Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1954
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
 Notes
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00211
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist


DECEMBER, 1954


Vol. XXXVII


No. 4


CONTENTS
Page
WOLFENBARGER, D. O.-A Consideration of Some Influences
Affecting Entomology ...---.---....------.....--.---..--..--...-.... 167

MAYEUX, HERMAN S.-Granular Insecticidal Baits
Against Flies ......................................................... ......------ 171

CARRIKER, M. A., JR.-Report on a Collection of Mallophaga,
Largely Mexican (Part I) ....-..-...----..-------...-....-- ......---. 191

Minutes of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the
Florida Entomological Society ...................................-... .. 209


Notes ..............................


......-- 170


Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Uhe

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

VOL. XXXVII DECEMBER, 1954 No. 4


THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1954-1955

President -........------.......------ ----------. F. G. BUTCHER
Vice President -.....--....--....-...------- ---------- F. S. CHAMBERLIN
Secretary ... ..---...........-------- .------- MILLEDGE MURPHEY, JR.
Treasurer ....-.......-- .....-------------- ---------------. W. P. HUNTER
J. W. WILSON
Executive Committee --------------- --- A . ROGERS

EDITORIAL BOARD
LEWIS BERNER --....--...--..........--------.--------. Editor
L. C. KUITERT ....---..............----------. Associate Editor
W. P. HUNTER ---...............-- ...----- Business Manager

Issued quarterly-March, June, September, and December. Subscrip-
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Manager, Mr. W. P. Hunter, Box 2425, University Station, University of
Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can be reached at the same address.
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166








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


A CONSIDERATION OF SOME INFLUENCES AFFECTING
ENTOMOLOGY
D. O. WOLFENBARGER
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead

Let us give some consideration to influences occurring inside
and outside the field of entomology. There is a cause for every
event that happens and that influences entomology as a result.
Let us think of the significance of events rather than listing
them.
Entomology is a minor part of present day human endeavor
but it is subject to influences by all other pursuits. It is essen-
tial for those in each endeavor to contact those in other fields
and each is, in turn, influenced by others. Outside influences
should be looked for and invited as sources of possible advances
in the field. Although workers in the various disciplines will
not be able to control directly the influences contacting them
they are responsible for their reactions to the events. For in-
stance, influences outside of entomology from about 1942 to 1945
(World War II) prevented the importation of much-needed pyre-
thrum and rotenone. Entomologists were asked for and gave,
recommendations to control insects in spite of these shortages.
Public trust is placed on those people working in entomology
as in other professions. There are definite and unavoidable re-
sponsibilities which must be accepted; there are definite and
far-reaching degrees of accountability and the public must have
recompense for its trust. I believe entomological projects, for
example, must render equivalent or greater service to man than
they receive in order that they may endure.
Early entomological workers were amateurs who received
their food, clothing and shelter from employment outside their
interests in insects. Many of these were clergymen, lawyers,
physicians and other professional workers. Also, occasionally
some of the "leisure class" collected and observed insects as
hobbies. A very small portion of mankind always has been
sufficiently intrigued by insects, their form and coloration to
study them without expectation or desire for remuneration.
Many in this group are classified as "collectors" by students of
psychology. Entomological histories are replete with accounts
of these early workers. Undoubtedly the philosophies, methods
1 Presidential address, thirty-seventh annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society, Bradenton, September 2, 1954.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


and procedures of present day entomologists were at least in-
fluenced, if they were not made possible, by the avocational efforts
of these pioneers. Search for details and scientific exactness,
for example, may have been an influence contributed by physi-
cians. Theologists and teachers through their studies of insects
influenced early entomologists, and hence all entomologists.
An event that was of much significance in early entomology
was the manufacture of the microscope. From its invention
until today, the microscope has been an essential tool of the
entomologist. It enables a determination to be made of the
species with which one is dealing. What progress, in fact might
have been made without it? Yet entomology is not known to
have influenced its invention!
Chemistry has undoubtedly affected entomology as much or
more than it has any other human endeavor. It is impossible
to estimate the extent to which chemical discoveries have in-
fluenced all phases of entomology. We must look to chemistry
to provide future insecticides and other materials for use by
economic entomologists. Chemistry, however, has also been in-
fluenced by entomology. Silk, honey, beeswax and shellac are
widely used in various ways and have provided chemists with
products which they have used in many ways.
People become interested in insects for various reasons. Some
become so intrigued with insects and insect life that they become
life workers from interest. Others choose entomology after
having looked over many fields of study. Some are in the occupa-
tion because of opportunities for life work, some because they
would have to exert themselves greater in other lines of work.
Influences from within and without entomology, therefore, in-
duce people to become entomologists. Amateur entomologists
are needed since there is much about insects and insect life in
Florida and elsewhere that may be discovered by them.
An important item influencing entomologists is gain or com-
pensation of some form such as money, personal satisfaction
or approval of work by friends. Except for personal satisfac-
tion all other forms of compensation are dependent on pleasing
others.
Public support is sufficient in Florida and the states of the
Union to care for hundreds, if not thousands, of entomologists.
The number supported may be taken as a measure of satisfaction
to the public. Based on the 1950 population census figures and
current membership in the Cotton States Branch of the Ento-


168








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


mological Society of America there is one entomologist per
17,213 population in Florida. This compares with one ento-
mologist per 70,869 population in the other States of the Cotton
States Branch of the Society. This figures to over four-fold
more entomologists per capital in Florida than in adjoining or
nearby states.
Acts of Congresses of the United States have produced sig-
nificant influences over the entomological profession. More ento-
mologists are supported by federal funds than by those of any
other organization in the world. Sources of influence for pro-
vision of these funds have stemmed from insect outbreaks or
threatened invasions.
Support for colleges and universities must come from the
general public or from private sources in some manner. This
support depends for the most part on the economic status of
the people. Insect pests having economic importance are usually
and basically responsible for many projects on which the ento-
mologist works. Activities by influential leaders secure funds
for control efforts to alleviate losses from insect pests. An ento-
mologist is expected to help solve economic problems although,
it is usually possible by dint of hard work for an entomologist
to do his required tasks and to engage in projects of his choice,
which may include taxonomic studies in some group.
Political pressure is a factor with which the entomological
and other professions must reckon. It appears to be a requisite
or a result of our form of government. It is not necessary, how-
ever, for entomologists to "play politics". Political activity is,
moreover, usually forbidden by those administrators responsible
for the activities of entomologists.
Within the last decade increasingly greater numbers of ento-
mologists have been employed in industrial capacities. These
entomologists have influenced their co-workers in industry and
management and they have also been influenced. These influ-
ences have been mutually beneficial to all concerned. Except
perhaps for a few opportunists "out to make a fast buck", in-
dustrial entomologists in Florida are maintaining high ethical
standards. Relationships between entomologists employed by
industry and by governmental agencies, in fact, are most whole-
some. May they always remain so!
We should occasionally look for and inquire about any sinis-
ter influence that is menacing entomology today. In doing so,
let us remember that past happenings are reacting to give


169








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


present-day occurrences, and that today's events are shaping
tomorrow's future. In looking for danger signs we may see
that man's selfishness is undoubtedly the greatest menace to
future happiness of entomologists and also all others. Selfish-
ness exists between individuals and between groups in all pro-
fessions and human activities. Suspicion, greed, hatred and
half-truths exist in governments and between governments.
Peaceful relationships will exist where there is no oppression
of man and where the majority rules. Violent destruction may
engulf society unless greater understanding and cooperation pro-
duce friendly relationships. Such destruction may reduce human
life to sparse populations in unorganized groups living by day-
to-day existence.
An objective of all entomologists should be "service to others".
This should be true whether one considers himself an "economic",
"industrial", "systematic" or other kind of entomologist. It
should be true whatever influence may originate from any human
endeavor.
Our profession today is held in high esteem by the general
public. Our services are sought; our recommendations are ac-
cepted. These results are influenced, in part, by our pioneer
entomologists. Let us remember, with a great deal of humility,
how they struggled that we might have a more complete knowl-
edge of insects. If we strive to uphold their objectives, we may
rest assured that the entomological profession will remain active,
vigorous and productive throughout the future.

NOTES
NEW DRAGONFLY RECORD FOR THE UNITED STATES.-Recently while exam-
ining a few undetermined Odonata in the collection of Dr. C. Francis Byers
at the University of Florida, I found a male of Idiataphe cubensis (Scudder)
collected by Dr. Lewis Berner in Miami, Florida, July 28, 1937. As far
as known this represents the first record of this genus from the United
States. Since the wings are in perfect condition it seems likely that this
specimen emerged in Florida, and that the species was established in the
Miami area. Idiataphe (formerly Ephidatia Kirby) is a small tropical
American genus of two species; Ris (1913)1 recognized only one species
with two subspecies. I. cubensis has been recorded from Tamaulipas in
Mexico, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, and south to Colombia and
Peru. I. longipes is Brazilian.
MINTER J. WESTFALL, JR.
Dept. of Biology, University of Florida
1Ris, F., 1913. Collections Zoologiques du Baron Edm. de Selys Long-
champs. Catalogue Systimatique et Descriptif. Fasc. XVI. Libellulinen 8.
pp. 965-1042.


170








VOL. XXXVII, NO. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


GRANULAR INSECTICIDAL BAITS AGAINST FLIES
HERMAN S. MAYEUX

This is a report of some of the field and laboratory tests con-
ducted during 1953 and 1954 as part of the development of an
entirely new and different approach to house fly (Musca do-
mestica L.) control. The product resulting from this research
is known as "FLY FLAKES" and patents have been applied for.
The objective of this project was to develop a dry granular
bait that could be scattered by hand (with a rubber glove); by
means of a shaker can; or applied with ordinary dusting equip-
ment. Also, it should be effective against both larvae and adult
house flies for periods of several days or longer, and sufficiently
stable to lend itself to packaging and marketing in ready to
use form.
Sixty-seven different formulations of dry granular baits have
been field tested. A wide variety of inert granular materials
have been used having absorbed or adsorbed thereon various
combinations of attractants, dispersants, stabilizers, other ad-
juvants and various concentrations of toxicant. Malathion
(o,o-dimethyl dithiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate), as
technical grade, wettable powder or emulsifiable concentrate was
used in the preparation of all the granular formulations used
in tests reported here. Concentrations of 1% malathion were
usually used as the result of work with blackstrap baits as re-
ported earlier (1954), however, higher concentrations were
tested against larvae.

COMPARISONS OF INERT GRANULAR CARRIERS
Among the wide variety of inert granules tested, those that
showed promise were ground shell of the bivalve (Mollusca,
class Lamellibranchia), marble, granite, quartz, expanded mica
(Vermiculite), granular bentonite and granular attapulgite clay
(Attaclay). Ground shell was chosen for the final product, and

SEntomologist, Florida Agricultural Supply Co., a division of Wilson
& Toomer Fertilizer Co., Jacksonville, Florida.
The writer wishes to acknowledge assistance by Julian H. Jackson and
William J. Head, Chemists of this Company, who did chemical, physical,
and formulation studies; and by James R. Christie, Technical Representa-
tive of this Company, who assisted in field testing.
This paper was pr-sented before the Florfda Entomofogical Society,
Brad4eton, FloTida, September 3, 1954. Some of this data was presented
before The Florida Anti-Mosquito Association, Naples, Florida, on April
27, 1954.








