Whitish area, not reaching the apical
margin and obsolete on the apical segments. Beneath plumbeous, with
the gula, anterior acetabula and ventral portion of middle acetabula ivory
white; anterior trochanters honey yellow; anterior coxae and rostrum
piceous, both provided with long yellow pile below; ventral abdominal
segments narrowly margined with very short golden pile, sometimes ob-
scured by blackening of the segmental margins; apical ventral segment
and the genital segments ( $) sericeous golden pilose.
STRUCTURE.-Pronotum transverse, 2% times as wide as long, its an-
terior margin sinuate in both sexes, the posterior margin sinuate in the
male but nearly straight in the female; posterior margin of mesonotum
broadly and shallowly sinuate in the male, less distinctly so in the female
but with a most obsolete median notch; metanotum divided into two
approximately equal parts ( ) by a very faint transverse curved suture
ending in a deep impression at each side, this suture obsolete at middle
in the male but the posterior lobe ( ) slightly depressed below the an-
terior one. Mesonotum with a faint median longitudinal suture; meso-
sternum likewise longitudinally sutured but this suture not percurrent
at either end. Posterior margin of mesosternum distinctly sinuate. Female
genital segments not withdrawn into venter. Cbnnexivum of female
flattened, mis-shapen in both specimens at hand, the inner margins parallel
or nearly so; male connexivum rather strongly reflexed on basal segments,
becoming oblique at the middle and nearly horizontal toward the apex.
First tarsal segment of fore legs in both sexes with a comb of about
eight setae, the proximal ones longest, the distal ones shortest.
MALE.-Antennal segments I-IV as 60:26:17:18; first segment grad-
ually thickened on basal half, becoming about twice as thick as second
segment, very short pilose below throughout its length and with its middle
portion fringed with much longer hairs, much as in M. hesperius but
this antennal comb less dense than in that species; second and third seg-
ments lightly curved and with the usual pairs of subapical combs found
in this genus. Fore femora slightly incrassate and lightly sinuate; tibiae
1 Contribution from the Biology Department of Florida Southern College.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
slightly curved, with a strong blunt pre-apical spur on the inner side;
ratios of femur to tibia to tarsal segments I and II as 60:45:6:18.
FEMALE.-Antennal segments simple, their lengths as 48:24:15:19;
basal segment with only one or two long hairs on under side. Fore legs
much as in the male, the femora a little less curved and the tibia without
I collected fifteen males and two females of this species
July 11, 1948, in mid-stream on slow-flowing stretches of the
Peace River shortly below its source at Kissengen Springs, near
Bartow, Polk County, Florida. Following the heavy rains of
mid-July, this stream overflowed broadly into the woodland
at either side, and the current became imperceptible. No Ger-
ridae of this species were found here on July 24, when I next
visited this spot, nor were any seen on subsequent visits up to
October 28. The holotype, allotype and paratypes are in my
collection. A paratype is also in the Kansas University collection.
This is the only species of Metrobates that I know of whose
male has the first antennal segment not longer than the apical
three segments combined. The antennal structure of the female
is much the same as in M. hesperius, as the first segment in both
species is about one-sixth shorter than the other segments con-
joined and these last do not show any significant differences
in length either relatively or absolutely. The females of the
two species differ markedly, however, in their coloration, and
in M. hesperius the anterior lobe of the female metanotum. is
shorter than the posterior one, while in M. anomalus the two
lobes are subequal or the anterior is very slightly longer than
the posterior. In the female of M. anomalus the posterior
margin of the metanotum is straight, while in M. hesperius it
is lightly but distinctly sinuate. The dorso-ventral depth of the
mesothorax is about the same in both species, being slightly
less than the length of the fore femur in the female, and about
one-fourth less in the male.
In Anderson's key to Metrobates (Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull. 20:
302, 1932) this species runs to M. tumidus, but in tumidus
the coloration of the mesonotum is different, the appendages
are described as having yellow and orange markings, and the
first antennal segment in both sexes is longer than the other
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
A PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE Phyllophaga OF FLORIDA
By FRANK N. YOUNG and WALTER H. THAMES
The following list of the species of Phyllophaga Harris, com-
monly called May Beetles, which have been recorded from
Florida is presented to facilitate further work on the genus.
An attempt has been made to include every valid species recorded
from the state, but distributional and bibliographical data,
other than those necessary to substantiate the records, are
omitted since a more complete treatment is in preparation.
