Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00210
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1955
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00210
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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S he

Florida Entomologist

MARCH, 1955
Vol. XXXVIII No. 1

KERR, S. H.-Life History of the Tropical Sod Webworm
Pachyzancla phaeopteralis Guenee ----.........------..----.........._ 3
WENE, GEORGE P., and R. A. BLANCHARD-Relation between
Sweet Corn Silking and Earworm Infestation in the Lower
Rio Grande Valley of Texas ---..-......--.---------...................... 13
ROGERS, ANDREW J.-The Abundance of -Ixodes scapularis
Say as Affected by Burning ------------------.......................... 17
HERRING, JON L.-A New American Genus of Veliidae (Hem-
iptera) ........... ... ............----------------....... ....................--.... 21
HOOD, J. DOUGLAS-A New Hoplothrips (Thysanoptera) from
Florida .---........... ----- ------------- ........--........----............ 27
Book Notices --.........------------.... ..---................................. 33, 34
Notes ...........---------------.... ..... .. -- -------------............. ................. 39, 41

Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville





OFFICERS FOR 1954-1955
President .-----. ----.------.---------.......-- ---- F. G. BUTCHER
Vice President ..-----..--.........------- -------- F. S. CHAMBERLIN
Secretary ....--........-- ----..----- .......---- MILLEDGE MURPHEY, JR.
Treasurer ....................................-------------------W. P. HUNTER
Executive Committee ...------...-----.-- J. W. WILSON
LEWIS BERNER ..---...---...................------------- Editor
L. C. KUITERT -...- ----..-----. -------- Associate Editor
W. P. HUNTER .------.....--.----... ---. Business Manager

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S. H. KERR 3
University of Florida, Gainesville

Lepidopterous larvae have long been recognized as major pests
of Florida turf. During the fall of 1953, one of the largest out-
breaks of these pests in Florida history stimulated further re-
search on the biology and control of these insects, with special
emphasis on the principal species, Pachyzancla phaeopteralis
Guenee. The tropical sod webworm was severely damaging to
the common lawn grasses, including St. Augustine grass, Steno-
taphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze, Bermuda grass, Cynodon
dactylon (L.) Pers., and centipede grass, Eremochloa ophiuroides
(Munro) Hack. It is injurious to Zoysia species although
Zoysia lawns have only recently begun to be widely planted. It
has been recorded as completely destructive of carpet grass,
Axonopus affinis Chase.
Larval infestations may consist solely of P. phaeopteralis,
or of various proportioned mixtures with the fall armyworm,
Laphygma frugiperda (S. & A.), the grassworm, Mocis repanda
(Fab.) and other Mocis species, and crambid webworms. There
are cases where the other lepidopterous larvae are the most
numerous, but the severe injury in 1953 was caused largely by the
tropical sod webworm. This insect has also been listed under
the generic name Psara and the specific name cellatalis Wlk.
Forbes (1923) very much doubted that the genus Pachyzancla
was either natural or in its right place when he listed it in
subfamily Pyraustinae, family Pyralididae. The specimens of
P. phaeopteralis were identified by Mr. H. W. Capps of the Fed-
eral Entomology Research Branch.

P. phaeopteralis apparently has a wide tropical distribution.
Grossbeck (1917) stated that it "occurs throughout the 'tropical
zone' according to Hampson". Wolcott (1936) claimed that
P. phaeopteralis is widely reported in Puerto Rico, and Long-
staff (1912) said it is widespread in Jamaica and commoner than

SThis common name is proposed for Pachyzancla phaeopteralis Guenee.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 306.
SAssistant Entomologist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.


many moths observed in Ceylon. This webworm apparently is
common throughout most of Florida although indications are
that it does not survive the winter in the northern part of the
state. Records of its occurrence in Florida date back to 1914.
This insect probably occurs along much of the Gulf Coast. It
was the cause of injury to turf in Georgia in 1953, and occa-
sionally it has been damaging in Louisiana since 1933.