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


was used in most of the experiments described in this paper.
Shell has several advantages over the other inert granules named
above:
Advantages of Ground Shell:
1. Specific gravity is great enough to minimize the effect of
wind both during the application and afterwards, but not
excessively heavy as quartz or sand.
2. Very low porosity minimizes absorption so that practically
all the toxicant, attractants, and other ingredients are
adsorbed onto the surface and are readily available.
3. The flat shape of the granules increases resistance to
movement by the wind or other forces after application
and increases flotation on surfaces such as the ground,
manure or litter.
4. Light color (white or grey) is easy for the user to discern
in controlling the application and serves as a safety feature
to reduce accidental contacts with treated surfaces.
5. Traction under foot is increased on smooth surfaces, such
as concrete, rather than being decreased as by granules
that are more easily subdivided or become slippery such
as the clays or mica.
6. Shell is easily ground to whatever particle size range is
desired, which may be from 100 mesh to 4 mesh.
7. The insolubility and resistance to subdivision minimized
the possibility of stickiness or smears on treated surfaces.
Shell was chosen in preference to organic type granules for
the same reasons as stated above.
A mixture of 10 to 20 mesh and 60 to 100 mesh shell granules
was finally adopted for several reasons:
1. The larger particles made the material easier to scatter
by hand than a product consisting entirely of particles
of 60 to 100 mesh.
2. The larger particles were not lost or buried in sand, dirt,
manure, or litter as quickly as smaller particles, thus
lengthening the effective period against adult flies.
3. The larger particles were easily seen on a treated surface
and therefore accidental contact was more easily avoided.
4. Smaller particles increased the total number of particles
deposited per square inch providing greater opportunity
for contact with either adult or laval stages.

EQUIPMENT AND METHODS
Field tests were conducted in dairy and livestock barns, poul-
try houses, hog pens, garbage dumps, filling stations, retail
stores, around garbage cans, on unscreened porches and patios,


172








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


around food processing buildings and in other areas where flies
congregate or breed.
Adult Control Data: Infestation records of adult flies were
made with a square template one-fourth inch thick and framing
an opening 12 inches by 12 inches. The template itself had an
area of one square foot, the template frame being 2.486 inches
wide on all sides of the one square foot opening. In making
fly counts it was customary to toss the template onto the floor
or ground, wait a few seconds for flies to settle, then count the
active flies resting on the template itself and the dead and affected
flies on the one square foot area framed by the template. The
number of points at which this count was taken depended upon
the area involved and the uniformity of the fly population within
the area, usually ten to fifteen points. The counts were usually
taken before an application was made and at various intervals
thereafter.
Larval Control Data: To make population and mortality counts
of larvae an ordinary gardener's trowel was used to take small
sub-samples of manure from five to ten obviously infested points
in each plot, being careful to take manure to a depth of two to
three inches. Five sub-samples totaled one pint. For larger
plots ten sub-samples (one-quart) were taken. Shallow one-
quart coffee cans were used for handling the samples. A wooden
frame fifteen inches square, made of 1 x 4 inch lumber and with
the bottom covered with sixteen mesh screen wire was used for
holding the sample while making the counts. A piece of heavy
paper six inches square placed between the sample and the screen
prevented live larvae from escaping through the screen. A fine
spray of water and hand manipulations with the trowel served
to expose the larvae on the screen so that they could be counted
and recorded as dead or alive. First instar larvae were never
observed or counted.
The usual procedure was to make a pre-application count of
larvae and post-treatment counts at periods varying from three
to fourteen days after the application.
Most of the larval control tests were in caged laying hen
houses. The cages ran full length of buildings 40 to 160 feet
long, and there were three or four cages per building suspended
3 to 4 ft. above the ground. The area covered by manure under
the cages was from 21/2 ft. wide for single tier cages, to 4 ft.
for double tier cages. Plot areas varied from one square yard
to the entire area under a cage in the various experiments.


173








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Replicates of treatments were varied from one to three depend-
ing upon the infested area available for use.

PRELIMINARY FLY CONTROL TESTS
Small scale tests against house fly larvae in decaying garbage
showed that 5 percent malathion on 30 to 60 mesh Attaclay ap-
plied at the rate of one pound per 100 sq. ft. was very effective
and killed a high percentage of the larvae within one to three
days. Two applications of this material applied seven days apart
to a truckload of fresh chicken feathers and entrails practically
eliminated the development of blowfly larvae; whereas, an un-
treated load of similar material was reduced to about one-half
its original volume in fourteen days by the fly larvae feeding
therein.
A small number of adult flies of various species invariably
died within a few minutes following an application as the result
of contact with the insecticide on the granules.
When the granules were baited with various substances flies
fed readily and began dying in from one to five minutes, usually
about three minutes.

CRUTCHER POULTRY FARM EXPERIMENT
The Crutcher Poultry Farm consisted of a caged hen house
70 feet long housing four cages running parallel the length of
the house. The experiment was begun on August 3, 1953, when
the fly population averaged 65 adults per square foot and 1800
to 3000 larvae per quart of manure. During the seventeen weeks
that followed, granular baits were used a total of nine times
on the manure against both larvae and adults with a tenth
application against adults only on November 30.
Table 1 shows the dates of application and the average num-
ber of adult flies per square foot before and at intervals follow-
ing each application.
Table 2 has the larvae control data and other pertinent in-
formation. Plot sizes varied from 100 sq. ft. to the area under
an entire cage.
Discussion: As shown in Table 1, the adult fly population
was reduced initially from 65 to 3 flies per square foot in less
than two hours, a reduction of 95% despite heavy pressure of
newly emerging adults from pupae. The formulations killed
flies within three minutes and continued to kill, reducing the


174












VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


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VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


population to a very low level, until the fifth day. Between the
fifth and seventh days the population rose to approximately
one fly per square foot.
There was no apparent difference in effectiveness against
larvae between the one percent and 2.5 percent malathion baits
used in the first three applications (Table 2). However, the
2.5 percent formulation was not as attractive to the adults as
the 1 percent formulation. Incompatability of the malathion
with certain ingredients reduced the control of both adults and
larvae following the August 17 application.
Malathion decomposition resulting from improper packaging
reduced the kill of larvae following the October 12 and October
26 applications. In spite of these troubles there were three
periods of three weeks each during which no applications were
needed.
The hens were not especially excited whenever granular baits
were applied; however, when a three-gallon pneumatic sprayer
was used to apply a spray to two plots the hens became extremely
excited. Five of the hens managed to break open the doors to
their individual cages and escaped. One hen killed herself fight-
ing to escape.
On September 14, three weeks after the fourth application,
there was a moderate infestation of larvae of a soldier fly,
Hermetia illucens (L.).2 There was an average of 51 soldier fly
larvae per quart sample of manure. Four days after the applica-
tion there were 83 dead and nine live larvae per sample in the
G-18 plots and 67 dead with 11 alive where formula G-17 was
used. The untreated check had 108 larvae alive.
The owner of this hen house continued the test on a practical
basis and used the granular baits as needed through the spring
and summer of 1954. His method was to "spot-treat" the moist
manure where larvae were present at the rate of 1 to 11/ lbs.
per 100 sq. ft. every 7 to 10 days, or less often at times, and
apply additional material in walkways or on the dry manure
as needed for adult fly control. At no time during the 1954 fly
season were there enough house fly larvae or adults present to
conduct any testing of new formulations.

CAMPBELL'S EGG FACTORY EXPERIMENTS
This establishment consisted of four caged hen houses ranging
from 50 to 160 ft. length plus one each pullet house, egg house,
2 Hermetia illucens (L.) determined by W. W. Wirth, Section of Insect
Identification and Detection, Entomology Research Branch, U.S.D.A.


177








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


and feed house and several outdoor chick brooders. The hen
houses had three or four cages 21/2 to 4 feet wide running parallel
and full length of the buildings.
Results of various applications of granular baits against
adult house flies are given in Table 3. Results of two randomized
plot tests against house fly larvae are in Tables 4 and 5. Results
of a randomized plot test against soldier fly larvae are given in
Table 6.
Applications of four ounces per 100 sq. ft. of granular bait
to the feed house and egg house floors on September 29 and
October 1 destroyed several million flies (Table 3). On October
1 the floors were almost completely covered with dead flies which
were swept out and another application made. Two days later,
the floors were covered completely with dead flies. The flies
were brushed out lightly to leave as much bait as possible. Three
days later, on October 5, the floors were again covered and a total
of four gallons or almost one million flies were swept from the
feed room floor, an area of about 150 sq. ft. Applications of this
sort were continued and these buildings made ideal "fly traps".
Flies began dying on the feed room or egg house floors within
three minutes after each application of granular bait. The baits
were effective for at least one week unless completely buried or
swept out earlier.
During warm weather many flies would congregate on the
shaded side of the buildings and under trees as well as on the
manure and walkways in the hen houses and inside the feed
and egg houses. During cooler winter weather the flies often
congregated on the ground on the sunny side of the buildings.
Counts of flies before and after several applications of granular
baits in the outside areas are given in Table 3. Rates of 3 ounces
or more per 100 sq. ft. gave 80 to 90 percent reduction within
30 to 120 minutes and at 2 days. Granular baits applied on
the ground outside buildings continued to kill for three to seven
days, depending upon the amount of rainfall and the length of
time before the granules became buried. One application on
the roofs of chick brooders was killing flies after twelve days of
direct sunlight and two light showers of rain.
Data in Table 4 shows that one pound per 100 sq. ft. of
formulation G-21 gave as much reduction of house fly larvae in
five days as 2 pounds of the same formulation. There were
numerous dead larvae in all treated plots. G-22 was consider-
ably coarser than G-21 and therefore provided fewer particles


178












VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


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THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


per square inch of area treated. G-22 was not as effective as
G-21 following the first application and this difference is at-
tributed to particle size. As the result of the combination con-
trol of both larvae and adult stages the fly population was prac-
tically eliminated by two applications as indicated by the reduc-
tion of 96% in the untreated plots seven days after the second
application and an average of less than 25 larvae per quart of
manure in all treatments fourteen days following the second
application.

TABLE 4.-HousE FLY LARVAE IN QUART SAMPLES OF MANURE FROM A
CAGED HEN HOUSE FOLLOWING APPLICATIONS OF GRANULAR FLY BAITS
AT DIFFERENT RATES.*

Formulation Number and Rate per 100 Sq. Ft.
G-21 (1 lb.) G-21 (2 lbs.) G-22 (1Y2 lbs.) Check
Replicate No. Dead Alive Dead Alive Dead Alive Dead Alive

First Application on Oct. 1-Examined After 5 Days
1 .............. 33 1 47 38 96 129 2 530
2 .............. 151 68 75 46 141 210 4 506

Averages .............. 92 35 61 42 119 170 3 518
% Recovered Dead 72 59 41 0.6
% Red. Below Ck. 93 92 67 -
Second Appplication on Oct. 6-Examined After 7 Days
1 ............ 3 1 4 1 41 6 1 55
2 .............. 27 28 26 44 16 0 2 14

Averages ...........-.. 15 15 15 23 28 3 2 35
% Red. Below Ck. 57 34 91 -
% Red. in 12 Days** 98 98 99 96
Examined After 14 Days
Averages ........... 1 19 0 23 1 7 0 3

The granular baits contained 1% malathion on 100 sq. ft. randomized plots. All
plots 4 ft. by 25 ft.
** Compared to initial average for entire experimental area of 891 larvae per one-quart
sample.

