Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00220
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1952
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00220
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist

Vol. XXXV No. 3

Citrus Red Mite Infestations After the Application of
Parathion Sprays ...............----------------...------ ..---- 37

Howard Samuel McClanahan ---........----------.----...-------- 90

WIRTH, WILLIS W.-The Immature Stages of Two Species
of Florida Salt Marsh Sand Flies (Diptera, Heleidae) .. 91

BECK, ELISABETH C.-Notes on the Distribution of Culi-
coides in Florida (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) .-.....-......... 101

WESTFALL, MINTER J., JR.-Celithemis Bertha Williamson
in Florida with a Description of a New Subspecies
(Odonata) --...-. --..--....~---- .-..---- .. --------- ---.... 109

HUSSEY, ROLAND F.-Food Plants and New Records for
Some Hemiptera in Florida .-- --..----------- 117

Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, .University of Florida, Gainesville

Mailing Date: October 8, 1952





No. 3


OFFICERS FOR 1951-1952
President ..--.............------- -------.... ............ J. W W ILSON
Vice President ................................... J. T. GRIFFITHS
Secretary ............--.......................... MILLEDGE MURPHEY, JR.
Treasurer.. --------- ----.-..-----...... ...............--........- L. C. KUITERT
Executive Committee ............ D. O. WOLFENBARGER



........................... ........- E editor
-...-.. .......... Associate Editor
..-................Business Manager

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Parathion has come into extensive use on citrus trees in
Florida after four years of experimentation by State (Thompson
et al., 1950) and U. S. Department of Agriculture entomologists
(Spencer et al., 1952) and after numerous trials by grower as-
sociations and grove owners. This insecticide has given excellent
control of scale insects,2 mealybugs,3 whiteflies,4 the little fire
ant," and certain insects of lesser importance, but has been
found to have certain disadvantages in use.
First, parathion is a very poisonous material, and must be
handled and applied with great care. Griffiths and associates
(1951) have summarized and illustrated the precautions neces-
sary for its safe use.
Secondly, parathion does not give satisfactory control of the
citrus rust mite 6 or the citrus red mite (purple mite).7 The
problem of control of the citrus rust mite was easily solved by
adding wettable sulfur to the parathion spray, but the problem
of combined sprays for the simultaneous control of scales, white-
flies, mealybugs, the rust mite, and the red mite is still partially
Spencer and Osburn (1949) reported that in 1947 applica-
tions of DDT, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, and parathion not only
did not control red mites completely, but also were followed by
increases in infestation. Of 300 square inches of leaf and fruit
surface examined on trees that had been sprayed on June 17 and
October 21 with 1 quart of 20% parathion emulsion concentrate
per 100 gallons of water, 7.6% were infested on September 8,
as compared with 2.3% on unsprayed trees. On December 19
the infestation ran 11%o for those trees sprayed twice with
parathion, as against 2.6 % for the unsprayed trees. Since these
trees were all in the same grove, were in a carefully planned
randomized-block design with 10 replications, and received

1United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Ad-
ministration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
2Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.) and Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.).
'Pseudococcus citri (Risso).
4Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.) and D. citrifolii (Morg.).
Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger).
P 1i.,:.'.ti ,',i oleivora (Ashm.).
7Paratetranychus citri (McG.).


exactly the same sprays other than the parathion, the conclusion
was inescapable that the parathion had brought about this
build-up of red mites.
In 1949 a randomized-block experiment was set up in a grove
of Temple oranges to study this problem further. There were
10 blocks, or replications, in each of which 2 two-tree groups
were randomized. All trees were sprayed in February with
zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, copper sulfate, hydrated lime,
and wettable sulfur. The zinc, manganese, and copper can be
expected to favor increases in infestations by both scale insects
and citrus red mites. On April 12 half the trees were sprayed
post-bloom with a mixture of basic copper sulfate, wettable
sulfur, and 15% wettable parathion at rates of 3, 5, and 2
pounds, respectively, per 100 gallons. The other half received
the same spray with the parathion left out. On May 27 high
infestations of the citrus red mite had developed throughout
the entire experimental block. Therefore, on May 31 half the
trees in each group were sprayed with 1 % emulsive oil, and half
with 1 pound of 25% wettable parathion plus 6 pounds of wet-
table sulfur per 100 gallons. The red mite infestations were
sampled on June 23. A linen tester lens with 1-inch by 1-inch
field was applied to 10 upper leaf surfaces, 10 lower leaf sur-
faces, and 10 fruits on each tree in search for eggs or crawling
stages of red mites. If either or both were present the leaf or
fruit was tallied as infested. Percentages of infestation for
each treatment are derived from 300 such observations. Data
from this sampling showed that the emulsive oil spray had con-
trolled the red mites well, but that the infestation had increased
in the trees that had received a second spray of parathion
(Table 1).

Sprays (Quantities per 100 Gal.) Citrus Red Mite Infestations
April 12* May 31 May 27 June 23
Percent Percent
Parathion (15%) 2 lb. Parathion (25%)
1 lb., wettable
sulfur 6 lb. 76 93
Emulsive oil 1% 76 5
None Parathion (25%)
1 lb., wettable
sulfur 6 lb. 84 89
Emulsive oil 1% 84 3
All trees received basic copper sulfate and wettable sulfur on April 12.


It is clear from Table 1 that parathion in the post-bloom
sprays in April did not reduce the red mite infestation materially,
since 76 % is a high infestation. Statistically, the 76 and the 84%
levels did not differ significantly. The emulsive oil spray in
May gave excellent control. The trees with heavy infestations
in this experiment were cleaned up well early in June with a
spray of 1 pound of Neotran S per 100 gallons of water.
In 1951 additional information was obtained on build-up of
citrus red mites after the application of parathion sprays. A
grove of Ruby grapefruit trees was arranged for an experiment,
with 10 blocks (or replications), in each of which 6 treatments
were applied to randomized single-tree plots. On March 30
all trees in the block were sprayed with 2 pounds of copper oxide
plus 5 pounds of wettable sulfur (90%) per 100 gallons. One
series of trees received no parathion, four received sprays con-
taining 1 pound of 15% parathion, and one 2 pounds of 15%
parathion per 100 gallons.
On May 31, two months after the spraying, citrus red mite
infestations were 41.6% on trees that had received no parathion,
ranged from 66.3 to 72.6% on the four series of trees that had
been sprayed with 1 pound of 15% parathion, and 78% for the
trees that had received 2 pounds. The differences between the
values for the parathion-sprayed trees and those for the trees
that had received no parathion were highly significant. This
is another clear-cut case of build-up of citrus red mites after
treatment with parathion.
The results of these three experiments show that delayed
increases in infestations of citrus red mites may follow the use
of parathion in sprays applied in the post-bloom period, in mid-
summer, or in the fall. Two applications 49 days apart resulted
in higher infestations than a single application, and doubling
the amount of parathion per 100 gallons in a single spray also
increased the infestation. These heavy infestations may re-
quire extra oil sprays for control, or the addition of a miticide
to the combination spray containing the parathion or to a sub-
sequent wettable sulfur spray.
Griffiths, James T., John W. Williams, W. L. Thompson, and C. R. Stearns,
Jr. 1951. Toxicology of parathion and other phosphatic insecticides
and precautions for their use on citrus. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 479,
24 pp., illus.
SA wettable powder containing 40% of bis(p-chlorophenoxy) methane.


