Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1952
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Volume ID: VID00221
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist




JUNE, 1952
Vol. XXXV No. 2


CONTENTS
Page
THAMES, WALTER H., JR.-Corn Earworm Control-Timing
and Number of Applications --..-...-.. ----.~.......----------- 47
HAYSLIP, NORMAN C.-Corn Earworm Control-Formula-
tions .:.. -....-. ..... .... ----------- .... ---...---... -.........- 51
WILSON, J. W., WALTER H. THAMES, and NORMAN C. HAY-
SLIP-Corn Earworm Control-Summary and Recom-
mendations -...--...-- ... ...----..----------------- 57
STONER, WARREN N.-A Comparison Between Grape De-
generation in Florida and Pierce's Disease in California .- 62
HUSSEY, ROLAND F.-A Neglected Paper by A. L. Montandon
on Cryptocerate Hemiptera ..-..--.... ..........--------------. 69
DRAKE, CARL J.-Concerning American Ochteridae (Hemip-
tera) --........---- .------------- --.. -------------. 72
Book Notice --...........---- ------------------------------. 50
Announcement of Annual Meeting of the Florida Ento-
mological Society ------..-.....-.-------...---. -------------- 76
Items of Interest ..------.. --.....--------------------------- 77



Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville


Mailing Date: May 19, 1952









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


'he
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


VOL. XXXV


JUNE, 1952


No. 2


THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1951-1952


President -........... ..--
Vice President ..........
Secretary ................-
Treasurer..... .. -.
Executive Committee.


LEWIS BERNER
W. P. HUNTER
L. C. KUITERT ..


.-..---- ............ J. W. WILSON
.............--. J. T. GRIFFITHS
...----- .....--......MILLEDCE MURPHEY, JR.
-.-..-- ....---------- L. C. KUITERT
SD. O. WOLFENBARGER
J. J. DIEM

EDITORIAL BOARD
-...-....- .... ... -- ----------- ..E ditor
...........-..-. ............ Associate Editor
............. ...-..-- ..*Business M anger


Issued quarterly-March, June, September, and December. Subscription
price to non-members $2.00 per year in advance; 50 cents per copy. Ap-
plication for entry as second class matter is pending.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Dr. Lewis Berner, Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Subscriptions and orders for back numbers are handled by the Business
Manager, Dr. L. C. Kuitert, Box 2425, University Station, University of
Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can be reached at the same address.
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VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


CORN EARWORM CONTROL-
TIMING AND NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS1
WALTER H. THAMES, JR.2

The ears of sweet corn require about eighteen to twenty-two
days to mature from the time the first silks appear, based on ob-
servations of variety trials planted in March at Belle Glade,
Florida. This period may be slightly longer or shorter, depend-
ing cn the variety, cultural conditions, temperature during
growth, time of planting, and area in which planted.
Sweet corn must be protected with insecticides for a part of
this maturation period in order to obtain a high percentage of
ears free from infestation by the corn earworm, Heliothis
ar'rmgera (Hbn.). Throughout most of the year, with the excep-
tion of winter and early spring, DDT-mineral oil emulsions are
the most effective insecticides, but there is evidence that these
mixtures reduce yield. For this reason, as well as to reduce
the likelihood of a residue problem and lower the cost, it is de-
sirable to know the minimum number of applications required
for effective control.
The following report of a trial conducted at Everglades Ex-
periment Station in May, 1951, gives some information on con-
trol of corn earworms obtained by: (a) increasing the number
of applications from three to six; (b) initiating a series of ap-
plications on the third, fifth, seventh and ninth days after the
first ears are in silk; and (c) varying the interval between
applications in a series from forty-eight to seventy-two hours.
In this trial loana sweet corn was planted in five blocks of
forty-eight four-row plots. The corn was thinned to twelve
inches. A DDT-mineral oil emulsion was prepared by mixing
three quarts of 25 percent DDT emulsion with 2.5 gallons of
a white mineral oil (Blandol) to which water was added to make
fifty gallons. This insecticide was applied with a compression
type sprayer fitted with a No. 6501 TeeJet nozzle to each side
of the center two rows of the plots. The rate of application was
fifty gallons per acre and the pressure was 60 pounds per square
inch. The nozzle was held about nine inches above the top ears

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 57. Spray-
ing methods were discussed by J. W. Wilson in No. 20 of the Journal Series,
in Florida Entomologist, XXXV(1) : 3-9, 1952.
2Assistant Entomologist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
Florida.










48 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


TABLE NO. 1.-CORN EARWORM CONTROL, EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STA-
TION, MAY, 1951. PERCENT WORM FREE EARS, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS,
INTERVAL BETWEEN APPLICATIONS, DAYS IN SILK WHEN APPLICATIONS


WERE STARTED AND
MENT ARE SHOWN.
INDICATED.


STOPPED, AND THE AVERAGE YIELD FOR EACH TREAT-
MATERIAL APPLIED IS DDT-OIL UNLESS OTHERWISE


Treat-
ment


No. of
Applica-
tions


31. 5% DDT 6
dust
32. 5% DDT 6
dust
33. No treatment


Interval Days After
Between
Applica- When
tions Started

48 hours 3
48 5
48 7
48 9
48 3
48 5
48 7
48 9
72 3
72 5
72 7
48 3
48 5
48 7
48 9
72 2
72 5
72 7
72 9
48 3
48 5
48 9
72 3
72 7
72 9
24 3
24 3
24 3
24 2
72 3
48 3

72 3


1st Silks Percent
When Worm-
Stopped Free Ears


L.S.D. at 19:1
at 99:1


Average
Yield in
Pounds

37.7
35.15
37.9
35.75
37.25
38.85
37.05
39.6
38.35
36.15
37.55
38.45
36.35
36.4
38.9
34.7
39.2
35.45
35.45
36.7
36.75
38.7
39.05
40.55
38.7
35.95
40.85
38.7
37.7
41.75
40.85

42.20

36.70


20.4
27.2








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


of the stalks with the spray directed towards the ears at an
angle of about forty-five degrees. The effectiveness of the DDT-
mineral oil emulsion was compared with no treatment and with
six applications of a 5 percent DDT dust at 35 pounds per acre,
applied by hand with a rotary duster.
Results of each treatment were compared on the basis of
the average percent of worm-free ears from a sample of twenty
top ears harvested at random from each of the five blocks. Pos-
sible effects of number of applications on yield were determined
by comparing average yield in pounds for each of the treatments.
The number of applications, time with relation to silking that
a series of applications was started, and intervals between ap-
plications are shown in the table, together with percent worm-
free ears and yield for each treatment. Some treatments, for
which applications could not be made according to schedule, are
omitted. All treatments were used in calculating the confidence
limits shown.
The infestation of corn earworms was uniform and severe
for the period of this trial, as shown by counts of eggs on silks
of one hundred ears. This number increased from sixty eggs
on 100 ears on May 11 to 190 eggs by May 18.
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS: A higher percentage of worm-free
ears was obtained when the corn was protected to the twelfth
day after silking. There was no significant difference in worm-
free ears between four applications made at seventy-two hour
intervals and six applications made at forty-eight hour intervals
provided the series of applications was started on the third day
after the first silks appeared in the trial.
The forty-eight hour interval appeared superior to the
seventy-two hour interval when five applications were made,
but the extended period of protection provided by the seventy-
two hour interval resulted in better control when three or four
applications were made.
Two factors were observed to introduce error in the results.
The most important of these was uniformity of silking. Plots
in which most of the ears were in silk by the second application
showed a higher percentage of worm-free ears than those in
which the ears developed silks slowly. The other factor was the
variation in the number of ears with leaves in a position that
deflected all or a part of the spray away from the silks. In one
plot over 12 percent of the ears were partially covered by a leaf.
The yield in pounds of corn per acre was not significantly








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


affected by the number of applications in this trial, although
highest yields were obtained with the dust applications.
Dust applications are not effective in controlling corn ear-
worms when the infestation is moderate to severe.
It is concluded that a series of five applications of the DDT-
mineral oil emulsion used in this trial, applied at two-day
intervals starting as soon as the first silks are seen in the field,
will give a high percentage of worm-free ears.