On March 27 there were sufficient larvae in spots to run a
test on one square yard plots to compare seven granular formula-
tions with an untreated check. The total treated area was small
enough to assure that there would be enough adults to provide
continuous oviposition on all plots. Formulation G-21 was re-


180









VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


garded as a standard and the others varied from G-21 in the
amount or choice of certain of the inert ingredients or in particle
size of the inert carrier. Ground shell was the carrier for all
the formulations in the test. The ages of the granular bait
samples and results against larvae at 4 and 10 days are given
in Table 5.

TABLE 5.-HousE FLY LARVAE PER QUART SAMPLE OF MANURE AT FOUR
AND TEN DAY INTERVALS FOLLOWING APPLICATIONS OF GRANULAR FLY
BAITS IN A CAGED HEN HOUSE.*

Four Days Ten Days
% %
Formula Sample Reduc- Reduc-
Used** Age Dead Active tiont Dead Active tiont

Check 2 207 0 92 -
G-18 6 Mo. 89 5 98 104 70 24
G-21 5 Mo. 109 32 85 324 9 90
G-28 5 Mo. 31 19 91 1 297 -223
G-32 5 Mo. 8 24 88 367 3 97
G-35 2 Mo. 40 33 84 3 226 -146
G-36 3 Wk. 53 23 89 40 8 91
G-44 1 Day 37 43 79 532 213 -132

Baits contained 1% malathion.
** Rate of application, 1/2 lbs. per 100 sq. ft.; plots 1 sq. yd.
SP'ercent reduction compared to untreated check.

Beginning on April 10 until July 27, 1954, the Campbell's
Poultry Farm was used in a practical test to study the effective-
ness of a granular bait (formulation G-21) directed at the adult
stage only of the house fly without any control measures what-
soever being directed against larvae. The bait was used wher-
ever flies congregated except on the manure at a rate of two to
three ounces per 100 sq. ft. Applications were made whenever
concentrations of adults became noticeable, which was when
there were 0.5 to 1.0 adult flies per square foot at the points of
heaviest concentration. Adult flies invariably died as fast as they
moved into the baited areas for at least five days, usually seven
days, and sometimes ten days.
During the period of this test the total amount of granular
bait used was 101.12 pounds. There were 3,000 hens in the en-
tire establishment. The average requirement was 6.74 pounds
per week or 21/4 pounds per 1,000 hens each week.
Granular bait was applied at one or more points on the
premises on fourteen different days during the 108 day period








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


of the test, an average of one application on a "spot-treatment"
basis every 7.7 days.
It should be emphasized here that this test was begun with
a low population of flies which was not allowed to increase. In
other tests that were begun with heavy populations, larger
amounts of bait were necessary initially to bring the flies under
control.
SOLDIER FLY EXPERIMENT 1954
By June 27 there was a high population of soldier fly or
latrine fly larvae (Hermetia illucens (L.)) in puddles of liquified
manure under the cages in all the laying houses. All moist areas
in the four houses were treated with granular baits six times
between June 27 and August 9 at a rate of 11/2 pounds per 100
square feet in an effort to bring the soldier fly larvae under
control and allow the excess moisture to dry from the manure.
The total amount of granular bait used was 185 pounds; an
average of 31 pounds each time. This included the material used
in the randomized plot experiments, one of which is given below.
At the end of this test period many of the puddles had dried out
completely and those remaining were reduced from areas of six
feet or more in length to one or two feet. The disagreeable odor
caused by these larvae was only faintly detectable when the
experiment was ended.
The large black adult soldier flies were observed very closely
during this period. The females were seen depositing their eggs
in masses in crevases in the dry manure a few inches above the
moist or puddle areas. Apparently the eggs hatched within a
day or two because many young larvae, about one-fourth inch
long, could be found in the puddles seven days after an applica-
tion. Many adults died following each application; however,
the contact with the insecticide was probably limited to physical
contact when the adults walked on the granules.
The soldier fly was more difficult to control than the house
fly. The adults did not seem to feed upon the bait and since not
more than fifty or sixty percent of the adults were killed by
contact, there were always enough adults to reinfest the manure
with young larvae as soon as an application became ineffective.
The soldier fly larvae were larger and harder to kill than house
fly larvae.
Five experimental granular bait formulations containing
1% malathion on ground oyster shell were compared to an un-
treated check in a randomized plot experiment having three


182








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


replicates. Four applications were made at weekly intervals
beginning on July 20. The granular baits were applied at 11/2
pounds per 100 sq. ft. to plots two square yards in area.
The data in Table 6 give the results of this test. The percent
control was calculated according to Abbott (1925), converted
to angles as given by Bliss (1937) and minimum significant
differences computed. All of the granular baits reduced the
larval population significantly below that of the untreated
checks. Of greater significance than the data in the table was
the fact that most of the treated plots were practically com-
pletely dried up at the end of the experiment; whereas, the pud-
dles in the untreated checks had increased in size and in two
of the three plots had burst out into the walkways between
cages as the larvae mined literally through the droppings. The
data do not represent the full amount of reduction obtained be-
cause as the puddles became smaller the samples were taken from
the remaining liquid area where the larvae tended to concentrate.

TABLE 6.-PERCENT CONTROL AND MEAN ANGLES FOR SOLDIER FLY LARVAE
PER ONE PINT SAMPLES OF MANURE IN RANDOMIZED, 3-REPLICATED EX-
PERIMENT IN CAGED LAYING HEN HOUSE USING GRANULAR BAITS, GROUND
OYSTER SHELL BASE, 1% MALATION.

Av. Larvae
per 1st Application 4th Application
Pt. Before After 3 Days After 7 Days After 7 Days
Treat- Appli- Percent Mean Percent Mean Percent Mean
ments cation Control Angle Control Angle Control Angle

Untreated .... 118 0 0 0 0 0 0
G-21 .... .. 146 79.9 67.9 73.4 65.5 65.3 55.4
G-49 ..--..-... 110 93.4 77.6 91.8 73.7 55.7 48.9
G-21 (stored
9 months) 122 80.0 63.9 41.2 30.2 76.7 62.3
G-53 .---....-. 98 97.3 80.9 94.7 79.5 88.7 72.2
G-59 ........-- 159 87.3 70.2 84.9 63.7 53.3 47.6
L.S.D. .05 --. 20.0 33.2 28.3
L.S.D. .01 .. 28.5 47.2 40.2


Records were made of the length of time that was required
to apply the granular baits at the two poultry farms and at six
others where practical tests were conducted. When compared
to the time the owner used to apply liquid insecticides against
larvae with either a sprinkler can or sprayer, the saving in time
by using granular baits was at least 50 percent. The granular


183








184 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

baits appealed very much to the cooperating poultrymen because
no equipment was needed, no mixing or preparation of any kind
was necessary, the hens were not disturbed appreciably, and no
moisture was added to the manure to encourage subsequent fly
breeding.
DAIRY BARN EXPERIMENTS
In tests conducted in nine dairies during 1953 applications
of three to four ounces per 100 sq. ft. of granular baits contain-
ing 1 % malathion to the feed room floors and other areas where
flies congregate gave 90 percent or higher reduction of flies in
30 to 60 minutes when the initial populations were high (15 or
more per sq. ft.) and 30 percent or more reduction of low popu-
lations (less than one per sq. ft.). One to four pounds was
sufficient for most barns, including the feed rooms, milking area,
and areas near the buildings where flies congregated.
The feed room floors served as excellent traps for flies for
periods of 3 to 7 days following an application. Most of the flies
at several of the barns entered the feed room during the day,
being attracted by the feed. The baits continued to kill until
covered by wasted feed, dead flies, and other refuse at which time
the floors were swept and baits reapplied. Floor sweepings were
not fed to livestock.

TABLE 7.-AVERAGES OF ADULT HOUSE FLIES PER SQUARE FOOT BEFORE AND
AFTER APPLICATIONS OF GRANULAR FLY BAITS IN DAIRIES.*

Date and
Area Formula Pre- 30-60 Minutes 2 to 6 Hours
Treated Used Appl. Dead Down Active Dead Down Active

August 14
Feed Room G-3 15 10 0.3 2.5 25 1.5 3.0
August 14
Milking G-3 11 -
August 31
Outside G-4 34 2.2 0.7
September 3
Feed Room G-16 6 15 1.6 0.7 -
September 14
Feed Room G-18 20 84 2.6 0.9 -
Milking G-18 1 3 0.0 0.3 -
Milking G-17 0.9 4 0.3 0.3 -
October 19
Milking G-18 1.3 7 0.9 0.8 -


All granular
flies congregated.


baits contained 1% malathion applied at 3 to 4 oz. per 100 sq. ft. where








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


Applications were made in the milking areas when needed
for an immediate knock down; however, most of this material
was removed the same day by the routine washing procedure.
Window ledges and similar dry locations in the milking area
served well as bait stations, and flies died at such locations for
at least five days and up to 21 days.
Flies in one barn were held at a low level by using various
of the granular bait formulations a total of only nine times in
nine weeks. Fly control data following eight applications in
various barns are presented in Table 7.
A survey was conducted of fifteen dairies in Duval County,
Florida, in early August, 1954, to determine the amount of the
granular bait required to control flies over a period of twelve
weeks. Amounts used in 12 weeks ranged from 8 to 15 pounds
or about one pound per week. Most of the dairymen made two
applications the first week and one about every 5 to 10 days
afterwards.
ATTRACTIVENESS TESTS 3
Attractiveness tests were made in a manner similar to that
reported by Gahan et al (1954). Granular baits containing one
percent malathion were compared to a granulated sugar bait
carrying one percent malathion by weight from wettable powder.
Flies used in tests of nearly 40 granular formulations were
4 to 6 days old and of a strain resistant to DDT. Three granular
baits and the granulated sugar bait were exposed in petri dishes
in positions about one foot apart forming a square. Flies were
allowed a few seconds to settle before counting. Then the flies
were disturbed and the baits were rotated one position clock-
wise for a total of four such counts. The test was done during
both morning and afternoon with different flies in the room
each time. Table 8 gives the attractiveness ratio of nine se-
lected granular baits, all of which were more attractive each
time tested than the standard sugar bait.

MISCELLANEOUS TESTS
On August 20, 1953, an area of 500 sq. ft. on a garbage dump
was treated against larvae and adults using 11/ lbs. of formula-
tion G-3 (1% malathion) per 100 square feet. Adult flies began

3 These tests were conducted with the cooperation and assistance of W.
C. McDuffie, J. C. Keller, and other U.S.D.A. personnel using facilities at
the U.S.D.A. Research Laboratory, Entomology Research Branch, Orlando,
Florida.