Spencer, Herbert, and Max R. Osburn. 1949. Experiments on control of
the citrus red mite. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 95-101.
Spencer, Herbert, Max R. Osburn, and Paul A. Norman. 1952. Control
of the purple scale on citrus with parathion. U.S.D.A. Cir. 896, 10 pp.
Thompson, W. L., J. T. Griffiths, Jr., and J. W. Sites. 1950. Progress
report on parathion as an insecticide for citrus trees in Florida. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 100-105.

Howard S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector, State Plant Board
of Florida, died on March 4, 1952, at his home in Gainesville,
following an illness of several months.
Mr. McClanahan entered the service of the Florida State
Plant Board on May 1, 1916, and was assigned to the Citrus
Canker Eradication Project with headquarters at Homestead.
He resigned in December 1917 to enlist in the Navy, and was
mustered out of service late in November, 1918.
In April, 1929, Mr. McClanahan returned to Plant Board
work, with assignment to the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Eradica-
tion Project. Upon the termination of that project, he was as-
signed to the Grove Inspection Department, and was in charge
of the Citrus Blackfly Eradication Project in Key West from
1934 to 1937. The success of this important project was due in
no small measure to Mr. McClanahan's ability to cope with
different problems in a manner that inspired respect and
confidence on the part of his associates and the public. The
next few years were spent in plant quarantine work at Key
West, Jacksonville, and Miami. In July, 1940, he was appointed
Grove Inspector, with headquarters in Gainesville, the position
he held at the time of his death.
With the death of Mr. McClanahan the State Plant Board
and the growers of Florida have suffered a great loss because of
his great loyalty to his fellow man and his intense interest in
the welfare and prosperity of the growers of the State. He was
a gentleman in every sense of the word.
Mr. McClanahan was born at Fort Scott, Kansas, May 17,
1891, and came to South Florida in 1912. He attended public
schools in Kansas and the Kansas State Agricultural College.
He is survived by his wife, Mabel B. McClanahan, two
daughters, Virginia McLane and Mary Faye Schiaffo, and six
grandchildren.-W. H. Merrill


SALT MARSH SAND FLIES (Diptera, Heleidae)

Biting midges, or sand flies, of the genus Culicoides Latreille
are some of the most troublesome pests of coastal Florida and
the southeastern United States. They have been the object of
considerable study and effort toward control during the last
twenty years, with published reports by Hall (1932) ; Dove,
Hall, and Hull (1932); Hinman (1932) ; Hull, Dove, and Prince
(1934); Hull and Dove (1935); Root and Hoffman (1937);
Hull, Dove, and Platts (1939); and Hull, Shields, and Platts
Recently a renewed attempt has been made at more efficient
control, advantage being taken of the new insecticides developed
during and after World War II. These efforts have largely
been incorporated in the work of the Cooperative Sand Fly Re-
search Unit at Fort Lauderdale, Florida, under the direction
of R. L. Goulding, with support from the Department of the
Army through the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, from the Florida State
Board of Health, and from the mosquito-abatement districts of
Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, and Indian River Counties. It
became apparent that before an efficient program of sand fly
control could be developed, an intensive biological study of the
midges would have to be made. In connection with these bio-
logical studies I was invited to spend a few days in August 1951
at the Lantana, Florida, laboratory of the research unit collect-
ing the immature stages of salt-marsh Culicoides in order to
work out specific characters for their identification. I wish to
acknowledge with sincere thanks the valuable assistance and
many courtesies received from W. C. McDuffie and J. C. Keller
of the Orlando laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, from R. L. Goulding, W. Byrum and H. Ed-
wards of the Cooperative Sand Fly Research Unit, and from
E. L. Seabrook of the Palm Beach County Mosquito District.
The unit's routine sampling procedures, by which soil samples
were brought to the laboratory, washed over fine wire screens,
and flooded with saturated magnesium sulfate, served very well

1Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Research
Administration, United States Department of Agriculture.


for the recovery of larvae and pupae for this study. These in-
sects were then washed in fresh water, killed in hot water, and
preserved in 70-80% alcohol. Pupae for rearing were washed
in clean water and transferred to individual 13 by 65 mm. shell
vials on moist cotton. Mature pupae were also secured in the
field by placing a small amount of the top inch of soil in a pan,
adding water, stirring thoroughly, and waiting for the pupae
to rise to the surface, where they were caught in a pipette and
transferred to vials on moist cotton. In this manner the specific
identity of the pupae could be accurately determined from reared
adults, and the larvae associated with pure hearings of a given
species could be reasonably assumed to be related. Since the
two important coastal species in lower Florida, C. melleus (Coq.)
and C. furens (Poey), have rather distinct habitat preferences,
as determined by emergence traps, it is believed that this as-
sumption is safe. Unfortunately, time and facilities were not
available for rearing individual larvae in order to secure posi-
tively associated adults. C. canithorax Hoffman, the third salt-
marsh species of eastern North America, is not common in
southern Florida and its immature stages were not studied.
The following descriptions are based on alcoholic specimens
which were studied in pure liquified phenol. Specimens so
treated are relaxed and cleared, and can be manipulated freely
in wet mounts on a depression slide until the aspect desired for
description or drawing is obtained. With the use of a thin
coverglass and an oil-immersion objective, it is easy to obtain
the magnifications up to 950 diameters which are necessary for
the examination of the mouth parts and sensory organs on the
head capsule of the larva. By clearing with phenol it was found
that even the hypopharynx could be examined without dissecting
it out of the head, a most difficult procedure. The drawings
were made by myself with the aid of a microscope ocular grid
or a microprojector.
The excellent and detailed descriptions of the immature
stages of various species of Culicoides published by Carter, In-
gram and Macfie (1920), Painter (1926), Mayer (1937),
Tokunaga (1937), Hill (1947) and Williams (1951) have re-
sulted in substantial agreement on the generic characters. There-
fore, in this study, emphasis will be placed on characters which
a close comparison of these papers indicates will be most fruitful
for specific differentiation.



b ^,

8 Jf
I (

PLATE I. Culicoides melleus. Figures 1-6, larva; figures 7-10, pupa.
1, larva, lateral view; 2, head of larva, lateral view, setae and sensilla of
head capsule lettered as in text; 3, dorsal view left, and ventral view right,
of head; 4, left mandible, ventral view; 5, right maxilla, ventral view;
6, hypopharynx, ventral view; 7, operculum; 8, last segment of male pupa,
dorsal view; 9, left respiratory organ, lateral view; 10, lateral view of
male pupa.