BOOK NOTICE
HANDBOOK OF TURTLES. THE TURTLES OF THE UNITED
STATES, CANADA, AND BAJA CALIFORNIA, by Archie Carr. xv +
542 pages, 37 figures, 82 plates, 15 tables. 1952. Comstock Publishing
Associates, Ithaca. Price $7.50.
Although a book about turtles is far removed from the pri-
mary interests of entomologists, it was felt that a notice of its
publication would be a service to the members of the Florida
Entomological Society. This outstanding work, written by
Professor Carr, Department of Biology, University of Florida,
is a monument to his perseverence over many years.
Seventy-nine species and subspecies of turtles that inhabit
the United States, Canada, and Lower California are treated in
considerable detail. Though some may think that turtles are
prosaic creatures, Dr. Carr soars to heights of rhetoric in de-
scribing their evolutionary history. "They [turtles] remained
unimpressed as Pteranodon cruised the skies and another strain
of slim and athletic archosaurs devised Archaeopteryx and the
birds, and as the Squamata dabbled in mososaurs and snakes.
They remained turtles; they even began to prosper as never
before, while the dinosaurs bellowed and pounded down through
the Jura toward their utter and senseless doom in the Cretaceous,
when the last Brachiosaurus laid down his fifty tons to rest and
the final tyrannosaur gasped out the anticlimax to nature's
greatest venture in mayhem. .."
The turtles are discussed in general in Part I, the introduc-
tion. Part II gives accounts of the species, including keys. For
each species there is a discussion of the range, distinguishing
features, description, discussion of habitat and habits, breeding
data, feeding habits, and economic importance.
The book is excellently written, well printed, illustrations
and photographs clear, and the distribution of each species is
mapped. Handbook of Turtles should be on the bookshelf of all
zoologists interested in the field of natural history.-L. B.








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


CORN EARWORM CONTROL-FORMULATIONS1
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP 2

In the spring of 1948 six treatments of 2.7% DDT in an
agricultural oil base were sprayed on the silks of sweet corn.
Although some damage to pollination resulted from this treat-
ment, 100% worm-free ears were produced as compared to 39%
for DDT dust and 1% for the untreated check. An exhaustive
study followed this experiment in an attempt to eliminate pol-
lination and yield damage without sacrificing the excellent con-
trol obtained. At the end of these trials, however, it was
concluded that oil solutions of DDT were not safe enough for a
general recommendation.
Blanchard, in 1949, reported that DDT and oil emulsified in
water, while not quite as effective as oil solutions, could be used
without causing pollination damage. Experiments conducted
in the spring of 1949 confirmed Blanchard's findings by reducing
pollination injury significantly. A continuation of the work
with emulsions in fall, 1949, and spring, 1950, indicated that
every ingredient going into the spray formula was important
from the standpoint of control, phytotoxicity and yield. In some
(but not all) experiments yield reductions resulted where the
DDT-mineral oil emulsions were used. Two formulations were
found to cause phytotoxicity, and the degree of injury varied
between varieties. The specifications of the mineral oils used
seemed to influence the control obtained. With these factors to
consider it was decided that future studies and recommendations
must be made on complete formulations, taking into consider-
ation the insecticide, solvent, emulsifier, oil and water. It
appears that a fungicide must also be considered in the formula-
tion, as well as certain nutrients applied as foliage sprays. The
job seems to be to find the most suitable of each ingredient from
the standpoint of effectiveness, compatibility, phytotoxicity,
odor, flavor and residue remaining in and on the ears, and to
determine the optimum amounts of each ingredient.
The corn earworm spray formulation trial, conducted in the
late spring of 1951 at Fort Pierce, Florida, during a very severe

1 Presented at the Florida Entomological Society, Winter Haven, Florida,
September 13-14, 1951. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal
Series, No. 58.
2Associate Entomologist, Everglades Experiment Station, Indian River
Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, Florida.









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


corn earworm infestation, has supplied some interesting data,
and a report of this experiment follows.
On March 26 a planting of loana sweet corn was made for
the purpose of conducting corn earworm spray formulation
studies. The corn was planted in rows 42 inches apart, and the
plants were thinned to about 12 inches in the row.
Regular spray treatments of DDT emulsion were made for
the control of budworms, and several zineb treatments were
made for the control of Helminthosporium prior to the beginning
of the regular earworm treatments. Early rains necessitated
the foliar application of nitrate of potash, and manganese and
zinc were applied as sprays on two occasions.

TABLE 1.-CORN EARWORM FORMULATION TRIAL, SPRING, 1951.
Treatments


Plot
No. DDT Formula/Amt. per Acre


Type Oil Used*/Amt. per Acre


1 5% DDT dust/35 lbs.
2 Check, not treated
3 25%' Standard**/3 qts
4 25% Standard/3 qts.
5 25% Standard/3 qts.


25%
25%
25%
25%


Standard/2 qts.
Standard/4 qts.
Standard/3 qts.
Standard/3 qts.


None


Blandol/1.25 gals.
Blandol/2.50 gals.
Blandol/2.50 gals.
Blandol/2.50 gals.
Shell Helix Superior Oil/2.50 gals.
Shell Helix (7 parts) plus
Shell Hort. Base #7 (3 parts)/2.50
gals.


10 25% Standard/3 qts. Shell Hort. Base #7/2.50 gals.
11 25% Standard/3 qts. Texaco Corvus Oil/2.50 gals.
12 Tech. DDT .............. 25%1
Sonn. Emul. "A" 15% /3 qts. Blandol/2.50 gals.
Xylene ................... 60%J
13 Tech. DDT .............. 25%
Sonn. Emul. "B" .. 15% /3 qts. Blandol/2.50 gals.
Xylene ...................... 60% J
14 Tech. DDT ............ 25%1
Triton X-155 .......... 5% /3 qts. Blandol/2.50 gals.
Propylene Dichl. .. 70%J
Blandol-White mineral oil, U.S.P., Visc. 900 to 950 Saybolt, Texaco Corvus Oil-
Vise. 720, not U.S.P. Shell Helix Superior Mineral Oil-103 Viscosity; Shell Horticultural
Base Oil 7-Visc. Not known-probably about 500.
** Standard DDT: Tech. DDT-25 percent; Triton X-155-5 percent; Xylene-70 percent.


6
7
8
9








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


After suffering from excessive rains while young, the corn
recovered and produced a good crop. Helminthosporium and
corn rust occurred in very mild form; fall armyworms were
moderate to severe; corn-silk flies were light to moderate, and
corn earworms were extremely abundant, with untreated ears
containing an average of about three worms per ear.
There were 13 treatments and an untreated check replicated
five times. Each plot consisted of two rows 30 feet long, with
an untreated buffer row separating them. Three-foot alley-ways
were provided between plots perpendicular to the rows. A list
of treatments appears in Table 1.
The dust was applied at two-day intervals at the rate of 35
pounds per acre with a rotary-type hand duster which was
directed to release the dust in the silking zone from each side of
the row. Nine treatments were made, beginning when about
10 percent of the silks were showing. The applications were
made early in the morning when the air was calm.
The sprays were applied at the rate of 50 gallons per acre
with compression-type knapsack sprayers equipped with pres-
sure gauges. A 95-degree angle fan spray nozzle was held
slightly above the silking line spraying down onto the silks from
each side of the row as the operator walked down one side and
back the other at a predetermined speed to deliver the proper
dosage. The first treatment was made when about 10 percent
of the silks were showing. Three additional applications were
made at three-day intervals, except that four days elapsed be-
tween the third and fourth treatments.
In order to determine the degree of the infestation, and at
what time maximum egg deposition occurred, egg counts were
made during the period of treatments. It was found that rather
heavy egg deposition occurred throughout the silking period,
and that quite a number of eggs were deposited on the husks
and stalks near the ear tips.
Twenty primary ears were taken at random from each plot
for examination in the laboratory. These ears were examined
for husk color and burn, unhusked weight, number with corn
earworm damage and tip development. The balance of the corn
was harvested for total number of ears, total weight of ears,
number of ears 6 inches or longer, and weight of ears 6 inches
or longer. After harvest the plots were scored by three inde-
pendent workers for degree of yellowing of the leaves.
Table 2 includes a summary of the more important data ob-