185








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


feeding immediately and began dying within three minutes. A
heavy rain fell after fifteen minutes which reduced the killing
of adult flies. The site was examined after three days. The
surface of the decaying garbage was completely covered by dead
larvae and there were dead larvae to a depth of over three inches.
There were almost no live larvae found. Several tests of this
kind were conducted, with similar results.

TABLE 8.-ATTRACTIVENESS RATIO OF SELECTED GRANULAR FLY BAITS TO
GRANULATED SUGAR MALATHION BAIT.*

Sample Age Attractiveness Ratio**
Formula in Weeks Morning Afternoon

G-18 ...................................... 31 310 318
G-18 A .................---..-...-..... 30 145 263
G-21 ...................................... 27 2600 105
G-21 A .................................. 30 600 162
G-25 ......---- -.......-................ 27 536 193
G-28 ...................--- ---- .........-- ... 27 172 228
G-32 ............-.......--...........-- 25 119 172
G-42 ..................................... 1 Day 106 168
118
G-43 ...............................--- -- 1 Day 241 141

All formulations contained 1% malathion.
** Attractiveness ratio equals number flies attracted to the experimental bait divided
by number attracted to the standard bait multiplied by 100.

Personnel in an office building used a teaspoonful of granular
bait in ash trays to kill flies that entered the offices. Some of
the bait was also scattered upon the window sills and similar
places. Baits used in this manner were effective for over three
weeks without replacement.
Several grocery stores, feed and seed stores, service stations,
and similar buildings were baited at different times by applica-
tions to the floors and to the outside garbage and trash disposal
areas at rates of 4 ounces per 100 square feet against adults
and 1 to 11/2 lbs. against adults and larvae. The applications
were very satisfactory both inside and outside the buildings and
continued to kill for several days, or as long as the granules were
accessible to the adult flies.
SThe granular baits were used conveniently and effectively
around the entrances, holding pens and waste bins at six different
meat processing buildings, three for poultry, one for swine,
and two for beef cattle and swine.


186








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


Applications around outside barbecue pits, picnic areas, out-
side recreation and carnival areas have been most effective,
giving satisfactory reductions of adults within thirty minutes
in most instances.
Outside porches and patios of residences, floors of drug stores,
and restaurants, areas around garbage cans, pig pens, livestock
barns with litter or manure floors and many similar areas have
been treated successfully on numerous occasions.
Granular fly baits were applied on several occasions for adult
fly control with a rotary hand duster. At ordinary operating
speed with the outlet wide open the duster delivered a very even
application at the rate of three to four ounces per 100 square
feet. Tests have not been conducted with power dusters or air-
plane dusters but there seems no reason why such equipment
cannot be used if desired.
Hens and ducks fed on the particles reluctantly, but if starved
for grit did consume small amounts. It is assumed that other
poultry would do likewise. For this reason the end product of
this research should not be applied within reach of poultry. Its
use in houses or pens where poultry are on litter or on the ground
is limited to such places as inside screened manure pits, on over-
head shelves or window ledges, feed rooms, areas outside the
enclosures and other places not within reach of the poultry,
which is usually sufficient. The granular bait was used alone
with satisfactory results in several poultry houses in North
Carolina limiting the use to these restricted locations.
At least ten species of flies have been observed to feed upon
the granular baits and die. A collection of flies was made in a
dairy barn at the University of North Carolina campus on
May 18, 1954, following an application of these baits. Flies
were collected as they became unable to walk and fly following
actual feeding upon the bait. Identification of the species, as
determined by C. W. Sabrosky, Section of Insect Detection,
Entomology Research Branch, U.S.D.A., follow:
Muscidae:
Musca domestic (L.) (house fly)
Orthellia caesarion (Mg.)
Fannia canicularis (L.) (little house fly)
Paregle cinerella (Fall.)
Calliphoridae (blow flies) :
Phaenicia sericata (Mg.)
Callitroga macelaria (F.)
Phaenicia cuprina (Wd.)


187








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


SUMMARY
Tests were conducted in 1953 and 1954 in the Florida-Georgia
area in the successful development of a ready-to-use, granular
fly bait that can be distributed by hand, with the protection of
an ordinary rubber glove, without the use of application equip-
ment of any kind, or can be applied with a shaker can or by
ordinary dusting equipment. Numerous granular carriers
were tested, of which ground shell was selected having a particle
size range of 4 to 100 mesh (Tyler designation). The granules
were coated with attractants, other adjuvants and toxicant (1%
malathion) and were found to be highly effective against both
adults and larvae of the house fly and related species, and effective
against larvae of a soldier fly, and blow fly larvae. The final
product was stable on prolonged storage in suitable containers
and is being marketed under the trade name "FLY FLAKES".
The product is practically odorless. Patents are pending.
Tests were conducted in numerous locations where flies breed
or congregate. Three to four ounces per 100 square feet scat-
tered by hand, reduced adult fly populations ninety percent or
more within one hour with high mortality continuing for periods
up to three weeks or longer in situations that permitted the
particles to remain dry and exposed within reach of the flies.
In situations such as feed room floors, on the manure under caged
hens, and on litter of livestock barn floors, the baits usually gave
an initial reduction of at least ninety percent within an hour
and held the flies at this level or lower, killing flies as fast as
they moved into the area, for periods of three to seven days.
In tests against house fly larvae and adults at two poultry
farms the granular baits applied to the manure gave this same
rapid reduction of adult flies at rates of one to 11/2 lbs. per 100
square feet and continued to kill flies as rapidly as they emerged
from pupae or moved into the treated area for periods of 5 to
7 days. These rates also killed a very high percentage of the
larvae to a depth of three inches in the manure and gave reduc-
tions in larvae up to more than ninety percent in 3 to 7 days.
Both larvae and adults were reduced ninety-eight percent or
more following two applications 5 to 7 days apart.
Flies were reduced and kept under good control in one poultry
house during a seventeen week period by using nine applications
against larvae and adults and a tenth "spot" application against
adults only.


188








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


Flies in caged hen houses were brought under control by
three different methods: First, by treating all of the manure
at 1 to 11 lbs. per 100 square feet once or twice at weekly inter-
vals, plus treating areas where flies congregate such as feed-
room and egg house floors with 2 to 4 ounces per 100 square feet
and continuing this procedure as needed. Second, by spot treat-
ing areas of manure obviously infested by larvae and applying
additional material about the area where needed to control adults.
Third, by ignoring the larvae entirely and concentrating on adults
in areas wherever they congregated with applications when
needed. Of these methods the second was entirely satisfactory.
The third method was satisfactory for the house fly but per-
mitted larvae of a soldier fly to increase.
Larvae of a soldier fly were controlled very effectively in
manure under caged hens by weekly applications to infested
areas at the rate of 11/ lbs. per 100 sq. ft. However, not more
than 50 to 60 percent of the adult stage was killed and then
apparently by contact rather than by baiting.
During a fifteen week period, April-July, the average amount
of granular bait required to hold adult house flies at a very low
level at a poultry farm having 3,000 caged laying hens was an
average of 214 pounds per 1,000 hens per week.
Tests in dairy barns using 2 to 4 ounces per 100 square feet
on the feed-room floors, in walkways, and other areas where
flies congregate reduced flies 90 percent or more within an hour.
One to four pounds was sufficient in most dairy barns and, be-
cause the bait continued to kill when used in the feed rooms,
on window ledges, and other dry surfaces, applications to limited
areas every 5 to 10 days were usually sufficient.
The granular baits were highly effective in livestock barns
and hog pens on litter or manure covered floors, on outside
porches of residences, in commercial buildings such as office
buildings, stores, and a cafeteria, around meat processing plants,
barbecue pits, picnic areas, garbage dumps, and similar locations.
Dogs, cats, hogs, horses, and cattle were watched on numer-
ous occasions and at no time did any of these animals show any
interest in the granules or any inclination to feed thereon.
Chickens and ducks fed upon the baits reluctantly and care must
be taken against possible poisoning of poultry.
In general, the product has proven to be an excellent tool for
killing both larvae and adult stages of house flies and several
other species of flies, and larvae of the soldier fly in practically
any area or location except inside residences, in milk processing


189








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


rooms,4 in areas accessible to poultry and where hard granules
may scratch highly finished floors by being trodden under foot.

LITERATURE CITED
Abbott, W. S. 1925. A method for computing the effectiveness of an
insecticide. Jour. Econ. Ent. 18:265.
Bliss, C. I. 1938. Plant Protection No. 12, Leningrad.
Gahan, James B., and W. C. McDuffie. 1954. Dry sugar baits for the control
of house flies. Agri. and Food Chem. 28:425.
Mayeux, Herman S. 1954. Malathion for house fly control. Fla. Ent.
46(3).

SMalathion is not approved for use inside residences and milk processing
rooms at this time.


r, Check these ORTHO Advantages:


1. Expert practical advice by ex-
perienced ORTHO Fieldmen.
2. Quick delivery and fresh ma-
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3. Finest research facilities as-
sure latest information on new
pest controls.
4. ORTHO Field News Letters


give complete technical data on
local pest problems. Write to be
placed on mailing list.
5. ORTHO labels are guaranteed
for ingredient contents.
6. Quality products from the con-
trol laboratories working 'round
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ingredients.


---


190









VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954 191


REPORT ON A COLLECTION OF MALLOPHAGA,
LARGELY MEXICAN (PART I)

M. A. CARRIKER, JR.
(Continued from p. 146, Vol. 37, No. 3)

Superfamily ISCHNOCERA

FAMILY PHILOPTERIDAE

Acidoproctus hopkinsi mexicanus, n. subsp.
(Figures 8 and 9)
Types, male and female adults, from Dendrocygna a. autumnalis (Linn.),
collected by Charles Shaw at Tamuin, San Luis Potosi, September 19, 1946.
DIAGNOSIS.-Closely related to and conspecific with A. hopkinsi Car-
riker,' from Dendrocygna autumnalis discolor of Colombia. It differs from
A. h. hopkinsi in the following characters: the frontal emargination of the
head is closed apically by the drawing together of the tips of the frons,
so that they touch each other (see figure).
In hopkinsi there is a slight tendency towards this closing of the
emargination, the sides of the opening not being parallel-sided as in rostratus
and others of the genus.' The pre-antennary portion of the head in
mexicanus is wider than in hopkinsi, and there are slight, differences in the
structure. The entire insect is smaller in most measurements than hopkinsi,
the exceptions being in the length of the pterothorax, which is the same in
the male and greater in the female, and in length of the antennae which
are longer in both sexes.
The chaetotaxy of the sternal genital plate in the female and the struc-
ture of the sclerite itself are also different (compare figures of the two).

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES:

Male Female
Length Width Length Width


Body .......................-..... 3.17 3.73 -
frons ............------------. .49 .51
Head temples .............- .825 .64 .825 .651
[emargination ...... .175 .13 .174 .152
Prothorax .....--......-....---- .29 .347 .282 .41
Pterothorax .. ........... .434 .67 .423 .705
Abdomen ..--..----............ 1.95 .684 2.49 .868
Antennae ---- ... ....... .. .40 .068 .326 .06
Basal plate .. ...----..- .....- .175 .13
Paramers ..-...........-...... .163 .105
Endomera --..........-- .13 .06


1 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1949, vol. 100, pp. 377-380.