Culicoides melleus (Coquillett)
(Plate I, Figures 1-10)
MATURE LARVA. Length about 4.8 mm., head capsule 0.22 mm. by 0.13
mm. Body white, without trace of subcutaneous pigment; head capsule
creamy, mandibles and supporting sclerites, hypopharynbeal apparatus
and three longitudinal ventral sclerotized bands, yellow to amber colored.
Body as in Figure 1, with a short cervical sclerite behind head capsule,
three thoracic segments and nine abdominal segments. Body segments
bare except for five or six pairs of inconspicuous white hairs around each
thoracic segment before middle, and four dorsal pairs, two lateral pairs
and two ventral pairs of whitish hairs on distal third of last segment. Anal
gills not examined; retracted in the preserved material studied.
Head (Figures 2 and 3) with chaetotaxy as figured; two pairs of dis-
tinctly separated eye spots. Dorso-median sclerite of head (frontoclypeus)
long and narrow, continuous cephalad with the membranous labrum, bear-
ing a pair of small sensory pores dorsally, a pair of blunt, conical, complex
sensillae on the anterior margin, and a pair of setae, a pair of sensory
pores and a pair of small spines on the ventral side. Antennae located
between the bases of the mandibles and the labrum, each consisting of a
flat membranous area bearing an anteroventral, ovoid lobe and about five
short conical and peglike sensilla. A broad, sclerotized band encircling the
ventral and lateral sides of head, with ends arising below and behind an-
tennae and forming the dorsal articulations of the mandibles; this band
apparently joined to the anterior ends of the long, slender, median and
anterolateral, longitudinal sclerites of the head capsule.
Mandibles (Figure 4) each long and sharp-pointed, with a long, slender,
appressed, fingerlike process on inner margin about two-thirds way to
apex. Maxillae (Figure 5) membranous, broad at bases, nearly covering
the mandibles, each with a long, slender, irregular, supporting sclerite
along ventral side, with a hair and several peglike sensilla at base on
dorsal side, tapering distad to the apical palpus with an adjacent sensory
peg; a number of scattered, minute sensilla on ectal surface. A small,
triangular, median, epipharyngeal sclerite on dorsal side of mandibular
chamber in region caudad of ventral side of labrum. Labium mentumm)
with anterior margin rounded and finely serrate in middle, continuous
caudad and lateral with the ventrolateral, sclerotized band of head capsule.
Hypopharynx (Figure 6) with dorsolateral arms short and bearing plate-
like expansions, without any spines or teeth. Median parts of hypopharynx
consisting of four, flattened, posteriorly-fringed plates, the dorsal plate
longest and consisting of a very thin, hyaline, fringed veil, the next plate
in form of a shorter membrane with denser caudal fringe; the third plate
short and yellowish with five short, sharp teeth and six alternating teeth
about twice as long, and the anteroventral plate much narrower with seven
long posterior teeth.
PUPA. Length about 2.5 mm. Color distinctly brownish, the thickened
portions of the respiratory organs and the dorsal tubercles of the cephalo-
thorax almost blackish; abdomen somewhat paler. Cephalothorax with
well developed tubercles (Figure 10); four dorsal pairs in mesothroacic
region; one below base of each respiratory organ; two pairs on anterior


margin of head region, the inner pair on the operculum considerably ven-
trad of the pair at the bases of the antennal sheaths. Operculum shaped
as in Figure 7, with strong marginal spines just above widest portion at
the tubercles, the latter very strong. Respiratory organs (Figure 9) very
unusual, each strongly constricted at base, with spiracular openings in
two compact groups, about fifteen around rim at apex, and five in a row
on the very strongly developed sub-basal hump; in a few specimens there
is a single spiracle on a little knob on the dorsal side of the wrinkled and
constricted portion in the middle of the organ. Abdominal segments 2-7
each with setigerous tubercles grouped as follows: seven pairs, two anterior
and five posterior in dorsal group, three posterior pairs in lateral group
and three posterior pairs in ventral group, all the posterior tubercles in
line around the segment. Anterior tubercles of dorsal group conical, the
posterior tubercles of this group consisting of three submesal pairs of
flattened tubercles without setae and two sublateral, contiguous pairs of
strong, conical tubercles; tubercles of lateral group strong and flattened
with rounded margins; those of ventral group conical and rather strong.
First segment with one sublateral pair and eighth segment with posterior
row of tubercles only; two sublateral pairs in dorsal group and three pairs
in lateral group. Each segment with broad, anterior bands of minute,
sharp spinules and posterior band of minute, rounded spinules. Last seg-
ment (Figure 8) with apicolateral processes sharp, the blackened thorn-
like apices directed laterad, not extending further caudad than middle of

Culicoides furens (Poey)
(Plate II, Figures 11-18)

MATURE LARVA. Length about 4 mm., head capsule 0.17 mm. by 0.12 mm.
Body creamy white, neck and thoracic segments with rather uniform,
grayish brown, subcutaneous pigment; head capsule yellowish. Thoracic
segments each with four pairs of minute hairs, neck and subapical ab-
dominal segments bare; last segment with two dorsal pairs, three lateral
pairs, two ventral pairs and a caudal pair of rather long, white hairs.
Anal gills long and sharp-pointed, apparently unbranched (Dove, Hall,
and Hull, 1932:527, Figure 2, show each gill bifid).
Head (Figures 11 and 12) with chaetotaxy as figured, one pair of
reniform eyespots. Antennae (Figure 14, top) each with a broad, low,
rounded, anterior lobe and three long and three short, hyaline sensilla
in a rounded, membranous area. Labrum bare above, with a pair of lateral
groups of three minute conical sensilla just below anterior margin; nearer
midline below with a pair of small sensory pores and a pair of sensory
pegs. Mandibles (Figure 14, bottom) each with sharp distal tooth and
an appressed inner fingerlike process extending three-fourths way to apex.
Maxillae (Figure 13) each consisting of a membranous conical lobe bear-
ing a tapered, distal palpus with adjacent hyaline filament of equal
length; ectal surface with several scattered, minute sensilla. Labium a
median, anteriorly arched plate mentumm) with smooth anterior margin,
located between inner side of ventrolateral, sclerotized band of head capsule.
Epipharynx a small, tapered, median sclerite with notched distal end,


^IWIW 111 1

PLATE II. Culicoides furens. Figures 11-15, larva; figures 16-18, pupa.
11, lateral view of head; 12, dorsal view left, and ventral view right, of
head; 13, right maxilla, ventral view; 14, left antenna above, and mandible
below, lateral view; 15, hypopharynx, ventral view; 16, left respiratory
organ, lateral view; 17, operculum, and 18, last segment of male pupa,
dorsal view.


located on dorsal wall of mandibular cavity just above mentum. Hypo-
pharynx (Figure 15) with dorsolateral arms long and elbowed, each bearing
a flattened, plate-like expansion with a transverse comb of very fine
spinules across ventral face. Median parts of hypopharynx consisting
of three, flattened, posteriorly fringed plates, the dorsal plate longest with
fringe of about twenty hyaline teeth, the middle plate strongest with
about fourteen strong, nearly equal teeth, and the ventral plate very short
with about ten, slender, hyaline teeth.
PUPA. (Compare Fox, 1942, p. 418, figs. 9, 12.) Length about 2.2 mm,;
color brown, respiratory organs slightly paler in middle. Cephalothorax
with four pairs of small tubercles in mesothoracic region, a strong pair
below bases of respiratory organs, a strong pair with long spines between
bases of the latter, and a large, spined pair just below on operculum.
Respiratory organ (Figure 16) long and nearly straight, very slender
on distal half, pale portion on middle third strongly wrinkled transversely,
four spiracles in row across apex and two, well separated, dorsal spiracles
on pronounced tubercles on basal third; most of tracheal lining coarsely
reticulate. Operculum (Figure 17) with strong spines except on rounded
dorsal end. Abdominal segments 3-7 each with two pairs of conical
anterodorsal tubercles, five pairs of flattened posterodorsal tubercles, one
pair of anterolateral tubercles, three pairs of strong, conical, multiple-
spinose, posterolateral tubercles, and five pairs of flattened posteroventral
tubercles. Each segment with broad, transverse, anterior band of sharp
spinules and posterior band of rounded spinules. Last segment (Figure
18) with apicolateral processes sharp, the apices directed slightly caudad.