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


TABLE 2.-CORN EARWORM FORMULATION TRIALS.
Spring 1951

%
with Wt. of No. of
Over Yellow- Ears 36 Lb.
Plot % 12" ing of 6" or Crates
No. Treatment* Worm of Tip Plants Over per
Free Un- (Score)** (Lbs.) Acre
filled


1 DDT dust-5% ............-..-...
2 N ot treated ........... ......... ....
3 Standard emulsion-3 qts...
4 Standard emulsion-3 qts.
+ 1.25 gals. Blandol ....
5 Standard emulsion-3 qts.
+ 2.5 gals. Blandol ......
6 Standard emulsion-2 qts.
+ 2.5 gals. Blandol ......
7 Standard emulison-4 qts.
+ 2.5 gals. Blandol ......
8 Standard emulsion-3 qts.
+ 2.5 gals. Helix Sup...
9 Standard emulsion-3 qts.
+ mix of Helix and
Hort. Base Oil ..............
10 Standard emulsion-3 qts.
+ Hort. base-2.5 gals.
11 Standard emulsion-3 qts.
+ Texaco Corvus-
2.5 gals. ............ ..........-
12 Sonneborn emulsifier "A"-
3 qts. + Blandol-
2.5 gals. ............................
13 Sonneborn emulsifier "B"-
3 qts. + Blandol-
2.50 gals .. ......................
14 Propylene Dichloride Sol-
vent-3 qts. + Blandol-
2.5 gals ............................


1.80
2.07
1.93


30 5 4.00

43 6 4.06

22 5 4.13

61 8 4.87

28 6 5.40


10 4.47


15 4 3.73


31 6 4.67


12 4.80


71 4 4.80


257.5
245.7
272.5


293.3
279.9
310.4


251.0 285.9

230.9 263.0

221.1 251.9

234.0 266.6

228.8 260.6


238.2 271.3

250.4 285.2


241.5 275.0


233.5 265.9


230.6 262.7


60 15 5.27 236.0 268.8


(19:1) 15 7 25.3
Diff. req. (99:1) 20 9
for sign

Dust applied every other day during silking at rate of 35 pounds per acre with
rotary-type hand duster. Nine dust treatments made. Sprays were applied with com-
pression-type knapsack sprayer at 50-60 pounds pressure and a Spraying Systems 9502
teejet nozzle, delivering a fan spray with a 95-degree angle. Nozzle directed in silk zone
from each side of row as operator walked to deliver 50 gallons of spray per acre. Four
spray treatments made on May 18, 21, 24, and 28.
**Average of three scorers. 0-green; 10-yellow.








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


trained in this experiment. Attention is called to the fact that
the corn earworm infestation was extremely heavy. This is
the first time that the DDT dust treatment has contained 100
percent wormy ears. The following number of eggs were found
during a partial silk examination on the dates shown. The egg
counts represent less than 50 percent of the total, since, in order
to conserve time, only a partial examination was made with very
little handling of silks to expose the eggs to view.

Date No. of Eggs per 100 Silks
May 18 ..-. ............. ....... ....... 85
SM ay 21 ..........~.- ............. .... ..... 59
May 24 .............. .... ..-.. .....- 298
M ay 28 ...................... ...................... 187

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.-The 5-percent DDT dust treat-
ment was a total failure in this trial. While there could be some
other factors responsible for this failure, past experiments have
shown that DDT dust will not control extremely heavy popula-
tions of earworms. All of the spray formulations were superior
to the dust and the untreated check. The addition of Blandol
to the DDT emulsion increased the control. Treatment with
four quarts of DDT emulsion per acre per treatment was su-
perior to three quarts, and the three-quart treatment was
superior to two in corn earworm control. The type and amount
of mineral oil influenced the control obtained. The use of
propylene dichloride in place of xylene as the solvent for DDT
increased the control about 40%. The use of Sonneborn Sons,
Inc., Emulsifier "B" (15%) in place of Triton X-155 (5%) in
the DDT emulsion increased the control about 65%. The large
increase in worm-free ears, due in one case to the emulsifier
and in another to the solvent, indicates good possibilities in
vastly improving the corn earworm formulation through further
studies with various emulsifiers and solvents.
Based on observations of unfilled ear tips it appears that
some of the spray formulas are causing some damage to pollina-
tion. Formulas containing propylene dichloride, Emulsifier
"A", or a mixture of Shell's Helix Superior and Shell Hort. Base
No. 7 oils gave larger numbers of ears with more than 11/2
inches of the tips undeveloped.
All of the sprays containing oil caused slight to moderate
yellowing of the plants, as shown in the scores listed in Table 2.
Unless this yellowing is associated with reduced yields it is not








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


excessive, because there are only slight differences in the ear
husk color.
Differences between yields were significant at the 5 %, but
not the 1% point. The highest yield of corn with 6 inches or
more in length was obtained with the DDT emulsion without
oil. Other high yields included DDT dust, DDT emulsion plus
Shell Hort. Base Oil No. 7, and DDT emulsion plus 1.25 gallons
of Blandol. There is a strong indication that yields are being
reduced by several of these spray formulations, and that yield
reduction is due to the amount and type of oil used.

LITERATURE CITED
Blanchard, R. A., W. A. Douglas and C. P. Wene. DDT sprays for control
of the corn earworm and the budworm in sweet corn. U. S. D. A. Bur.
of Ent. and Plant Quar. E-780. June, 1949 (since revised).
Hayslip, Norman C. Investigations on the control of the fall armyworm
and corn earworm attacking sweet and field corn in the Everglades area.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Sci. 61: 168-173. 1948.
Hayslip, Norman C. The present status of sprays and dusts for the control
of insects attacking the ears of sweet corn. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
62: 127-130. 1949.
Hayslip, Norman C. Sweet corn insect control investigations, 1949-50.
Paper delivered before Fla. Ento. Soc., Dec., 1950. (Unpublished.)





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FOR ALL PURPOSES


Carefully Executed S Delivered on Time


PEPPER PRINTING COMPANY


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VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


CORN EARWORM CONTROL-
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
J. W. WILSON, WALTER H. THAMES, and NORMAN C. HAYSLIP

SUMMARY
I-SPRAYING METHODS.-Two experiments at Sanford, Flor-
ida, one on loana and the second on Calumet Sweet Corn, were
conducted for the purpose of determining the most efficient
methods in applying sprays for control of the corn earworm.
Using a high clearance power sprayer and a standard DDT-
mineral oil spray, the following factors were studied: (1)
amount of liquid spray per acre, (2) kind of spray nozzles, (3)
number of nozzles per row, and (4) operating pressure.
The data obtained show that nozzles should not be of a type
which breaks the liquid into very fine droplets, the coarser
sprays being more effective in depositing the insecticide on the
silks. Wide angle nozzles, producing either hollow cone or fan
spray patterns, are desirable from the standpoint of improving
coverage. Four and five nozzles per row were superior to two
and three, and in one of the tests five nozzles were superior to
four. Pressure differences were not significant in the amount
of control obtained, indicating that pressures as low as 60
pounds per square inch would be satisfactory.
In the Ioana planting the plots sprayed with the DDT-mineral
oil formulation were noticeably yellow in color when compared
with the untreated plots. This difference did not appear in the
Calumet planting. Total yield figures for both varieties of corn
did not indicate a yield reduction due to the effects of the DDT-
oil spray.
II-TIME, INTERVAL AND NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS.-loana
sweet corn was used for a detailed experiment at Belle Glade,
Florida, in May, 1951. Factors under study included (1) the
number of spray applications, (2) the interval between applica-
tions, and (3) the time of beginning and discontinuing treat-
ments. A uniform DDT-minreal oil emulsion was applied with
a knapsack type compression sprayer fitted with a pressure
gage and a 65 degree Teejet fishtail nozzle. Two 5o% DDT dust
schedules were included for comparison with the spray. A
rotary hand duster was used for applying the dust.
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 59.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


