Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1952
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00219
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist



DECEMBER, 1952
Vol. XXXV No. 4


CONTENTS
Page
GRIFFITHS, J. T.-Observations on peel injury to pope sum-
mer oranges in the Vero Beach area ..---.....-- -----------.. 127
GRIFFITHS, J. T.-Some biological notes on katydids in Flor-
ida citrus groves .................................-......-------....--... ..--- 134
WOLFENBARGER, D. O.-Some notes on the citrus root weevil 139
STEARNS, C. R., JR., and J. T. GRIFFITHs-Parathion con-
tamination hazards to spray labor ..............-...-----.......-- ..-- 143
DRAKE, C. J., and H. C. CHAPMAN-A new species of Micra-
canthia from Florida (Hemiptera: Saldidae) --..--------- 147
PHILIP, CORNELIUS B.-Notes on Tabanid flies and other
victims caught by the carnivorous plant, Sarracenia flava 151
YOUNG, FRANK N.-A new species of Suphisellus from Flor-
ida (Coleoptera: Noteridae) ..-----......----..---........-- ......... 157
Minutes of the thirty-fifth annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society ...............-------..---.....-... ..~.......-- 159



Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
Mailing Date: December 18, 1952








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


FLhe
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


VOL. XXXV DECEMBER, 1952 No. 4


THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1952-1953
President ..-..-... ----- --..... ..-- ..-------- ----- J. T. GRIFFITHS
Vice President ....-----.................. .--...----..--- W. 0. WOLFENBARGER
Secretary -_..._........ --. .- ...--..-...----...... MILLEDGE MURPHEY, JR.
Treasurer --...---..-....-------------.---.------.--.. W. P. HUNTER
Executive Committee -...------- ... --- WAYNE DEAN
SI. H. GILBERT

EDITORIAL BOARD
LEWIS BERNER -------. -------_.---------- Editor
L. C. KUITERT ---.... -...-.......... .-...... Associate Editor
W. P. HUNTER ..............-----------.... Business Manager

Issued quarterly-March, June, September, and December. Subscription
price to non-members $2.00 per year in advance; 50 cents per copy.
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Dr. Lewis Berner, Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville.
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Manager, Mr. W. P. Hunter, Box 2425, University Station, University of
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126








VOL. XXXV, No. 4 -DECEMBER, 1952


OBSERVATIONS ON PEEL INJURY TO POPE SUMMER
ORANGES IN THE VERO BEACH AREA 1
J. T. GRIFFITHS 2
Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred

In 1948 Pope Summer oranges in one group of groves in the
Vero Beach area showed essentially the same type of damage
that has always been described and recognized as katydid injury
(Watson and Berger, 1937). However, owners of the groves
believed that grasshoppers were doing the damage, and it was
so severe that investigations concerning it were initiated. The
problem was particularly important since Pope Summer oranges
are picked in late June or July and demand an exceptionally
good price in fresh fruit markets. Down grading had been as
much as thirty to forty percent in some instances, which repre-
sented a sizeable economic loss to the grower.
Observations have been made during the course of approxi-
mately three years, 1949-1951, and while positive conclusions
cannot be drawn at present, certain definite facts have been













1 -7. -






Figure 1. Two oranges which had been damaged just after setting.
The one on the left was apparently damaged by one gouge of the insect's
mandibles. The one to the right was more severely injured.
1 Presented at the 1951 annual meeting of the Florida Entomological
Society in Winter Haven. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Journal Series, No. 83.
SResigned in 1951; present address, Lyons Fertilizer Company, Winter
Haven, Florida.


127







THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


ascertained and recommendations for control may be made. This
paper will discuss the findings made during this period.
The injury on mature fruit is a blemish that may cover as
much as half of the fruit (figure 1). In the particular groves
investigated the injury was found almost exclusively on Pope
Summer oranges, while Marsh Seedless grapefruit, Temple
oranges, and Pineapples had very little if any injury at any
time. According to reports from some other growers along the
Indian River, this same type of injury has been observed in
other Pope Summer orange groves on previous occasions. Oc-
casionally the damage has been extremely severe, but it has
never seemed to persist from one year to the next. In the
groves where these observations were made the injury was first
noted on the crop set in the spring of 1948. Since that time
injury occurred in 1949 and again in 1950, but in 1951 very
little injury was found.
The fruit is injured before it reaches the size of a pea. In-
jury may take place any time after the petals have fallen and
before the fruit has attained a diameter of about /2/ inch.
Apparently by that time the peel has taken on such character-
istics that it is not considered edible by the insects involved.


Figure 2. Fruit shortly after injury. All four fruits in the picture had
been injured (2A natural size).


128








VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


Figure 2 shows typical fruit injured shortly after the petals
had fallen. The extent of the blemish at maturity will depend
upon the amount of injury which occurs on small fruit. If injury
is sufficiently severe, the fruit will drop. If less severe, it may
cause the fruit to grow lopsided, or the fruit may attain a rela-
tively normal appearance with only a small blemish on one side.
Larger fruits are uninjured during the course of the summer
months, except that occasionally the peel is chewed at the margin
of an old scar.
It was noted that late bloom fruit which appeared in the
grove following a bloom in late June or in July suffered severe
injury in the summers of 1949, 1950, and 1951. There was a
relatively heavy late bloom crop set in 1949. In the two follow-
ing years there was little late bloom fruit, but where it was
present, injury was common. However, fruit which had already
sized was not being injured at that same time. It is apparent
from this observation that the insect involved is present not
only in the spring but throughout the summer months. However,
injury occurs only to very small fruits.
In 1949 and again in 1950 the injury was accompanied by
severe foliage damage throughout the grove. Foliage injury
was characterized by holes eaten in the center of leaves as well
as along the margins. In 1951, however, foliage injury was not
present, although there was some injury to the fruit that spring.
Fruit injury appears to be only superficial, with only the ex-
ternal layers of the peel being affected. Whether or not the in-
sect which is injuring the fruit was causing the foliage injury
has not been satisfactorily determined.

THEORIES CONCERNING CAUSE
Numerous possibilities concerning the cause of this injury
have been examined and, in almost all cases, found wanting.
Each of these possibilities will be discussed separately below.
The citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus litus (Germar), was con-
sidered a possibility. This beetle has been reported often in the
Homestead-Miami area and it is known to injure fruit and
foliage in Cuba. Although, according to Florida State Plant
Board records, it has been reported as far north as the Vero
Beach area, it has not been common there. Never, during the
course of the three years' observations, were beetles of this
species encountered in the grove nor was the injury which has


129








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


been pictured by Wolfenbarger (in press) exactly the same as
that found at Vero Beach. It is, therefore, not believed that this
insect is involved in the present injury.
Since the injury was identical with that caused by the broad-
winged katydid, Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.), par-
ticularly close attention was paid to this insect. Very few
katydids were noticed in the springs of 1949 and 1950, and in
1951 very careful observation for this insect was made. It was
not seen in the grove in the spring of 1951. When this insect
is present, observation has shown that foliage injury may be
severe. There can be no question that they will chew on fruit
and will cause injury identical to that under discussion here.
The fact remains that this insect was apparently rare in these
groves and, under the conditions discussed here, was not a
problem on Pope Summer oranges. The type of injury which
it normally causes on foliage is shown in figure 3. In 1951 this
katydid produced a hatch which was approximately simultaneous
with the set of fruit and thus its life cycle during that year was
most satisfactory for an insect which would injure young fruit.
However, it can be stated positively that the injury caused in
the spring of 1951 in the particular groves involved was not
caused by the broad-winged katydid.














