Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Vol. XXXIII No. 2
VAN HORN, M. C.-New Pesticides-Cautions and
Information ..-............-.... ----------------------- 55
GRIFFITHS, J. T., JR., and THOMPSON, W. L.-The
Behavior of Purple Scale Populations on
Citrus Trees in Florida ......--- --... -----.-----------. 61
WALLACE, H. K.-On Tullgren's Florida Spiders .....--------.. 71
HUSSEY, ROLAND F., and HERRING, JON L.-A Remark-
able New Belostomatid (Hemiptera) from
Florida and Georgia ................----------------------84
Minutes of the Thirty-Second Annual Meeting of the
Florida Entomological Society _.-......----... ......--------.. 89
Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
Mailing Date: June 30, 1950
54 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
VOL. XXXIII JUNE, 1950 No. 2
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1949-1950
President.... -.-..-....---... ....-.. --....J. A. MULRENNAN
Vice President ....-....................... ---- -----W. G. BRUCE
Secretary-..-.......... ............................... MILLEDGE MURPHEY
Treasurer ..................--------------------.. -....... L. C. KUITERT
Executive Committee................................... (C. F. LADEBURG
J. P. TOFFALETTI
LEWIS BERNER -----....--.... ----------- Editor
H. K. WALLACE -- .----....-.. --.---.....Associate Editor
L. C. KUITERT -----....----------- Business Manager
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VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
NEW PESTICIDES-CAUTIONS AND INFORMATION
M. C. VAN HORN
Florida Agricultural Supply Company-
Historians tell us that there is evidence to indicate that the
struggle of man to subdue pests began long before civilization
was recorded and will, no doubt, continue as long as man exists.
It is doubtful if either will ever be able to claim a final victory.
Many pests are very versatile, being able to adjust themselves
to changing conditions in seemingly impossible fashion. They
are found in the air, in the soil and in the sea. There are few
objects, dead or living, which are not, either directly or in-
directly, affected by pests of some kind at some, or during all,
stages of their existence.
The tangible results of pest ravages take on varied aspects
including disease transmission to plants and animals, plant and
plant product destruction to say nothing of the staggering losses
as would be measured in terms of monetary values. It has been
estimated that the losses due to cotton pests alone exceed
$250,000,000 each year. Accurate figures as to losses due to
pest damage are not known to me. It is reported that in one
state in the United States the total value of farm receipts from
agricultural crops for one year was approximately $191,000,000.
Of the above there were eight major farm crops with an esti-
mated value of $75,000,000, which were almost entirely depend-
ent upon pest control for economic commercial production. An
additional $18,000,000 worth required nearly complete protec-
tion, making a total of approximately 49% of the crop value
of that state dependent upon pest control measures. The bal-
ance, or 51%, required periodic or partial protection to some
degree. These few and sketchy figures should serve to indicate
the staggering world wide loss which may be sustained each
year from pests. There is a need for the economic evaluation
of pest damage annually by each state in the United States to
crops, public health, structures, commercial products, etc.
The problem of pest control is not a local one, or even a
national problem, but is a world-wide problem. In order to cope
with the situation, man has developed an undetermined number
of chemicals to combat these pests, and this number is increas-
ing almost daily. These chemicals, including the insecticides,
1A talk presented at the Annual Agricultural Extension Conference,
College of Agriculture, University of Florida, October 20, 1949.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
fungicides, herbicides and rodenticides, have all been grouped
under a recently coined word "pesticides."
This is the subject which I wish to discuss with you. It is
a large assignment and one which, if covered properly, would
require far more time than allotted to me here, and more, I am
sure, than any of you would care to listen to at one, or even
several such sessions.
Of these pesticides the relative importance to an individual
of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides or rodenticides, may de-
pend upon the region in which one lives or what business he
is in, but they are all important at some time to most people,
and although we may not realize it, affect all of us either directly
A few years ago the number of these chemicals was rela-
tively few as compared to the list we have today. I am sure
that most of you can well remember that when a farmer or home
owner presented a pest control problem to you, you could make
an approved recommendation to him to cover almost any situ-
ation using one or more of the following: nicotine, pyrethrins,
rotenone, oil emulsion, lime sulphur, sulphur, calcium arsenate,
lead arsenate, paris green, cryolite, sodium fluoride, borax, cop-
per sulphate, soap, etc.
This is not true today. Many of these so-called old pesticides
are being replaced by the new organic chemicals. This new
wave of organic chemical development started early in World
War II and the end does not appear to be in sight at this time,
since each day seems to reveal new, more powerful, and amazing
tools to the farmer and person interested in pest control.
One of the first of these new chemicals is the well known
DDT, chemically dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane. DDT was
first synthesized about 75 years ago by a German chemist and
was first patented as a pesticide in this country about 1939.
Since then, chemically similar compounds such as DDD (dichloro
diphenyl dichloroethane) and methoxychlor (dimethoxy diphenyl
trichloroethane) have been introduced.
The uses of DDT are fairly well known today. It is inter-
esting to note that resistant strains have developed in certain
pests, specifically in flies and mosquitoes. DDD has been found
to be useful on certain vegetables (i.e., tomatoes) and on certain
fruit crops. Methoxychlor has been found to be very useful on
certain DDT sensitive plants and on animals (i.e., cats).
The first phosphate compound was hexaethyl-tetraphosphate
(HETP) known as Bladan in Germany. This was a mixture of
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
two or more phosphate compounds. Later, one of these tetra-
ethyl-pyrophosphate (TEPP), was' isolated and it is said to be
several times more toxic to pests than HETP.
The most recent phosphate development is parathion diethyll
nitrophenyl thiophosphate) which was developed* in Germany
and first used commercially to any extent in this country in
1948. These phosphate compounds are all highly toxic to warm
blooded animals upon contact, inhalation or ingestion. The
HETP and TEPP readily hydrolyze upon exposure. Parathion
is a more stable compound. They are all good aphicides, and
parathion is effective against a rather wide range of sucking
and soft bodied pests.
Benzene hexachloride, or BHC, is another relatively new
pesticide. This is the chemical characterized by a musty odor.
Of the five isomers which have been identified, the gamma
isomer appears to have the most insecticidal value.
Quite recently scientists have been able to isolate this gamma
isomer in essentially pure form. This chemical is now known as
Lindane. Lindane is practically odorless.
One of the major uses of BHC is on cotton, usually in com-
bination with DDT and sulphur. Lindane is an excellent in-
secticide for use on certain crops such as cucumbers and is also
used against DDT resistant flies.
Chlordane, one of the chlorinated hydrocarbons, also known
as 1068, is a relatively new organic insecticide used against
roaches, mole crickets, grasshoppers and a number of truck
crop and animal pests.
More recently new chlorinated hydrocarbons such as Aldrin
and Dieldrin have been under tests with limited commercial
use to date. Very promising results have been reported follow-
ing the use of these chemicals for certain specific uses.
Toxaphene or chlorinated camphene, was first commercially
available about 1947. The use of this new insecticide has ex-
panded rapidly in the cotton pest control program, for use
against worms and grasshoppers and against certain animal
Piperonyl butoxide is a new non-hazardous insecticide espe-
cially designed for use against flies and certain other pests where
non-poisons are required.
Against mites on plants "DN", selocide, and K1875 have been
used in varying degrees.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
The early fungicides consisted basically of sulphur or copper
in some form. Today, these same two materials are still used
extensively in one form or another. There appears to have
been many more radical changes in the forms and formulations
of the coppers than with the sulphurs.
In addition to the above, there are a number of new fungi-
cides including the carbamates, quinoline compounds, chlori-
nated quinones, chlorophenates, various organic mercury com-
pounds, and various chromate compounds.
One of the difficult problems connected with referring to
these new chemicals other than by brand name, is the long
"tongue-twisting" and little understood and difficult to remem-
ber chemical names.
Some progress has been made to remedy this situation by
adopting coined words which may be used in lieu of the chemical
name when referring to the active content. Typical examples
of these in the insecticide field are: chlorinated camphene may
be referred to as Toxaphene. The essentially pure gamma
isomer of BHC may be referred to as Lindane.
Very recently, it has .been reported that the Sub-Committee
on Fungicide Nomenclature of the American Phytopathological
Society and their associates, have adopted the following coined
words as they refer to certain of the new organic fungicides:
Ferbam-ferric dimethyl dithiocarbamate
Ziram-zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate
Nabam-disodium ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
Zineb-zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
One of the largest single increases in the pesticide business
which has occurred in recent years has been the herbicide field.
This is especially true in the corn, grain, flax, and rice belt.
There appears also to be a large field still to be developed in the
open range pasture of the great plains, against brush and, pos-
sibly, in other areas.
The major chemical used for this purpose has been 2,4-D
in some form, or a similar compound such as 2,4,5-T. There
have been millions of pounds of 2,4-D weed killers used this
past year. The results obtained are reported as generally satis-
factory, although if improperly used, these weed killers can
be very damaging to commercial crops. Certain of them are
volatile and the fumes can be injurious to nearby economic
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2 59
Other weed killers for specific uses include the dinitrophenol
compounds designed for burning back potato tops and pre-
emergent weed control. Other weed killers include the acetate
compounds, sulfomate, and such non-selective materials as the
arsenicals, the chlorates, the borates, oil, etc. The herbicide
field is still in its infancy and there are many opportunities
in this field to be developed.