The corn earworm population was moderately heavy, as indi-
cated by egg counts and the untreated check plots. The data
show a definite interaction between the three factors investi-
gated. Many of the spray treatments were far superior to the
two dust treatments. From the information obtained in this
experiment it appears that daily spray applications are not
justified. Where 5 or 6 applications were made, the two-day
interval between treatments was more effective; however, with
3 or 4 applications, the three-day interval was more satisfactory.
There was evidence that the sprays should be applied over a
period of at least 12 to 14 days.
III-FORMULATIONS.-An experiment on Ioana sweet corn
at Fort Pierce, Florida, during a severe corn earworm infesta-
tion was conducted for the purpose of investigating several DDT
spray formulations. Factors included (1) the amount of 25
percent DDT emulsion per acre, (2) the amount and types of
mineral oil, (3) the effect of three emulsifiers and two solvents,
and (4) a comparison between DDT dust and the spray formula-
tions.
In a comparison of 2, 3 and 4 quarts of 25% DDT emulsion
per acre with 2.5 gallons of Blandol, the amount of control in-
creased with an increase in the dosage, giving 22, 43 and 61%
worm-free ears, respectively. Treatments of DDT emulsion,
DDT emulsion plus 1.2 gallons of Blandol and DDT emulsion
plus 2.5 gallons of Blandol showed that the addition of this
mineral oil increased the control, giving 13, 30 and 43% worm-
free ears respectively. However, there was some indication that
the mineral oil reduced the yield. One type of oil gave no in-
crease in control above the DDT emulsion without oil. There
was evidence that low viscosity oils were inferior to oils of inter-
mediate viscosity. One formulation containing Sonneborn Sons
"Emulsifier B" produced 71% worm-free ears, as compared to
40% with this Company's "Emulsifier A" and 43% with Rohm
and Haas's "Triton X-155". Propylene dichloride solvent gave
60% worm-free ears, as compared with 43% for xylene. The
use of propylene dichloride resulted in some pollination injury.
All of the sprays containing oils caused some yellowing of the
plants.
A laboratory preparation of DDT emulsions was used in all
of the experiments reported on in these papers. For the purpose
of this coordinated study it was desirable to use a uniform emul-
sion of known composition.








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


RECOMMENDATIONS
I-SPRAYING METHODS.-A high clearance power sprayer
with adjustable boom and nozzles, a good agitator and an efficient
strainer is suggested for large acreages. The construction of
the sprayer and the preparation of the soil should be such as to
eliminate verticle and horizontal fluctuations of the spray nozzles.
Rough and irregular rows make efficient spraying impossible,
and loose or swinging booms and drop pipes seriously decrease
the uniformity of coverage. Since the sprayer may be used for
budworm and disease control, the pump and spray tank capacity
should be adequate to deliver up to 150 gallons of liquid per acre.
Four wide angle hollow cone or fan type nozzles per row are
suggested. Nozzles and pump pressure which produce a rather
coarse spray should be selected. The proper placement of these
nozzles will give adequate coverage for the corn earworms on
the silks. Drop pipes should be centered between rows, with
two pairs of nozzles attached to spray into the side of each row.
The higher pair of nozzles should be well above the general
silking zone, and directed downward to spray into the ear tips.
The second pair of nozzles should be 9 to 12 inches below the
higher pair, and directed to spray into the sides of the ears.
Place both pairs of nozzles slightly high in order to take care
of fluctuations in corn heights within the field. The best spray
pressure will vary with the type of nozzles used. Some will
work satisfactorily at low pressures.
These remarks on spraying methods are intended as a guide
only; there is no substitute for following behind the sprayer to
see if it is thoroughly wetting all ears and silks.
II-TIME, INTERVAL AND NUMBER OF SPRAY APPLICATIONS.-
Since the time of beginning and discontinuing treatments, the
interval between treatments, and the number of treatments are
interrelated, any recommendation must be based upon all three
factors. The fluctuations in the time of maximum egg deposition
from crop to crop, and the silking variations between varieties
and between different plantings of the same variety further com-
plicate the issuance of a general recommendation.
It seems most desirable, therefore, to make suggestions aimed
at giving the maximum amount of protection over as long a
period as is practical and safe. Four to five applications at
three-day intervals are suggested. The first treatment should
be made on the day the first silks appear, or when about one
percent of the silks are showing. It is suggested that budworm








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


sprays continue until the earworm sprays are begun in order to
prevent migration of worms from the tassels, leaves and stalks
into the ear tips before the silks appear. If corn-silk flies are
present when the tassels begin to show, a treatment of parathion
or chlordane is suggested.
III-FORMULATIONS.-Due to the variations in formulations
of commercial DDT emulsion concentrates, it is not possible to
recommend simply 25% DDT emulsion mixed with white mineral
oil. Some of the commercial products may be satisfactory while
others would not, depending upon the type and amount of the
emulsifier and solvent. Since it is not generally the practice of
chemical companies to supply complete formulation data on their
emulsion concentrates, tests of various commercial products
would not add to the needed information on emulsifiers and
solvents.
Investigations on the amount and types of insecticides, emul-
sifiers, solvents and mineral oils going into the corn earworm
formula have resulted in some interesting leads; however, this
formulation work is not complete enough to make a recommenda-
tion at this time. It can be stated that xylene (70%), Triton
X-155 (5%), and technical DDT (25%) by weight in each case
has been used satisfactorily and has caused no noticeable injury
to the plants. This emulsion, however, when mixed with mineral
oil and diluted with water makes a vdry unstable mixture re-
quiring vigorous agitation. The most recent experiment on
formulations indicates that Sonneborn's "Emulsifier B" may be
superior to "Triton X-155" and it gives better control and results
in a more satisfactory emulsion when mixed with white mineral
oil and diluted with water. Propylene dichloride solvent was
superior to xylene in worm control, but caused some pollination
damage. The addition of mineral oil increased the control, but
in some cases it has caused reduced yields. After taking the
above statements into consideration, the following suggestions
are presented.
(1) When DDT dusts are producing a high percentage of
worm-free ears (80 to 100%), it usually means that the corn
is growing during relatively low populations of adult earworm
moths, and it is suggested that DDT dusts may be continued,
since they are satisfactory under light infestations. Low
populations have occurred most often during the Fall and
early Spring. Apply 35 pounds per acre of 5% DDT dust
every other day, beginning when the first silks appear, and
discontinuing when the silks turn brown.








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


(2) For moderate corn earworm infestations, where dusts
normally produce 60 to 80 % worm-free ears, a spray deliver-
ing 3 to 4 quarts of 25 % DDT emulsion per acre per treatment
is suggested. Attention is called to the fact that some emul-
sions may cause injury at these high rates of application.
Apply the DDT emulsion in about 50 gallons of water per acre.
(3) For severe infestations, where neither dusts nor
sprays with DDT emulsion are expected to produce the desired
results, it is suggested that four quarts of 25% DDT emulsion
be mixed with 2.5 gallons of highly refined white mineral oil
(80 to 95 viscosity) and then mixed with 50 gallons of water,
applying this amount to one acre. It is pointed out that some
yield reduction may occur with this formulation; however,
if the corn is healthy and vigorous before treatments begin,
the reduction should be slight, provided the DDT emulsion
used has been previously tested for this purpose and found
to be non-phytotoxic.
Most growers would prefer a slight yield reduction to the
worms. If examinations are made for eggs on the stalks and
husks before silking and on the very first silks, this should act
as a guide in determining the degree of infestation. Since this
is generally too late to begin treatments, it would serve only to
indicate what to expect on younger plantings. If a few rows
of corn were seeded 4 to 5 days before the main planting was
made these rows could be used for determining the degree of
the infestation in time to begin treatments. This method would
not be infallible, but should prove beneficial in many instances.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