The larvae of C. melleus differ remarkably from those of any
other known species in the presence of three, longitudinal, sclero-
tized bars on the ventral side of the head capsule. In all other
known species the head capsule, except for the basal articulations
of the mouth parts, is more or less uniformly sclerotized. As
indicated by Williams (1951:431) the chaetotaxy of the larval
head may be of considerable taxonomic importance. Tokunaga
(1937:242) apparently is the first to have given definite desig-
nations, by letters, to the characteristic setae and sensilla of the
head capsule. His observations were based on circumscriptus
Kieffer and are supported very closely by those of Williams on
tristriatulus Hoffman and are further confirmed by the two
species in the present study. These characters seem to be con-
sistent enough, therefore, to warrant the amplification of Toku-
naga's system of letters at this time, by giving a descriptive
name to each seta and sensillum, for which I propose the follow-
ing (see Figures 2 and 3) :


a-posteroventral setae j-antennal setae
b-posterofrontal setae k-supra-occipital sensilla
c-anterovertical setae 1-postocular sensilla
d-ventrolateral setae m-suboccipital sensilla
e-lateral setae n-preocular sensilla
f-anterofrontal setae o-subocular sensilla
g-posteroventral setae p-postmaxillary sensilla
h-anterolateral setae q-supra-antennal sensilla
i-anteroventral setae

The chaetotaxy of the larval head of furens is distinctive mainly
by the presence of only one pair of anteroventral setae (i) rather
than the two pairs of melleus and other species. The sensilla of
the antennae of furens appear to be significantly longer than
those of melleus and other species; the number present may also
be significant but the smaller sensilla are so minute that it is
almost impossible to count them correctly. Hill (1947:93) has
pointed out differences in the shapes of the mandibles of five
British species of Culicoides, mainly in the degree of develop-
ment of the fingerlike process on the inner side. However the
mandibular structure of the two Florida species is quite similar,
with the long, pointed, distal tooth and well developed inner
process usually present in this genus. The hypopharynx offers
probably the best larval characters of any structure; in melleus
there are four posteriorly fringed median plates or lobes, with
the most strongly developed plate bearing alternating long and
short teeth, while the dorsolateral supporting arms do not bear
any spines. In furens there are only three median plates on the
hypopharynx, the second with nearly equal posterior teeth, and
each dorsolateral arm bears a ventral comb of fine spinules.
The pupae of Culicoides offer very good specific characters
which are much easier to use than those of the larvae. The
prothoracic respiratory organs are especially useful, and Fox's
(1942) illustrations of those of thirteen American species and
Hill's (1947:95) of five British species, should be consulted for
comparison. Fox's (1942:423, Fig. 9) drawing of the respira-
tory organ of furens from Puerto Rico differs somewhat from
that of the present Florida specimens (Figure 16) in the posses-
sion of three, about equidistant, subapical spiracles, rather than
two, the extra spiracle occurring just distad of the wrinkled
middle portion of the organ. In melleus the proximal portion
of each respiratory organ is remarkably expanded, forming a
striking, dorsal hump bearing a row of five contiguous spiracles
not found in any other described species. In a few specimens


there was in addition another dorsal spiracle between the proxi-
mal and distal groups; this condition was often found only on
one side of the pupa, the other appearing normal. The oper-
culum, which is a median anterodorsal sclerite between the an-
terior arms of the Y-shaped suture from which the imago escapes,
also offers specific characters in the development of the spinose
vestiture. In melleus the operculum is bare except for narrow
rows of spines along the dorsolateral margins, while in furens
it is densely covered with stout spines except on the dorsal end.
In neither species did the shape of the operculum differ between
the sexes, as Williams (1951:438) found in tristriatulus. The
number and development of the setigerous tubercles of the pupal
abdomen offer specific characters. The names which were given
to these tubercles by Carter, Ingram, and Macfie (1920:223)
and Hill (1947:94) are followed here. C. melleus lack the an-
terolateral pair found in furens and has three pairs postero-
ventral tubercles, while furens has five pairs. In melleus also,
the apicolateral processes of the last segment are directed to the
side, not at all caudad as is usually the case in this genus.


Carter, H. F., A. Ingram and J. W. S. Macfie.
1920. Observations on the ceratopogonine midges of the Gold Coast
with descriptions of new species. Pt. II. Ann. Trop. Med. & Parasit.
Dove, W. E., D. G. Hall and J. B. Hull.
1932. The salt marsh sand fly problem (Culicoides). Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 25:505-527.
Fox, I.
1942. The respiratory trumpet and anal segment of the pupae of some
species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Puerto Rico Jour.
Pub. Health & Trop. Med. 17:412-425.
Hall, D. G.
1932. A new biting Culicoides from saltmarshes in the Southeastern
States. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 34:88-89.
Hill, Marjorie S.
1947. The life cycle and habits of Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer
and C. obsoletus Meigen, together with some observations on the life
cycle of C. odibilis Austen, C. pallidicornis Kieffer, C. cubitalis
Edwards and C. chiopterus Meigen. Ann. Trop. Med. & Parasit.
Hinman, E. H.
1932. Notes on Louisiana Culicoides-(Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).
Amer. Jour. Hygiene 15:773-776.


Hull, J. B., and W. E. Dove.
1935. Sand fly control in mangrove marshes. Proc. Helminthol. Soc.
Wash. 2:69.
Hull, J. B., W. E. Dove and N. G. Platts.
1939. Experimental diking and pumping for control of sand flies and
mosquitoes in Florida salt marshes. Jour. Econ. Ent. 32:309-312.
Hull, J. B., W. E. Dove and F. M. Prince.
1934. Seasonal incidence and concentrations of sand fly larvae, Culi-
coides dovei Hall, in salt marshes (Ceratopogoninae: Diptera). Jour.
Parasit. 20:162-172.
Hull, J. B., S. E. Shields and N. G. Platts.
1943. Diking as a measure for sand fly control in salt marshes.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 36:405-409.
Mayer, K.
1934. Die Metamorphose der Ceratopogonidae (Dipt.). Archiv fir
Naturgeschichte, N. F. 3:205-288.
Painter, R. H.
1926. The biology, immature stages, and control of the sand flies (biting
Ceratopogoninae) at Puerto Castilla, Honduras. 15th Rep. Med.
Dept. United Fruit Co. pp. 245-262.
Root, F. M., and W. A. Hoffman.
1937. The North American species of Culicoides. Amer. Jour. Hygiene
Tokunaga, M.
1937. Sand flies (Ceratopogonidae, Diptera) from Japan. Tenthredo
Williams, R. W.
1951. The immature stages of Culicoides tristriatulus Hoffman (Dip-
tera, Heleidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 44:430-440.


Division of Entomology, Florida State Board of Health

This report encompasses a study of species distribution of
Culicoides in Florida during the period November, 1948, to
September, 1950. Specimens were collected principally by light
traps in twenty-nine of Florida's sixty-seven counties, ranging
from northwest Florida to the Keys area, including inland as
well as coastal counties. Infrequent light trap collections from
Duval County and a limited number of biting collections from
Nassau County are also included.





Figure 1. Geographic divisions of Florida to show distribution of


'. k:0.