A number of new rodenticides have been introduced. No
attempt will be made to list them.
With the very rapid development of these new chemicals,
it is very difficult for anyone to keep abreast of them, and
especially the person who works with them only occasionally.
For maximum results and proper safety it is suggested that
those responsible for supervision of pest control familiarize
themselves with the use of the pesticides concerned. This usually
can be done by either reading the literature on the product or
the label or both.
A properly labeled product should provide directions for use,
give an analysis of the product, cautions, antidotes, where neces-
sary, and other pertinent data pertaining to the product. These
instructions should be understood and followed by the applicator.
Most of these new organic insecticides are available in the
form of dusts, wettable powders, emulsive liquids, with some
in bait and others in aerosol forms.
Normal precautions of handling economic poisons are usually
adequate for DDT, Methoxychlor, BHC, Lindane, Toxaphene,
Chlordane, etc., however, certain of these materials, particu-
larly the phosphate insecticides and specifically parathion, should
receive special attention and should be handled with great care.
The persofi charging the machine and the applicator should
wear effective toxic respirators. They should wear protective
clothing and natural rubber gloves so that the skin will not come
in contact with the material. Neither the fumes, the dilute
dust, or spray mist should be inhaled. They should wash their
hands and face before either smoking or eating. Clean and
uncontaminated clothing should be provided for each shift. If
exposed, the skin surface should be washed at once. At the
first sign of headache, nausea, tightening of the chest, or con-
striction of the pupils of the eyes, consult a physician at once.
The indicated treatment is atropine, followed by oxygen as
directed by a physician.
A number of authorities have stated that if proper pre-
cautions are followed these good pesticides can be used safely.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Some suggestions as to the use of pesticides, especially the new
1-Handle and use pesticides safely. Store away from food
2-Read, understand and follow label data and other direc-
tions for use.
3-Know pest to be controlled and use measure recommended
to control it.
4-Do not overdose.
5-Apply pesticide in manner and time recommended.
The National Agricultural Chemicals Association, Barr Build-
ing, Washington, D. C., recently published an 81/2 x 11 sheet
entitled, "How to Choose and Use Pesticides Properly." It lists
ten concise clear points. If you do not have a copy of this and
would like one, they may be obtained upon request.
An interesting article appeared in the April 1949 issue of
the Farm Journal entitled "How Dangerous are the New Bug
I am confident you are all familiar with and probably have
a copy of the "Handbook on Pesticides and their Uses in Florida
Agriculture" as published by the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Gainesville, Florida, February 1, 1949.
There are also other somewhat similar new releases avail-
"Insect and Plant Disease Handbook," published by Clemson
Agricultural College, Extension Service, Clemson, S. C., Novem-
"Fungicide Information," published by the University of Mary-
land Extension Service, College Park, Md., December, 1948.
"Pest Control Materials 1949," published jointly by the Pennsyl-
vania Agricultural Experiment Station and the Maine Agricultural
Experiment Station, dated January, 1949.
"Agricultural Insect and Disease Control Recommendations,"
compiled by Curtis Publishing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1948.
There are probably other such works and no attempt has
been made to list them all.
I am sure that we are all aware that many of these pesti-
cides, if taken in sufficient quantities, are poisonous to warm-
We all recognize that their use is essential to protect health
and produce the amount and quality of products the entire
world needs today.
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2 61
I believe we can also agree that if these pesticides, which
are so valuable and essential to us and our well being, are cor-
rectly used they are harmless to those who apply them and also
to those who consume the products protected.
It is my belief that this goal can best be attained through
education, a field to which the Extension Service is dedicated.
To this end we pledge to you our complete support.
THE BEHAVIOR OF PURPLE SCALE POPULATIONS
ON CITRUS TREES IN FLORIDA *
J. T. GRIFFITHS, JR. and W. L. THOMPSON
Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred
During the past 50 years in Florida, purple scale, Lepido-
saphes beckii (Newm.), has been the primary scale problem on
citrus trees in Florida. The amount of damage due to this pest
has varied from year to year and from decade to decade, but,
in a general sort of way, the first half of the 20th Century may
be divided into the three periods as defined by distinct differ-
ences in the problems which have been encountered with this
insect. Prior to 1925 scale infestations were fairly common, and
some control measures were undertaken. However, regular
spray programs for scale control were not applied, because
satisfactory means did not exist. From 1925 to 1935, definite
changes took place in citrus groves in Florida. Plantings were
shifted to the sand hills of central Florida, and there was a
change from organic to inorganic fertilizers. As a result of
improper feeding, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc de-
ficiencies developed. In the early 1930's, trees grown in the
sandy soils were in very poor growing condition, deficiency
symptoms were common, and scale populations were at a very
low ebb. Although oil emulsion sprays were available during
this period, very few sprays were applied for scale control.
Beginning in 1936, new fertilizer practices were instituted.
These involved the use of magnesium, manganese and copper
in the fertilizer, and the use of copper, zinc and manganese
sprays, with copper and zinc sprays being applied regularly.
The change in fertilization practice resulted in increased yields
and improvement in the general size and the vitality of the
Presented before the 1949 annual meeting of the Entomological So-
ciety of America.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
trees. Accompanying this, there was a marked change in the
insect picture on citrus trees in Florida. Zinc and copper sprays
were partially responsible for increased insect injury, but the
increased shade ard tree vigor seemed to offer better living
conditions for both insects and mites. Where it had previously
been necessary to control scale, scale insects now became a
major problem for the citrus grower. Today, scale insects
represent the primary source of tree damage in the state of
Florida. Purple scales are distributed throughout the citrus
area and are a major problem wherever they occur.
At the present time, in the state of Florida, another change
in the general production picture appears to be taking place.
In the 1949-50 season more than 50 percent of the citrus crop
will be canned as single strength juice or as frozen concentrate,
This means that the external quality of much of the fruit need
not meet the fresh fruit standards as in the past, and this
subsequently means a change in general spray programs and
spray practices. An effort is being made to evolve a spray pro-
gram for canning plant fruit which will necessitate a minimum
of spray applications, but which at the same time will maintain
yields and internal fruit quality as high as they have been pre-
viously. Reductions in the amounts of copper and zinc to be
used as sprays can probably be made. The use of copper for
the control of melanose (a fungus disease which affects external
quality) will probably be almost eliminated on fruit which is
to be canned. Since zinc has been used for more than 10 years,
citrus groves are generally free from zinc definciency. There-
fore, it is possible that trees can be maintained with soil ap-
plications, or at least maintained without an annual zinc spray.
Lower mite and scale populations should follow a reduction in
the amounts of zinc and copper. This fact has been substantiated
most recently by Griffiths and Fisher (1, 2).
For the past three years rather careful records have been
kept of scale infestations in a number of citrus groves. More
complete records have been kept during the past two years, and
most of the following discussion will be centered about the 1948
and 1949 seasons.
It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the behavior
of scale insect populations on citrus trees in Florida as observed
where some different spray programs were in effect. A com-
plete spray program includes the use of compounds of copper,
zinc, sulfur, DN (40% dinitro-o-cyclohexyl phenol) and oil emul-
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
sions. Scale population behavior under such a program is com-
pared with that where certain or all of the materials have been
eliminated from the spray program.
BEHAVIOR OF SCALES IN UNSPRAYED GROVES
Figures 1 and 2 present data from September 1947 through
November 1949, for four groves in or near Lake County and
for three plots located on the Citrus Experiment Station grounds
in Polk County. The two sets of data are separated because
general behavior patterns appear to have been somewhat dif-
ferent in these two areas. In general, Lake County will ex-
perience slightly colder weather during the winter than Polk
County, and it is possible that this may explain some of the
In these and subsequent graphs, some irregularities occur.
These are often present during the spring of the year and may
be accounted for by inaccuracy in sampling methods. Scale
counts were made by a method previously described by the
authors (3). This involves taking 50 leaves per tree and examin-
Purple Scale Population Changes in Unsprayed Groves
in Lake County
--- Oranges and Grapefruit
b e o ... .,
64 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Purple Scale Population Changes in Unsprayed Groves
in Polk County
----- Pineapple Oranges
--- Marsh Grapefruit
SON olJ F MA MJ J A.S 0 NDIJ FMAMJ J ASOND1
1947 1948 1949
ing them for living scales. In the spring, the major leaf flush
occurs just prior to bloom. Usually, this period coincides with
a time of maximum egg deposition by the infesting scale insects
and scale crawlers tend to migrate to new foliage. Thus, there
is a general exodus to new growth. Sampling is complicated
by this shift in population, and counts made during this time
are apt to present a slightly inaccurate picture of the infesta-
tion. The total scales per tree may have increased consider-
ably, but the percentage of leaves infested may appear to have
decreased if new foliage has been picked.