L/....... L-
Figure 3. Leaves with holes chewed in centers and at margins by the
broad-winged katydid. In the laboratory the restless bush cricket caused
similar feeding patterns.

The owners of the grove originally believed that the injury
was caused by some species of grasshopper. During the three
years, numerous collections of grasshoppers were made to deter-


130







VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


mine what species were present and which were most abundant.
The most common grasshopper found in the grove in the spring
of the year was the Eastern lubber, Romalea microptera (Beau-
vais). This species hatches in the spring of the year (Griffiths
and Thompson, in press), usually by mid-February, and it was
present in the grove in 1949 and again in 1950 in considerable
numbers. Nymphs were found commonly during the spring of
of the year on trees in areas where fruit was injured. In 1951
this species was almost nonexistent at the time fruit was set
but, nevertheless, some injury occurred on the fruit. In 1949
no correlation could be made between the relative intensity of
lubber infestation and the amount of fruit injured. In fact, the
areas where lubbers were scarcest were the areas where most
injury occurred. In the laboratory it was extremely difficult to
get this insect to feed upon young fruits. While they would
occasionally chew on the side of a small fruit, it was obviously
not a desirable food source.
The second most common grasshopper found in the grove
was Melanoplus femur-rubrum propinquus Scudder, the red-
legged grasshopper. Griffiths and Thompson (in press) found
that this insect hatches in mid- to late-February in most years
and nymphs were present at the time the fruit was set. In the
laboratory this insect failed to feed readily upon young fruits.
It was uncommon also in the spring of 1951, although some
individuals were present.
In addition to the above-named species Schistocerca obscure
(Fabr.), Schistocerca americana americana (Drury), Paroxya
atlantica atlantica (Scudder), Paroxya clavuliger (Serville), and
Dicromorpha viridis (Scudder) also were found. None of these
species was ever in sufficient abundance to be considered of any
importance.
Individuals from three genera of Tettigoniiae, Odontoxi-
phidium, Orchelium, and Conocephlus, were collected, but these
appeared to bear no relationship to the fruit injury.
The common field cricket, Acheta assimulis Fab., was al-
ways present in considerable numbers in the trash at the base
of the tree. However, these crickets were never collected on
the tree itself and in the laboratory they showed a marked
aversion to fruits, although on one occasion one fruit was
nibbled by a caged specimen.
The restless bush cricket, Hapithus agitator Uhler, was
found on several occasions in the grove and there is definite








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


reason for believing that this very probably is the major cause
of the fruit injury. This cricket is pictured in figure 4. In the
summer of 1949 it was collected on trees in the vicinity of late
bloom fruit which had been injured. One nymph was collected
in sweepings of the cover crop. Specimens brought in to the
laboratory readily chewed on fruit and foliage. The injury on
foliage was similar to that made by katydids. Only the angular-
winged katydid was found to eat
fruit as readily as did the rest-
less bush cricket. In the labora-
tory it appeared that small
fruits were a preferred part of
Sthe cricket's diet. After the
i' first collection, observations on
S the prevalence of this cricket
were attempted, however the au-
thor was uniformly unsuccessful
Figure 4. Restless Bush in finding specimens of this in-
Cricket. The insect is light sect. During the blooming period
brown to tan with a light line
along the wing margin, in 1951 a careful search was
made under the trees. Both
nymphs and adults of the restless bush cricket were found among
trash under the trees. These were found at a time when injury
was occurring and at a time when most of the injury was confined
to that part of the tree which was in intimate contact with some
of the cover crop. In other words, injury was primarily on the
lower limbs and usually only in those areas where tree and cover
crop were touching. In such areas, insects without wings would
be capable of climbing onto the tree and injuring fruit. Such
would be the case if nymphs of this species were implicated.
Due to the readiness with which the restless bush cricket will
feed on young fruit in the laboratory as well as its occurrence,
both under the trees and on the trees on several occasions, and
the fact that this insect is apparently present throughout the
spring and summer months when injury regularly occurred to
young fruits, it would appear quite possible that this is the culprit
that produced most of the injury to Pope Summer oranges. It
is believed that until definite proof is found to the contrary, this
insect should be considered the major insect involved. It is, of
course, possible that some injury is caused by other insects, but
in all probability the majority of the damage was performed by
this one species.


132









VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


CONTROL MEASURES
During the springs of 1949, 1950, and 1951 several insect-
icides were applied to determine if the damage could be success-
fully prevented. In these tests toxaphene, chlordane, lindane,
dieldrin, and aldrin were tested. All of these are good insect-
icides for the control of grasshoppers and related Orthopteran
species. Toxaphene was used on a commercial scale in each of
two years. It was found that the application of these materials
at the time petal fall was about half completed prevented the
injury relatively well. Sprays applied before bloom were not
generally successful. It is believed that insecticides should be
used at dosages comparable to those for grasshopper control
(Better Fruit Program, 1952; Griffiths and Thompson, in press)
and applied to cover the foliage, young fruit, cover crop and
ground under the tree.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
In 1948 peel injury to Pope Summer oranges was first re-
ported on the crop of fruit set in 1947. This injury in some
instances involved as much as 30 to 40 percent of the crop.
Observations during the succeeding three years indicated that
the injury was not caused by the common broad-winged katydid,
Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.), or by grasshoppers which
were present in the grove. It appeared that the injury was
probably caused by the restless bush cricket, Hapithus agitator
Uhler. Chemical control was attempted and it is probable that
the application of either toxaphene, chlordane, lindane, or aldrin
at the time of petal fall at dosages comparable to those used for
grasshoppers in citrus groves would yield relatively satisfactory
control.

LITERATURE CITED
Better Fruit Program, 1952. Florida Citrus Commission, Lakeland,
Florida.
Griffiths, J. T. and W. L. Thompson. Grasshoppers in citrus groves in
Florida. University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bul-
letin No. 496. 1952. (In press.)
Watson, J. R. and E. W. Berger. Citrus insects and their control. Uni-
versity of Florida Extension Bulletin No. 88. 1937.


133




























































































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%p'Vl\VII^








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


SOME BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON KATYDIDS IN FLORIDA
CITRUS GROVES 1
J. T. GRIFFITHS 2
Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred

During the course of observations on injury to Pope Summer
oranges in the Vero Beach area, interest in the broad-winged
katydid, Microcentrum rhombifolium (Sauss.), on citrus in
Florida led to observations on the biology of this insect. This
katydid has been known for many years to occasionally damage
citrus fruits by chewing on the peel as described by Griffiths.3
This paper presents observations on the life history of this katy-
did and illustrations of the instars.
In 1951 eggs hatched early in the spring and the hatching
coincided with the onset of the spring flush of growth on citrus
trees. Figure 1 shows eggs which are just about to hatch. These
eggs have swelled and hatching would normally occur within a
relatively short time. Katydids were first observed to hatch on
February 16.




