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


In mexicanus there are 13 heavy spines on each side of the genital plate
instead of 9 as in hopkinsi, and the spines are thicker, while there is an
additional row of about 10 very short and thick spines just inside the long
ones, instead of the row of fine setae further inside as in hopkinsi. The
basal plate in the male is shorter and wider and the paramers are the same
in both measurements, but the endomera are shorter and wider and slightly
different in shape. There are two setae at the tip of each paramer instead
of one as in hopkinsi.
There is a slight error in the figure of the endomera as given for
hopkinsi, the lateral emarginations being covered by a very thin, trans-
parent membrane, as in mexicanus.
The species is represented by the male holotype, female allotype, and
1 male paratype; the last is now in the collection of the author.

Anatoecus bipunctatus (Giebel), 1874
Docophorus bipunctatus Giebel, Insecta Epizoa, p. 116. Host: Mergus (m.)
merganser (Linn.).
Three males were taken from a specimen of Mergus merganser ameri-
canus Cassin, collected by George H. Lowery, at Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.,
November 7, 1946.
While the type of this species came from the European Merganser, the
two are very closely related. I have examined specimens of Anatoecus
from numerous species of American ducks, and specimens from different
genera of ducks are often extremely similar. Apparently there has been
very little differentiation in this parasite with the evolution of the numer-
ous genera and species of ducks. Taking this fact into consideration, I
feel that I am warranted in calling the present specimens of Anatoecus
the same as those from the European Merganser, although I have not been
able to compare them directly with European material.

Austrophilopterus minutus Carriker, 1950
Rev. Brasil Biol., vol. 10, p. 186, figs. 44-46. Host: Aulocorphynchus p.
prasinus (Gould).
A series of 1 male, 4 females, and 3 nymphs were taken on the type
host, collected by Robert J. Newman at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, February
7, 1947. These have been compared with the types of the species and are
the same. In the collection there is also a nymph of this species labelled
as from Vireo solitarius, collected on February 8. This is an obvious strag-
gler from a Toucan collected the previous day. There is also another adult
female labelled as coming from Psilorhinus morio, collected at the same
place on February 14. This is also an obvious straggler from the Toucan,
most likely being accidently mixed with the material from P. morio during
the process of mounting.

Cummingsiella inexpectata, n. sp.

(Figures 10, 11 and 12)

Types, male and female, from Recurvirostra americana Gmelin, col-
lected by Charles Shaw at Ebano, San Luis Potosi, November 6, 1946.


192























S II


L 16B


. 17A 17 16A
16A


Fig. 8a. Acidopractus hopkinsi mexicanus, male, front and head
Fig. 8b. A. h. mexicanus, female, tip of abdomen
Fig. 9. A. h. mexicanus, male, genitalia
Fig. 10. Cummingsiella inexpectata, male
Fig. 11. C. inexpectata, female, abdomen, segments IV-VIII
Fig. 12. C. inexpectata, male, genitalia
Fig. 13. Strigiphilus viridicus, male
Fig. 14. S. viridicus, female, tip of abdomen
Fig. 15. S. viridicus, male, genitalia
Fig. 16a. Briiella laticeps laticeps (Piaget), male, pleurites III and IV
Fig. 16b. B. 1. prasina, male, pleurites III and IV
Fig. 17a. B. 1. laticeps, male, genitalia
Fig. 17b. B. 1. prasina, male, genitalia








194 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

DIAGNOSIS.-This is the first species of Cummingsiella taken on the
avian genus Recurvirostra, and the pair of types were among a large
series of Quadraceps testudinarius Children, whose type host is Recurvi-
rostra americana, so that there can be no question as to the authenticity
of the host record.
The present species is so different from any of the other known species
of the genus 2 that a full description of it is unnecessary. It may be recog-
nized by the long, fairly slender, body, especially the long, slender abdomen
of the female. The head is typical of the genus and resembles strongly
that of C. ovalis (Scopoli), but the body is entirely different, the pterothorax
being narrow, with straight, slightly divergent sides, and the abdomen long,
very slender, and tapering to the tip on the female.
The structure of the abdominal sclerites is also unique, although of
same general types as in ovalis and longirostricola in that their sternites
are heavily chitinized and widely separated from the pleurites, but differ
in that they are also divided medially. The chaetotaxy is very sparse with
setae mostly short and weak.
The male genitalia are also quite different in the structure of the
endomera (see figure). There is practically no difference in structure of
head and thorax between the sexes, although the head is wider at the
temples in the female, also segment I of the abdomen is the same while
segments II and III are like IV and V, as shown in the figure of the female.
The head and thorax in the female are little larger than in male (see
tables of measurements), but the abdomen is very much longer (1.91 x .61
against 1.19 x .545). The species is represented by the two types only.

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES:

Male Female
Length Width Length Width

Body ........---- .. ....-- .......- 2.12 2.95 -
Head ..--....-.......... .....---- .. .54 .51 .586 .597
Prothorax ......----..-.....-.. .23 .40 .263 .412
Pterothorax -.....-.....---... .28 .52 .326 .564
Abdomen .....-................. 1.19 .545 1.91 .61
Antennae ......-..-..........-- .24 .054 .23 .06
Basal plate -.....-..--... --- .28 .13
Paramers ....................- .102 .123
Endomera .............. ..--... .05 .08


Ibidoecus bimaculatus (Mjdberg), 1910
Docophorus bimaculatus Mjoberg, Ark. Zool., vol. 6, no. 13, p. 125, figs. 70-72.
Host: Guara alba (Linn.). See Carriker, 1947, Bol. Entom. Venezol,
vol. 6, p. 121.
A series of 16 specimens of both sexes was taken on the type host col-
lected by Charles Shaw at Tamuin, San Luis Potosi, September 16, 1946.

21 have not seen a description of C. brevirostris Blagoveshtchensky from
Numenius tenuirostris.









VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


195


These specimens agree exactly with specimens from the type host in the
author's collection, from which the true host was determined, and the species
redescribed and figured.

Ibidoecus bisignatus (Nitzsch), 1866
Docophorus bisignatus Nitzsch, in Giebel, Z. ges. NatWiss., vol. 28, p. 362.
Host: Plegadis f. falcinellus (Linn.).
A single immature specimen of what I take to be this species was
secured from Plegadis falcinellus chihi (Vieill.). It is not sufficiently de-
veloped to permit certain identification.

Ibidoecus ibero-americanus Eichler, 1943
Mem. Estud. Zoo. Mus. Univ. Coimbra, no. 140, p. 5. Host: Ajaia ajjaa
(Linn.).
A series of 23 specimens of both sexes of this species was taken from
the type host collected by Charles Shaw at Pujal, San Luis Potosi, October
30, 1946.
These specimens are identical with a series in the author's collection
taken from the same host in Colombia. I described this in 1947 under the
name of I. ajajus, not having seen Eichler's paper published in 1943. The
species is an outstanding one and is easily recognized.

Strigiphilus viridicus, n. sp.

(Figures 13, 14 and 15)

Types, male and female adults, from Ciccaba virgata centralis Griscom,
collected by Robert J. Newman at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, February 8, 1947.
In 1874 Giebel described Docophorus virgo (Insecta Epizoa, p. 79) from
Ciccaba virgata superciliaris (Pelzeln) (Brazil).
Giebel's description of virgo certainly does not fit the specimens taken
on Ciccaba virgata in Mexico and Colombia; hence, the systematic position
of virgo is problematical. There are many points of difference, but the most
striking are the shape of the temples, the trabeculae, the legs, the lack
of "lateral bands" on the abdomen, and the proportions of the head. A
comparison of Giebel's description of virgo with the species described below
fully illustrates these differences. Piaget's description of S. virgo (Giebel)
(Pediculines) is merely a condensation of Giebel, and he assuredly never
saw the species or else he would have published a figure of it. Giebel's
statement "Die schlifenecke hinter des Fiihlerbucht tritt stark und stumpf
hervor" or liness temporalibus rectis" cannot apply to the present species.
Neither are the legs slender, the trabeculae "conical," nor the abdominal
segments "immaculate."
The material from Mexican and Colombian specimens of Ciccaba virgata
is typical of Strigiphilus, resembling strongly S. syrnii (Packard) from
Strix nebulosa, but with a longer head, and it seems to be an undescribed
form, a description of which follows.
DIAGNOSIs.-Nearest to S. syrnii (Packard) in structure and markings
of head and prothorax, but the pterothorax differs considerably, as well









196 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

as the abdominal pleurites. The body length and length and width of head
are close to syrnii in both sexes, but the pro- and pterothorax are shorter
and the abdomen much narrower in both sexes. The posterior margin
of the pterothorax in syrnii is strongly and evenly convex and bears three
fairly strong setae on each side of median line, while in viridicus there is
but one.
The pleurites are wider transversely and tergites shorter, but their
general structure is the same, while the abdominal chaetotaxy is also
similar.
The paramers in syrnii are much narrower and taper apically, but the
length is the same; the endomera is distinct, but its details cannot be
distinguished in the single male I have of syrnii. The type series consists
of the male holotype, female allotype, and 16 paratypes of both sexes.

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES:

Male Female
Length Width Length Width

Body ...-..--....-- -----.... ..... 1.78 2.00 -
Head .......--.....- ... ...... .675 .597 .695 .62
Prothorax ........-..-.....--.... .15 .36 .174 .36
Pterothorax ................. .163 .52 .174 .54
Abdomen -.......---.. -...... .90 .66 1.11 .76
Antennae ....-...-.............- .22 .054 .24 .054
Basal plate ...................... .26 .13
Paramers -..................... .077 .12
Endomera ---....-....--- ........ .08 .10



Philopterus ocellatus (Scopoli), 1763
Pediculus ocellatus Scopoli, Ent. carniolica, p. 382. Host: Corvus corone
(sardonius) Kleinschmidt.
Two males, a female and 2 nymphs from Corvus corone brachyrhynchos,
collected by Rollin Baker at Attair, Texas, U. S. A., December 11, 1938.
Hopkins and Clay contend that the species of Philopterus found on the
American Crow is the same as that from the European form, sardonius,
and that Docophorus corvi Osborn is a synonym of ocellatus (Scopoli). Not
having been able to compare material from the two hosts, I am not in a
position to refute their statement and for the time being follow their
decision.
Philopterus underwoodi (Carriker), 1903
Docophorus underwoodi Carriker, Univ. Nebraska Studies, vol. 3, p. 130,
pl. 1, fig. 3. Host: Psilorhinus mexicanus cyanogenys Sharpe.
A series of 48 males and females of what is apparently this species was
taken on Psilorhinus morio (Wagler) collected by Marcella Newman at
Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, January 27, 1947.
A very careful comparison was made between these specimens and the
types of P. underwoodi, and while there are certain very small differences,









VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954 197

they do not seem of nomenclatural value. The genitalia, the sternal plates
in both sexes, head structure, and chaetotaxy are all exactly the same.
The two hosts are closely related, and all of the species of Philopterus
parasitic on the Corvidae are very similar in many ways, so that it is not
so unusual to find the same species of Philopterus on two hosts of the same
genus, as in the case of the preceding species, P. ocellatus.