In Figs. 1 and 2 it will be noticed that, for three years,
during the period from August through November, scale popula-
tions attained a minimum. They regularly decreased during
the summer, but by late fall were again increasing. In this con-
nection, it should be noted that prior to the introduction of
present day spray schedules, oil sprays were often applied as
fall clean-up sprays. Growers of citrus for many years often
comment upon the effectiveness of such sprays for scale control.
The fact that they were spraying populations at the lowest
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
density during the entire year was undoubtedly an important
factor in the excellent scale control which often resulted.
The amount of increase in the fall and the rate of increase
throughout the winter months is probably a factor related to
winter temperatures. During the fall and winter of 1946-47,
1947-48, and 1948-49 temperatures were generally high through-
out the entire period. This resulted in scale increases through-
out the winter months. The past three years have been ex-
ceptional, in that purple scale populations have been high, and
excessive damage has resulted in many groves. The application
of two oil sprays for scale control has been necessitated in many
individual holdings. It will be noted in the graph on groves
in Lake County that higher scale populations were generally
attained during the 1948 season than in 1949. The opposite is
true of the groves shown from Polk County. The Lake County
groves probably reflect a truer picture of the situation through-
out the state. In general, scale populations have been much
lower during the summer of 1949 than during the preceding
two years. It will be noted that, in the Polk County groves,
maximums were reached in February and March of 1949, and
that populations continued to decrease from that time on. This
represents an abnormal situation when compared to the past.
In general, scale populations in unsprayed groves reach their
minimum in the fall of the year, either stabilize or increase
slightly throughout the winter months, and finally attain a maxi-
mum during June and July of the following summer. Decreases
caused by natural control agencies become evident in July,
August, or September and minimums are again reached during
the fall of the year. The 1949 season seems to offer an enigma
as far as decreases throughout the spring and summer are con-
cerned. These decreases were experienced throughout the entire
citrus belt, in spite of the fact that weather was dry in the
spring and was not what would normally be considered advan-
tageous for the functioning of scale fungi. In fact, dry weather
has always been considered to be a major factor in scale popu-
lation increases, and the 1949 season was in direct opposition to
this presupposed thesis.
It will be noted that one of the four Lake County groves
shown has consistently had higher populations than the other
three. This was true also in the 1946-47 season. All four
groves are treated with occasional sulfur dusts for the control
of the citrus rust mite, but copper, zinc, and oil emulsion sprays
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
are not used. In Fig. 1 the three groves with lower scale in-
festation also have populations of the tree snail, Drymaeus
dormani. The claim has been made by many growers that the
presence of these snails will result in reduced scale populations.
The authors have never been able to substantiate this on the
basis of good data. Tendencies are certainly evident here, but
it should also be noted that groves which are satisfactory for
growth and reproduction of snails are also groves which tend
to have high humidity factors and which are planted in such a
fashion that good shade is present throughout the entire year.
As opposed to this situation, the grove with the greater scale
population (Fig. 1) has smaller trees which are planted far
apart, so that the same type of shade and moisture conditions
are not present. It would be expected that entomogenous fungi
might not function as satisfactorily in the latter grove as in the
three groves where snails are present. Another factor must be
mentioned, however. When snails are present in large numbers,
the trees attain a very slick appearance due to the removal of
sooty mold from the foliage and fruit. Where this condition
exists almost no residue of any type is present on the foliage.
It is to be expected that residue-free leaves would be relatively
unsatisfactory for the settling of scale crawlers, since they seem
to prefer dirty leaves to extremely clean ones. How much of a
factor this is in the reduction of scale populations in these groves
cannot be determined at the present time. It should also be
noted that the grove listed as having both oranges and grape-
fruit was almost completely defoliated in February of 1948.
Most of the snails had died by November of 1947, and it was
not until the late summer and fall of 1949 that high snail popu-
lations were again attained in this grove. In spite of this fact,
scale populations seem to follow similar trends to those in other
snail groves. This would appear to be an argument against the
fact that snails are major factors in causing reduced scale popu-
lations in citrus groves. In addition to this, the groves which
attained the second highest infestations both in 1948 and again
in 1949 as shown on Fig. .1 has not been properly fertilized for
the past two years. The trees are in a very hard condition,
growth flushes have been very much below normal, and such
trees are not trees which are satisfactory for the development
of maximum scale insect infestations. These factors must be
considered in attempting to evaluate the possible value of snails
in citrus groves in Florida.
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
THE BEHAVIOR OF SCALE POPULATIONS IN SPRAYED GROVES
Figure 3 shows the difference in behavior of scale infesta-
tions on three separate spray programs from plots at the Citrus
Experiment Station in Polk County. One plot represents un-
sprayed controls where no sprays or dusts of any kind are
Comparison of Purple Scale Populations with Different Spray Treatments
on Pineapple Oranges in Polk County
1947 1948 1949
applied; one represents a plot in which copper, zinc and sulfur
are used, but where no scalicides are applied; and the third rep-
resents a standard spray program as practiced throughout most
of the citrus area. This latter program includes the use of copper,
zinc, sulfur, and DN (40% dinitro-o-cyclohexyl phenol) as well
as an oil spray for scale control. The unsprayed control plot was
not started until 1948 and counts were not initiated until the
late summer of that year. Certain trends are evident in this
graph, and based on general observations throughout the citrus
area represent conditions which would be expected to occur
under the various spray programs involved. It will be noted
that maximum populations are found, of course, on the trees
where copper and zinc are used and where no oil spray follows.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
The oil sprays in the complete spray program were applied on
the first of July and resulted in the decreases in infestation be-
tween July and August in both years. The unsprayed control
has lower populations, than the trees containing copper and
zinc sprays. At times, the populations on this program are
actually lower than where oil sprays are applied. It will be
noted that during the fall of 1948 this situation existed, and
according to the last counts made in 1949, this group of trees
again has less scale than was found on the other two programs.
These data again illustrate the same thing noted in Figs. 1 and 2
in that for most groves, maximum populations in 1949 were
attained during the early, spring months. Regardless of the
program, the scale population decreased throughout the late
spring and the summer. This has resulted, during the fall of
1949, in a general condition over the entire state where purple
scale populations are at a minimum.
Figure 4 is a theoretical situation designed to demonstrate
the difference in scale insect populations resulting from several
types of spray programs. This is hypothetically drawn from
data such as that presented in Fig. 3, and is based upon ob-
servations from many groves throughout the entire citrus area.
If we assume that three programs are instituted where initial
scale infestation is identical, certain things would be expected
to occur. On those trees where copper and zinc is included in
the spring of the year, greater increases would be experienced
than on the unsprayed controls. These increases would continue
up until late summer or early fall, in the case of the plot which
received copper and zinc. In the case of the unsprayed control,
decreases would begin in July or August. A spray applied for
scale control in July would reduce the population in those plots
to almost zero, but increases would start immediately after the
oil spray and would continue throughout the fall, and if weather
conditions were satisfactory, on through the winter months.
As noted on the graph, groves on the oil, copper, zinc, sulfur
program would often have more scale in the spring of the year
than would those on no spray program at all. They would have
less during the latter part of the summer, but during the fall
and winter months the populations might be very similar to
those of the unsprayed controls. The trees receiving copper,
zinc and sulfur, but no oil would end the season with much
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2 69
Theoretical Behavior of Purple Scale Population under Different
-- Cu-Zn-S-no oil
----- Cu- Zn- S- oil
y- aoil spray
Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
higher populations than either of the other two programs. This
points up the fact that the addition of copper and zinc in the
spray program necessitates sprays for scale control. Thus, if
copper and zinc are eliminated from spray programs, it may
be possible to also eliminate sprays for scale control in some
years, but at the same time maintain maximum yield with mini-
mum tree damage from scale insects.
In support of the thesis that it may be possible to eliminate
sprays for scale control in some years if no copper and zinc
sprays are used, the following data on dead wood cut from trees
is pertinent. In a Pineapple orange block at the Citrus Experi-
ment Station several spray programs are present. One is a
complete spray program which includes zinc, copper, sulfur and
oil. The oil is applied about July 1; second program is identical,
except that no oil is used; and a third set of plots receives no
sprays or dusts at all. In March, 1949, dead wood was cut from
those trees. An average of 12 pounds were removed from the
unsprayed control as compared with 26 pounds on the copper-
zinc-sulfur-oil program and 36 pounds on the copper-zinc-sulfur-
no oil program. The introduction of parathion as a spray for
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
scale control on citrus (4) may mean that scale can be controlled
without damaging results from oil sprays so that there will
probably be less dead wood not only from scale, but also from
oil damage. In the parathion sprayed plots (includes copper-
zinc-sulfur) in this same series of experiments only 12 pounds
of dead wood was removed in 1949. It may be possible that,
where groves receive little or no copper and zinc, parathion
sprays will further reduce scale populations to such a level that
even greater yields might be attained.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Data are presented to show the behavior of purple scale
populations in groves in Florida where only sulfur is used as a
spray or dust program. In these groves, maximum infestations
are usually attained during the late spring or early summer,
and minimum infestations occur during the months of Septem-
ber and October. Data also compare the difference between the
trees receiving copper, zinc, sulfur and oil against copper, zinc,
sulfur and no oil, and against no sprays or dusts at all. These
findings may serve as a basis for attaining short-cut spray
programs which will meet requirements of fruit for canning
1. Griffiths, J. T., Jr. and F. E. Fisher. 1949. Residues on Citrus Trees
in Florida. I. Changes in insect populations following the use of
different chemical materials used at the same amounts of residue
per 100 gallons of spray. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 829-833.