A COMPARISON BETWEEN GRAPE DEGENERATION IN
FLORIDA AND PIERCE'S DISEASE IN CALIFORNIA
WARREN N. STONER1

Early Spanish settlers in the 16th century became familiar
with the native Florida grapes. The wild grape plants grew
profusely, and, because of this, they made plantings of the Euro-
pean grape, Vitis vinifera L., that they knew so well. These
plantings failed and, by and large, one might say this has re-
mained the history of the European grape in Florida to this day.
Many attempts to grow grapes on a commercial basis in Flor-
ida have been made since these early times. DePass in 1891
had 60 varieties on trial near Lake City. They all soon failed.
Varieties of the species Vitis labrusca L. were also tried at this
time, but they did little better and were soon gone. By 1894 a
considerable grape industry had been built up in the state and
perhaps more than a thousand acres of grapes, mostly the variety
White Niagara, were planted. It must have indeed seemed at
this time that viticulture was at last established in Florida.
However, these plantings began to fail and in less than a decade
were gone. This period closely coincides with the time that a
"condition" called California vine disease, mysterious vine dis-
ease, or Anaheim disease was killing thousands of acres of grapes
in southern California.
The grape growers in Florida were able to interest the Fed-
eral Government in their problem in 1899 and grape tests were
started at Earlton, Florida. These tests were being made by
Baron van Luttichau almost concurrently with those of Pierce in
California, who was attempting to solve the problem of Cali-
fornia vine disease there. The Florida plantings of Luttichau
failed but they did indicate that certain rootstocks were bene-
ficial, and that the Munson Texas Hybrids were of some value
here. By this time Pierce had made extensive studies of the
California vine disease problem and reached the conclusion that
the condition in California was not due to soil types, or cultural
practices. He also believed the vine disease was not being caused
by a fungus or bacteria but was due to some obscure contagious
disease producing agent that was spreading through the vine-
yards. By 1900 the incidence of California vine disease, which

1Assistant Plant Pathologist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, Florida.








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


we now call Pierce's disease, had increased sharply and while
we now know the disease was present it was more or less static
for several years (until about 1935). Hewitt (4) in 1939 showed
that Pierce's disease was caused by a virus.
Hawkins, in 1924, planted almost one hundred varieties of
European grapes at Eustis, Florida, on land where the grape
phylloxera, Phylloxera vitifoliae (Fitch), was known to be ab-
sent. The planting was not successful and was abandoned. By
this time however, a resurgence of grape culture in Florida had
occurred and commercial crops of the Munson Texas Hybrid
grapes such as Extra, Carman, R. W. Munson, Muench and
Bailey were being produced and shipped to northern markets in
carload lots.
The fresh grape industry decreased in Florida during the
thirties and little replanting was done. The vineyards declined
and grape culture in the state waned again.
By 1946 Stover had reason to believe, from wide experience
and observation, that a limited number of grape varieties of
V. labrusca parentage could be grown if grafted to suitable root-
stocks. Dickey, Stover and Parris (1) made definite recom-
mendations in 1947 on varieties and rootstocks. Since that time
these combinations have not proven up to expectations and Parris
(6) in 1951 stated, "We therefore have no grape variety or
combination of varieties in a grafted plant which we can recom-
mend for planting in Florida at the present time."
At this point it would seem that the viticulturist in Florida
has once more completed the cycle of promise then failure.
Again, let us re-examine the known facts of grape degeneration
in Florida in comparison to what is known of Pierce's disease
of grape in California.
Pierce's disease has been proven to be due to a virus (4)
and several insect vectors are known (3, 8, 9). The syndrome
has seasonal variations, and varietal responses differ. The dis-
ease has in the past indicated a cyclic tendency (12). Extensive
field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations have replaced
speculation and pointed the way to a commercial control of the
disease in California.
The occurrence of the symptoms of Pierce's disease in a given
plant will depend to a certain extent upon when that plant is
infected, its state of growth and the variety. Let us take a
hypothetical situation for a discussion of the symptoms and
presume we have a healthy plant of a susceptible European








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


grape, V. vinifera, that would show the full range of symptoms.
We will also assume this plant is inoculated with Pierce's dis-
ease virus in the late summer or early autumn. During the
remainder of that growing season probably no discernable dif-
ferences will be noted. The fruit that has set will probably
reach maturity and the vine will go into an apparently normal
dormancy that winter. The following spring little or nothing
may be detected to indicate early the vine is diseased, except
that it is slow to start. After two or three weeks growth this
vine would appear to be lagging behind the others. (This de-
layed growth has often been supposedly due to insufficient chill-
ing or "faulty dormancy".) The next difference to be noted
would be that one arm of the vine apparently catches up and
seems normal while the canes of the other arm are shorter be-
cause the internodes are reduced in length. The basal or first
leaves of these canes may then show interveinal mottling. This
mottling then appears progressively in successive leaves toward
the tip. (Irregular dormancy, fertilizer deficiencies, root dam-
age, certain insects and arthropods, and irrigation practices
have been thought in the past to cause this.) By the time the
early flush of spring growth has slowed, a marginal burn may
begin to show on the basal leaves and an occasional cane may
suddenly wilt and dry up. (This has been attributed to such
factors as sunburn, high temperatures, insect attack, drought
and sulfur burn in the past.) During this first season after
infection, a fair set of fruit may occur, but a few bunches may
shell early and the fruit stems can be seen on the vines all through
the year. (This has been blamed on poor pollination, disease,
heavy fruit load and other causes.)
As the summer progresses leaf scorching becomes more se-
vere and interveinal chlorosis may be more distinct. Bunches
of green fruit that have appeared normal become flacid and
withered, color prematurely, and are insipid in flavor. (Again
drought, mechanical damage, disease, heavy fruit load, etc., have
been blamed for water berry or withered fruit.) By mid-sum-
mer many canes on both arms of the plant may have shed their
leaves but in an abnormal manner. Instead of the leaf petiole
abscissing from the cane the leaf laminae absciss from the
petioles and the petioles remain on the canes. (This opens the
vine and sunburn occurs on the unprotected fruit.)
After harvest in the autumn when the vine is again re-
turning to dormancy a very definitive symptom of Pierce's dis-








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


ease can be seen. Canes instead of turning a normal tan or
brown will have green areas persisting between the nodes and
in some cases these areas will be slightly raised above the surface
of the brown areas. (Occasionally one may note a size differ-
ential in the diameter of the pruned arms at this time, but this
is not a reliable symptom.)
While the top of the plant is showing these symptoms changes
are also taking place in the roots. At first the small feeder roots
die back from the tips and become necrotic. In this weakened
condition the roots are often invaded by secondary organisms,
and the thrift of the vine again suffers. In each succeeding
season there is greater root death. (Before the viral nature of
the primary pathogen was known the disease was often attributed
to these secondary root invaders.)
The grape phylloxera, Phylloxera vitifolae (Fitch) is fre-
quently found on the roots of vines suffering with Pierce's dis-
ease, and for many years the damage caused by the activities of
this insect were believed by some to cause the "condition". This
insect has been implicated in like circumstances with grape de-
generation in Florida, but has never been actually proven the
cause.
The following spring the same pattern will start again with
increased severity, and often the arm that was weak before will
fail to produce any growth or will have only short weak suckers
at the base. The other arm will behave much like the weaker
one did in the previous season, and while the vine may live on
the second year little or no fruit will be produced and death will
soon follow.
An idealized description of the symptoms of grape degenera-
tion in Florida would be very much the same as the foregoing
of Pierce's disease in California. From a syndrome stand-point
the patterns of the two are remarkably similar if not identical.
If one combines certain of the symptoms described by Rhoads
(7) in 1926, under root rot, (which he lists as being caused by
the fungus Clitocybe tabescens [Scop. ex Fr.] Bres.) non-setting
of fruit, shelling of fruit, chlorosis, and irregular water relations,
(all listed under injuries due to physiological causes) one has
a good description of grape degeneration, or Pierce's disease.
Not all of these symptoms are manifested in every vine suffer-
ing from Pierce's disease or grape degeneration, but many
different varietal and species reactions are known for Pierce's
disease (5). These differential reactions also occur in Florida