W. S. Blatchley's summary of the species of Phyllophaga in his
"Scarabaeidae of Florida" (1929) is the most recent published
state list. Blatchley reviewed most of the previous Florida
records and his work has been used as a starting point for
the present list, which includes new species, new records, and
recent changes in names and synonymy. The authors will
appreciate corrections or additions to this list.
At present, 66 species of Phyllophaga are recorded from
Alabama (Lbding, 1945) and 70 species from Georgia (Fattig,
1944). A comparison of these lists with the following, which
includes only 42 species, indicates that further collecting and
study may materially increase the number of species.
Fortunately, Florida is not one of the states in which damage
by May Beetles is extensive. Only a few species have been
reported as sporadically damaging crops or groves. The prin-
cipal reason for this lack of damage to agriculture is the ap-
parent lack of swarms of the adults. This is probably owing
partly to the scarcity of grasslands for breeding and partly to
numerous parasites and other enemies.
The groupings of species used below are those of Horn
(1887). The Biving groupings (1942) have not been used
because it has not been possible to determine them for'all species.
Keys to the Horn groups, useful diagnoses, descriptions, and
figures for many of the Florida species may be found in Lang-
ston (1927), Blatchley (1929), Sim (1928), Travis (1934),
and in various other papers cited. The most important name
changes are indicated in parentheses below each species name,
but complete synonymy has not been attempted. The reference
immediately following the species name is to the original de-
1 Contribution from the Department of Biology, University of Florida.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
scription. The species preceded by an asterisk (*) are addi-
tions to the state list based on the work of the present authors.
Phyllophaga young, Cartwright (1935) described from
Brickell Hammock, Miami, Florida, is not included in the fol-
lowing list because it is believed that it is not a true member
of Phyllophaga, but should probably be transferred to Cnemer-
achis Saylor, on the basis of structural characters.
We would like to express our appreciation for determination
of specimens and other assistance to Mr. O. L. Cartwright and
Dr. E. A. Chapin.
Horn Group II
*cribrosa LeC. (1853: 231)-?Orange County, H. T. Townsend. The
occurrence of this typically western species in Florida is very
doubtful. The specimen was probably mislabeled by Mr. Townsend.
It may, however, occur in the xeric sand areas of the Central High-
lands of Florida.
Horn Group IV
latifrons (LeC.) (1856: 241)-Locally abundant throughout the state. In
South Florida it often appears at lights in enormous numbers.
prununculina (Burm.) (1855: 360)-Locally abundant throughout the
state. Around Gainesville it sometimes occurs in damaging num-
bers on Oldfield Pine (Pinus taeda).
*cerasina LeC. (1856: 241)-Dade County, Miami, F. N. Young. Prob-
ably a variety or subspecies of prununculina.
elongata Linnell (1896: 725)-The types were from "Florida," collected
by Chas. Palm. Blatchley (1929) also records it from Enterprise
pagilis Saylor (1937: 321) (parva//Linnell)-The types were from "Flor-
ida," collected by Chas. Palm. Blatchley (1929) also records it from
Enterprise (Dietz). Marion County, in Big Scrub, T. H. Hubbell
and J. J. Friauf, in UMMZ. This seems to be a species of the xeric
scrub areas of the Central Highlands of Florida.
*schaefferi Saylor (1937: 321) (georgiana//Schffr.)-Madison County,
along Aucilla River opposite Lamont, F. N. Young and Lewis Berner.
Apparently abundant in southern Georgia, but not previously re-
ported from Florida.
glaberrima (Blanch.) (1850: 133)-Locally abundant throughout the state.
ephilida (Say) (1825: 196)-Recorded from Florida only by Horn (1887).
uniformss (Blanch.) (1850: 133) (carolina Fall)-Holmes County, near
Bonifay, F. N. Young and Lewis Berner. Common in Georgia and
northward, but not previously reported from Florida.
VOL. XXXI-No. 4
Horn Group V
clemens (Horn) (1887: 227) (howei Sanderson) -Apparently rare in the
state. Sanderson's howei (1937) was described in part from Leon
*lota Luginbill (1928: 87)-Wakulla County, near Sopchoppy, F. N.
Young, et al. Two males of this species found trapped in pitcher
plants in flatwoods near Sopchoppy seem to be the only Florida
Horn Group VI
dispar (Burm.) (1855: 361) (boops Horn)-Abundant in northern part
of state, emerging later in summer than most species.
*austricola Fall (1929: 110)-This is probably the debelis (LeC.) of
older lists. The species is abundant on River Cypress (Taxodium
distichum) along the Aucilla River and the St. Johns River. It
does not seem to occur on the Pond Cypress (Taxodium ascendens).