2. Griffiths, J. T., Jr. and F. E. Fisher. 1950. Residues on Citrus Trees
in Florida. II. Changes in purple scale and rust mite populations
following the use of various spray materials at two different amounts
of spray material per 100 gallons. Jour Econ. Ent. 43: in press.
3. Griffiths, J. T., Jr. and W. L. Thompson. 1949. Identification of Florida
red and purple scales on citrus trees in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Cir. S-5.
4. Thompson, W. L., C. R. Stearns, and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. 1948. Status
of parathion as an insecticide for Florida citrus. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 61: 116-124.
5. Thompson, W. L. 1940. Cultural practices and their influence on citrus
pests. Jour. Econ. Ent. 32: 782-789.
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
ON TULLGREN'S FLORIDA SPIDERS
H. K. WALLACE
Through the courtesy of Professors Albert Tullgren and
Ake Holm, of Sweden, I have had the opportunity of studying
some of the spiders described by Tullgren (1901) from Florida.
In the twenty-two vials received from them are included all of
the specimens described as new species in the families Lycosidae
and Attidae [Salticidae] plus a few other individuals in the
same families. The following Lycosids and Salticids recorded
by Tullgren (1901) were not included in the twenty-two vials
received: Lycosa carolinensis, L. arenicola, L. nidicola, L. tigrina,
Pardosa rufa, Phidippus mineatus, Dendryphantes capitatus, and
All of the specimens received are well preserved and in ex-
cellent condition, but appear to have become much lighter in
color than when collected. In some the chitin has become some-
what transparent so that more detail in the structure of the
epigynum is now evident than appears in Tullgren's drawings.
Some of the specimens are accompanied by labels bearing a
different name than that under which they were described. No
types were selected by Prof. Tullgren or labeled as such. In
appropriate cases I am selecting lectotypes as Dr. Holm re-
quested. All specimens, including lectotypes and one holotype
will be returned to the Zoologiska Institutionen, Uppsala.
In order that other students may reconstruct the situation
in this collection of specimens that it has been my good fortune
to examine at first hand, I shall list the contents of each vial,
give data as it occurs on each label, and redescribe and refigure
those specimens that are not clearly recognizable from Tullgren's
Lycosa angusta Tullgren
1901. Lycosa angusta Tullgren (in part), Bih. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handle ,
27(4, 1): 16; figs. 7a, 7b. [9 and & described; 2$ 3, 69 9 re-
corded; no type selected.]
1942. Lycosa timuqua Wallace (in part), Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 1185:
8; fig. 19. [The central peninsular form.]
1A contribution from the Department of Biology, University of Florida.
72 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
LECTOTYPE.-Male from Orlando, Orange County, Florida, collected by
E. Linnberg, 1892-93, labeled Lycosa pallens n. sp. Deposited in the
Zoologiska Institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
DESCRIPTION OF LECTOTYPE.-Carapace amber in color, with radially
disposed darker streaks; dorsal stripe faintly indicated; eyes partly sur-
rounded by black areas, eye region provided with numerous long bristles.
Dorsum of abdomen light yellow, speckled with tiny dark spots and pro-
vided with a sparse covering of erect bristles; these bristles longest in the
region of the hastate mark which is only faintly indicated. Sternum and
coxae dusky, venter black. Legs unbanded, metatarsus and tarsus I and II
darker than the other segments.
Carapace longer than broad (10.5 mm./8.0 mm.), 4.5 mm. high; width
of the head opposite the posterior lateral eyes 4.4 mm. Posterior eye
quadrangle wider than long (2.7 mm./1.8 mm.), eyes of the median row
larger than those of the lateral (1.0 mm./0.7 mm.); median row wider than
anterior row (2.2 mm./1.8 mm.). Anterior row of eyes almost straight,
eyes equally spaced, medians larger than laterals. Palpal segments:
femur 4.1 mm., patella 2.1 mm., tibia 1.8 mm., cymbium 3.7 mm.
Femur Patella Tibia tarsus Tarsus Total
I ........ 9.1 4.4 7.6 8.3 -
II ........ 8.7 4.1 7.0 7.9 4.4 32.1
III ........ 8.0 3.6" 5.8 6.8 4.2 28.4
IV ........ 10.0 3.9 7.9 10.9 5.1 37.8
DIAGNOSIS.-This spider cannot be distinguished from L. lenta Hentz,
L. ammophila Wallace, L. ericeticola Wallace, and L. miami Wallace except
by differences in the structure of the male palpus. It is the central penin-
sular form of L. timuqua Wallace (1942), and the male, at present, can-
not be distinguished from that species. However, differences in the
genitalia of the females makes it possible to distinguish between the two.
DIscussIoN.-The proper disposition of Tullgren's angusta
poses something of a problem. He described first a large female
(carapace 11.8 mm.) and then a large male (carapace 11.0 mm.)
and listed two adult males and six adult females collected by
Mr. Lonnberg at Oakland and Orlando in Orange County. He
figured both palp and epigynum but did not designate a type.
Based on this much information, I suggested in 1942 that my
central peninsular form of L. timuqua might be Tullgren's
angusta. Due to the fact that Tullgren's figures of palpus and
epigynum did not resemble closely anything I had seen in the
lenta group I was not sure of this identification and, accordingly,
also suggested that L. pseudoceratiola and miami might also be
candidates for his name. Size is so variable within this group
that I was unwilling to place any importance on this feature
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
Among the specimens shipped to me from Uppsala are two
adult males and six adult females in five vials, all from Oakland
or Orlando where locality is given, and all labeled Lycosa pallens
Tullgren, new species. By a simple process of elimination it is
clear that these are the specimens cited by Tullgren as angusta.
No type is indicated on the labels. The contents of the five
vials, the data on the labels, and my determination of species
is as follows:
Vial 1.-Label (penciled in longhand-most of this label
almost illegible)-U. U. Z. M. Lycosa pallens, n. sp. &. Label-
Orlando 1892-93 E. Lonnberg. This is a large male of my L.
timuqua central peninsular form, and is, I am certain, the speci-
men described and figured by Tullgren as the male of L. angusta.
As noted above the figure of the palpus is such that I would
hesitate to make a decision on it alone, but the size given in
Tullgren's description leaves little doubt as the only other male
is a much smaller individual of L. ammophila Wallace. I have
selected the specimen from this vial as the lectotype because
there can be no question as to its identity whereas none of the
females could be selected with equal certainty.
Vial 2.-Label (penciled in longhand)-Lycosa pallens n. sp.
A. Tullgren. Label-Florida Orange County 1892-93 E. Lonn-
berg. This is an adult female possessing an epigynum typical
of the central peninsular form of L. timuqua = L. angusta.
Vial 3.-Label (penciled in longhand)-Lycosa pallens n. sp.
A. Tullgren. Label-Oakland Nov. 1892 E. L-g. In this vial
there are one female L. lenta Hentz and one female L. miami (?)
Vial 4.-Label (penciled in longhand)--Lycosa pallens n. sp.
Det. A. Tullgren. Label-Orlando Jan. 93 E. L-g. In this vial
are two females of L. lenta Hentz.
Vial 5.-Label-Lycosa pallens Tullgr. n. spec. Florida 1892-
93 & 2 E. Lonnberg Rul[?] af A Tullgren. This label is the
only one in the five vials written in ink. It is written in a
beautiful, regular script with the words Lycosa pallens much
heavier and larger than the others. This vial contains one male
L. ammophila Wallace and one female which possibly belongs
to the same species.
DISTRIBUTION.-Central peninsular Florida in Orange,
Osceola and Pasco counties; west coast of Florida in Pinellas
and Sarasota counties.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Lycosa timuqua Wallace
1942. Lycosa timuqua Wallace (in part), Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 1185:
8; figs. 5, 6, 20. [ Holotype from Florida, Martin Co., Jensen;
not the central peninsular form.]
L. angusta and timuqua are retained as distinct species until
such time as it can be shown definitely that they intergrade or
that the differences mentioned by Wallace (1942) are not of
DISTRIBUTION.-East coast of Florida from Brevard County
southward onto the Florida Keys; northern peninsular Florida
north of Orange County; Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain from
South Carolina westward into Mississippi.
Lycosa riparia Hentz
1844. Lycosa riparia Hentz, Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 4: 389; p. xvii,
ff. 13-15. (Reprint) Spiders U. S., p. 31, pl. iii, ff. 13-15.
1901. L. albopunctata Tullgren, Bih. Svenska Vet.Akad. Handl.,27(4, 1):
18; fig. 8a-b.