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


in a like manner in respect to grape degeneration and are con-
sistent with those known for Pierce's disease in California (10).
Now let us consider transmission of Pierce's disease virus.
Frazier and Freitag (3) have shown the close relationship be-
tween the 14 species of leafhoppers known to be capable of
transmitting the virus. Severin (9) has reported four species
and five varieties of spittle bugs also have this ability. Pierce's
disease virus is a persistent type virus as Watson and Roberts
(11) define this group. This more or less limits field spread to
insect vectors and inadvertent inoculation in propagation ac-
tivities. In the list of insects known to transmit the virus three
are believed to be responsible for most of the field spread in
California. These are: the blue-green sharpshooter, Neokolla
circellata (Baker), the green sharpshooter, Draeculacephala
minerva Ball, and the redheaded sharpshooter Carneocephala
fulgida Nott. The redheaded sharpshooter Carneocephala fulgida
Nott. favors bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. as a
host plant and Winkler (12) includes this grass as one of the
hosts of Pierce's disease.
Many investigators have observed that when bermuda grass
invades the vineyards in Florida the vines die out very quickly
from degeneration. This observation led the author to make sweep
collections on bermuda grass in several localities near Leesburg
on June 5 and 6, July 10 and 11 and August 20 and 23 of this
year. Large numbers of the yellowhead sharpshooter Carneo-
cephala flaviceps (Riley)2 were taken on bermuda grass in loca-
tions where degeneration had eliminated grapes or was quite
evident in the vineyards. A few individuals of the species
Draeculacephala portola Ball and Draeculacephala inscripta Van
Duzee were also taken on grasses adjacent to a grape nursery
where there was a high incidence of grape degeneration. None
of these species are proven vectors of Pierce's disease but they
are closely related to two of its principal known vector species in
California, and as Frazier and Freitag have pointed out (3)
should be suspected as vectors because of this relationship.
Observations in Florida areas where grape degeneration has
been severe in the past show that several species of plants known
to be hosts of Pierce's disease virus in California are present.
This is especially true of certain grasses and both wild and
cultivated legumes.

2The author is indebted to Professor Dwight M. DeLong of Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio, for determination of these specimens.








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


Hairy indigo, Indigofera hirusta L., and lupine, Lupinus
angustifolia L., purposely planted as crops in areas where grape
degeneration has occurred, have been observed showing dwarfing
and witches broom symptoms. While there is no controlled
proof that these species are infected with a virus when these
symptoms are present the inference is plain. (Pierce's disease
virus also causes serious loss in California in alfalfa plantings.
The disease in this host is called Dwarf or Witches Broom.)
Esau (2) has shown that infection with Pierce's disease
virus can cause the formation of tyloses and the deposition of
gum in the xylem elements of the grape. Specimens of grapes
suffering from grape degeneration were taken from the field
near Leesburg on June 5, 6, and 19th of this year. Fresh sec-
tions were made and microscopically examined. Large numbers
of tyloses and heavy gum deposition was found in the xylem
elements of these Florida specimens.
What can be said in summary then of the comparison between
grape degeneration in Florida and Pierce's disease in California.
1. Past history of both are almost concident chronologically.
2. External field symptoms of both are strikingly similar if
not identical.
3. Species of sharpshooters closely related to known vectors
of Pierce's disease virus occur in Florida where grape de-
generation has long been a problem.
4. Plants proven to be hosts of Pierce's disease virus and its
vectors are abundant where degeneration occurs and ex-
hibits symptoms typical of Pierce's disease virus infection.
5. Preliminary laboratory studies show that aberrations in
the internal anatomy of grapes suffering from grape de-
generation in Florida are similar to those induced, by in-
fection with Pierce's disease virus in the same host in
California.
The overall field ecologies of Pierce's disease and grape de-
generation are much too similar to be reasonably ascribed to
coincidence. This ecology as set forth in this paper strongly
indicates that what has been called grape degeneration in Flor-
ida is actually Pierce's disease. Insect vector trials, insect vector
field infectivity trials, insect vector location studies, insect vector
life history investigations, host range determinations for both
insect vectors and the suspected virus, and grafting experiments
are now being conducted to test this hypothesis.
The author would like to express his appreciation and thanks
to Mr. Loren H. Stover, Dr. G. K. Parris, Mr. Clyde C. Helms,









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Dr. Charles Demko, Mr. Joseph L. Fennell, and Mr. R. E. Norris
for much information on grapes in Florida which has been of
great help in preparing this manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Dickey, R. P., L. H. Stover and G. K. Parris. 1948. Grape growing
in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 436.
2. Esau, Katherine. 1948. Anatomical effects of the viruses of
Pierce's disease and phony peach. Hilgardia. 18(12): 423-82.
3. Frazier, N. W. and J. H. Freitag. Ten additional leafhopper
vectors of the virus causing Pierce's disease of grape. Phytopath-
ology. 36: 634-37.
4. Hewitt, Wm. B. 1939. A transmissible disease of grapevine.
Abstract. Phytopathology. 29:10.
5. Hewitt, Wm. B., N. W. Frazier, H. E. Jacob and J. H. Freitag.
1942. Pierce's disease of grapevines. California Agr. Expt. Sta.
Circ. 353:1-32.
6. Parris, G. K. 1951. Grape degeneration in Florida: still an unsolved
problem. (Unpub. Ms.) Presented before the 1951 annual meet-
ing of the Phytopathologists of the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Gainesville, Florida, on March 21, 1951.
7. Rhoads, Arthur S. 1926. Diseases of grapes, in Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 178:75-156.
8. Severin, Henry H. P. 1949. Transmission of the virus of Pierce's
disease of grapevines by leafhoppers. Hilgardia. 19:190-206. 1949.
9. Severin, Henry H. P. 1950. Spittle-insect vectors of Pierce's dis-
ease virus. II. Life history and virus transmission. Hilgardia.
19:357-362.
10. Stoner, Warren N., Loren H. Stover and G. K. Parris. 1951. Field
and laboratory investigations indicate grape degeneration in Florida
is due to Pierce's disease virus infection. U.S.D.A. P1. Dis. Reptr.
35:341-344.
11. Watson, M. A. and F. M. Roberts. 1939. A comparative study of
the transmission of Hyocyamus virus 3, potato virus y and cucum-
ber virus 1 by the vectors Myzus persicae (Sulz.), M. circumflexus
(Buckton) and Macrosiphum gei (Koch). Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond.
B 127: 543-577.
12. Winkler, A. J. Pierce's Disease Investigations. 1949. Hilgardia.
19 (7): 207-64.








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


A NEGLECTED PAPER BY A. L. MONTANDON
ON CRYPTOCERATE HEMIPTERA
ROLAND F. HUSSEY
Lakeland, Florida

Subsequent writers have very generally overlooked an im-
portant paper by A. L. Montandon published in 1910. Its one
new species has not been noticed in the Zoological Record; no
references to it occur in Van Duzee's Catalogue (1917) ; and the
only citation to it I have seen was by Jaczewski (1934) under
Ochterus marginatus. It is entitled "Quelques types d'Hemip-
teres de Guerin-M6neville des Collections du Mus6e Zoologique
de l'Universit6 de Naples", and appeared in the Annuario del
Museo Zoologico della R. University di Napoli (Nuova Serie),
Vol. 3, No. 10, pp. 1-4, February 21, 1910. I am indebted to
the Librarian of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard
University for the information that this is the correct pagina-
tion and not merely the pagination of a reprint.
In this paper Montandon reported his studies on the Gu6rin
types of cryptocerate Hemiptera in the Naples Museum. Some
older synonymy was confirmed; some new synonymy was stated;
and Gelastocoris major n. sp., was described on page 2 to replace
G. flavus (nec Gu6rin) as formerly misidentified both by Mon-
tandon and by Champion. I may add here that we must place
Gelastocoris andinus Melin 1928 as a new synonym of G. major
Mont., since it too was proposed to replace G. flavus Champ.
1901 nec Guerin.
Certain of the synonymy proposed by Montandon in 1910
is quite different from that found in the writings of more recent
authors who have not had the benefit of examining Guerin's
types. It seems desirable, therefore, to give the following resume
of this paper. In this abstract new synonymy stated in the
1910 paper is indicated by asterisks (*); and any comments I
have added are inclosed in square brackets.
[Page 1.] PELOGONUS PERBOSCI Gu6rin 1843; Campeche, Mexico. Very
near P. americanus Uhler, if not identical. When these species are better
known, they may prove not to be separable from the Old-World P. margi-
natus Latr. [Opinion expressed by Montandon.]
PELOGONUS MARGINATUS Latr. 1807 = P. indicus Gu6rin 1843. [Con-
firmation of Montandon's 1897 statement of their probable identity.]
[Page 2.] GELASTOCORIS VARIEGATUS Guerin 1843; Campeche. A species