Figure 1. Katydid eggs which are about to hatch. These appear raised
and swollen.
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 84.
2 Resigned in 1951; present address, Lyons Fertilizer Company, Winter
Haven, Florida.
3 Griffiths, J. T. 1952. Observations on peel injury to Pope Summer
Oranges in the Vero Beach area. Fla. Ent. (in press).


134








VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


Individuals hatched on February 16, 1951 were reared to
adults in the laboratory. It is probable that their life cycle was
longer than would normally have occurred in citrus groves,
inasmuch as the katydids were confined in small containers and
their diet was probably not as satisfactory as would have been
found in nature.
On March 11 the first katydids molted from first to second
instar (figure 2). This represented a period of 23 days for the
first instar. The first individuals to reach third instar did so
on April 2 or after another 23 days. The last nymph to reach
third instar did so on April 10.














VV, M- -


Figure 2. The four instars of the broad-winged katydid, Microcentrum
rhombofolium (Sauss.). Upper left, 1st instar; upper right, 2nd instar;
lower left, 3rd instar; and lower right, 4th instar.

In the third instar (figure 2) a distinctive line appears on
the dorsal side of the abdomen. This is usually light yellow and
extends along the mid-dorsal line of the thorax. As it emerges
behind the small wing pads it separates and forms two distinct
lines down the lateral margin of the dorsal abdominal area.
This is a distinctive marking which readily places the individual
in third instar. It is not present as a pronounced line in second
instar.
The first individuals to reach fourth instar did so on April
13 and the last one on April 28. Wing pads appeared in the
third and were pronounced in the last instar. The first adult
(figure 3) emerged on May 1 and the last two on May 8. The


135







THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


life cycle from hatching to adulthood extended over a period of
almost three months. Observations in the field showed that katy-
dids in similar stages to those in the laboratory were found at
approximately the same times. Adults were first observed
during the latter part of April.













Figure 3. Adult female of the broad-winged katydid.

A second hatch occurred in the summer of 1951. Another
hatch was observed about September 1 and on January 1, 1952
second and third instar nymphs were seen in the field. It is
apparent from this that the life cycle is probably continuous
throughout the year with, perhaps, three or more generations
occurring annually. Whether hatching and nymphal develop-
ment is normal in most winters is unknown, but in the period
of rather mild temperature during November and December of
1951 it was apparent that hatching had occurred in a number of
groves and that nymphs were present in January of 1952.
Th's katydid is seldom of major economic importance to
citrus. It has been definitely established that it can injure fruit
and does so on occasion although fruit injury amounting to
economic loss is probably rare. Foliage injury, particularly to
young trees, can be extremely severe. In the fall of 1951 obser-
vations in a young grove indicated that katydid injury was the
major factor in partial defoliation of numerous trees. This
injury was widespread over a 60 acre block and chlordane sprays
were applied to control the insect. Since a number of eggs are
laid on a single leaf, if these eggs hatch, a fairly large popula-
tion of katydids will be present with a limited leaf area for food.
The damage by these rapidly growing nymphs can on occasion
be most severe.


136








VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


Figure 4. Emergence holes in parasitized katydid eggs made by
Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh). Note the flattened appearance of these eggs
as contrasted with those in Figure 1.

Eggs of this katydid are commonly parasitized and parasit-
ism is a major factor in the normal control of this insect pest.
The eggs have a flat appearance (figure 4) and round emergence
holes of the parasite are very evident. The most common para-
site is Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh),4 a member of the family
Eupelmidae. Usually when parasitism occurs, all eggs of a
group on a single leaf will be parasitized.




















Figure 5. Two katydids which are sometimes found in citrus groves,
Neoconocephalus triops, above, and Scudderia sp. below.
Identification by Mr. A. D. Gahan of the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine.


137








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


The broad-winged katydid is the most common species found
on citrus in Florida, however, two other species regularly en-
countered are pictured in figure 5. One is the species Neocono-
cephalus triops (L.) and the other belongs to the genus Scud-
deria. Positive identification of this specimen was not made.
No information on the life cycles of these two species is avail-
able.

SUMMARY
The broad-winged katydid Microcentrum rhombifolium
(Sauss.) is a common insect found in citrus groves in Florida.
Only rarely does it accomplish major injury and.this is usually
confined to young trees. It passes through four instars which
take a period of approximately three months from egg to adult.
Its eggs are highly parasitized by a Hymenopterous insect of the
family Eupelmidae, Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh).


138











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VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


SOME NOTES ON THE CITRUS ROOT WEEVIL 1
D. O. WOLFENBARGER
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, Florida

Extensive root injuries were found during a tree replace-
ment program in a commercial Tahiti lime grove. Many bur-
rows and excavations in the roots appeared to be wounds caused
by insect feeding. Further observations disclosed larvae, pupae,
and general adults of the citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus litus
(Germar), in the soil about the tree roots. Four larvae, three
pupae, and two immature adult forms were taken from the soil
among the roots of one tree. Much root injury was also observed
on this tree. Examinations of roots from orange and lime trees
in other groves indicated that such root injuries were very
common.
Adults were numerous in one orange grove and were feeding
on the fruit and bloom so abundantly that an important portion
of the fruit was destroyed. Commercial grove caretakers re-
ported that the citrus root weevil was worse than they had ever
observed. In view of the damage caused by this insect, a study
was made of the literature pertaining to it. In addition, a
reconsideration of the importance of the species appeared neces-
sary. Much of the information presented here was gleaned
from the literature as indicated.
Beetles collected from near Cayamas, Cuba, in 1824 were
named Cyphus litus by Germar in 1825, according to Schwarz
and Barber (1922). Horn placed the species in the genus
Pachnaeus, according to Schwarz and Barber (1922), but con-
fused litus and opalus. The synonym of litus, therefore, is
opalus. P. opalus (Olivier) was accepted as a valid species by
Schwarz and Barber (1922), with P. distans Horn as a synonym.
REFERENCES.-Pachnaeus litus (Germar) is known as the
citrus root weevil in the United States and as the picudo verde-
azul in Cuba and Puerto Rico. P. litus ranges from south Flor-
ida through the Keys, Cuba, and Jamaica and, according to
Wolcott (1933), is a widespread pest in the West Indies. It was
listed as a pest of economic importance in Florida by Moznette
(1923) and by Watson (1918, 1939). It was reported a citrus
pest by Gowdey (1923) in Jamaica. More reports concerning
the species have come from Cuba, however, than from other
1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 73.