There are three vials-in the collection containing specimens
labeled albopunctata, as follows:
Vial 1.-Label-Lycosa albopunctata N. Spec. Florida 1892-
93 E. Lonnberg. But af A. Tullgren. This label is in script in
ink and the accompanying specimen is a medium sized adult
female of the species known to American workers at present 2
as riparia Hentz. Its measurements agree well with those of
the smaller .of the two specimens cited by Tullgren (carapace
7.2 mm./5.7 mm.) There is no indication of its selection as a
type specimen. Tullgren's figure 8b of the epigynum of the
2 It is the writer's opinion that the spider described by Hentz was not
what is commonly called riparia. His description of both structure and
habits fits what is now called L. helluo Walck. Dr. W. J. Gertsch has
pointed out in a letter to me that riparia Hentz is preoccupied by riparia
C. L. Koch, 1833; Chamberlin and Ivie (1944), in Spiders of Georgia, have
resurrected Walckenaer's name georgicola for this species. The situation
obviously needs further study.
PLATE I. Fig. 1-Pardosa georgiae, male palpus. Fla., Alachua Co.,
16 Jan. 1949. Fig. 2-P. georgiae, epigynum. Ga., Floyd Co., 29 Aug.
1950. HKW 1339C. Fig. 3-Pardosa longispinata, epigynum. Fla., n. of
Palatka, 12 June 1935, Gertsch. P. longispinata, male palpus. Fla., Pasco
Co., 22 Mar. 1947 HKW 1244. Fig. 5-Lycosa hentzi, epigynum. Umschen,
Fla., Tullgren Collection. Fig. 6-Lycosa riparia, epigynum. Fla., 1892-93
E. Lonnberg. (Lycosa albopunctata n. sp.)
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
smaller described specimen agrees in general outline with that
of this specimen, but the figure appears to represent the epigy-
num of an immature specimen.
Vial 2.-Label-L. albopunctata n. sp. AT-u. Label-Orlando
1892-93 E. Lonnberg. Both labels are penciled in longhand.
The specimen in this vial is a large adult female L. riparia
Hentz, and agrees well in measurements with the large female
cited by Tullgren (carapace 8.2 mm./6.0 mm.). The figure
of the epigynum (8a) resembles a Schizocosa more than it does
that of this specimen. However, I believe what appears in the
drawing to be excavations in the ends of the transverse piece
of the guide are intended to represent the dark portions of .the
ends as they occur in the specimen.
Vial 3.-Label-L. albopunctata n. sp. AT-u. Label-Lake
Leonore 5/9 92 E L-g. Both labels are penciled in longhand.
This vial contains two specimens, an immature of the lenta
group, and an adult female of what is probably L. helluo Walck.
The latter specimen is possibly one of those cited by Tullgien
as L. nidicola Emerton.
Sosippus floridanus Simon
1898. Sosippus floridanus Simon, Ann. Soc. Entom. Belgique, 42: 25.
1901. L. (Pirata) Loennbergi Tullgren, Bih. Svenska Vet.Akad. Handle ,
27(4, 1): 19; fig. 10.
L. (Pirata) transversolineata Tullgren, ibid., p. 20, fig. 11.
In the collection there are four vials containing all of the
specimens cited by Tullgren under Loennbergi and transverso-
lineata, as follows:
Vial 1.-Label-Pirata lonnbergi n. sp. A. Tullgren. Label-
Arcadia 12/4/93. Both labels are penciled in longhand. This
vial contains one adult female of S. floridanus Simon.
Vial 2.-Label-(Pirata) Lycosa transversolineata n. sp.
AT-u. Label-Victoria Lake County 1/9/92 E. L-g. Both labels
penciled in longhand. This vial contains an adult female of
S. floridanus Simon with egg sac.
Vial 3.-Label-Lycosa (Pirata) transversolineata n. sp.
AT-u. Label-Lake Leonore 5/9/92 [?] E. L-g. Both labels
penciled in longhand. This vial contains one adult female of
S. floridanus Simon.
Vial 4.-Label-Lycosa (Pirata) transversolineata AT-u.
(Reverse side of label)-Arcadia Florida 92-93 E. Lonnberg.
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
Label penciled in longhand. This vial contains a penultimate
male of S. floridanus Simon.
Lycosa hentzi Banks
1904. Lycosa hentzi Banks, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 56: 135;
pl. viii, ff. 15, 16.
Included in the lot is one vial labeled Florida Umschen [?]
L. F. containing one adult female hentzi. This specimen was
not listed by Tullgren unless it is the "single young female" of
L. scutulata [rabida] from Orlando.
Pirata insularis Emerton
1885. Pirate insularis Emerton, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., 6: 492;
pl. xlviii, fig. 8.
1901. Pardosa bilobata Tullgren, Bih. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., 27(4, 1) :
22; fig. 12.
Two adult female Pirata insularis are contained in one vial,
label penciled in longhand-Pardosa bilobata n. sp. A Tullgren
Lake Leonore 5/9 92 E. L-g.
Pardosa longispinata Tullgren
Figures 3, 4
1896. Pardosa littoralis Banks, Jour. New York Ent. Soc., 4: 192. littoraliss
1901. Pardosa longispinata Tullgren, Bih. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl.,
27(4, 1) : 23; fig. 13. [ y from Lake Leonore, Orange Co., Florida.]
1904. Pardosa floridana Banks, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 56: 136;
pl. vii, fig. 1, pl. viii, fig. 15.
LECTOTYPE.-One adult female, label penciled in longhand-Pardosa
longispinata n. sp. AT-u Lake Leonore 92-93 E. Lcnnberg. This is the
single female of longispinata described by Tullgren, which I now designate
DESCRIPTION OF LECTOTYPE.-This specimen has evidently become lighter
in color than when described since the legs now appear almost white with
annulations very faint, and the sternum, labium, endites and venter are
almost white in color. Otherwise Tullgren's description, which follows,
fits the specimen very well:
"Cephalothorax dark brown, clothed with short adpressed and long
black upturned bristly hairs, with a white middle-band, squarish in the
cephalic part as broad as the area of eyes, on the pars thoracica narrow;
the area of eyes nearly black; at the margins broad white bands; the
margin black. The length a little shorter than the length of tibia + patella
and the breadth shorter than the length of tibia on the fourth pair of
78 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
legs.-Eyes. The front-row distinctly procurved, the central eyes largest
and the inter-space between the central eyes about equal to their diameter
and longer than the space between the lateral eyes. The distance from
the lateral eyes to the margin of clypeus and to the eyes in the middle-row
about thrice their diameter. The eyes of the middle-row very large and
the inter-space between them longer than their diameter. The inter-space
between the middle and the posterior eyes broader than the diameter of
the middle-eyes.-Sternum small oval light brown, with long light hairs.-
Maxillae and labium light yellow brown.-Cheliceres a little longer than
the face, very tapering at the apex and clothed with long bristly hairs,
a little narrower than the femur of first pair.-Legs pale brown with dark
rings, the tibia of the first pair below with 2.2.2. spines; these and other
spines very long.-Abdomen oval, brown, clothed with black and white
short hairs without distinct markings; venter light grayish. The vulva
conf. the fig. 13.
length of cephalothorax ..................-...................... 2, 5 mm.
breadth of cephalothorax .............. ....-------.......- 1, 8 mm.
total length ....-.....------.............-......-- ..... ........ 4, 2 mm.
length of 1st leg ......-.............--- ........-.....-..--.. 7, 3 mm.
length of 4th leg .........--- ..... --. --....................10 mm."
DIscussIoN.-This is the species recognized by American
arachnologists as P. floridana Banks. In general appearance it
closely resembles P. georgiae Chamberlin and Ivie; figures of
the genitalia of the latter are included for comparison (figs.
1 and 2).
Phidippus variegatus (Lucas)
1833. Salticus variegatus Lucas, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 2: 478; pl.
xviii, figs. 1-7.
1901. Phidippus morsitans (Walck.) (in part). Tullgren, Bih. Svenska
Vet.-Akad. Handl., 27(4, 1): 25. [3 3 not including the one
described below as a new species.]
Tullgren listed four adult males of Phidippus morsitans from
Orange County. One of the four he described; this specimen
differs from the other three and is described below as a new
species. The other three males are typical examples of P. varie-
gatus, now probably considerably lighter in color than when
preserved, but with the pattern on the dorsum of the abdomen
quite evident. Florida specimens of P. audax resemble this
species closely but can usually be distinguished by the fact that,
on the dorsum of the abdomen, the paired white spots behind
the large central spot are line-like whereas in variegatus they
are round. The genitalia of audax and variegatus are distinct
from each other and from the new species described below.
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2 79
Two males of variegatus are in one vial labeled as follows:
Phidippus sp. 2 (other side of label)-Orange County 92-93 E. L.
The other male variegatus is in a vial labeled: Phidippus sp. 2
(other side of label)-Orlando 92-93 E. L-g.
Phidippus tullgreni n. sp.
Figures 10, 11
1901. P. morsitans (Walck.) (in part). Tullgren, Bih. Svenska Vet.-Akad.
Handl., 27(4, 1): 25. [The specimen described by Tullgren;
labeled Phidippus sp. 1, Orange County, 1892-93, E. L6nnberg.]