Eustrigiphilus ceblybrachys (Denny), 1842
Docophorus ceblybrachys Denny, Mon. Anopl. Brit., pp. 45 and 92, pl. I,
fig. 3. Host: Nyctea scandiaca (Linn.); Eustrigiphilus ceblybrachys,
Ewing, 1926.
Three females of this characteristic species were taken on the type host
collected by C. Honey. Compared with material in my own collection from
the type host, they prove to be the same. I am not prepared to follow
Hopkins and Clay in making Eustrigiphilus Ewing a synonym of Strigiphilus
Mj6berg. If Eustrigiphilus cannot be recognized, neither can Cummingsiella
be separated from Quadraceps, as well as other cases which could be cited.

Chelopistes meleagridis (Linn.), 1758
Pediculus meleagridis Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 613. Host: Meleagris
gallopavo domestic.
A series of 12 specimens of both sexes taken on Meleagris gallopavo
intermedia, collected by Rollin Baker in Kenedy Co., Texas, December, 1941.
When this material was compared with Miss Clay's description and figures
of the species and with my own material from the domestic turkey, no
differences were to be noted. It is a well-marked species, quite different
from all the other species of the genus I have seen and, in my opinion,
not congeneric with the species described by me from the Cracidae and
Odontophorus.

Physconelloides zenaidurae (McGregor), 1917
Goniodes zenaidurae McGregor, Ent. News, vol. 28, p. 433, pl. 28, figs. 1, 4.
Host: Zenaidura macroura marginella (Woodhouse).
Five females of this species were taken on Zenaidura macroura caro-
linensis, collected by D. S. Farner at Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A. These
specimens agree with McGregor's description and figures and also with a
female in my own collection from the same host taken in Ohio. The genus
Physconelloides is a very homogenous one, with species differing but slightly
from each other, so that very careful comparison must be made with the
known forms before describing new ones.

Quadraceps hemichrous (Nitzsch), 1866
Nirmus hemichrous Nitzsch, in Giebel, Z. ges. NatWiss., vol. 28, p. 372.
Host: Himantopus h. himantopus (Linn.).
Four males and 3 females were taken on Himantopus mexicanus (P. L.
S. Millerr, collected by Robert J. Newman at Tamuin, San Luis Potosi,
November 17, 1946. I have previously compared material of this species
taken on H. h. mexicanus with specimens of authentic hemichrous from
Europe and find them to be identical.









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Quadraceps hospes (Nitzsch), 1866
Nirmus hospes Nitzsch, in Giebel, Z. ges. NatWiss., vol. 28, p. 371. Host:
Squatarola squatarola (Linn.).
Two males and 3 females were taken on the type host collected by
Charles Shaw at Ebano, San Luis Potosi, November 1, 1946. I have not
been able to compare these specimens with authentic material of the species,
but from the available data there seems to be no question as to the correct-
ness of the identification.

Quadraceps testudinarius (Children), 1836
Nirmus testudinarius Children, Back's Arctic Land Exped., p. 538. Host:
Recurvirostra americana Gmelin.
Twenty-four males and females of the species were taken from the type
host collected by Charles Shaw at Ebano, San Luis Potosi, November 6,
1946. Children's brief Latin description of this species leaves much to the
imagination. However, what he does say agrees with the material examined.
I had previously taken specimens on the type host, which were compared
with the Mexican material and found to be the same.

Oxylipeurus corpulentus Clay, 1938
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, (B), vol. 108, p. 183, figs. and pl. 12, fig. 1.
Host: Meleagris gallopavo merriami Nelson.
Seven females were taken on Meleagris gallopavo intermedia Sennett,
collected by Rollin Baker in Kenedy Co., Texas in December, 1941. This
material agrees perfectly with Miss Clay's description and figures of the
species. Unfortunately there were no males.

Oxylipeurus chifiiri vetulae Carriker, 1944
Rev. Bras. Biol., (4) 4, December, p. 579, figs. 50-53. Host: Ortalis v.
vetula (Wagler).
A large series of Oxylipeurus was take on Ortalis vetula mccalli (Baird)
at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi. When the material was compared with the
type series of 0. c. vetulae Carriker, some very slight differences were
noted, but they are not, in my opinion, worthy of nomenclatural recognition.
The two hosts O. v. vetula and 0. vetula mccalli are very closely related,
so that it would hardly seem probable to find a difference in their Mallo-
phagan parasites.
Cuculicola atopa (Kellogg), 1899
Nirmus atopus Kellogg, 1899, Occ. Pap. California Acad. Sci., vol. 6, p. 18,
pl. 2, fig. 4. Host: Piaya cayana thermophila P. L. Sclater.
Fifty specimens of both sexes were taken apparently on a single example
of the type host collected by Robert J. Newman at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi,
February 11, 1947.
I have examined specimens of this parasite from numerous races of
Piaya cayana, collected from Mexico to Peru, and there seems to be prac-
tically no difference between them. This species of parasite is apparently
a remarkably stable form.


198








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954 199

Briielia laticeps prasinus, n. subsp.

(Figures 16a, 16b, 17a and 17b)

Types, male and female adult, from Aulocorhynchus p. prasinus (Gould),
collected by Robert J. Newman at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, February 7, 1947.
DIAGNOSIS.-Close to the nominate race from A. atrogularis (Peru),
with which it has been compared. In general appearance the two are very
similar and may be recognized at a glance by the unusual head structure
and abdominal pleurites, the former of the type of B. marginella (from
the motmots), and the latter characteristic of this species.
Examples of B. laticeps have been taken on numerous species of toucans.
All are, apparently, conspecific, but they are divisible into an undetermined
number of subspecies. Piaget's figure of laticeps is correct and needs little
elaboration. The present race differs from the nominate form as follows
(measurements of males only are compared, no female of the nominate
race having been taken) : head wider at temples (.43 x .51 against .445 x
.49); pterothorax wider, length the same (.467 against .434); abdomen
longer and much wider (.976 x .75 against .915 x .67); basal plate wider
and of distinct shape; paramers shorter and endomera quite different
(see figures).
There is considerable difference in the structure of the pleural incrassa-
tions (see figures) and in the apical portion of the basal plate. The sub-
species is represented by the male holotype, female allotype, and 9 female
paratypes.
MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES:

Male Female
Length Width Length Width

Body ...................... ..... 1.59 1.91 -
Head ............................ .43 .51 .456 .564
Prothorax ..-..........- ...... .13 .314 .174 .31
Pterothorax ---............--- .195 .434 .195 .50
Abdomen ...---.................. .915 .67 1.14 .846
Antennae ........-- ..........-- .195 .035 .217 .043
Basal plate ...................... .225 .10
Paramers .....-...-- ...-...-.... .068 .078
Endomera ..-.................... .053 .048



Briielia picturata (Osborn), 1896
Nirmus picturatus Osborn, 1896, Bull. U. S. Bureau Ent. (n. s.), no. 5,
p. 226. Host: Sturnella m. rmagna (Linn.).
Eight females (2 juv.) and 1 male were taken on the type host collected
at Garnett, Anderson Co., Kansas, U. S. A., by H. W. Setzer, March 22,
1947. This is a very strikingly marked species, with pitchy black mark-
ings on a clear ground. It is a common type of the genus found on the
Icteridae.









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Briielia marginella (Nitzsch), 1866

(Figures 18 and 19)
Nirmus marginellus Nitzsch, Zeit. ges. NatWiss., p. 368. Host: Momotus
momota (Linn.), Piaget, Pediculines Suppl., p. 21, pl. III, fig. 1; Giebel,
Insecta Epizoa, p. 147, pl. VI, fig. 5.
I have examined a large series of this species taken from seven sub-
species of Momotus momota, ranging from Peru to northern Mexico, and
a single female from Barypthengus semirufus from Colombia. I have a
pair of the parasites taken on Momotus m. momote, from the upper Rio
Caura in Venezuela, which we must consider as the type host for the species.
The whole series is clearly conspecific but may be separated into various
subspecies, the specimen from Barypthengus being the farthest removed
from the typical form.
A study of the literature covering the species is somewhat confusing.
Giebel's description and figure undoubtedly represent this species, but it is
difficult to reconcile Piaget's figure with Giebel's, or with the actual speci-
mens of the parasite. In Piaget's figure the head is not only of a different
shape but is very much larger than it should be in proportion to the size
of the insect. The pterothorax is not pointed medially on the posterior
margin, as shown by Piaget, but is flatly convex. There are so many
details in both his description and figure that do not agree with the actual
specimens of marginellus that I am inclined to believe that his single female
came from some other host, not Momotus.
I herewith present a figure of the female taken on the type host; also
shown is the male genitalia. The resemblance of my drawings to Giebel's
figure is at once apparent.
A single male from M. m. chlorolaemus (Peru) is very close to the
Venezuelan pair from M. m. momota and cannot be separated, as well as
six specimens from M. m. spatha (Goajira Peninsula, Colombia), and 8
from M. m. subrufescens (N. E. Colombia).
The large series from northern Mexico, from M. m. caeruleiceps, how-
ever, differs sufficiently from the Venezuelan pair to merit subspecific rank,
and is described below. The 2 males and 5 females from M. m. lesson
(Costa Rica) are too close to the Mexican series to be separated from it,
while nine specimens from M. m. reconditus (Panama-Colombia frontier)
are more or less intermediate but have certain distinctive characters and pos-
sibly may be separable. Moreover, the single female from Barypthengus
seems to be different in the shape of its head and the pattern of the in-
crassations on the pleurites.

Briielia marginella xilitla, n. subsp.

(Figures 20a and 20b)

Types, male and female adults, from Momotus momota caeruleiceps
(Gould), collected by Robert J. Newman at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi,
February 12, 1947.
DIAGNOSIS.-Very close to the nominate form, differing only in certain
measurements, chaetotaxy, and the shape of incrassations on the pleurites
and on the head. The single male which I have of the nominate race is


200









VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954 201

not in condition for comparison with the Mexican material as to size.
It is either an unusually small specimen or shrunken in clearing (probably
both). As regards the female, the differences between it and the new
form are the following: the head measures exactly the same; the prothorax
and pterothorax are longer and narrower; the abdomen longer and wider.
The clypeal bands differ in shape (see figure), as well as the markings
on the pleurites. There are about nine long, strong hairs on each side
of the posterior margin of the pterothorax (in addition to one at angle),
while in marginella there are but five on the margin and two in the angle,
all shorter. The setae of the abdomen are all longer in the new form,
especially the three in the median, lateral portion of the pleurites and the
single long, pustulated hair on posterior margin of tergites II to VI. The
male genitalia seem to be about the same. There is considerable variation
in the shape of the apical portion of the paramers in the Mexican series,
some being like marginella and others different, so that they cannot be
used for comparison.
The race is not a strongly marked one, but the differences listed are
constant. The type series consists of the male holotype, female allotype,
7 male and 7 female paratypes.