139








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


areas. They are listed as follows: Bruner (1934, 1935), Bruner
et al (1945), Bruner and Scaramuzza (1936), Cook and Horne
(1908), Perdomo (1940), and de Zayas (1947).
Citrus plants appear to be the principal hosts of the citrus
root weevil. Beans (Bruner (1935)), strawberries (Watson
(1939)), and tobacco (Bruner and Scaramuzza (1936)), were
also reported infested. The weevil has been observed feeding
on avocado leaves. Beetles are taken occasionally from trees in
a large avocado grove during a sampling procedure for the
Heilipus squamosus beetle. Although beetles were observed to
feed on fruit of the orange and grapefruit, none has been ob-
served to feed on lime fruit; neither has any feeding wound
been observed on lime fruit. Although Watson (1918) recog-
nized the importance of the adults, he believed the larvae were
more injurious.
Many life history details were reported by Cook and Horne
(1908) and Bruner (1934). From their reports the life history
is given very briefly as follows: Mature beetles begin emerging
in April, reach a peak of abundance in May, become fewer during
mid-summer, and by December have disappeared. Eggs are
laid in groups, between two leaves or between a fold of the same
leaf, and hatch in about a week. Newly hatched larvae drop to
the ground, burrow beneath the surface, and begin feeding on
the roots. Feeding seems to be superficial on the larger roots,
but deeper wounds on the smaller roots and absence of certain
small roots, suggest that entire roots are occasionally consumed.
About ten months appear to be spent by the larvae in the soil.
Populations of the beetles vary extremely from year to year.
Authors' writings emphasize this as a characteristic of the
species. Explanations for it, however, were not found.
Watson (1918) early recommended lead arsenate for control
of the beetle. He later (1932) recommended a fluosilicate.
Bruner (1934) and de Zayas (1947) recommended collection of
beetles. This is easily accomplished by jarring the trees. The
beetles feign death in response to the jarring and fall to the
canvas or other material on the ground used for the collection.
Bruner (1934) believed the adult stage offered the best oppor-
tunity for combating the pest.
EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL.-A test was conducted in the spring
of 1951 to study control of beetles feeding in an orange grove.
About one-half of the trees were sprayed with cryolite, the trees


140








VOL. XXXV, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1952


in two rows were left unsprayed, and the remainder were
sprayed with parathion. The sprays were applied with a power
sprayer. Cryolite (synthetic) was used at six pounds per 100
gallons of water and parathion (15 percent wettable powder)
was used at one pound per 100 gallons of water. Beetle popula-
tions were determined one and three days after the treatments.
This was done by shaking the beetles from each of five trees
onto a parachute silk spread under the trees. Five trees of
each treatment were shaken and the collections of beetles were
recorded for each day's count. A tabular presentation of the
data, giving the average number of beetles per tree, is given as
follows:
Treatment One day Three days
Cryolite 5.6 3.8
Parathion 5.8 5.4
Check 7.6 8.2

Cryolite gave slightly more reduction than parathion. The
differences between treatments are just short of statistical sig-
nificance. Observations a week after treatment showed that the
spray treatments had not given satisfactory beetle reductions.
Improved control is needed to provide more satisfactory pro-
tection from the citrus root weevil.

LITERATURE CITED
Bruner, S. C. Observaciones sobre el picudo verde-azul de los naranjos.
Rev. de Agric. Com. y Trabajo 14 (19) : 35-40, illus. 1934.
.............La maruca y otros insects de las havas de lima. Estac. Exptl.
Agronom. de Cuba. Bol. 56: 1-52, illus. 1935.
..--------..- and L. C. Scaramuzza. Resefia de los insects del tabaco en Cuba.
Estac. Exptl. Agronom. de Cuba. Circ. 80: 1-51, illus. 1936.
.....-...-.. .--...-......, y A. R. Otero. Cat6logo de los insects que atacan a
las plants economics de Cuba. Ministerio de Agric. pp. 1-246, illus.
Habana.
Cook, Melville Thurston and William Titus Home. Insects and diseases
of the orange. Estac. Central Agronom. de Cuba. Bul. No. 9: 1-40,
illus. 1908. (English Ed.)
Gowdey, C. C. Principal agricultural pests of Jamaica. Dept. Agr.
Jamaica. Ento. Bul. 2: 29-42, illus. 1923.
Moznette, G. F. Notes on the citrus root weevil as a strawberry pest.
Fla. State Plant Board. Quart. Bul. 5: 24-26, illus. 1921.
Perdomo, Jose E. Lexico tabacalero Cubano. pp. 101-102. 1940. Ha-
bana.
Schwarz, E. A. and H. S. Barber. The specific names of two otiorhynchid
weevils of Florida. Proc. Ent. Soc. of Wash. 24: 29-30, illus. 1922.


141








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Watson, J. R. Insects of a citrus grove. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bul. 148:
166-267, illus. 1918.
..........Citrus insects and their control. Fla. Agr. Ext. Bul. 67: 1-140,
illus. 1932.
---.......-.....Florida entomological conditions in 1938. Citrus Ind. 20 (2) : 11.
1939.
Wolcott, Geo. N. An economic entomology of the West Indies. 688 p. +
xviii. Ent. Soc. Puerto Rico. San Juan. 1933.
de Zayas, Fernando. Enemigos de agriculture Cubano. Almanaque del
Ministerio de Agricultura de Cuba. pp. 88-100. 1947.


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142








VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


PARATHION CONTAMINATION HAZARDS TO SPRAY
LABOR1
C. R. STEARNS, JR. AND J. T. GRIFFITHS 2
Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred

The application of parathion to citrus involves the subjec-
tion of spray labor to long, continuous periods of exposure, and
the nature of the spray operation is such that it is impossible
to prevent contact or contamination with the spray material.
As a result, the use of parathion on citrus has been found to be
more hazardous than its use on other crops.
In 1950, a report by Griffiths et al (1951) showed that there
was some correlation between the job engaged in and the amount
of parathion found on the respirator filter discs. This was in
turn related to the incidence of parathion poisoning. This re-
lationship was found for Speed Sprayer drivers and hand spray
gun operators, but not for supply unit operators. In this latter
instance, the amount of parathion found on filter discs was low
and incidence of parathion illness high.
The purpose of this paper is to present further results on
the analysis of parathion on respirator filter discs and to cor-
relate the changes in cholinesterase levels with the amounts of
parathion found on filter discs of the three spray groups men-
tioned above. The beneficial effect from the use of canopies
for the protection of tractor drivers is also included. All ob-
servations were made during the 1951 season.

EXPERIMENTAL
Respirator filter discs were collected at the end of each day's
spray operations from eight Speed Sprayer operators, six supply
unit operators, and seven hand spray gun operators. One of
the Speed Sprayer operators was protected from spray drift by
a canopy over the tractor. A complete daily record was kept of
the number of pounds of parathion handled by each man. The
filter discs were stored in sealed jars and collected at least once
a week. This procedure was carried out during the post-bloom
and summer scalicide application periods.

1 Presented before the Florida Entomological Society at Winter Haven,
Florida, September 13-14, 1951. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Journal Series, No. 92.
2 Resigned in 1951.