HOLOTYPE.-Male from Orange County, Florida, 1892-93, E. Ldnnberg,
collector. Type deposited in the Zoologiska Institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
DESCRIPTION OF HOLOTYPE.-Cephalothorax 6.0 mm. long, 5.1 mm. wide,
dark amber in color, posterior eyes each surrounded by black area. The
ocular quadrangle appears to have been rubbed smooth. The sides of the
carapace, beneath and behind the posterior lateral eyes covered with white
scales which must have formed a wide white band on each side in life.
Clypeus amber in color, covered with colorless hairs. Anterior row of
eyes strongly recurved, a line through the center of the anterior lateral
eyes passes through the upper edge of each anterior median eye. Anterior
median eyes three times as large as the anterior laterals, about 1 the
diameter of an anterior lateral eye apart; anterior lateral eyes about %
their diameter from the anterior median eyes. Ocular quadrangle wider
than long, wider behind than in front. Clypeus equals 2/ diameter of an
anterior lateral eye. Chelicerae irridescent, with a suggestion of the
prominence so conspicuous on the prolateral surface in P. audax. Dorsum
of the abdomen bears a large, amber-colored sclerotized plate which covers
most of its surface. This plate is truncate posteriorly. Anterior margin
of dorsum with a wide white band; posterior 1/4 of dorsum, behind trun-
cate dorsal plate, almost white. The dorsal sclerotized plate is marked
by two pairs of muscle attachment depressions, one pair in the middle,
and one pair about in the middle of the anterior half. All that remains
of the anterior middle white spots described by Tullgren are a few white
scales located adjacent to the posterior pair of muscle attachment depres-
sions. A large white spot of white scales is located at each of the posterior
lateral corners of the dorsal plate. Sides of the abdomen are dusky with
three oblique white stripes extending caudoventrally. Venter dusky.
Sternum and coxae I dark amber, coxae II-IV lighter amber. Labium and
endites quite dark proximally, lightening to color of sternum distally.
Femur, patella and tibia of palpi light, cymbium darker-all covered with
amber covered hairs, now almost colorless. All segments legs I dark and
covered ventrally with dense brush of brown hairs except the patella and
proximal ends of metatarsus and tarsus, where they are white. On the
distal half of femur I the terminal ends of the hairs of the brush are
white. Leg II also has ventral brush, but not as dense as on Leg I and
this brush is composed uniformly of brown hairs. Legs III and IV also
are covered with a brown brush, but somewhat less dense than that of
80 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Palpal segments: femur 2.2 mm., patella 0.7 mm., tibia 0.4 mm., cymbium
Femur Patella Tibia tarsus Tarsus Total
I ........ 4.2 3.1 3.5 2.9 1.4 15.1
II ........ 3.2 2.1 2.3 2.1 1.0 10.7
III ........ 3.1 1.8 1.9 2.2 0.9 9.9
IV ........ 3.7 2.0 2.6 2.9 1.0 12.6
Since the specimen described above has undoubtedly become lighter in
color over the years I will append Tullgren's descirption for comparison.
His measurements are in the neighborhood of 0.5 mm. greater than those
I make for the specimen; I have noticed this to be true also for other
"Male.-Cephalothorax black, with two broad white lateral bands,
strewed with short hairs and having long black hairs near the small
median eyes. Clypeus with long and short dark hairs.-Eyes. The front-
row very recurved with the lateral eyes separated from the central eyes
by % their diameter. The central eyes separated from the margin of
clypeus by % their diameter.-Legs 184.108.40.206; the patellae always shorter
than the tibiae. On the sides of patella of first pair large brushes of
white hairs are found. On the front-side of the other patellae and on the
base of the tarsi and the metatarsi white hairs.-Abdomen black; at the
middle are two small white spots; behind these are two larger, somewhat
oblique, white spots and lower down two minute white dots; around the
base a broad white band and on the sides, between the ends of this and
the middle spots an oblique white spot. The venter perfectly black.
length of cephalothorax -............... ...................- 6, 5 mm.
breadth of cephalothorax ........-............................. 5, 5 mm.
total length ....--......-................................. 13, 0 mm.
length of 1st leg --------... --............ ....-- .......16, 0 mm.
length of 4th leg ....----........-----.. ..----------- 13, 0 mm."
DIAGNOSIS.-Of the spiders in the genus Phidippus that are found in
Florida, P. tullgreni resembles in appearance most closely P. audax and
P. variegatus. From these two it can be separated easily by reference to
PLATE II. Fig. 7-Lycosa angusta, male palpus. Lectotype. Fla.,
Orange Co., Orlando, 1892-93, E. Lonnberg. Fig. 8-Sosippus floridanus,
epigynum. Fla., Lake Leonore, 9 May 1892 E. Lonnberg. (Lycosa (Pirate)
transversolineata n. sp.). Fig. 9-Pirata insularis, epigynum. Fla., Lake
Leonore, 9 May 1892. E. Lonnberg. (Pardosa bilobata.) Fig. 10--
Phidippus tullgreni, n. sp. Tibial apophysis. Holotype. Fla., Orange Co.,
1892-93, E. Lonnberg. Fig. 11-P. tullgreni, n. sp. male palpus. Holotype.
Fig. 12-Phidippus cardinalis, epigynum. Fla., Oakland, Nov. 92, E.
Lonnberg. (Phidippus oaklandensis.). Fig. 13-Phidippus clarus, epigy-
num. Fla., Orange Co., Clarcona, Nov. 92. E. Lonnberg. (Phidippus
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2 81
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
the spatulate shape of the embolus. The range of variation in color pat-
tern and size is so great in vcriegatus that the only safe procedure in the
identification of it and related species is to rely upon the genitalia. The
palpus of tullgreni closely resembles that figured for P. otiosus by the
Phidippus clarus Keyserling
1884. P. clarus Keyserling, Verh. zool. bot. Ges. Wien, 34: 497; pl. xiii,
fig. 7. Y
1901. P. bilineatus Tullgren, Bih. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handle 27(4, 1):
26; fig. 15. [ 9 -Orange Co., Florida.]
P. clarconensis Tullgren, ibid., p. 28, fig. 17. [ 9 -Clarcona, Orange
There are two vials in the collection each of which contains
a female P. clarus with labels penciled in longhand as follows:
Vial 1.-Label-Phidippus bilineatus Tullg. Label-Orange
County 92-93 E. L-g. This specimen is much lighter in color
than when described. The exoskeleton has become somewhat
transparent and its covering of hairs, etc., has lost most of its
color. The carapace is now light amber, with black spots close
to the eyes visible through the exoskeleton. The dorsum of
the abdomen is light yellow with lateral margins dusky and a
central dusky area shaped like an arrow-head pointing pos-
teriorly. The front margin of the dorsum has a light stripe
which extends about half way back along the sides beneath the
lateral dusky stripes. The legs are a little darker than the
abdomen, but lighter than the carapace, with the distal ends
of most segments dusky. The palpi are a little lighter than the
legs; the chelicerae are dark amber in color, the labium and
endites light amber, white distally. The sternum is just a shade
off white, the coxae light amber, almost white. The venter has
a wide median stripe, almost white; the sides are faintly dusky.
The internal, sclerotized portions of the epigynum are clearly
visible through the surface (figure 13) ; the epigynum closely
resembles Tullgren's figure 15 of bilineatus.
Vial 2.-Label-Phidippus olivaceus Tullg. Label-Florida
Orange County Clarcona Nov. 92 J [?] Lonnberg. This is evi-
dently the specimen described by Tullgren as P. clarconensis.
It is somewhat lighter than when described, resembling the other
specimen of clarus except for a darker carapace, lighter dorsum,
3 Revision of the Attidae of North America. 1909. Trans. Wisconsin
Acad., 16(1-5) : pl. 34, figs. 6 c, d.
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
and darker longitudinal bands on the venter-the ocular quad-
rangle is quite dark, the longitudinal dark bands on the dorsum
are only faintly indicated. The epigynum (figure 13) no longer
resembles that figured by Tullgren since the internal sclerotized
portions are visible and form the most conspicuous part of it.
Phidippus cardinalis (Hentz)
1844. Attus cardinalis Hentz, Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 4: 386; pl. 7,
fig. 9. 8. (Reprint) Spider U. S. 1875, p. 51.
1901. Phidippus oaklandensis Tullgren, Bih. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handle ,
27(4, 1): 27; fig. 16. 9.
A single female with labels penciled in longhand-Phidippus
oaklandensis Tullg. and Oakland Nov. 92 E. L-g.-is included in
the shipment. This specimen closely resembles the two females
of clarus described above. It differs from them in several im-
portant details. The epigynum is shorter and broader than in
clarus with the openings farther apart, and the venter is im-
maculate. Also, the dorsum of the abdomen bears two dark
longitudinal stripes that extend anteriorly almost to the front
end of the abdomen.. The front end of the dorsum is almost
white, no basal stripe being evident; laterally such a stripe
occurs. In the posterior third of the longitudinal dark bands
of the dorsum occur two pairs of distinct white spots. Part
of the internal structure of the epigynum is visible and is notice-
ably wider than in clarus. The epigynum does not resemble
Tullgren's figure very closely. The carapace and legs appear
to be marked identically as in clarus.