Specimens from Enterprise on Lake Monroe are somewhat darker
and differ slightly in other respects from those found along the
*taxodii Langston (1924: 449)-Madison County, along Aucilla River op-
posite Lamont, F. N. Young, et al. Found abundantly on River
Cypress in June 1938 together with austricola.
gracilis (Burm.) (1855: 361)-Reported from Tallahassee, R. N. Wilson,
collector (J. J. D.) by Blatchley (1929). Fairly common in southern
futilis LeC. (1850: 226)-Gainesville and Lake City (Ag. Coll.), Blatchley
postrema Horn (1887: 233) (quadrata Smith = $ of postrema?)-Not
uncommon in northern and western Florida. Lake City, Blatchley
(1929). Liberty and Holmes counties, F. N. Young.
Horn Group IX
subpruninosa Casey (1884: 38) (deani Luginbill)-Jacksonville (Edward
Tatnall), Horn (1887); Enterprise (Dietz), Ft. Reed (J. J. D.),
micans (Knoch) (1801:. 77)-Common in northern parts of state. The
variety cupulifornis Langston occurs with the typical form.
diffinis (Blanch.) (1850: 138)-Duval County (Horn), Tallahassee (J.
J. D.), Blatchley (1929).
floridana Robinson (1938: 110)-The types were from St. Petersburg,
and the species is not uncommon over the central part of the state.
duvalis Robinson (1938: 110)-The types were from Lake City, Monticello,
and Duval County.
ulkei Smith (1889: 94)-Rare in northern parts of state. Monticello,
G. B. Fairchild.
fraterna Harris (1842: 29)-Enterprise (Schwarz), Blatchley (1929).
forsteri (Burm.) (1855: 325)-Marianna and Liberty County, Torreya
Ravines, F. N. Young. This species occurs in western Florida,
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
but has probably been confused with tecta Cart. in the central parts
of the state.
tecta Cartwright (1944: 32)-The types were from Gainesville and Braden-
ton. The species is not uncommon about Gainesville.
infidelis Horn (1887: 253)-Horn (1887). This record probably repre-
sents ovalis Cart.
ovalis Cartwright (1939: 353)-The types were from turkey oak uplands
near Niceville and DeFuniak Springs. The species may be confined
to the peculiar dry sand areas in that section of the state.
luctuosa (Horn) (1887: 254)-Tallahassee and Monticello, F. N. Young.
Rare in western Florida.
*knochi (Gyll.) (1817: 75)-Liberty County, Torreya Ravines area, F. N.
Young. Apparently a characteristic species of the Altamaha Grit
country of Georgia and occasionally found in Florida where similar
Horn Group XI
hirticula (Knoch) (1801: 79)-Tallahassee (Plant Board Coll.) and
(J. J. D.), Blatchley (1929). Tallahassee, F. N. Young. Apparently
rare in the western part of the state.
Horn Group XII
aemula Horn (1887: 271)-Haulover (Schwarz mss.), Blatchley (1929).
Locally common in northern part of state.
crenulata (Froel.) (1792: 94)-Fairly common around Gainesville and
elsewhere in northern part of state.
parvidens (LeC.) (1856: 259)-Fairly common on pines in Central High-
hesteropyga Davis (1920: 336)-Described from Sanford. This may be
another species or form characteristic of the dry sand areas.
elizoria Saylor (1937: 321) (pygidialis//Schffr.)-Schaeffer described
pygidialis from Indian River, Florida. Apparently it has been
taken since only near DeSoto City where it was found attacking
young orange trees in a recently planted grove. Apparently a
rare, although locally abundant, species of the dry sand areas.
mariana Fall (1929: 111)-Described from a single male taken at Lake
Mary, Seminole County. The species is not uncommon in the cen-
tral and northern parts of the state. Gainesville, W. H. Thames;
Jackson and Liberty counties, F. N. Young.
Horn Group XV
quercus (Knoch) (1801: 72)-Centreville (Schwarz ms.), Blatchley (1929).
Gainesville, W. H. Thames, and T. H. Hubbell.
clypeata (Horn) (1887: 145)-Georgia and Florida (Horn); Enterprise
(Fall), Blatchley (1929).
tristis (Fabr.) (1781: 39)-Haulover (Schwarz) and Ft. Barrancas (Ag.
Coll.), Blatchley (1929). Not uncommon around Gainesville and
VOL. XXXI-No. 4 129
in western parts of the state. In Walton County it sometimes
occurs in large numbers on Quercus cinerea in ecotones along the
edge of flatwoods.