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES:

Male Female
Length Width Length Width


Body .........-......... ......... 1.92 2.45 -
Head .--......... ...---...----- .586 .597 .586 .62
Prothorax ....---............ .185 .34 .205 .345
Pterothorax .--..-.....-.... .22 .54 .25 .564
Abdomen .... ----... ........... 1.08 .716 1.41 .78
Antennae ---.........-........ .26 .048 .27 .058
Basal plate .......---- .21 .08
Paramers ............... ...-- .06 .066
Endomera .-..---........ ..... .051 .046


Briielia subtilis (Nitzsch), 1874
Nirmus subtilis Nitzsch, in Giebel, Insecta Epizoa, p. 137. Host: Passer
m. montanus and P. d. domesticus (Linn.).
Seventeen specimens of both sexes, of what seems to be this species,
were taken on Passer domesticus, collected by L. Lipovosky at Lawrence,
Kansas, May 21, 1947.
Apparently this species is very close to B. cyclothorax (Burm.). Just
what the differences are I am not quite certain, and both have been recorded
from Passer montanus, but only subtilis from P. domesticus. A comparison
of the present specimens (which are in poor condition) with Denny's and
Giebel's description and figure of cyclothorax shows that they apparently
are not that species but another closely related one, which can only be
B. subtilis (Nit.). The species is characterized by the long, tapering pre-








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


antennary area of the head, by the apparent absence of deeply chitinized
pleurites, and by the rather deeply colored sternites that do not extend to
the pleurites. These specimens are not in condition to be properly described,
being either immature or left too long in the clearing solution.

Pseudolipeurus longipes similis Carriker, 1944
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 95, p. 91, fig. 2b. Host: Crypfitrcllis b. boucardi
(P. L. Sclater).
A single pair of this species was taken on Crypturellus cinnamomeus
mexicanus (Salvadori), collected by George H. Lowery at Naranjo, San
Luis Potosi, February 15, 1948.
I have made a very complete comparison between this pair of parasites
and the types of P. longipes similis, and whatever minute differences there
may be are entirely too small to merit consideration. There is a very
slight difference in the shape of the clypeal signature, but not sufficient
to be of systematic value. The characters most commonly used for separat-
ing the species and subspecies of this genus are: the shape of the head,
the antennae, the clypeal signature, the male genitalia, and the apical
abdominal segments in both sexes. In all of these characters the parasites
in question agree perfectly with specimens from C. b. boucardi. A re-
examination of the single male taken by me on Crypturellus cinnamomeus
sallaei, at Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, M6xico, and referred by me to this
species in my 1944 report (p. 91), and comparison with the pair mentioned
above, confirms my previous statement as to its nomenclatural status. It
agrees perfectly with the male from San Luis Potosi.

Pseudophilopterus hirsutus similis Carriker, 1944
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 95, p. 103, figs. 4e and f. Host: Crypturellus
cinnamomeus sallaei (Bonaparte).
One male and 3 females were taken on Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexi-
canus (Salvadori), the same individual host as given under the preceding
species, as well as from another example of this host collected at Rio Axtla
by Robert J. Newman, April 21, 1947.
There are no discernible differences between these specimens and the
types of P. h. similis from C. c. sallaei.


FAMILY HEPTAPSOGASTRIDAE

Strongylocotes interruptus fimbriatus Clay, 1937
Strongylocotes complanatus fimbriatus Clay, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p.
156, pl. 4, fig. 3. Host: Crypturellus c. cinnamomeus (Lesson).
Two nymphs of what are doubtless this species, were taken on the same
host as the two preceding species, collected by George H. Lowery at Naranjo,
San Luis Potosi. They are too young for comparison, but considering the
relationships between the other Mallophagan species of this group of hosts,
I do not hesitate in calling them fimbriatus.

3The systematic arrangement used in this paper follows a revision of
the genus in another paper now in press.


202































20A


22B

20 s




j l2 3
24B s l
24A '
Fig. 18. Briiella marginella marginella (Nit.), female
Fig. 19. B. m. marginella (Nit.), male, genitalia
Fig. 20a. B. marginella xilitla, female, head
Fig. 20b. B. m. xilitla, female, pleurites and tergites IV and V
Fig. 21a. Heptapsogaster mandibularis idoneus, male, pleurites I to V
Fig. 21b. Heptapsogaster mandibularis cinnamomeus, male, pleurites I to V
Fig. 22a. Heptapsogaster inexpectata potosii, male, pleurites I to V
Fig. 22b. H. i. magdalenae Carr., male, pleurites I to V
Fig. 23. H. i. potosii, male genitalia
Fig. 24a. Discocorpus multiplex secundus Clay, male
Fig. 24b. D. m. secundus, male, genitalia









204 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Rhopaloceras h. heterogenitalis Carriker, 1944

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 95, p. 136, figs. 10a, b, and e. Host: Crypturellus
b. boucardi (P. L. Sclater).
A single female was taken on the same host as the preceding species,
collected by Robert J. Newman at Rio Axtla, April 21, 1947.
This female is exactly like the female allotype of heterogenitalis in the
shape of the head and the apical abdominal segment, the latter being
characteristic of the species. It has the same spicule-covered sac surround-
ing the apical portion of the genitalia, the two setae set in a clear area
on each side of the median portion (dorsal), and the same identical struc-
ture of the anterior portion of the sternal plate. However, without the
male sex the identification cannot be positive. The only difference discern-
ible is in the structure and chaetotaxy of the meso-sternal plate, but this
difference is not great and may very well fall within the range of individual
variation.

Heptapsogaster temporalis acutiventris Clay, 1937
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, (B), p. 135, fig. 4a, pl. I, figs. 1, 2. Host:
Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexicanus (Salvadori).
A single male taken on the type host (same individual as for preceding
species).

Heptapsogaster mandibularis cinnamomeus, n. subsp.

(Figures 21a and 21b)

Type, adult male, from Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexicanus (Salva-
dori), collected by Robert J. Newman at Rio Axtla, San Luis Potosi,
M6xico, April 21, 1947.
DIAGNOSIS.-This race is very close to H. m. idoneus, from Crypturellus
idoneus of Colombia. The whole body is wider in all segments, but the
length of head and thoracic segments is the same, while the abdomen is
longer and wider (.76 x .716 against .68 x .64). The male genitalia are

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPE:

Length Width

B ody ........- ..-.. -- ... ...---- ...-- ... 1.41 -
ffrons --............-......... --. .35
Head temples ....................... .424 .61
occiput .----..--..-...--. ........... 38 -
Prothorax ..........................--......... .152 .326
M esothorax .................-........--....... .163 .597
M etathorax ................................. .13 .586
Abdomen ....--......-........-...-.......-- .. .76 .716
Paramers .................................... .133 .092
Endomera ....-..............................--- .123 .054









VOL. XXXVII, NO. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


practically the same, the only difference being in the paramers, which are
slightly shorter and narrower, but this difference is small (.133 x .092
against .143 x .114). However, the pleural incrassations are quite different,
so that this character together with wider body and longer abdomen seem
to be sufficient for subspecific recognition.
The race is represented by a single male, the holotype.

Heptapsogaster inexpectata potosii, n. subsp.

(Figures 22a, 22b, and 23)

Types, male and female adults, from Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexi-
canus (Salvadori), collected by Robert J. Newman at Rio Axtla, San Luis
Potosi, M6xico, April 21, 1947.
DIAGNOSIS.-Very similar to H. i. magdalenae Carriker, from Crypturel-
lus idoneus (Colombia), differing only in small subspecific characters. The
measurements for the male are practically the same, with the exception
of a slightly longer abdomen (.61 x .63 against .56 x .63) ; longer and wider
paramers and wider endomera (paramers, .13 x .09 against .09 x .07;
endomera, .11 x .043 against .11 x .033). The genital sternite and segment
VII in the female are exactly the same shape as in magdalenae, but the
pleural incrassations differ considerably in both sexes (see figure). The
scent gland in the male is the same, as well as shape of pleurite V to which
it is attached.

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES:


Male Female
Length Width Length Width


Body ........................... 1.19 1.39 -
ffrons ...................... .29 .345
Head temples .........-...... 38 .477 .395 .52
occiput ........----.. .337 .35 -
Prothorax ........................ .13 .293 .13 .303
Mesothorax .................... .132 .51 .15 .52
Metathorax .................... .13 .50 .14 .49
Abdomen ........................ .61 .63 .803 .66
Antennae ..................----- .22 .054 .185 .035
Paramers .........-...........--- .13 .09
Endomera ......................- .11 .043



Species represented by the male holotype, female allotype, and 2 male
and 2 female paratypes.

I do not consider that Heinrothiella inexpectata Eichler, 1942, is con-
generic with Heptapsogaster; therefore, there is no necessity for replacing
Heptapsogaster inexpectatus Carriker, 1944, with H. insperatus Hopkins,
1950.


205









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Megapoestus multiplex secundus Clay, 1937
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 150, figs. 9b and 10b. Host: Crypturellus cinna-
momceus mexicanus (Salvadori).
Five males and 5 females were taken from the same individual host
mentioned under the previous species, as well as from the bird collected
at Naranjo. These specimens are from the type host and agree perfectly
with Clay's description and figures. (See remarks by the author on this
species in Stud. in Neotr. Mall. III, p. 189.)

Discocorpus cephalosus mexicanus, n. subsp.

(Figure 24)

Type, male adult, from Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexicanus (Salva-
dori), collected by George H. Lowery at Naranjo, San Luis Potosi, Feb-
ruary 15, 1948.
DIAGNOSIS.-This race is nearest to D. c. intermedius, from Crypturellus
idoneus (Colombia), with which it agrees in the size and shape of the head,
shape of the thorax, type of incrassations on the pleurites, and in general
shape of paramers, but differs in the details of some of these characters,
especially in the male genitalia.
The only differences in measurements worthy of note are: metathorax,
.15 x .454 against .17 x .44; paramers, .123 x .08 against .087 x .07; and
endomera, .08 x .043 against .06 x .03. Pleurites I to V are thickly covered
(especially on outer half) with tiny, round depressions, or pits, about .006
in diameter. These pits are present on all known species of the genus,
but the fact has not heretofore been noted. There is considerable variation
in the amount of these pits present. In furculus they are found not only
on the pleurites but also on the tergites and portions of the head, while
in the present race they are restricted to pleurites I to V.
By a comparison of the figures of the genitalia of the three other sub-
species in this genus (Stud. in Neotr. Mall. III, 1944, p. 193) the differ-
ences will at once be apparent. It will also be noted that the pleural in-
crassations are quite different from those of D. c. cephalosus (Stud. in
Neotr. Mall. I, 1936, pl. 25, fig. 1), as well as from microgenitalis (cf., pl.
24, fig. 2). The race is represented by the male holotype only.

Heterogoniodes arcaeceps Clay, 1937
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 152, fig. II. Host: Crypturellus cinnamomeus
mexicanus (Salvadori).
Four females of this interesting species were taken on the type host
collected by Robert J. Newman at Rio Axtla, April 21, 1947. No males
were secured. There can be no doubt of the identity of the species, since
the specimens came from the type host. Only three species of this inter-
esting genus are known, all from the genus Crypturellus.