143








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


The parathion was extracted from the filter discs according
to the following technique: two filter discs (one day's exposure)
were placed in a 500 ml. narrow mouth Erlenmeyer flask con-
taining 200 mls. of benzene. The flask was stoppered securely
and placed in a horizontal shaker for one hour. The extract was
then filtered through cotton and stored in a flask until analysis
was made. One hundred to 150 ml. of the extract were evapo-
rated from a 300 ml. tall-form beaker to a volume of 10 ml. on
a steam bath with the aid of a current of air blowing across the
top of the beaker. The last 10 ml. were evaporated by the air
only. The analysis was made according to the Averill-Norris
method (1948).
RESULTS

The results shown in Table 1 indicate that in hand spray
operations the most parathion was found on the discs and the

TABLE 1. CORRELATION OF AMOUNTS OF PARATHION FOUND ON FILTER
DISCS DURING KNOWN EXPOSURE PERIODS AND CHANGES IN CHOLIN-
ESTERA E LEVELS OF THREE GROUPS OF SPRAY OPERATORS.

Parathion Average Decrease in
Type of Mcg. per Lb. Cholinesterase Levels**
Spray Operation Per Filter Disc* Red Blood Cells Plasma
Filling Tank ......................... .15 .4 20
Speed Sprayer Driver ---.... .45 2.6 23
Hand Gun Operator ............. 1.41 8 30
Mcg. parathion per lb. of 15% parathion sprayed.
** These values, representing percentage points below normal, were obtained from Dr.
J. W. Williams of Lakeland who was in charge of cholinesterase work in a cooperative
experiment with the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, and American Cyanamid
Company.

TABLE 2. PROTECTION OF SPEED SPRAYER OPERATORS BY USE OF TRACTOR
CANOPY.*
Parathion Percent Reduction
Mcg./100 Lbs./Filter Disc** by Use of Canopy
No Canopy Canopy Sprayer #3 Sprayer #3
Sprayer #1 Sprayer #2 Sprayer #3 with #1 with #2
94.8 91.5 22 76.8 76
73.7 120.8 4 94.6 96.7
51.4 76 4.5 91.3 94
109.8 96.3 4.5 96.0 95.4
119.1 126.2 6.4 94.6 95
116 114 15.5 85.6 89.3
66.1 21.5 67.4
101 18.7 81.4
Commercial spray operations.
** Meg. parathion per 100 lbs. of 15% parathion sprayed.


144








VOL. XXXV, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1952


greatest decrease in cholinesterase levels resulted. The supply
unit operators had the least; however, as previously reported
(Griffiths et al., 1951), the latter group had a higher incidence
of parathion illness. There was no hazard difference between
the Speed Sprayer operators and the supply unit operators.
Table 2 shows the reduced amounts of parathion contamination
as a result of a protective canopy.

DISCUSSION
The application of parathion by hand spray gun operators
is a very dangerous operation, for it is extremely difficult to
apply the spray correctly without the clothes of the operator
becoming saturated with spray material. In view of the high
rate of contamination, it would seem advisable to reduce this
method of application to emergencies. When it is necessary, the
exposure period of the men should be limited to not more than
five consecutive days.
It is quite apparent that the Speed Sprayer operation is much
safer, and the safety factor can be increased further by the use
of a canopy which will practically eliminate the contamination
problem. This does not mean, however, that the operator can
discard his respirator.
As previously stated, low amounts of parathion are found
on filter discs worn by supply unit operators. This does not
agree with facts concerning the high incidence of parathion ill-
ness in this group. Thus, because this job can be carried out
with but little contamination, it should be a safe one. However,
it is apparently a job in which carelessness can result in ex-
cessive exposure. The illnesses occurring to men engaged in this
operation would, thus, appear to be the result of carelessness
and therefore could readily be prevented.
The decrease in the cholinesterase levels in the blood appear
to be somewhat in line with the results obtained in previous
work which was reported in 1951 (Griffiths et al.).

CONCLUSIONS
1. The hand spray gun operator group showed the greatest
amount of contamination and also showed the greatest decreases
in cholinesterase levels. Thus, other safer methods of applying
parathion sprays should be employed wherever possible.


145








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


2. Speed Sprayer applications are safer than hand gun
operations. The safety can be increased by using a canopy to
protect the operator from spray material.
3. Supply unit operators have a low incidence of contamina-
tion but have a relatively high rate of illness due to parathion.
This is probably the result of occasional lapses in safety pre-
cautions which result in massive contamination.

LITERATURE CITED
Averill, P. R. and M. W. Norris. Estimation of Small Amounts of 0,0-
Diethyl O,p-Nitrophenyl Thiophosphate. Anal. Chem. 20 (8): 753-756.
1948.
Griffiths, J. T., C. R. Stearns, Jr. and W. L. Thompson. Parathion Hazards
Encountered Spraying Citrus in Florida. Jour. Econ. Entomol. 44 (2):
160-163. 1951.


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146


FLORIDA








VOL. XXXV, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1952


A NEW SPECIES OF MICRACANTHIA FROM FLORIDA
(HEMIPTERA: SALDIDAE)
C. J. DRAKE AND H. C. CHAPMAN 2
The genus Micracanthia Reuter (1912), shore bug family
Saldidae, is represented in the world by nine species, including
the new one described below from Florida and Mississippi. The
latter now makes Florida the type locality for three of the six
species indigenous to the Americas--M. humilis (Say), M.
pumpila Blatchley and M. husseyi, n. sp. Another member of
the genus, M. quadrimaculata (Champion) also occurs in Flor-
ida.
The species of the genus M.lici.to(ri ,th! inhabit and breed in
the narrow, wet areas near the shore line of bodies of running
and standing waters. This narrow strip of wet land (sparsely
dotted with scattered vegetation) is washed by the waves and
more or less deeply inundated at high water. The thinly scat-
tered plants provide cover and shelter needed for protection,
especially by immature stages and brachypterous imagoes.
Very little is known about the biology, predacity, and habitat
requirements of any of the species. M. humilis is by far our
commonest and most widely dispersed species. It ranges across
southern Canada and throughout the United States (it is most
abundant and generally dispersed east of the Rocky Mountains)
and then south into Mexico and the West Indies. Recently, it
was also reported from Brazil. M. quadrimaculata ranks next
in geographies, ranging from Panama across Central America
and Mexico, deep into United States and along the west coast
north into British Columbia. The other native species as well
as the two old world species found in North America are poorly
represented in collections, probably because of their singular
habits and spotty distribution.
M. quadrimaculata finds suitable abodes near the water's
edge along borders of fresh, alkaline and salt waters. The
species was collected along the shore of a large salt water lagoon,
Veracruz, Mexico, July 29, 1950; Lake Tahoe, California, Aug.
8, 1937; Williamette River, near Corvallis, Oregon, May 10,
1936; and Soap Lake, Washington, Aug. 30, 1949, all by C. J.
Drake. Most of the specimens of M. pumpila and M. husseyi
1Department of Entomology, Iowa State College.
2 Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, ARA, Department of
Agriculture.


147








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


examined were collected in the vicinity of brackish waters or
salt marshes, but they are not restricted to such habitats. The
singular habits of the latter are discussed below with its descrip-
tion.