Plexippus paykulli (Audouin)
1827. Attus paykulli Audouin, in Savigny, Descr. de 1'Egypte, 22: 172.
1901. Menemerus paykulli (Audouin). Tullgren, Bih. Svenska Vet.-Akad.
Handl., 27(4, 1): 29.
One female is included, labels penciled in longhand as follows:
Menemerus paykulli ? ? and Orange County Florida 1892-93 E.
I am indebted to Dr. W. J. Gertsch of the American Museum of Natural
History, New York, for reading and criticizing the manuscript. Dr.
Gertsch has also examined the specimens in the collection and we are in
agreement on their identity. I wish also to express my appreciation to
Miss Esther Coogle, Staff Artist for the Biology Department and the
College of Agriculture. All of the drawings for this paper were made
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
A REMARKABLE NEW BELOSTOMATID (HEMIPTERA)
FROM FLORIDA AND GEORGIA
ROLAND F. HUSSEY, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, and
JON L. HERRING, University of Florida, Gainesville
The fourteen species of Abedus known heretofore are found
in the southwestern United States and Mexico, with one of them
ranging as far north as Utah and another one south to Panama.
The new species here described.is a notable exception, as it is
known thus far only from the northern half of Florida and from
southeastern Georgia. It appears to be quite uncommon, and
only about a dozen specimens have been taken in several years'
collecting. Most of these were found by the junior author in
north-central Florida in shallow "flatwoods" ponds which may
disappear during the dry season. The senior author has taken
a single specimen from water hyacinths at the edge of the per-
manent stream forming the outlet from Kissengen Springs
near Bartow in Polk County; and one was collected by J. E.
Burgess, Jr., from a shallow cypress swamp between Lakeland
and Dade City in northern Polk County.
This species, less than 15 mm. long, is the smallest known
Belostomatid from North America. It is a pygmy among giants
in its own genus, where the other species are from 23 to 35 mm.
in length. It is less broadly rounded behind than most species
of Abedus, approaching in this respect most nearly the very
much larger Abedus usingeri as figured by De Carlo (1948, P1.
III, fig. 17). On superficial examination it strongly suggests
a small pale Belostoma testaceum (Leidy), and most of our
specimens have a pale median vitta on the dorsum such as
occasionally (though rarely) occurs in that species, and in other
small species of Belostoma. The smallest B. testaceum among
numerous specimens at hand is 16 mm. long, but Blatchley
(1926, p. 1048) gives the length of this species as 14 to 18 mm.
The authors suspect that he-and possibly others-may have
failed to distinguish it from the new Abedus. This surmise
cannot be verified, however, as the authors are informed by
Dr. George E. Gould that there are no specimens under the
name Belostoma testaceum in the Blatchley collection now at
For a time it was believed that this species might possibly
represent a new genus annectant between Belostoma and Abedus,
to be distinguished from Abedus primarily by the form of the
second ventral segment. In most species of Abedus, including
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
those then at hand, this sclerite on each side is triangular with
its inner angle closed and situated laterad of the hind coxa, a
condition found also in the author's specimens of Benacus,
Lethocerus and Kirkaldyia. In Belostoma and in the new species
the posterior margin of this sclerite passes well behind the coxa
so that the triangle is open at its inner apex. But examination
of a specimen of Abedus ovatus (Say), kindly loaned by Dr.
R. L. Usinger, shows that in this species (the genotype of
Abedus) the second segment is formed as in Belostoma. Dr.
Jos6 A. De Carlo writes (personal correspondence) that this is
true also in A. hungerfordi De Carlo and A. usingeri De Carlo.
The form of the second ventral segment, which the authors be-
lieve has not been used before as a character, is therefore of
no more than specific value in the genus Abedus.
In spite of its small size, its small eyes, and its general
habitus, this species cannot be placed in Belostoma because of
its narrow membrane, its wide interocular space, its antennal
structure, and its metaxyphus tumid behind and lightly carinate
in front. These characters all align it with Abedus, but it does
not fit into any of the subgenera as delimited by Montandon
(1903) nor in any of the new subgenera whose characterizations
Dr. De Carlo has very graciously sent the writers in advance
of publication of his forthcoming "Nueva agrupaci6n de las
species del genero Abedus StAl." From the first it was recog-
nized that this species, if not generically distinct from Abedus,
at least necessitates a new subgenus, and Dr. De Carlo concurs
in this opinion after examining specimens sent to him.
ABEDUS subgenus MICROABEDUS, n. subg.
Antennae 4-segmented, the segments all discrete, the third
one with a short dorso-lateral prolongation. Eyes oblique, not
at all globose, their antero-median margins subparallel or most
lightly diverging in front. Silky pilosity confined to the lateral
plates, not encroaching on the ventral lobule, absent from the
second segment, extending onto the connexivum on the third
segment only. Metasternum moderately convex posteriorly, be-
coming lightly carinate in front. Only small species known.
Subgenotype: Abedus (Microabedus) cantralli, n. sp.
Abedus (Microabedus) cantralli, n. sp.
Holotype male:1 Length 13.5, humeral width 4.5, maximum width across
apical third of clavus 6.5.
1All measurements are expressed in millimeters.
Figure 1. Dorsal view of Abedus (Microcbedus) cantralli, n. sp. Drawn
from a male collected at Miller's Pond on August 6, 1946.
Figure 2. Lateral view of the antenna.
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2 87
Head triangular, moderately inclined; its length (measured in profile
along the long axis of the head, not as projected on the long axis of the
body) from the posterior margin of the eye to the tip of the tylus 2.1, of
which 1.1 is pre-ocular length; maximum width including the eyes 3.3,
minimum interocular width 1.7, the inner margins of the eyes scarcely
divergent anteriorly, meeting the posterior margins in an obtuse angle
about midway of the length of the eye; eyes 0.9 long by 0.8 wide, oblique,
depressed well below the level of the vertex which is rather flat on its
disk; tylus narrow, very lightly prominent above; bucculae subtriangular,
their antero-ventral angles rounded; first and second rostral segments each
0.75 long. Antennal segments I to IV respectively 0.14, 0.09, 0.08 and 0.23
in length, the segments formed as shown in Fig. 2, the last three segments
minutely pubescent on the outer side especially; first segment 0.09, fourth
0.13 in thickness. Head somewhat tumid below, with a number of small
spinules at the middle of the postero-ventral face; depth of the head 1.20
measured perpendicularly to the plane of the vertex.
Pronotum trapezoidal, its length 2.0 on the median line and 2.2 behind
the inner margins of the eyes, its width 3.2 in front and 4.5 at the humeral
angles, the anterior margin broadly sinuate between the eyes, the posterior
margin straight; antero-lateral angles distinct, obtuse, including about 125;
lateral margins very nearly straight, the situation scarcely evident, nar-
rowly (0.21) explanate and very lightly reflexed, a linear impression mark-
ing the inner border of the explanate margin toward the front. Transverse
pronotal suture most lightly impressed, ending in a distinct triangular
fovea at each side, the anterior lobe remotely and most obsoletely punctate,
its median length 2.3 (in some paratypes nearly 3.0) times the length of
the posterior lobe which is much more densely and distinctly punctate.
Scutellum 2.75 wide by 2.2 long, with a broad sharply defined transverse
sulcus entirely across its base. Claval commissure 2.38 in length to end
of the claval vein, 3.13 to end of the claval suture, the latter paralleled
at each side by a distinct percurrent vein, radial vein of the corium also
distinct and percurrent, the other veins feeble and irregular, apparently
not always in agreement even on the two hemelytra of a single individual.
Membrane with about five closed sub-rectangular cells in the basal row
and with numerous much narrower open cells in the apical row, the longest
cells of one row subequal in length to the longest cells of the other; maxi-
mum width of the membrane 1.6; the membrane very narrowly extended
forward along the anal margin of the cerium to the apex of the clavus,
and almost as far along the costal margin, these anterior extensions
without veins or cells.
Scutellum, clavus and corium quite closely, most finely punctate, be-
tween the punctures (in fresh specimens) with extremely short sub-
squamiform setulae, these quite sparse but becoming more numerous on
the veins posteriorly and forming a fairly thick group on the extreme tip
of the clavus, replaced by longer hairs on the apex of the corium and on
the membrane; inner apical angle of the corium with the usual semi-
elliptical area, 0.4 long, of golden pubescence.
Front legs: femur 4.1 long, its greatest width 1.25; tibia 2.8 long;
tarsal segments 0.29 and 0.40 respectively along the outer side, the single
claw 0.40 long, straight for about 4/ its length, then curved inward.
88 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Middle legs: femur 3.6 long on the anterior margin and 0.9 wide, flat on
its inner surface with the pubescence forming a very shallow longitudinal
groove much less distinct than that on the fore femur; maximum length
of tibia 3.0, its width 0.4, sides subparallel for most of its length, the apex
oblique on the outer half; first tarsal segment barely surpassing the apical
spines of the tibia, second and third segments respectively 0.41 and 0.69
long, the claws 0.50, straight on their inner margins for more than half
their length. Hind legs: femur 4.4 long and 0.8 wide; tibia 4.1 long and
0.5 wide, the apex oblique on the outer half, the tibia flattened and thinly
triquetrous; first tarsal segment minute, second and third respectively 0.6
and 0.85, the claws 0.53 long.