A total of over 30,000 specimens has been examined. Twenty
species have been identified from the State. In addition, two
species not as yet identified are discussed. Twelve species are
represented by both males and females, six are based on female
specimens alone and two are represented by a single male each.
Table 1 shows the distribution by counties of the species collected.
For purposes of showing ranges of the species, the State has been
divided into four geographical areas (Fig. 1). Inland counties
are separated from coastal counties because two species appear
to be obligatory salt or brackish water breeders. Six species
have thus far been recorded only in west Florida and the north
Gulf Coast counties. One species occurs only in extreme south
Florida. The Atlantic Coast comprises the fourth area. In this
State where there is little variation in elevation and bountiful
aquatic breeding areas, there seem to be few known barriers to
population spread. The only apparent restricting factor is that
certain species seem to require salt or brackish water for
Culicoides venustus Hoffman: This species has been found in
four counties, all on the northwestern Gulf Coast. It was taken
infrequently and usually only one or two specimens at a time.
It resembles C. guttatus rather closely. The terminalia of
venustus differ from guttatus by having the parameres entirely
separate in venustus while they are connected by a narrow strip
at the base in guttatus; the apicolateral processes of the ninth
tergite are slightly longer in guttatus. The only two males of
venustus were taken from Pasco County and are distinctly that
species, showing no characteristics suggesting intergradation.
Culicoides guttatus (Coquillett).1 C. guttatus is one of the most
widespread Culicoides in Florida. It has been taken in twenty-
two counties, inland and coastal. This form was described by Fox
and Hoffman (1944) from Puerto Rico as C. inamollae. Twelve
male terminalia from six Florida counties were compared with
males taken at Carolina, Puerto Rico, the type locality for
inamollae, and appeared to be the same. Lane (1949) synony-
mized inamollae with guttatus. It has been found that the
size of Florida specimens varies and many specimens have
a fairly distinct mesonotal pattern not unlike that of C. venustus.
In Root and Hoffman's key (1937) this species keys out to the
couplet containing C. luteovenus and C. venustus.

1 Syn. C. inamollae Fox and Hoffman, 1944.


Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) : A single female of this species
was taken in Marion County in June, 1950.
Culicoides arboricola Root and Hoffman: This species was taken
from seventeen counties, coastal and inland, extending from
west Florida to the Keys. In Root and Hoffman's key this
species is separated from guttipennis in part on the basis of its
smaller size, though the text states that specimens from Georgia
run larger than the type material. Florida specimens are also
larger, frequently as large as the reported size of guttipennis.
Some male terminalia show slight differences from the drawing
given by the original authors, but these do not appear to be of
specific importance.
Culicoides villosipennis Root and Hoffman: Light traps in eight
counties yielded this species. It ranges along the Gulf Coast from
extreme northwest Florida to the Keys. It was also found in
one inland county. C. villosipennis was usually rare, with only
one specimen to a collection; however, a single collection from
Taylor County in July, 1949, yielded seven specimens. No males
of the species were collected.
Culicoides canithorax Hoffman: This species is known to occur
in twenty-one counties, both on the coast and inland. Some
specimens are larger and have more distinct wing markings than
others. Hoffman (1926) described these as mississippiensis but
later expressed some doubt of the validity of this species. Wing
markings varied greatly in this species, ranging from clearly
marked to some in which the light spots are so indistinct as to
appear to be entirely lacking. A total of twenty-five male termi-
nalia examined from six counties appeared to exhibit very little
variation; furthermore the distinctness of the wing pattern was
not constant even in one geographical area. For these reasons
they are all considered to be canithorax. This species is taken
in very large numbers in the spring months, vying with furens
and guttatus as the species most widely distributed and most
abundant. A single collection from Walton County in March,
1950, yielded over 2700 canithorax.
Culicoides crepuscularis Malloch: C. crepuscularis has been
recorded from seventeen counties; these counties include inland
and coastal areas, ranging from northwest Florida to the Keys.
Culicoides biguttatus (Coquillett) : This species has been re-
corded from five Gulf Coast counties; it was taken only oc-
casionally and there were never more than a few specimens per



Culicoides travisi Vargas (1949) :2 C. travisi has been taken
in only three counties. No males of either this species or bigut-
tatus have been collected.
Culicoides nanus Root and Hoffman: This species is represented
by only two or three female specimens taken from a trap at
Innerarity Point in Escambia County during the summer of 1950.
Culicoides niger Root and Hoffman: Light traps in two counties,
Citrus and Walton, have yielded this species. It is apparently
seasonal, occurring in great numbers for a short period in spring;
from then on it is rarely found. A single male was taken from
Walton County and one from Citrus County.
Culicoides melleus (Coquillett) : This species was described
from Florida specimens. It occurs in thirteen counties, all
coastal, both on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. It was especially
abundant in Escambia, Walton, and Dade Counties. It is a
particularly annoying species at the beaches. The male is being
described elsewhere by Pratt and Foote.
Culicoides furens (Poey) : C. furens is the most widely dis-
tributed species in Florida and probably the most abundant. It
occurs by the thousands in light trap collections from the Florida
Keys and from Lee County. It was collected from twenty-one
counties, all coastal. A single doubtful record occurred in
Alachua County in north central Florida.
Culicoides stellifer (Coquillett) : Records show that this species
was found in twelve counties, inland and coastal. It has not
been recorded from extreme south Florida.
Culicoides baueri Hoffman: This species has been taken in only
two counties, Duval and Marion. Both males and females were
Culicoides piliferus Root and Hoffman and Culicoides spinosus
Root and Hoffman: Both these species are thus far represented
by single males taken from Escambia light trap collections.
Culicoides loughnani Edwards: This species was described
from Jamaica, and to date has not been reported from any other
area. The occurrence of this species in Florida represents the
first record in continental North America. For this reason, it
seems desirable to list the locality data on the specimens which
have been taken. It occurred in six counties, all on the south-
western coast. Specimens are from:

' Syn. C. simulans Root and Hoffman, 1937.



Pinellas Co., Weedon Island Bridge near St. Petersburg
Manatee Co., Longboat Key
Lee Co., Punta Rassa, Captiva, and four traps on Sanibel
Sarasota Co., Englewood
Collier Co., Marco
Monroe Co., Islamorada and Marathon.
On May 16, 1950, twenty-two specimens were captured in a
light trap on Sanibel Island. In all about eighty-five females
and three males have been taken; most of these were trapped
from April through August.
The following descriptive notes are offered on the Florida
FEMALE.-This is a large species, about two mm. in length and heavy
bodied. Head black. Last five segments of antennal flagellum slightly
longer than the first eight. Palpi with second segment less than half as
long as the third; third much swollen with a small deep pit; last two seg-
ments short and subequal.
Mesonotum black with short fine light hairs. Mesonotal pattern dis-
tinct, consisting of two narrow light stripes extending from the sensory
pits back to encircle the prescutellar spots. Two light circular areas lie
on each side laterad to the stripes. Legs light yellowish, knees black with
white bands above and below, tarsi lighter.
Wing with macrotrichia dense over most of the wing, wing background
grey, but light areas are large and confluent giving the wing a very light
appearance. Two conspicuous dark spots, one over second radial cell and
one about halfway between second radial cell and tip of the wing in cell R5.
Abdomen light yellowish brown. Spermathecae two, cylindrical and
about two and one-half times as long as wide. Rudimentary spermatheca
and ring present. In Root and Hoffman's key this species keys out to the
couplet containing C. crepuscularis and C. copiosus.
The male is being described elsewhere by Pratt and Foote.
Culicoides floridensis Beck (1951) : This species, closely re-
sembling C. melleus, was first discovered during the course of
this study. There are no new distribution records to date.
During this investigation, two species were found which do
not seem to fit any of the above discussed species. Species "A"
is similar to canithorax, except the spermatheca is much larger,
the wings narrower and completely lack spots; the wing is gray
with a slightly darker area over the second radial cell. Single
specimens were collected from Escambia County and Sarasota
County. Species "B" is very nearly identical to crepuscularis
except that the spermatheca is much elongated, being at least
five times as long as wide. This species occurs in eight counties





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in which crepuscularis occurs, and in one from which that species
has not been recorded. Further work will have to be done on
both these forms before their status can be ascertained with


1) This study is based on an examination of over 30,000 speci-
mens of Culicoides identified from twenty-nine Florida
2) Twenty species of Culicoides are identified from the State;
two species of undetermined status are discussed.
3) Three species, C. piliferus, C. spinosus, and C. nanus, are
recorded only from Innerarity Point in Escambia County.
4) Florida records and additional description are given for
C. loughnani, a species not previously recorded from con-
tinental North America.