Micracanthia husseyi, sp. nov.3
FORM AND COLOR: Small, elongate-ovate, black with the outer margin
of the hemelytra more or less widely and irregularly margined with whitish
testaceous, also frequently with a small spot near apex of clavus and three
other rounded spots near outer margin of inner clavus whitish. Hemelytra
with darkened part velvety black, not as dark as scutellum and pronotum,
sometimes with some bluish pruinose spots, the darkened area often ex-
tending at one or two places into outer corium; membrane pale, with a
small fuscous spot in small outer cell and two spots in each of the three
larger inner cells. Antennae fuscous-black, with basal segment more or
less pale. Body beneath black, the venter densely clothed with rather
long grayish pubescence. Pronotum, scutellum, and head slightly shining,
the grayish pubescence inconspicuous. Hemelytra with prominent golden
pubescence in blackish areas and pale inconspicuous pubescence in pale
areas.
SIZE: Length, 2.50-3.00 mm.; width, 1.25-1.40 mm. Female generally
a little broader than the male.
HEAD: Width across eyes, 0.87 mm. Black with a luteous spot on each
side between the eye and ocellus, with the usual long stiff hairs; ocelli
pale brown, separated by slightly less than diameter of an ocellus; front
plain, without median longitudinal groove; apical callosities large, convex
above, whitish testaceous, sometimes brown or black, with the inner ends
not meeting on the median line; a small white callosity on each side of
clypeus in adjacent area; labrum very large, shieldlike in shape, dark
ferrugineous in color. Rostrum very long, testaceous. Antennae moder-
ately long, shortly pilose with pilosity rather sparse on first two segments
and quite dense on last two segments; segment II slenderest, varying from
slightly shorter to subequal to III in length; III and IV equal in length;
length of segments-I, 20; II, 26-29; III, 30-32; IV, 30-32.
THORAX: Pronotum moderately narrowed anteriorly, the lateral mar-
gins nearly straight; hind margin deeply broadly excavated; collar very
short, sharply marked off from callus by a deep transverse sulcus; callus
moderately elevated, with a large deep rounded impression on the disc,
slightly longer than hind lobe, not extending laterally on explanate
margins, delimited behind by a deep transverse suclus which is pitted at
the bottom; hind lobe moderately convex. Scutellum with color and
pubescence as on pronotum, transversely impressed just in front of the
middle, the hind part finely transversely rugulose.
Hemelytra with pubescence a little longer than on pronotum; underside
of midvein of corium deeply transversely notched near the base for the
reception of a short, fingerlike, lateral projection on metapleura, the two

SNamed in honor of the Florida aquatic hemipterist, Dr. R. F. Hussey,
who has contributed many fine papers on American Hemiptera.


148









VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


149


structures functioning together as a wing stabilizer when the hemelytra
are in repose.
ABDOMEN: Front margin of second connexival segment (on each side)
in male provided with two rows (alternate rows with rows and pegs
placed close together) of stridulatory pegs, the pegs with rounded tops
and pointed anteriorly. No stridulatory pegs in female. Male parameres
small with apices narrowed and turned downwards, with a very distinctly
raised area or bump-like area on the inferior side just beneath the nar-
rowed apical part; dorsal surface evenly and slowly bowed (convex) with
the basal part just beneath the curved part abruptly narrowed.
HOLOTYPE & AND ALLOTYPE 9 : Lakeland, Fla., Feb. 24, 1950, collected
by J. E. Burgess, in Drake Collection.
PARATYPES (many specimens): Pierce, Polk County, Fla., May 28,
1950, R. F. Hussey; Pascagoula, Miss., Aug. 8, 1921, C. J. Drake; Oak
Hill, Cocoa, Titusville and Orlando, Fla., 1951-52, all by H. C. Chapman.
AFFINITIES: M. husseyi is most closely related to M. humilis and M.
pumpila. The three species may be differentiated as follows:-
M. pumpila Blatchley-Scutellum with apex strongly swollen or tumid,
deep black, shining, sparsely pubescent. Antennae with segment II
thinner and much shorter than III; III and IV distinctly thicker and densely
pubescent, nearly equal in length, both segments longer than in either of
the other species. Callus also larger and more elevated than in the other
two species.
M. humilis (Say)-Scutellum concolorus, evenly pubescent, the apical
part little convex, not tumid, finely transversely rugulose. Antennae with
segment II distinctly longer than III; III and IV subequal in length and
thickness. Callus moderately elevated.
M. husseyi, n. sp.-Scutellum about the same as in humilis, the apical
part also feebly convex and finely transversely rugulose. Antennae with
segment II a little shorter or at most about subequal to III in length, not
longer; III and IV equal in thickness and length; in some specimens seg-
ments II, III and IV are all subequal in length. Callus moderately
elevated.

This species inhabits two types of habitats-brackish and
fresh waters. It is not easily disturbed and does not fly readily.
When picked up, it will often crawl around on one's hand with-
out flying away. In this respect it differs greatly from M.
humilis, which is easily disturbed, very agile, and a flighty
species. M. pumpila is intermediate in agility between the two
species; nymphs and short-winged forms, when disturbed, hide
in the thin vegetation. The latter form is sometimes found in
deep shade; it too breeds in both fresh and salt water habitats.
Attention is called to the singular habits of many individuals
of M. husseyi. Most of the specimens collected by H. C. Chap-
man were taken from the exposed parts of grasslike plants
growing in salt marshes in Florida, sometimes some distance







THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


out in the water from the shore line. The roots of the plants
were growing in soil submerged under several inches of salt
water, with only the upper parts of the plants extending above
the surface in the air. Judging from the number of specimens
encountered, M. husseyi prefers to seek its prey while resting
on the parts of grasslike plants that are above the surface of the
water rather than on the wet shore near the edge of the water.
Only a few specimens were found on the wet shore, whereas the
species was fairly common on the partly submerged plants, even
out some distance from the shore.
In cypress swamps in central Florida, M. husseyi was often
found on logs and other objects floating on the water. The
little waterstrider, Mesovelia amoena Uhler, was frequently col-
lected on the same floating logs. In this connection, it should
be noted that the writers have netted several other species of
shore bugs of the genera Saldula Van Duzee, Salda Fabricius,
loscytus Reuter and the rare Lampracanthia crassicornis
(Uhler) on the upper parts of grasses or grasslike plants ex-
tending above the water level in submerged meadows along
rivers, in bogs, swamps, lakes and other bodies of fresh water,
sometimes as far as 50 feet from the edge of the shore. Some
species of saldids rest on stones out in the water as well as
stones on the shore near the edge of the water.