Median carina of the prosternum about half as high as it is long,
obtusely angulate-rounded as seen from the side, bearing numerous
spinules especially on its anterior third. Metasternal xyphus tumidly
swollen behind and lightly carinate in front between the middle coxae,
lightly linearly impressed within the lateral margin, the apex depressed,
acute. Median lengths of ventral segments IV to VI respectively 0.75,
1.20, 1.25. Silky pubescence confined to the lateral plates, not invading
the median lobule of the venter, absent on the second segment, covering
the connexivum below on the third segment only, continued backward at
each side of the genital operculum for about two-thirds of its length.
Retractile caudal setae very long and narrow, measuring 2.25 from the
spiracle to the tip, 0.25 wide near the base and 0.35 at the widest part on
the apical third, the tip bluntly pointed.
Color light testaceous, commonly with a distinct percurrent pale median
vitta about 0.8 wide extending from the tylus to the tip of the clavus, this
vitta somewhat less evident on the anterior pronotal lobe and the base of
the scutellum; posterior lobe of the pronotum paler, with two dark marks
on each side the same color as the anterior lobe, these marks sometimes
broken up into two or three closely approximated longitudinal lines. Head
next the eyes and basal part of the scutellum darker. Corium irregularly
marked with fuscous, especially on the inner part where the markings
tend to coalesce into ill-defined longitudinal streaks which may be broad or
narrow and may be dissimilar on the right and left hemelytra. Last three
connexival segments above and below with a small fuscous spot at the
middle, the upper side also with a smaller pre-apical spot. Membrane
Beneath fusco-testaceous, the pleura with an indistinct, broad dark
band extending lengthwise below the upper margin, the venter with
blackish areas which tend to join in a broad longitudinal band on each
side of the middle line; venter moderately closely covered with minute
pale sub-squamiform setulae on the entire median lobule, these.becoming
longer on the genital operculum. Middle and hind coxae each with a
small blackish basal spot on the outer side; femora (especially the pos-
terior pairs) faintly marmorate with fuscous, all the tibiae obsoletely tri-
annulate with brown, the pre-apical annulus sometimes scarcely visible.
In darker specimens, such as the two from Polk County,
the dorsal coloration is more uniform and the median pale vitta
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
is obsolete, and the posterior pairs of femora are very faintly,
incompletely biannulate with fuscous before the tips.
HOLOTYPE: S, Miller's Pond, 4.2 miles east of Science Hall,
Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida, Aug. 8, 1946 (J. L. Her-
ring), in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan.
ALLOTYE: 9 Miller's Pond, Aug. 8, 1946, same data as for
PARATYPES: Miller's Pond, Aug. 6, 1946 (J. L. Herring, 1 ,
19; Aug. 8, 1946 (J. L. Herring, 1$, 29 9. Biven's Arm of
Payne's Prairie, Alachua County, Florida, Apr. 5, 1937 (L.
Berner), 1 Roadside ditch, four miles north of Gainesville,
Alachua County, Florida, May 7, 1947 (J. L. Herring), 1 .
Flatwoods pond, four and one-half miles southeast of Bostwick,
Putnam County, Florida, Aug. 24, 1948 (J. L. Herring), 1 .
Cypress swamp, eleven miles north of Lakeland, Polk County,
Florida, Jan. 28, 1950 (J. E. Burgess, Jr.), in Burgess' collection,
1 S. Stream below Kissengen Springs near Bartow, Polk County,
Florida, Oct. 28, 1948 (R. F. Hussey), 1 Roadside ditch,
eighteen and one-half miles northeast of Jesup, Liberty County,
Georgia, Apr. 19, 1941 (J. L. Herring), 19.
Blatchley, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera of Eastern North America. Nature
Pub. Co., Indianapolis.
De Carlo, Jose A. 1948. Revision del Genero Abedus Stal. Comun.
Museo Arg. Ciencias Nat. No. 5.
MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING
OF THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The thirty-second annual meeting of the Florida Entomo-
logical Society was held in Tampa at the Tampa Terrace Hotel
from December 13 17. The meetings were held in conjunction
with the annual meetings of the Entomological Society of Amer-
ica and the American Association of Economic Entomologists.
In view of the joint nature of the sessions, the Florida society
dispensed with paper reading sessions and confined its program
to the business meeting.
The business meeting was called to order by Mr. M. C. Van
Horn, president of the society, at 1:15 P. M. in room 212 of
the Tampa Terrace Hotel. It was moved by Dr. J. T. Griffiths
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
that the minutes of the 1948 meetings be dispensed with as
they had been published in Volume 32, No. 1, of the FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST. The motion was seconded by Dr. Kelsheimer
and passed by the members.
President Van Horn then called on Mr. Mulrennan, vice-
president, for a report. Mr. Mulrennan pointed out that his
activities as vice-president were rather limited and he thanked
the members for electing him to his office. Mr. Van Horn then
called on the secretary for a report. There were no items to
be called to the attention of the society. This was followed by
a request that the editor of the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, Dr. H.
K. Wallace, report. Dr. Wallace nade no comments. Mr.
Dekle, business manager, had nothing to report.
As a next order of business, Mr. Van Horn called on the
membership committee for a report. Mr. Dekle, chairman of
the committee, submitted the following names for consideration
by the society: For election to membership from associate
membership-J. C. Alden, R. F. Allen, Major F. S. Blanton,
James M. Coarsey, K. Coleman, George Cooper, C. J. Dumas,
F. E. Fisher, H. G. Ford, A. N. Fox, Irving Fox, G. H. Gilbert,
Tom Hill, A. E. Holland, Max Isbill, P. E. Kaspar, C. D. Kime,
Jr., L. C. Kuitert, Hamilton Laudani, W. S. Lee, D. B. Lieux,
W. C. McDuffie, Harry Mayfield, C. M. Meadows, F. A. Morton,
Joe Nicholson, Theodore Oser, James Sewell, W. V. Shock, R.
P. Tomasello, S. H. Walkup, Phil Westgate, J. F. White, E. H.
Wilson. For associate membership-J. F. Aycock, C. C. Ballen-
tine, J. E. Bussart, R. C. Colter, C. J. D'Angio, W. P. Dean,
R. F. Hussey, G. H. Lucas, A. S. Mills, E. T. Nielsen, S. B.
Parnell, C. V. Reichart, C. F. Rollins, G. D. Sloan, W. N. Stoner,
R. B. Trueman, F. N. Turner, R. E. Williams. For student
membership-J. E. Burgess, G. W. Griffith, E. H. Michelson,
H. G. Parrish, Grace R. Phillips, T. G. Stewart.
It was moved by Dr. Wallace that the persons whose names
were submitted be accepted for membership in the society. The
motion was seconded by Dr. Bellamy and passed by the society.
The report of the auditing committee was submitted by Mr.
W. Hunter at which time he recommended that no records be
kept by the business manager except those of the current year.
Dr. Wilson moved that the recommendation be accepted and
this was seconded by Dr. Kuitert. The motion was then amended
by Dr. Bellamy to state that the records be kept for purposes
of auditing, but that old records be saved but not considered,
VOL. XXXIII-No. 2
Dr. Kuitert then withdrew his second. Dr. Wilson re-worded
his motion to the effect that records of business transactions
be kept by the business manager in accordance with good ac-
counting practices. Mr. McClanahan seconded this motion and
it was passed by the society.
Dr. Wallace moved that the report of the auditing committee
be accepted. The motion was seconded by Dr. Kuitert and
passed by the society.
Mr. Van Horn called for old business. There was none.
He then asked for new business. Dr. Wilson proposed that the
time of year when the annual meeting would be held be referred
to the executive committee for action.
Dr. Berner reported on the plans for the Everglades Field
Trip being sponsored by the Florida Entomological Society.
The trip was designed to show visiting entomologists, who were
attending the meetings of the national organizations, some of
the ecological areas in southern Florida.
Mr. Hopkins reported on his plans for a booth in the lobby
of the Tampa Terrace Hotel where a display of pertinent ma-
terial about the Florida Entomological Society would be pre-
Mr. Van Horn then called for a report of the nominating
committee. Dr. Tissot, chairman of the committee, submitted
the following names for office:
President-J. M. Mulrennan
Vice-President-W. G. Bruce
Business Manager-Treasurer-L. C. Kuitert
Associate Editor-H. K. Wallace
Executive Committee (two years)-J. P. Toffaletti
Dr. Kelsheimer moved that the society accept the nominees by
unanimous ballot. The motion was seconded by Mr. W. L.
Thompson and passed by the society.
Mr. Van Horn then turned the chair over to the incoming
president, Mr. Mulrennan, who thanked the society for the
honor that had been bestowed on him and stated that he will
do everything in his power to see that the society progresses
as it has in the past.
(To Be Continued)