The author wishes to acknowledge the aid of Dr. W. W.
Wirth of the U. S. National Museum, and Mr. R. H. Foote of the
U. S. Public Health Service, during this study.

Beck, Elizabeth C. 1951. A New Culicoides from Florida. Fla. Ent.
XXXIV, 4:135-136.
Fox, Irving and W. A. Hoffman. 1944. Puerto Rico Jour. Pub. Health
and Trop. Med. 20:110.
Hoffman, W. A. 1926. Notes on Ceratopogoninae. Proc. Ent. Soc.
Wash. 28:156-159.
Lane, John. 1949. Sinonimias en Culicoides guttatus (Coquillett, 1904).
Rol. Ent. Venezolana. 8:115-117.
Root, T. M., and W. A. Hoffman. 1937. The North American Species of
Culicoides. Amer. Jour. of Hyg. 25 (1): 150-176.
Vargas, L. 1949. Culicoides travisi Vargas, n.n. Rev. del Inst. de Salub.
y Enferm. Trop. 10(3):233-234.




Carefully Executed 0 Delivered on Time





Department of Biology, University of Florida
While Mr. Richard P. Trogdon, an instructor of Biology at
Jacksonville Junior College, Jacksonville, Florida, was collecting
Odonata in northwest Florida in June, 1950, he saw a wary
dragonfly which he was unable to identify. After much effort he
succeeded in capturing the insect and brought it to me some time
later in Gainesville. I immediately expressed the desire to ex-
amine more, and on a return trip in September Mr. Trogdon was
able to catch eight males. He did not find a female. A still later
trip, July 21, 1951, yielded six males.
In general body form and coloration the specimens were like
Celithemis bertha Williamson, but each had large apical spots
in the wings which were not present in any specimen of bertha
we had collected from central Florida. It was thought to rep-
resent a new species and a description was prepared. The manu-
script, accompanied by a paratype, was submitted to several
other odonatologists and they agreed that it was apparently a
new species. When the specimen was seen by Mrs. Leonora K.
Gloyd, it brought back memories of specimens of bertha that
had been taken by members of the Williamson-Ditzler expedi-
tion in northwest Florida during August and September of 1932.
She requested that Miss Ada L. Olsen send me all specimens of
bertha from the Williamson collection which were taken on that
trip. They were soon received, and of the seventy-eight speci-
mens labeled bertha from Mystic Lake in Liberty County and
from Madison County, there were several similar to the one I
was describing as new. Others showed only the slightest trace
of spots, some in only one pair of wings. This was interesting
since I had suggested the possible existence of such intermediates
in the original manuscript. Here was an apparent case of inter-
breeding of the two species at certain lakes, and their distinct-
ness as different species faded away.
Further study showed that of many specimens we had from
Lake Placid in Highlands County north to Gold Head Branch
State Park in Clay County, separated by a distance of about
160 miles in a straight line, not one showed any indication of
apical spots in the wings. The specimens taken and seen by
Mr. Trogdon in Bay County all had large spots. Thus it appears


that the ranges of the spotted and unspotted forms overlap in
the area around Tallahassee where the Williamson-Ditzler ex-
pedition collected.
The matter was laid aside until I read the recent paper by E.
M. Walker in which he describes three subspecies of Sympetrum
occidentale which apparently differ only in wing markings and
do show in some cases intermediates. The publication of Dr.
Walker's paper encouraged me to continue the study of the
similar problem in Celithemis. Though subspecies have been
little recognized in the Order Odonata, this appears to be a
clear case of two forms with separate ranges which meet in the
region around Tallahassee. Such intermediates as found would
be expected from the subspecies concept. Further study of
the genetics involved is needed, as well as more data on the exact
distribution of the two forms.

9 -- /-

P :: : : .

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3 .; .. 4

Wing photographs. All figures of males.
Fig. 1. Celithemis bertha bertha, Lake Placid, Florida, J. G. Needham.
Fig. 2. Intermediate between Celithemis bertha bertha and Celithemis
bertha leonora, Leon County, Florida, June 6, 1951, W. H. Cross.
Fig. 3. Celithemis bertha leonora, Bay County, Florida, September 8, 1950,
R. P. Trogdon.
Fig. 4. Celithemis bertha leonora, Bay County, Florida, June 7, 1950,
R. P. Trogdon.


Celithemis bertha Williamson
This species was described in 1922 by E. B. Williamson
from a series of 68 males and 8 females collected in Florida,
all from Enterprise, with the exception of two males and two
females from Gotha. The holotype and allotype, taken at Enter-
prise, are in the Williamson collection. There was no mention
made of any indication of a spot near the apex of the wings, nor
did such a spot show on any of the three photographs. Two
photographs show a considerable variation in the basal wing
spots. One of them shows some color at the base of the front
wing and a large spot in the hind wing. The other shows no
color in the front wing base and only a small spot in the hind
wing. For the characterization of this species we refer the
reader to Mr. Williamson's paper. That characterization will
now have to be expanded to cover the specimens of both sub-
species to be described herein, one of them having the apical
spots in all wings.
Celithemis bertha Williamson bertha subsp. n.
The color pattern of the body in this subspecies is essen-
tially like that of the following and one description will do for
both. There is no indication of a dark spot in the apex of any
wing. The original types of the species bertha are here con-
sidered as the types of this subspecies, and all specimens of
the type series belong here also. In addition, I have examined
a number of other specimens. The following abbreviations for
collectors are used in the distribution records: EBW-E. B.
Williamson, EMD-E. M. Davis, MJW-M. J. Westfall, Jr.
MATERIAL STUDIED: Clay Co.-Pebble Lake, Gold Head Branch State
Park: 2S 8, MJW, 5$ 3, R. P. Trogdon, 8/12/50; 58 8, R. P. Trogdon,
8/5/51. Keystone Heights: Reared 3, 9, MJW, 5/14/50. Highlands Co.
-Lake Placid: Large series collected by J. G. Needham; 1 S, 29 9, MJW,
4/19/52. Leon Co.-East end of Lake Hall: S, W. H. Cross, 6/6/51.
Lake Bradford: $, W. H. Cross, 6/21/51. Liberty Co.-Mystic Lake:
60 3$ 2 9 9, EBW et. al., 8/20 21/32. Madison Co.-Pond near Green-
ville: 3 3, EBW et al., 9/2/32. Logan Lake: $, EBW, et. al., 9/3/32.
Lake San Paylor: 2 S EBW et. al., 9/5/32. Orange Co.-Maitland:
8, W. Atlee, 5/12/35. Orlando: 2 & EMD, 4/17/35. Windermere: 2 S,
Frank Holland, 7/23/39; 9, EMD, 5/3/41. Winter Park: 8, 9, MJW,
9/5/41; S, J. A. Fluno, 7/31/35; 3 8 J. A. Fluno 6/22/35; $, EMD,
10/27/35; 3, EMD, 4/24/35; reared 6& S, 89 9, MJW, 4/11-22/41.
Seminole Co.--, S, EMD, 4/13/36.
The specimens from Liberty and Madison Counties are in
the Williamson collection at Ann Arbor, Michigan. Those


from Highlands County taken by me are in my collection;
those taken by Dr. Needham are in the collections of Cornell
University and the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia.
The male from Lake Bradford, Leon County, is in the collection
of Mr. Cross. All others are in my collection.