150








VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


NOTES ON TABANID FLIES AND OTHER VICTIMS CAUGHT
BY THE CARNIVOROUS PLANT, SARRACENIA FLAVA 1
CORNELIUS B. PHILIP 2
Incidental to a few days' collecting in April of early Taba-
nidae along the Gulf Coast, more specimens surprisingly were
taken from the leaf traps or so-called "pitchers" of the car-
nivorous plant, Sarracenia flava Linn., than by any other method
of early, local sampling in proportion to the time spent. The
condition of the captive specimens varied. This was obviously
in relation to the length of time in the traps, and also to the
presence and number of almost ubiquitous sarcophagid larvae
of varying sizes feeding upon the captured contents. One large
female of Tabanus atratus Fabr. was still alive and futilely
struggling to escape when removed, and it already had a small
sarcophagid larva attacking it near the neck. The previously
unknown male of a rare, southeastern tabanid species was taken
from one of these pitchers, and is described later. Two other
little known species were recovered from these plants permit-
ting some discussion of variation.
Many hours of collecting in various localities around tame
stock, in outbuildings, about the person, and sweeping in likely
spots yielded fewer specimens, all females, than were taken in
much less proportionate time from these carnivorous plants.
Specimens of Chrysops fuliginosa Wied., C. dorsovittata Hine,
C. dimmocki Hine, Agkistrocerus finitima (Stone), T. lineola
Fabr., T. bishoppi Stone, and T. sparks subsp. miller Whit. were
captured by these methods, mostly on the wing.
A total of approximately four hours was spent examining
the contents of some 400 S. flava leaves which were slit open
with a razor blade. The following species were recovered in
recognizable condition in a patch of plants scattered over about
an acre of wet meadow on the outskirts of Panama City, Flor-
ida, 19 and 21 April 1952: Tabanus atratus 9, T. vittiger
subsp. schwardti Phil. &, 9, Hybomitra hinei subsp. wright
(Whit.) 2 S, Hamatabanus annularis (Hine) (?) 4 69, Ana-
cimas limbellatus End. S, and Chrysops fuliginosa 9.
Only the last of these species was also seen on the wing.
An equal amount of time on a sunny, still morning was spent
1From Federal Security Agency, Public Health Service, National Insti-
tutes of Health, National Microbiological Institute.
2Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana.


151








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


collecting from a tethered horse in an adjoining field and only
3 Tabanus were taken. Thus, examination of pitcher plants in
a given suitable neighborhood appears to offer a valuable survey
aid supplemental to general collecting.
The male of the rare A. limbellatus (genotype species of
Anacimas) has not previously been reported and a specimen in
better than fair condition from a pitcher near Springfield,
Florida, 19 April, is here described as allotype.
Anacimas limbellatus End. 8, 12 mm. Darker than the 9 but readily
associated on the basis of the peculiarly-shaped, hairy antennae, sparsely
hairy eyes, and wing veins broadly margined with brown. Enlarged eye
facets occupying 2/3 of eye area, not as perceptibly hairy as in A. dodgei;
body and appendages unusually hairy; palpi, legs, and basal 2 segments
of antennae brown, the flagellum contrasting yellow, the plate with the
dorsal, low angle in the middle and a few, strong black hairs, and with
lower edge evenly convex; palpi subovoid less swollen than in A. geropogon;
no perceptible lines on mesonotum in contrast to A. dodgei; the abdomen
dark, testaceous, with pale incisures below, and evidence of 3 rows of pale
triangles above, the middle row evanescent, the sublateral rows oblique.
The writer has a male A. geropogon Phil. labeled simply
"Fla.," April, with much redder abdomen and indistinct pattern
agreeing in this and antennal characters with the allo- and para-
types from North Carolina (Philip, 1936). It has a brownish,
transverse spot under the scutellum on tergite 1, and a longi-
tudinal, ovoid spot mesally only on 2. The legs are brighter
orange. This provides a new State record for Florida, cor-
roborated by capture of a female on Dog Island, Franklin County,
17 October, 1947.
Hamatabanus annularis (Hine). Only one male specimen
from Pascagoula, Miss., and a female from Lucedale, Miss.,
have been taken since description in 1917 of the type series,
two males and a female from Ocean Springs, Miss. All were
captured in April or early May. The related H. sexfasciatus
(Stone) is likewise rare; only four females of this species are
known to the writer: the type from Largo Key, Fla., and the
paratype and another specimen also from Florida as well as
one from Savannah, Georgia, which also constitutes a new State
record. The last was taken in May, and the 3 Florida specimens
in March.
The present series of four males and six females from Sar-
racenia, therefore, is double the previous combined total, and
permits of some comment on variation in spite of poor condition
of part of the series. In several respects, this group of speci-


152







VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


mens shows intergrading characters between the above two
species which emphasize the desirability of more material. The
antennal plates are bright reddish in all but two which are
brown, and only two show tendency for the dorsal "thumb" to
be decurved apically as figured by Stone (1938, fig. 5B) for H.
sexfasciatus. There is as much variation in shape as seen in
larger series of related H. carolinensis Macq. (syn. scitus Wlk.).
All the present series have the characteristic pallid incisures,
but most have the abdomen predominantly black from tergite
3 caudad, plus more or less evidence of median pale-haired tri-
angles which are probably easily obliterated by wear. The
pattern on tergite 2 varies but most specimens have at least
suggestions of that seen in H. carolinensis with a median gem-
inate, blackish spot divided by the pale, median triangle, reddish
on either side (not gray as in the latter), and often with
darker lateral areas. None has the entirely clear brown color
of H. sexfasciatus. Most have at least the mid and hind pairs
of femora distinctly darker than the reddish tibiae. Sizes also
vary in both sexes: 3, 11 to 15 mm., 9, 11 to 13 mm.
It appears best at present to assign these to H. annularis
(Hine) which will extend the distribution of the species east-
ward and provide a new Florida record.
Chrysops abata Phil. Since description in 1941 of the unique
holotype from Florida, another female has turned up in the
U. S. National Museum from Orlando. A third female was
taken by the writer in the leaf trap of a smaller species, Sar-
racenia minor Wall., near Gulfport, Miss., 20 April 1952, also
providing a new State record and extending reported distribu-
tion of the species westward. This specimen is in surprisingly
good condition indicating but short immersion in the pitcher
liquid. The following variation from the holotype is noted: A
little smaller, 7 mm. All dark parts more pronounced blackish,
including appendages, halteres and infuscation of the wings.
The median maculation on tergite 2 is not a uniform, reniform
spot as figured for the holotype (Philip 1941, pl. 15, fig. 1), but
entirely crosses the segment and is sharply constricted just above
the base on the incisure giving a remarkable likeness to the
frontal outline of the sphinx. The median gemination on
tergite 3 is less plainly emarginate behind and is very little
wider than that on tergite 2. There is no evidence of the median
narrow line seen on sternites 2 and 3 of the holotype. The


153








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


median pollinosity of the face is barely complete, being more
attenuated below.