*?georgianus (Horn) (1885: 120) (not georgianus Schffr.)-Record based
on one female from Leon County, F. N. Young.
[References of particular value in determining Florida species are in-
dicated by a dagger(t).]
BLANCHARD, EMILE, Cat. de la coll. ent. Coldopt. Mus. d'hist. nat. de Paris,
tBLATCHLEY, W. S., The Scarabaeidae of Florida, Fla. Ent., 13 (3) 1929:
52-56; (4) 1929: 69-70 (Genus XXVII. Phyllophaga Harris).
BOVING, A. G., Classification of larvae and adults of the genus Phyllophaga,
1943: 1-95, 11 pls.
BURMEISTER, HERMAN C. C., Handbuch der Entomologie, Berlin, 1832-1855,
tCARTWRIGHT, O. L., A new species of Phyllophaga from Florida, Ent.
News, 44, 1935: 102-104, figs.
t Eleven new American Coleoptera, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
32 (2) 1939: 353-364, fig.
- New Scarabaeidae from the United States, Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer., 37 (1) 1944: 28-36, pl.
CASEY, T. L., Contributions I, Philadelphia, 1884: 1-60.
DAVIs, J. J., New Species and Varieties of Phyllophaga, Bull. Nat. His.
Surv. Ill., 13, 1920: 329-338.
FABRICIUS, JOHANN C., Species Insectorum, Hamburg and Kilonii, 1781,
fFALL, H. C., On Phyllophaga debelis LeConte, with descriptions of three
new species, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., 24 (2) 1929: 110-114.
FATTIG, P. W., The Phyllophaga or May Beetles of Georgia, Emory Univ.
Mus. Bull., No. 2, 1944: 1-32.
FROELICH, Jos. A., Bemerk. u. e. seltene Kifer, etc., Naturforscher, 26,
GYLLENHAL, LEONHARD, Appendix to Schbnherr's Syn. Ins., 1817.
HARRIS, THADDEUS W., A report on the insects of Massachusetts injurious
to vegetation, Cambridge, 1842.
HORN, G. H., Descriptions of new North American Scarabaeidae, Trans.
Amer. Ent. Soc., 12, 1885: 117-128, pl.
Revision of the species of Lachnosterna of America north
of Mexico, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 14, 1887: 209-296.
KNOCH, AUGUST W., Neue Beytrige zur Insectenkunde, Leipzig, 1801.
LANGSTON, J. M., New Phyllophaga from Mississippi, Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer., 27, 1924: 449-451.
t- Phyllophaga of Mississippi, Miss. Ag. Exp. Sta., Tech. Bull.,
15, 1927: 1-103, 13 pls. and glossary of terms.
LECONTE, JOHN L., General remarks on Coleoptera in Agassiz Lake Su-
perior, Boston, 1850, vol. 4: 201-242.
Descriptions of 20 new Coleoptera, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.,
Phila., 6, 1853: 226-235.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Synopsis of the Melolonthidae of the United States, Journ.
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., (2) III, 1856: 225-288.
LENG CATALOGUE: 4th Supplement by R. E. Blackwelder, New York, 1939:
LINNELL, MARTIN L., New species of North American Coleoptera of the
family Scarabaeidae, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, 1896: 721-731.
LODING, H. P., Catalogue of the beetles of Alabama, Geol. Surv. of Ala.,
Monograph 11, 1945: 1-172.
tLUGINBILL, PHILIP, The beetles of the genus Phyllophaga inhabiting South
Carolina, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 21, 1928: 47-91, 36 figs.
tROBINSON, MARK, Studies in the Scarabaeidae, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc.,
44 (1044), 1938: 107-115, fig.
tSANDERSON, M. W., Three new species of Phyllophaga with notes on two
species new to Kansas, Journ. Kans. Ent. Soc., 10 (1), 1937: 14-19, figs.
SAY, THOMAS, Descriptions of new species of Coleopterous insects, Journ.
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 5, 1825: 160-204.
SAYLOR, L. W., Necessary changes . etc., Rev. de Ent. 7, 1937: 318-322.
tSIM, R. J., Phyllophaga (Scarabaeidae) of the United States and Canada,
N. J. Dept. of Agri., Circ. 145, 1928: 1-60, 12 pls.
SMITH, JOHN B., New species of Lachnosterna, Ent. Amer., 5, 1889: 1-93.
tTRAVIS, B. V., the Phyllophaga of Iowa, Iowa St. Coll. Journ. of Sci., 8,
Mailing Date: February 10, 1949