Celithemis bertha leonora subsp. n.1
MALE.-Face, frontal vesicle and occiput cherry red in life. Area sur-
rounding ocelli black. Distal edge of labrum and median longitudinal
band on labium, black. Occiput clothed behind with long light hair. Back
of head black except for small yellow spot next to the compound eye.
Prothorax almost entirely black. Ground color of synthorax is orange
to reddish brown with metallic blackish markings. A mid-dorsal stripe
widens downward to the collar. The humeral suture bears a dark stripe, con-
stricted in its middle portion, which is broadly continuous around the lower
side of the mesepimeron with a stripe on the obsolete first lateral suture.
This stripe widens suddenly at the metathoracic spiracle to form a quad-
rangular black area which is separated from the expanded upper end of
the humeral stripe by a distance equal to the greatest width of the stripe
above the spiracle. The second lateral suture is overspread by a dark
stripe that runs posteriorly along the crest above and is joined by a hair
streak to the first lateral stripe below. As in bertha bertha the pale area
of the mesepimeron, the pale area above on the metepisternum, and the
pale area below on the metepisternum are all joined above.
Legs black, lighter near bases. Inferior surfaces of front femora light
tan at base.
Wings with costa and all main veins near base in both wings red.
Other veins black. All wings with apical brown spots which, however,
do not reach the apical margin in any of the specimens seen. The most
extensive spot in the front wing reaches from the stigma to one row of
cells beyond Rs but not quite to the wing margin. It extends from the
base of the stigma outward in the wing for approximately 4 mm. The
maximum spot in hind wing is just slightly more extensive. The size of
the spots is variable but in all specimens of this subspecies, a spot can
clearly be seen near the apex of each wing. The size of the basal spot in
the hind wing is also variable, the one with the largest spot having the
brown continuous from the base to A1 or slightly beyond, also with an
isolated small spot at lower inner angle of triangle. The base is yellow-
tinged between Sc and R, and to a lesser extent between C and Sc, to the
first antenodal crossvein at most, with only a little color around the second
antenodal between Sc and R. The median space is largely hyaline and the
cubital space tinged with yellow to first cubito-anal crossvein. Figure 3
shows about the minimum coloration of the basal area. The front wings
without a basal spot in all specimens observed.
Abdomen black and bright red in all the type series. There are no
tenerals at hand but as in the subspecies bertha, younger specimens would

1I am following an early precedent of naming the species in this genus
for women and name this subspecies in honor of Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd
whose fine reputation as an odonatologist needs no elaboration.



no doubt have the pale areas yellow. Segments 1 and 2 broadly red on
sides, with only a dorsal band and lower corners of the tergites black;
3 with an apical dorsal spot and an apical lateral spot each side black,
remainder red; 4 red above the lateral carinae except for a triangular spot
of black each side at apex of segment, with apex of the triangle directed
anteriorly and reaching about half the length of the segment. Median
transverse carinae of segments 2-4 also dark. Segments 5-7 black, with
mid-dorsal red spots which are more or less spear-shaped and almost full-
length, with points directed to rearward; 8-10 entirely black. Superior
appendages yellowish-brown with base and extreme tips black; or in older
specimens almost entirely black. Inferior appendages black.
Total length 31 32.5 mm.; abdomen 20 21; hind wing 24-25.
FEMALE.-Like the male except in minor details. Face is yellowish in
mature specimens instead of cherry red, while the synthorax is yellowish-
brown instead of orange to reddish-brown. Middorsal dark stripe is wider
than in male, sharply constricted in the upper fourth. Dark markings of
the sides of thorax are slightly more extensive and more contrasty in
Wings with base of costa yellow, as well as veins in the basal colored
area. Main veins basally light brown, shading to black apically. Largest
spot in front wing from stigma to Rs but stopping about two cells short
of the apical wing margin. Hind wing with cubital space yellowish to
first cubito-anal crossvein. In one specimen brown extending along the
anal vein to first cubito-anal, but only two or three basal cells filled with
brown. In second specimen brown does not completely fill a single cell in
one wing; borders only of two or three cells darkened. Apical spots all
large in the three females, as large or larger than in the male shown in
figure 4.
Abdomen not so red as in the male. Appendages brown to black.
Total length 27-28 mm.; abdomen 17-18; hind wing 23-24.
HOLOTYPE & AND ALLOTYPE : Liberty Co.-Mystic Lake: EBW
et. al., 8/20/32; in the Williamson collection, Museum of Zoology, Ann
Arbor, Michigan.
PARATYPES (32 S& 2 9 9): Bay Co.-Sunnyside Beach: 8 & &, 9/8 -
11/50, 1, 6/7/50, 6S $, 7/21/51, R. P. Trogdon. Leon Co.-Lake Brad-
ford; 19, W. H. Cross, 6/21/51. Liberty Co.-Mystic Lake: 138 3, 19,
EBW et. al., 9/20 21/32. Madison Co.-Logan Lake: 2$ $ EBW et. al.,
10/3, 7/32. Pond near Greenville: 2 $ EBW et. al., 10/2/32. All of
the specimens except those from Bay and Leon Counties are in the William-
son collection. One of the Bay County specimens is in the Cornell collection,
another in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadel-
phia, another in the collection of Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd, and the others
are in my collection at the present time. The 9 from Leon County is in
the collection of Mr. Cross.

In all of the Bay County specimens the basal brown spot ex-
tending from the wing margin to vein A (spot a of Williamson)
is not bounded on the outer side by yellow, nor is there any indi-
cation of Williamson's spot c. In the Tallahassee area where
both subspecies occurred in the same lakes, this was true of



most specimens of leonora, but a few showed a "washing out"
of the brown basal spot on the outer side to give an appearance
of a yellow edging. In bertha from the southern part of the
state there seems always to be an edging of yellow around the
basal brown spot, and most often (though not always) there
is a well-defined dark spot c beyond the yellow edging as shown
in our figure 1. No spot c was apparent in any with or without
the apical wing spots taken in the Tallahassee area.
Two males from Leon County are unique. Both have the basal
spot a very large, yet there is no yellow edging, nor is there a
spot c. One shows a prolongation of spot a to the inner side of
the triangle, giving a resemblance of a spot b of Williamson.
One of the two has a faint indication of an apical spot in each
wing and has been listed as intermediate between bertha and
leonora. A pair of its wings is shown in figure 2. The other
specimen has no indication of apical spots, and has been listed
with bertha.
The variation in size of the basal spot seems to occur at both
ends of the known geographical range. One specimen from
Bay County, the one shown in figure 4, has much larger basal
spot a than the others. This was the one collected in June;
those taken in September show much smaller spots. At first
it was thought this might be correlated with season, but this
theory seemed to break down under the evidence. Williamson's
specimens from Enterprise exhibited such variation in size of
the basal spot, and were collected on the same date.
The genitalia of the two subspecies are very similar. The
various species of Celithemis are hardly distinguishable by dif-
ferences in genitalia, and in this respect the subspecies of
Sympetrum occidentale, as described by Walker, are almost
identical with each other.
A comparison of venational characters of bertha and leonora
has been made, using the same characters employed by William-
son in his 1922 paper. Five specimens (ten pairs of wings) of
leonora from Bay County were used. The same number was
used for bertha from Enterprise in Williamson's tabulation.
The results show the two subspecies to be identical in most re-
spects. Where there is an apparent difference, the tabulations
are compared below. The figures under the subspecific names
in the tabulation are percentages.
It was noted that Williamson (1922, p. 12) listed only one
of the ten front wings of bertha with Rs and Rspl separated by



2 rows of cells for 1 cell's length. Several specimens of leonora
showed double cells, so an examination was made of 16 wings
of leonora and 38 wings of bertha. In leonora 12.5% had no
double cells between Rs and Rspl in front wing, 25"; had one
double, 56.25% had 2 double and 6.25% had 3 double. In bertha
81.58% had no double cells, 13.16': had 1 double and 5.26%
had 2 double. Likewise, only four of the 16 hind wings of
leonora lacked at least one double cell between Rs and Rspl.