DISCUSSION

Wray and Brimley (1943) reported one each of Chrysops
celer O.S., C. flavida Wied., Tabanus pumilus Whit., plus 4 un-
identified males of Chrysops and 2 Tabanus from North Caro-
lina during the months of May to August. They examined an
estimated minimum of 5000 pitcher leaves. They also found S.
flava to be the most productive.
In addition to insects, 3 lizards, several spiders, snails, slugs,
and a small frog were seen by the writer in these Sarracenia
traps. It is likely some of these followed their prey into the
traps. Undoubtedly many more trapped tabanids were un-
recognizable through maceration, as well as through destruction
by sarcophagid larvae commonly seen in most pitchers. These
larvae obviously resist digestion by the pitchers, but the manner
of pupation and escape from the traps is curious, and may take
place after the leaf is dead and dried.
The fact that both sexes of tabanids, and several orders of
insects including Neuroptera, Trichoptera, Orthoptera, Hemip-
tera, Homoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera (in-
cluding mosquitoes) were represented in catches, suggests the
potential utility of the unknown attractant, if it could be ex-
tracted, for artificial baiting. In some instances, a mass of one
species, such as tipulids, June beetles,3 or certain small Hymenop-
tera were crowded into one pitcher and were not or scarcely

Phyllophaga, obviously of 2 species, were quite common in the pitchers,
crowded down as far as they could go in the narrowing throat, and occlud-
ing the passage for other insects before reaching the liquid below. Many
were still alive when released, and two of these immediately flew to new
leaves as though trying to re-enter them.
Reporting on a few that were saved for identification, Professor H. J.
Reinhard writes "As you know, most species of Phyllophaga are nocturnal
in habit and I am wondering if the beetles were attempting to secrete
themselves by crawling into the pitcher plants. It is also quite interesting
that you found them in large numbers all the way from Panama City,
Florida, to Gulfport, Mississippi. No one else seems to have observed or
previously recorded this most unusual habit among the Phyllophagas.
"Of the seven male examples taken from pitcher plants, two are readily
placed as Phyllophaga micans cupuliformis Langstan; the remaining five
are unknown to me at present and will require more study for definite
determination." These five represented the most numerous June beetles
in the traps, all head downward. Perhaps the later collecting accounts
for the absence of Phyllophaga in the extensive list of Wray and Brimley
(1943).


154








VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


represented in nearby plants. The insects may have followed
one another into the same leaf by some common specific re-
sponse in these instances. There was obvious variation in the
ages of the leaves but the older leaves did not necessarily
contain the larger catches.
Since there was an abundance of standing water and vege-
tation in the environs, it seems unlikely the tabanids were
seeking moisture or shelter only. The flies immersed in the
liquid at the bottoms of the leaves in S. flava near Springfield
(Panama City, Fla.) did not appear to go to pieces as fast as
those captured by the smaller S. minor in the environs of Gulf-
port, Miss., though it was not known if the freshness of the
plants in the two localities was at all comparable. Examination
of a few patches of a third species, S. rubra, yielded little of
interest.
Several engaging accounts of insects living in association
with these plants have been published (see Lloyd 1942) but
little attention has been paid in print to the invertebrate and
vertebrate victims other than the report of Wray and Brimley
(I.e.). A fascinating ecological study of the many kinds of
attracted victims could be made.

SUMMARY

Comments are made on the utility of carnivorous plants for
supplemental survey of tabanid flies in suitable localities. Seven
species of either or both sexes are recorded as victims in Florida
and Miss., enabling description of the allotype $ of Anacimas
limbellatus End., and of variation in Chrysops abata Phil., and
Hamatabanus annularis (Hine).

REFERENCES
Lloyd, F. E. 1942. The carnivorous plants. Chronica Botanica, Waltham,
Mass. 352 pp.
Philip, C. B. 1936. An interesting new horsefly from North Carolina
(Diptera, Tabanidae). Ent. News 47: 229-231.
Philip, C. B. 1941. Notes on Nearctic Pangoniinae (Diptera, Tabanidae).
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 43: 113-130.
Wray, D. L., and Brimley, C. S. 1943. The insect inquilines and victims
of pitcher plants in North Carolina. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 36: 128-137.


155










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VOL. XXXV, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1952


A NEW SPECIES OF SUPHISELLUS FROM FLORIDA
(COLEOPTERA: NOTERIDAE)1
FRANK N. YOUNG

The many small species of the genus Suphisellus Crotch
(= Canthydrus Sharp of various authors) are in great need of
revision. Even the exact identity of several of the Eastern
North American forms is still in doubt. The new species de-
scribed below, however, is remarkably distinct in the peculiar
elytral punctation from any of the known forms, and probably
represents a distinct population restricted to central Peninsular
Florida.
The types, the only known specimens, were collected at night
near Sebring (Highlands County), Florida on July 20, 1942, by
Dr. Carl T. Parsons, and were sent to me by Mr. Hugh B. Leech
of the California Academy of Sciences some years ago. I take
pleasure in naming the species for Dr. Parsons, who has been
indefatiguable in adding to our knowledge of the North Ameri-
can fauna.
Several trips to the area in which the types were collected
have failed to produce additional specimens. It may be that the
species occupies a different habitat from those of the common
forms of the region.

Suphisellus parsonsi sp. nov.
DIAGNOSIS: Superficially similar to S. gibbulus (Aub6), but differing
notably in the finer, denser punctation of the elytra, the less convex body
form, narrower prosternal process, more nearly uniform dark reddish
brown color of pronotum and elytra, and in the male genitalia. The
moderately coarse, very dense, and in part confluent punctation of the
elytra differs from that of any described species of the genus known to
me.
HOLOTYPE MALE: Oval, broadest near bases of elytra, but not very
strongly narrowed behind. Total length 2.27 mm. Width of pronotum at
base 1.19 mm.; width of pronotum at apex 0.698 mm. Head: Microretic-
ulate with scattered fine punctures; coarser punctures in usual position
for genus. Pronotum: Microreticulate about as on head with moderately
fine punctures on disk and coarser punctures along front margin and base;
punctures along base closely placed and in part confluent. Elytra: Rather
coarsely microreticulate between the moderately coarse, closely placed, and
partly confluent punctures; subserial punctation almost obscured; but
vaguely discernible as rows of hair-bearing punctures; no impressed rows

SContribution No. 515 from the Department of Zoology, Indiana Uni-
versity, aided by a grant from the National Science Foundation.


157









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


of coarse punctures on disk as in gibbulus; punctation nearly uniform over
elytra, only a narrow strip along the suture less densely and more finely
punctate. Venter: Prosternal process narrower between anterior coxae
and at the apex than in gibbulus; width of coxal laminae at apex less than
in gibbulus. Ventral platform (prosternal process and coxal laminae) with
coarse, elongate, hair-bearing punctures nearly uniformly distributed.
Metacoxal plates, epipleurae, and abdominal sternites with coarse, granu-
lar and rugose microsculpture which nearly obscures the punctation; ab-
dominal sternites with transverse, depressed bands of coarse punctures.
Male genitalia: Parameres somewhat similar to those of gibbulus, but the
right paramere not so strongly expanded at the tip, the left relatively
shorter and slenderer. Aedeagus broader than in gibbulus with the tip
more strongly bent down and sharply pointed. Anterior and middle tarsi
rather strongly modified with relatively large suction cups, the one on the
second segment conspicuously large. Color: Head yellowish brown. Pro-
notum darker, reddish brown, not much lighter than the dark reddish brown
elytra. No transverse fascia or infuscate areas on dorsum. Venter yellow-
ish brown.
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Similar to male, but somewhat larger and with the
elytra more parallel sided in the basal two-thirds. Total length 2.44 mm.
Width of pronotum at base 1.27 mm.; width of pronotum at apex 0.87 mm.
LOCATION OF TYPES: The holotype will be returned to the collection of
Mr. Hugh B. Leech at the California Academy of Sciences. The allotype
will be deposited in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology at
Ann Arbor, Michigan.


158




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