70 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

easily recognized by the crenulated lateral margins of the pronotum and
embolium, the latter square-cut at its apex.
GELASTOCORIS NEBULOSUS Gu6rin 1843 = G. flavus Gu6rin 1843. The
type of the former is a male, of the latter a female. This is not the species
formerly identified as flavus by Montandon and Champion. [Stal pub-
lished this identical synonymy in 1876, Enum. Hem. 5: 137. However, in
the Iconographie 3: 351, Gu6rin described Galgulus flavus first, G. quadri-
maculatus second, and G. nebulosus third, so that flavus has page priority
over nebulosus.]
GELASTOCORIS MAJOR n. sp. = *G. flavus (nec Gu6rin) Montandon olim,
Champion 1901, B.C.A.Het. 2: 349. [ = Gelastocoris andinus Melin 1928,
Zool. Bidr. Uppsala 12: 159, as stated above.] Differs from G. nebulosus
in having the lateral pronotal margins more broadly dilated posteriorly,
very feebly bisinuate anteriorily, the lateral angle of the dilatation rectangu-
lar, hardly obtuse, not crenulated as in G. variegatus, not rounded, the
anterior margin of this angle very oblique (not transverse as in G. nebu-
losus), the posterior margin of the angle truncate, not rounded, so that the
pronotum is narrower than the elytra; embolium very obtusely angled at
its apex, almost rounded. This species is usually a little more robust than
the other known forms [of the genus], and of a more uniform grayish color.
[The pronotal structure of nebulosus = flavus as described by Montandon
from GuBrin's types does not agree with that of the form identified and
figured as flavus by Martin, 1928, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bul. 18(4): P1. 48,
fig. 18.]
GELASTOCORIS QUADRIMACULATUS Gu6rin 1843 = *G. vicinus Champ. 1901,
op.cit. p. 349; Montandon inedit. Gu6rin's type is labelled "Bolivie", a
locality which Montandon questions. Its coloration differs from that of
other specimens that Montandon had labelled G. vicinus, the pronotal lateral
margins being wholly and widely pale yellowish, and each corium having a
large pale yellow spot near its apex. It agrees in form with those other
specimens, whose range extended from Costa Rica to Brasil and Bolivia.
MONONYX FUSCIPES GuBrin 1843; Colombia. The unique male type
agrees with the description of the species given by Montandon in 1899,
Bull. Soc. Sci. Bucarest 8(4-5) : 400.
MONONYX LATICOLLIS Gu6rin 1843; New Guinea. The type is a large
male, 10.5 mm. long, agreeing with Montandon's description, 1899, op.
cit. 407.
[Page 3.] PELTOPTERUS Guerin 1843, type Naucoris rugosa Desjard.
1837, = Scylaecus Stal 1861 [type Galgulus macrothorax Montrouz.], as
stated by Montandon in 1900, Bull. Soc. Sci. Bucarest [8:] 779-780.
LACCOTREPHES GRISEUS Gu6rin (Nepa); Bengal. Occurs also in Burma,
Malay Peninsula, Ceylon, Madras, Pondicherry, etc. Distant (1906, Rhynch.
Brit. Ind. 3: 19) was wrong in synonymizing this species with L. maculatus
Fabr., from which it is separable by the strong acute tubercle on the
prosternum anteriorly (absent in maculatus), the longer appendages, and
the more obtusely rounded basal tooth on the fore femora.
RANATRA FABRICII Gu6rin 1856 = R. annulipes StAl. The Naples
Museum has two specimens ( S and 9) of this species, easily recognizable









VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952 71

by the form of the metasternum as already noticed by Montandon (1905,
Bull. Soc. Sci. Bucarest 14: 393). [In my copy Montandon corrected this
to read: R. annulipes Stal 1854 = R. Fabricii Gu6rin. This synonymy
may not be correct, since Montandon has recently been shown to have con-
fused several species under the name annulipes StAl: see De Carlo, 1950,
Rev. Brasil. Biol. 10(4) : 526-528.]
BENACUS GRISEUS Say 1831 = Betostomo [sic] angustata Guerin 1856 in
Sagra. [No comment on any specimens in the Naples Museum. This
synonymy dates from Mayr, 1871, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 21: 428, who
used the name haldemanus Leidy in place of griseus Say.]
LETHOCERUS ANNULIPES H.-S. = *Belostoma curtum GuBrin 1856
*Belostoma medium Gu6rin 1856 = Belostoma caudatum Percheron, inedit.,
cited by Guerin, 1856, in Sagra. One of the Guerin types in the Naples
Museum is labelled "Belostoma latum GuBr. Type." This is an unpub-
lished name, almost certainly a lapsus calami for B. curtum. [In all prob-
ability curtum, medium and caudatum should be synonymized with L. del
pontei De Carlo 1930, Rev. Soc. Ent. Arg. No. 13, p. 108, which Montandon
and others mis-identified as annulipes, nec Herrich-Schaeffer.]

[Page 4.] AMORGIUS COLOSSICUS StAl = *Belostoma grande Guerin
1856 in Sagra, nec Linn6. [No comment is given on any specimens in the
Naples Museum.]
HYDROCIRIUS COLOMBIAE Spin. 1852 = Belostoma capitata GuBrin in
Sagra 1856. [No further comment by Montandon. This synonymy was
first stated by Mayr, 1865, Reise der Novara, Hem., p. 183, and repeated
by him in 1871, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 21: 429. The occurrence of the
African H. colombiae in the Americas is most doubtful; and B. capitatum
GuBrin is synonymized with Lethocerus annulipes H.S. 1846 by De Carlo,
1938, Anal. Mus. Arg. Cienc. Nat. 39: 201.]
PELOCORIS FEMORATUS Pal. de B. 1805 = *Naucoris Poeyi Guerin in
Sagra, 1856. [No comment by Montandon on specimens in the Naples
Museum.]








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


CONCERNING AMERICAN OCHTERIDAE (HEMIPTERA)
CARL J. DRAKE

The family Ochteridae is a very small family of littoral
Hemiptera divided among two genera. The genus Megochterus
Jaczewski is not represented in the American fauna and is known
only from the Australian region. Although most of the species
are found in the tropics, the genus Ochterus Latreille is widely
distributed in the temperate and torrid regions of both hemi-
spheres.
The species of the genus Ochterus are brownish or black in
color and moderately large. As they are unusually uniform in
general appearance, it is often necessary to remove the male
capsule so as to study the right paramere for specific determina-
tion. A few species such as 0. flaviclavus Barber and 0. acutan-
gulus (Champion) have color markings and structural characters
that set them apart from their congeners. 0. perbosci (Guerin)
is probably our most widely disseminated species, ranging from
southern Texas and Arizona south deep into Brasil and Peru.
It is also widely distributed in the West Indies. 0. americana
(Uhler) is the commonest and most widely dispersed species in
the United States.
The genus Ochterus is represented in the New World by 16
species, including the new form described below. The American
species are chiefly tropical or subtropical in distribution. They
inhabit the wet, sandy, and muddy borders of streams and stand-
ing bodies of water. Their mobility and ability to survive sub-
mergence make them independent of wave action, flash floods,
and seasonal variations in the shore line. Living conditions are
more favorable when the wet space between the water's edge
and low vegetation along the shore is not very wide. During
wet and rainy days, the adults often wander some distance from
the shore in quest of food. On account of their color, selective
habitats, and especially their jumping or leaping and hiding
characteristics when disturbed, they are rather difficult to collect
and are poorly represented in collections.
Insofar as known, no species of Ochterus is limited to brack-
ish coastal water or saline inland waters. Not enough field
work has been done to ascertain if any species is intolerent to
salt water. The writer found 0. perbosci and 0. viridifrons
(Champion) inhabiting the shores of brackish lagoons and








VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


marshes along the seacoasts in Panama and Mexico as well as
semiaquatic fresh water habitats.