CHARACTERS bertha leonora
7 50 60
Antenodals, front wing ............................ 8 50 30
9 10
Antenodals, hind wing ............................ 4 10
5 100 90
5 20
Postnodals, front wing .........................--. 6 100 50
7 30
6 10 60
Postnodals, hind wing ............................. 7 60 40
8 30
Triangle front wing, followed by:
3 cells, then 2 for 1 3 rows, then 3 .. 80 100*
3 cells, then 3 ...-.......--................ --20

One wing has the first row of 4 cells; another has 3 cells followed by
2 for 6 rows, then 3.

Following Mrs. Gloyd's suggestion, a comparison was made
of certain wing measurements in the two subspecies. The Bay
County specimens were compared with central Florida ones.
In leonora the greatest width of the hind wing is equal to or
slightly greater than the distance in the front wing from nodus
to proximal end of pterostigma; in a long series of bertha the
greatest width of the hind wing is slightly less than the distance
in front wing from nodus to pterostigma.
Of the specimens studied, three males were recognized as
intermediate between the subspecies bertha and leonora. Two
were from the Williamson collection. One of these was from
Lake Mystic, August 20, 1932 and the other from Logan Lake,
September 3, 1932. In the first there is only a very faint indi-
cation of spots in the front wings, small ones in the hind wings.
In the second, there are only small spots in the hind wings, none
in the front. The third specimen from Leon County, June 6,
1951, collected by W. H. Cross and illustrated in figure 2, shows



in all wings such minute spots, hardly visible, that it is also con-
sidered an intermediate.
Because of the apical wing spots, b. leonora will key out in
Williamson's 1922 key along with eponina, elisa, monomelaena,
and fasciata in the first rubric, rather than with b. bertha. The
subspecies leonora, as shown, also shows a tendency to have
double cells between Rs and Rspl as in the eponina group.
C. bertha, as far as known, has been collected only in Florida
from March 31 to December 3. The subspecies bertha seems to
be from the peninsula, and intergrades with leonora in the Talla-
hassee region. It is thought that leonora may occur westward
into Alabama and northward into Georgia. Wherever we have
taken bertha it has been around sand-bottomed lakes, such as
Lake Mystic in Liberty County. Pebble Lake at Gold Head
Branch State Park is one of the smallest at which we have col-
lected it. In Bay County, Mr. Trogdon took leonora at a small
lake or pond about 100 yards from the post office at Sunnyside
Beach. In size, the body of water is about 100 yards wide and
250 yards long, with an additional area of cattails at one end
extending another 100 yards. It is a fresh water pond nor-
mally, but very close to the Gulf, and during storms of hurricane
force, salt water invades it through the culvert by means of
which its waters drain out into the Gulf. Additional specimens
not collected were seen by Mr. Trogdon at other similar ponds
along the road for several miles. These dragonflies perch on
the outermost weed in the lake and are often difficult to capture
from the shore.
I wish to express my gratitutde to Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd for
her helpful suggestions and to Dr. J. Speed Rogers and Miss
Ada Olsen of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan,
for the loan of specimens. I wish also to thank Dr. C. Francis
Byers, Dr. James G. Needham, and Dr. Philip P. Calvert for
examining paratypes and making suggestions with regard to
the manuscript. Special thanks are due to Mr. Trogdon for
bringing this problem to my attention and for turning over his
specimens to me for study.
Walker, E. M. 1951. Sympetrum semicinctum (Say) and its nearest allies
(Odonata). Ent. News 62: 153-163, P1. I.
Williamson, E. B. 1922. Notes on Celithemis with descriptions of two
new species (Odonata). Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 108: 1-22,
P1. I, II.


Sk -- --- V-" --

r... "' 1 "

7: :_.. -"- -- 2

..-' .. . -

Wing3 -* -Al '- -

Wing photograph. All figures of maI.s,




Lakeland, Florida

Theognis gonagra (Fabr.).-This large coreid was plentiful
during the winter of 1949-50 on some Brazilian pepper trees
(Schinvs terebinthefolia, fam. Anacardiaceae) bordering my
yard in Lakeland, where specimens were taken from November
until March. Some were seen on the foliage, but most of them
were on the bright red berry clusters, with sometimes four or
five individuals on a single cluster. In Brazil this species is
known as a pest on Cucurbitaceae, and Goncalves (O Campo,
8:52, 1937) has reported it as found on one occasion sucking
the juice from oranges, but I did not observe any specimens on
the foliage or the fruit of the orange trees standing within a
few yards of the Schinus. This bug has not reappeared here
since the spring of 1950. During that same winter the common
Theognis phyllopus (Linn.) was also seen occasionally on these
trees, but the Schinus is not one of its preferred plants.
Chelinideac vittigera aequoris McAtee.-This cactus coreid has
not been reported previously from Florida. I have looked for it
without success on the prickly pears that grow sparingly in the
oak scrub south of Lakeland. I have, however, one specimen of
the color form artuatra McAtee which I found dead on my
driveway on June 17, 1949. There are two specimens in the
Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan that were col-
lected at Rock Bluff in Liberty County in March, 1929, and one
from Alachua County taken in April, 1923.
Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas).-The common milkweed bug
of the northern states is most often found in Florida on the
oleander. It is seldom numerous; most oleander plants are
without these bugs, and only rarely are more than two or three
adults fund on a single bush. I have taken adults and nymphs
of all stages on oleander at Lakeland during the early days of
May; and the University of Michigan Museum has specimens
labelled as taken on the same host plant at Gainesville.
Kleidocerys champion (Distant).-This small lygaeid, de-
scribed from Guatemala, was first reported from Florida in 1926
by Blatchley, who found it abundantly on roadside vegetation
at Dunedin. I first encountered it in numbers on November 10,


1950, when I took adults and nymphs on goatweed (Scoparia
dulcis, fam. Scrophulariaceae) growing in a vacant lot in Lake-
land. This plant, introduced from Mexico, has escaped from
cultivation and now grows wild in this area. It is of interest
to note that both this species and Theognis gonagra are essen-
tially neotropical in their distribution and that they occur in
this region on plants introduced from neotropical areas.
Perigenes similis Barber.-This lygaeid was described from
Brownsville, Texas, and has been recorded as far north as Mis-
souri, but has not been reported heretofore from Florida. It
is the only member of the genus that I have found at Lakeland,
and probably the specimens from Dunedin that Blatchley re-
ported as P. constrictus (Say) should be placed here. It is fre-
quently seen at lights in summer. The University of Michigan
Museum has a series of P. similis collected by Dr. Hubbell at
Valdosta, Georgia, on June 9, 1936. Mr. Barber has kindly
verified my identification of this species.
Pycnoderes angustatus Reuter.-This mirid, described from
Jamaica, is a new addition to the hemipterous fauna of the
United States. I took several specimens on April 19, 1949, from
tangled vines in a wet woodland beside the Peace River about
one mile north of Bartow, Florida. I am indebted to Dr. J. C.
M. Carvalho for the identification of these specimens.


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