EGG: One of the more striking differences between P. phaeop-
teralis and crambid webworms appears in the egg stage. Cram-
bids commonly drop ridged, more or less barrel-shaped eggs at
random as they fly about over the grass. These eggs fall singly
and being dry, sift down through the grass foliage. The eggs
of the tropical sod webworm, as observed repeatedly in rear-
ing cages, were much different. Usually they appeared in clus-
ters of six to fifteen eggs, although some were laid singly. The
masses were placed both on grass blades and on the moist blot-
ting paper floor of the cages. Within the mass the eggs partially
overlapped each other. The eggs were flattened and more or
less round in outline. Individual eggs measured about 0.55 mm.
across their shortest dimension and about 0.70 to 0.73 mm. across
their widest part. They were about 0.1 mm. in height. The
clusters differed in size but several measured between 1.4 and
1.8 mm. by 1.6 and 2.4 mm. The eggs were whitish when laid
but soon became brownish red. Eye spots appeared as dark red
spots and shortly before hatching, the curled up larva with its
dark head was easily visible through the thin membrane.
LARVA: The larva has a dark, yellowish brown head. The
body is a dingy cream color, although it appears mostly green
when the insect has fed on grass foliage. The tropical sod web-
worm is distinguishable from other Pachyzancla species and
from Crambus teterrellus Zinck-which is common in much of
Florida-by the arrangement -of the panicula and spiricals on
the thoracic segments.
PUPA: The pupae are not markedly different from those of
some of the crambid species. They may lie free or partially
buried in the duff on the surface of the soil, or they may be en-
closed in a shapeless bag which the larva spins and which may
incorporate bits of grass and soil particles in the outer surface.
The pupae range in size from 8.5-9.5 mm. in length by 2.1-2.9


mm. in width. Their color is reddish brown overall, although
shortly before emergence the head and wings may appear al-
most black.


Head Capsule at
Instar Body Length Widest Point

1st 1.2 mm. 0.255 mm.
2nd 2.7 mm. 0.344 mm.
3rd 4.1 mm. 0.489 mm.
4th 6.0 mm. 0.676 mm.
5th 8.4 mm. 0.944 mm.
6th 11.3 mm. 1.267 mm.
7th 17.3 mm. 1.607 mm.

ADULT: The adults are dingy brown colored moths with a
wing spread of about 20 mm. They can be distinguished from
the crambids by the fact that the tropical sod webworm adults
do not roll their wings about their bodies when at rest. The
males are easily separated from the females by observing the
shape and number of the abdominal segments. The male usu-
ally has a slimmer abdomen and, counting from the posterior
end on the ventral side, there are six segments up to, but not
including, the one which is cut away ventrally where it rests
against the thorax. The female only has five segments to the
one resting against the thorax. The anal segment of the fe-
male has a large fusiform opening, while the last segment of
the male has a slight extension on the dorsal side and the
feathery appearing sexual organs may sometimes be seen pro-

The larvae cause damage by chewing the grass foliage. In-
jured grass blades have a notched and ragged appearance.
Where the feeding goes unchecked the turf looks extremely
closed cropped. Webworm damage usually appears in patches.
These become yellowish to brownish as the foliage is progres-
sively chewed off, exposing stolons and dead pieces of grass.
Usually lawns recover from the damage but sections of lawns
have been killed. Death of the grass is more likely when there
is insufficient moisture to keep the plants growing actively.


In Florida, turf injury begins in some areas in the spring,
but the injury in 1953 in northern Florida reached epidemic
proportions in the fall.