Ochterus schellae n. sp.
Ochterus acutangulus Schell (not Champion), Jour. Kan. Ent. Soc. 16(2):
38, pl. 1, fig. 4. 1943.
Brownish black with patches of bluish pruinose; head in front of ocelli
metallic green and shining, behind ocelli blackish as pronotum. Pronotum
with posterior margin narrowly yellowish brown, the acute humeral angles
more brownish; explanate margins brownish with a large spot within next
to calli pale testaceous. Hemelytra with the outer margins narrowly tes-
taceous. Pubescence fleck-like, golden.
Length, 5.10-5.50 mm.; width, 2.75-3.00 mm.
Pronotum distinctly pitted, strongly narrowed anteriorly, much wider
across humeral angles than median length (200:80), posteriorly margin
strongly sinuate; explanate margins moderately wide, narrower behind,
with humeral angles obtusely angulate and not acutely angulate as in
0. acutangulus Champ., the outer margins nearly straight (feebly or in-
distinctly rounded); shallowly transversely impressed between lobes, the
front lobe broadly impressed medially a little back of front margin.
Head above faintly impressed between eyes, transversely rugulose, with
a faint median ridge. Rostrum, labrum and clypeus flavotestaceous. An-
tennae with the two basal segments moderately incrassate, testaceous or
light fuscous, the other two rather slender and fuscous and nearly subequal
(22:20), the fourth thickest just in front of middle and then tapering a
little towards both ends.
Legs long, moderately stout, testaceous, sometimes a little darker on
femora and tibiae, clothed with longer pale hairs beneath; tibiae armed with
the usual dark spines; apex of tarsi darkened.
Type (male), allotype (female) and 4 paratypes, Tejupilco,
Mex., alt. 1340 meters, June-July, 1933, H. E. Hilton. Type in
my collection. Paratypes in collection of the University of
Kansas. Named in honor of Mrs. Dorthydean Veitz Schell, who
has given us the first critical study and monograph of the Ameri-
can Ochteridae.
This species was wrongly determined by Mrs. Schell (Jour.
Kan. Ent. Soc., 16 (2) :38, pl. 1, fig. 4, 1943) as Ochterus acutan-
gulus (Champion). The male genital capsule and right para-
mere of 0. schellae are nicely illustrated in the above Journal
by Mrs. Schell. The right paramere is swollen apically and
distinctly club-shaped.

Ochterus acutangulus (Champion) (Fig. 1)
Pelogonus acutangulus Champion, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Rhynch., 2:364, pl. 20,
figs. 15 & 15a, 1901.
0. schellae n. sp. has been wrongly determined in collection and the










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


literature as 0. acutangulus. The latter has the humeral angles distinct
acute and produced laterally a little beyond the margins of the hemelytra.
The pronotum is also differently shaped as may be noted in the illustration,
fig 1. A female from Cuba is figured.


Fig. 1.-Pronotum of 0. acutangulus (Champ.) (X28)



LIST OF AMERICAN SPECIES

Genus Ochterus Latreille, 1809
Pelogonus Latreille, 1809
Type, 0. marginatus Latreille.


1. acutangulus (Champion), 1901...........
2. aenifrons (Champion), 1901 .............
marginatus (Uhler), 1893
3. americanus (Uhler), 1875 ............-...--

4. banksi Barber, 1913 .............-.... ...--

5. barberi Schell, 1943 ...........................
6. bidentatus Schell, 1943 .........................
7. brunneus Hungerford, 1927 .............
8. flaviclavus Barber, 1913 ...................
9. hungerfordi Schell, 1943 .......................
.0. manni Hungerford, 1927 ...........-........
1. parvus Schell, 1943 ...........................


......... Guat., Mex., Cuba.
....-.. Mex., Centr.-Amer., W. I.,
Col., Venez.
.....-.. Nebr., Ill., Iowa, N. Y.,
Md., Mass., Miss., Fla.
....-... N. Y., Mass., N. J., Va.
Fla., Miss.
......... Mex., U. S. (Ariz., N. Mex.)
......... Peru.
......... Bol.
......... F la.
......... Cuba.
...-..... Bol.
......... Ecuador.









VOL. XXXV, No. 2 JUNE, 1952


12. perbosci (Guerin), 1843 ............................. Mex., Ce
marginatus (Uhler), 1893 Peru, U.
13. schellae Drake, 1952 ................................... Mex.
acutangulus Schell, 1943
14. spendilulus Montandon, 1898 .....-..-.............. Ecuador.
15. victors (Boliver), 1879 ................................. Ecuador.
16. viridifrons (Champion), 1901 .................... Centr.-Ai
U. S. (A


ntr.-Amer., Col.,
S. (Ariz., Tex.).


Ter., W. I. Mex.,
riz.).


| O BRAN INSECTIID

APPA*OLNO!WNE AE








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


ANNOUNCEMENT OF ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Following the suggestion of Mr. Norman Hayslip, Chairman
of the Committee on Arrangements, the Executive Committee
has selected Fort Pierce, September 25 and 26, as the place and
dates for the annual meeting of the Florida Entomological
Society. Mr. Hayslip has assured the Executive Committee that
the Fort Pierce Hotel has excellent facilities for entertaining
members of the Society at reasonable rates. The meeting will
be held in the Community Center Building across the street from
the hotel. Restaurants are also available near the hotel.
Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Subtropical Experiment Station,
Homestead, has accepted Chairmanship of the Program Com-
mittee. He has already arranged with several outstanding men
to present invitation papers. Members of the Society who plan
to present papers are asked to give Dr. Wolfenbarger the title
of the paper and the type of projection equipment required for
illustrative purposes on or before August 1. Due to the number
of papers which will probably be presented, time for each paper
will be limited to fifteen minutes. An effort is being made to
arrange the program in sections similar to the arrangement
used last year.
An entertainment committee has been appointed and arrange-
ments for the meeting are taking shape. One feature of the
program will be a banquet (reasonable per plate cost) with Mr.
W. W. Others as the principal speaker. Mr. Others has se-
lected as his subject: "Some Forgotten Instances of Biological
Control of Insects Attacking Citrus Trees".
The effort being expended by all who have been asked to assist
in planning assures an excellent meeting. Individual members
can materially assist in preparing the program by submitting
to Dr. Wolfenbarger, titles of papers they plan to present, by
August 1. Cooperation in this matter will make an early print-
ing of the program possible.

J. W. WILSON
President








VOL. XXXV, NO. 2- JUNE, 1952


ITEMS OF INTEREST

Mr. W. B. Gresham, Jr., Entomologist, Professional Ex-
terminators, Tampa, writes that his organization has discovered
a tropical roach not heretofore known to be established in the
United States. The roach was identified as Nauphoeta cinerea
(Oliv.) by Dr. A. B. Gurney, Orthopterist, U. S. Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Washington. Mr. Gresham
quotes from a letter written to him by Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck,
Director of the Division of Insect Identification, "We seem to
have no definite records of the establishment of Nauphoeta
cinerea in the United States although it has often been taken at
ports of entry on products and materials coming from the South.
We should be interested to know if your observations indicate
definite establishment in the Tampa area."
Mr. Gresham further reports that the roach is well estab-
lished in several locations in Tampa, especially in the feed
manufacturing mills. He is conducting studies on the species
and has now established a colony in his laboratory.






The Society of Systematic Zoology has initiated publication
of a new quarterly journal, SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. The
first number appeared in April. Articles of general interest to
all zoological systematists will occupy most of the space in the
journal. Book notices, news items, projects, people, museum
activities, lists of systematic societies, and other miscellany will
round out the contents.
SThe new serial has three purposes: "(1) to publish, and
therefore to encourage the preparation of, contributions on basic
aspects of all fields of systematic principles and problems; (2)
to provide a suitable forum for discussion of the problems of the
systematist and his methods; and (3) to report the other ac-
tivities of the Society of Systematic Zoology as news."
Correspondence regarding subscriptions and membership
should be addressed to the secretary of the Society, Dr. R. E.
Blackwelder, Room 429, United States National Museum, Wash-
ington 25, D. C.




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