SComplete measurements are not given since they are so close to those
of intermedius, while the worthwhile differences are noted above.


206








VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


Pectenosoma verrucosa cinnamomea Carriker, 1944
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 95, p. 202-205. Host: Crypturellus cinnamomeus
sallaei (Bonaparte).
A single female of what seems to be this race of P. verrucosa was taken
on Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexicanus, collected by George H. Lowery
at Naranjo, San Luis Potosi, February 15, 1948.
A careful comparison of this single female with the female allotype of
cinnamomea shows no differences except some very small ones easily falling
under individual variation.

Austrokellogia coniceps cinnamomea, n. subsp.
Type, male adult, from Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexicanus (Salva-
dori), collected by George H. Lowery at Naranjo, San Luis Potosi, M6xico,
February 15, 1948.
DIAGNOSIS.-This race of A. coniceps is very close to boucardi Carriker,
from Crypturellus boucardi. The genitalia are indistinguishable, not only
in structure but also in measurements (paramers, .14 x .068 against .15 x
.072; endomera, .087 x .045 against .087 x .04).
The body measurements, however, show considerable differences as
follows: length much less (1.46 against 1.65); head, temples, .48 x .595
against .52 x .65; frons same; length at occiput less. The prothorax and
mesothorax are very close to boucardi in length and width, but the meta-
thorax is shorter and narrower (.14 x .39 against .195 x .41); the abdomen
is much smaller (.846 x .825 against .976 x .89).
The shape of the apical abdomen segment also differs, as well as the
tubercles on each side of it. It is unfortunate that no females were secured
to compare with three females taken by me on Crypturellus cinnamomea
sallaei, south of Veracruz, and noted by me (Stud. in Neotr. Mall. III, 1944,
p. 227). It is possible that they are the same thing, but without having
the other sex in both cases I cannot decide with certainty.
The difference in body measurements between this form and boucardi,
outside of those noted above, are so small that a complete table does not
seem necessary.

From the above list of species it will be noted that we have
here ten genera and twelve species of Mallophaga from a single
host, Crypturellus cinnamomeus mexicanus, four of which have
not been previously described. It must be admitted, however,
that all of these species were not taken on the same individual
host, but on two birds.
Five species were taken on the Naranjo bird, five different
species on the Rio Axtla host, and two species only on both birds.
The above data illustrate very clearly the necessity for very care-
ful collecting on all specimens of tinamous taken, even from the
same locality, since it is very rare that any two specimens will
yield the same species of Mallophaga.






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VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING
of the
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

The thirty-seventh annual meeting of the Florida Entomo-
logical Society was held in the Ball Room of the Manatee River
Hotel, Bradenton, during September 2nd and 3rd, 1954. The
meeting opened at 10:00 a.m., September 2nd, with the presi-
dential address given by Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger. Twenty-two
papers were presented before the Society, including a group of
invitational papers on the subject "Progress in Florida Ento-
mology".
A most enjoyable hospitality hour was provided by Industry
followed by an excellent steak roast in the park adjoining the
hotel.
The business meeting was called to order by President Wolfen-
barger at 3:45 p.m., September 2nd. The first order of business
was a report from the committee appointed to invite the Ex-
periment Station pathologists to the 1954 meeting. Mr. Dick
Voorhees reported for the committee that our meeting conflicted
with the National Pathological meeting. In his report he sug-
gested we could do one of three things: (1) invite the plant
pathologists to meet with us one day next year; (2) invite the
plant pathologists to hold their meeting at the same place and
time that we meet; or (3) we could drop the idea of trying to
get the plant pathologists to form a group similar to our own.
President Wolfenbarger listed several of the joint problems of
the entomologists and plant pathologists, such as disease trans-
mission, spray programs, etc., and said it would be helpful if the
two groups could meet together. He opened the floor for dis-
cussion. Mr. Herman Mayeux asked if the plant pathologists
were interested in meeting with us. Mr. Voorhees said he
did not know -that the plant pathologists whom he had
talked with did not seem very interested in the idea of meeting
with the entomologists. Dr. Kuitert asked that the Secretary
read the minutes of the last meeting in regards to the appoint-
ing of the committee. The minutes were read. After much
discussion, Dr. J. T. Griffiths moved the President be empowered
to invite the organized plant pathologists and all other interested
that attend their meetings to our next meeting and to give papers
of joint interest. The motion passed.


209







THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


President Wolfenbarger called for the report of the Mem-
bership Committee. Dr. H. V. Weems reported that 55 new
members had joined the Society since the last meeting. The
committee recommended three names for honorary membership,
giving a brief resume of their accomplishments, and moved they
be so honored. Mr. George Merrill seconded the motion. Dr.
J. W. Wilson asked the voting to be by secret ballot and be done
at the business meeting on September 3rd. After a discussion
his request was approved by the Society.
Under new business, Dr. M. W. Provost asked if the Society
could publish supplements to the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Dr.
Lewis Berner, the Editor, said the present constitution did not
authorize such publications. Dr. Berner moved that the Execu-
tive Committee study the possibility of the Society publishing
supplements from time to time of papers of too long a nature
to be published in the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, and whether
steps should be taken to allow such publications. The motion
passed.
The business meeting of September 2nd then adjourned at
4:30 p.m.
BUSINESS MEETING OF SEPTEMBER 3RD
The business meeting of September 3rd opened at 11:05 and
the first order of business was the election of honorary members.
An election committee composed of Dr. A. J. Rogers, Dr. Donald
Deleon and C. R. Stearns, Jr., was in charge of the voting. The
three honorary members were elected. They are Mr. K. E.
Bragdon, Mr. A. C. Brown and Dr. W. V. King.
President Wolfenbarger called for the report of the Resolu-
tions Committee. The committee consisting of F. S. Chamber-
lin, Chairman, C. L. Remington and Norman C. Hayslip sub-
mitted the following resolutions:
Be it Resolved by the Florida Entomological Society:
1. That we record with sincere regret the passing of J. C.
Goodwin who served Florida for many years as Nursery
Inspector. His family has our deepest sympathy.
2. Our Society expresses its appreciation to the officers, in-
dividuals, and committees who contributed toward the
most informative and enjoyable 37th Annual Meeting at
Bradenton. The Arrangements Committee consisted of
E. G. Kelsheimer, R. E. Waites, and T. H. Jacoway. Her-
bert Spencer and Herman Mayeux served on the Program
Committee. To industry goes our thanks for a most de-
lightful social hour. The management of the Manatee
River Hotel has our appreciation for the many courtesies


210









VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1954


extended to us. Our expression of appreciation also goes
to the Bradenton Chamber of Commerce for car stickers
which permitted free parking.
Dr. L. C. Kuitert moved the resolutions be adopted as read
provided the Secretary informs Mrs. Goodwin of the Society's
action. Seconded by Mr. George Merrill. The resolutions as
amended were adopted.
Dr. Wolfenbarger called for the Treasurer's report. Mr. W.
P. Hunter gave the following report:

REPORT OF THE TREASURER-BUSINESS MANAGER FOR THE YEAR ENDING
AUGUST 23, 1954


Receipts:
Residue from registration fees, etc., Miami meeting ............................$
Residue from Hospitality Hour, etc., Miami meeting ........................
From membership dues and subscriptions .-.....---.........-.......--.....
From reprints and plates .... ---..---..---..--... ................--.
From sale of back numbers and sets of FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
From advertisements in the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST --- ..--
Balance on hand August 31, 1953 -....-......-------- ---.- ...............


GRAND TOTAL ............--..


30.51
485.00
735.84
203.05
214.70
748.00
491.97


-$2,909.07


Expenditures:
To Pepper Printing Co., Gainesville, Fla. ...--...... ..-----.- ...... $1,436.84
Pahokee News, Pahokee, Fla. (500 programs) .......--------.... 22.66
Dr. J. M. Bellows (Remuneration for funds spent on behalf of
the Society at Miami, Fla.) .-.......-..-.................... 426.44
To Gainesville Letter Shop, Gainesville, Fla. ....................... 17.72
To U. S. Postmaster, Gainesville, Fla. .................. ........ 63.09
Refunds to subscribers and/or members .--------.... ... --------.......-- 1.00
Miscellaneous typing and steno work .............-....-....-.....-.............. 18.15
Parker Office Machine Co. (Misc. Office Supplies and Steel Filing
Cabinet) ....... ..... ...-.............................-............ 125.11
To Kilgore Seed Co., Gainesville, Fla. (Use of Phone) .....-.......-..... 4.07
To W. P. Hunter (Refund for Misc. Postal Expenses) ...................-.. 16.25
To bank charges of all types ...........-------.........--------.. 6.28
Balance on hand August 23, 1954 ............. .................... 771.46


GRAND TOTAL .............-


.. ... .................- ... $2,909.07


Mr. George Merrill, Chairman of the Auditing Committee,
reported his committee had checked the records of the Treasurer
and they were found in order.
President Wolfenbarger called for new business. Dr. J. T.
Griffiths proposed the section of the constitution dealing with
honorary membership be amended. Dr. Wolfenbarger asked
the Secretary to read the constitution concerning constitutional








THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


amendments. The steps required for amendment were read and
explained by the Secretary. Dr. Griffiths then proposed the in-
coming President appoint the necessary special committee to
consider an amendment of the constitution in regards to hon-
orary membership. He read to the Society and submitted a
copy to the Secretary of a proposed revision of Article III,
Membership, Section 2 for consideration by the committee.
Mr. Mayeux spoke on the excellent steak roast the local com-
mittee arranged in place of the annual banquet, and said he
thought the committee should be complimented for their excel-
lent work. President Wolfenbarger suggested the new commit-
tee on arrangements pick an air-conditioned room for the 1955
meeting. He also brought up the subject of the hospitality hour.
Mr. C. L. Remington suggested a committee be appointed to ask
Industry in advance of the meeting for funds for the Treasury
to be used for this activity. No action was taken on Mr. Reming-
ton's suggestion. Dr. J. W. Wilson brought up the 1955 meeting
of the Cotton States Branch of the National Society which is to
be held in Tampa. He moved the incoming President appoint
a committee to offer the services of the Florida Entomological
Society to the Cotton States Branch. Motion passed.
President Wolfenbarger called for the report of the Nominat-
ing Committee, consisting of Dr. Maurice W. Provost, W. G.
Genung and Philip Arey. The committee suggested the follow-
ing names:
President ..----.- .F. G. Butcher
Vice President ..........----------.....--- F. S. Chamberlin
Secretary ---------..------ Milledge Murphey, Jr.
Editor .........-------.. --.------------. Lewis Berner
Associate Editor .---------.---------- L. C. Kuitert
Exec. Committee Member _-.----..--- A. J. Rogers
President Wolfenbarger called for nominations from the
floor. Dr. L. A. Hetrick moved the Secretary be instructed to
cast a unanimous ballot for the slate as proposed by the Nominat-
ing Committee. The motion passed.
The new President was escorted to the stand. Dr. Butcher
thanked the Society for the honor that had been bestowed on him.
The business meeting was adjourned at 11:50 a.m.
MILLEDGE MURPHY, JR.
Secretary


212




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