In general, the tropical sod webworm has a life history simi-
lar to the crambid sod webworms. The time from egg to adult
appears to be close to six weeks. The continued outbreaks dur-
ing the summer and fall seasons are more likely from over-
lapping broods rather than from very rapid development. Life
history observations were made in the field and in the laboratory.
ADULTS: Field-collected adults of P. phaeopteralis were
placed in lantern globe cages over moist blotting paper in a
petri dish. Pieces of St. Augustine grass were placed on
the blotting paper. No eggs were laid by the moths until a
one molar sucrose solution with 8 percent by weight of brewers
yeast was introduced in bottles with a cotton wick. Less yeast
would very likely have served as well and possibly the moths
only needed access to moisture. It seemed as important, too,
not to disturb the moths for several days at a time, so it was
not possible to make a close daily check on when and how many
eggs were laid.
Adults confined in shell vials with no provision for food
or humidity control lived about 3.5 days. Individuals caged
in lantern globes over moist blotting paper but with no food
lived about 6 days, the males averaging 4 and the females 7
days. When the sucrose and yeast solution was added to the
lantern globe cages, the field-captured adults lived an average
of about 14.5 days or twice as long. Temperature was a factor,
too. The above figures are for an open insectary in autumn
weather. Adults handled concurrently in a hotter, drier office
lived only 1 or 2 days without food and an average of nearly 5
days with it. Again the females outlived the males. Moths
reared in the laboratory lived only a few days longer under
the warm indoors conditions-5 to 8 days for the males and
5 to 11 days for the females.
In Gainesville, the peak of adult emergence was in October
and November. During the day most of the adults rested in
shrubbery around the lawns. Veritable clouds of moths could
be disturbed into flight by shaking the shrubbery during the
height of the flight in the 1953 outbreak. The moths were also


found among the grass foliage, and the author was able to
collect considerable numbers quickly by picking them off of
the walls and screens of the house adjoining an infested area.
Flight appeared relatively weak during the day and disturbed
moths usually fluttered only 10 to 20 feet before settling down
again. At dusk they flew more strongly, staying in the air
continuously and sometimes covering considerable distances over
the lawn and spreading out to the other lawns. They were
observed to alight on the grass from one to five seconds and
then continue on. During these evening flights, the moths
usually remained within two feet of the ground. Whenever
the adults were handled in the laboratory, it was obvious that
the males were the more active. It was noted one evening when
the temperature had lowered to 580 F. that the moths were
completely inactive. Two days later when the sun was shining
brightly in the morning the air temperature was no higher but
the rays of the sun were warming enough so that the moths
were fluttering slightly and an occasional one even took wing.
Of 279 adults examined, 58 percent were females.
EGGS: Damage to the turf is usually observed to start near
flower and shrubbery borders. Possibly since the adults rest
in such foliage, more eggs, or at least the first ones, are laid
near the edges. The least amount of observations is available
for this stage, but from laboratory data it is surmised that
the eggs are laid on the foliage and stems of grass and perhaps
on pieces of sticks and leaves that may be among the foliage.
Oviposition apparently occurs largely at dusk. The eggs hatched
in six to ten days at temperatures in the high seventies Fahren-
LARVAE: Ten larvae were reared under closely watched con-
ditions at a temperature fluctuating few degrees around a mean
of about 780 F. Five were reared at a constant temperature of
72 to 740 F. All were kept singly in 9 cm. covered petri dishes
floored with two layers of moist blotting paper. They were fed
St. Augustine grass clippings fresh daily. The four to six
degree drop in temperature practically doubled the length of
the larval stage. At 780 the number of larval instars was typi-
cally seven and the number of days to complete this stage 25.
At 730 the number of instars was typically eight and the time
45 to 50 days. Although the larvae ate their cast skins, the
head capsules were not ingested and served as an indicator that
molting had occurred. Further, the ingested skin could easily


be seen as a dark spot in the alimentary canal. It usually passed
through the insect within 24 hours. The larvae reared at the
lower temperature occasionally did not eat their cast skins.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total

Days at 780 F.(*) 3.4 3.0 3.9 2.8 2.6 3.4 5.7 24.7
Days at 72 F.(t) 4.2 4.6 4.6 4.6 5.0 6.8 7.0 9.5-12.8(t) 45-50($)

Average of 10 individuals.
t Average of five individuals.
$ No opportunity to observe exact dates.

Newly hatched larvae are small, measuring just over one milli-
meter in length, but they are active and have little trouble reach-
ing the grass foliage. In the laboratory many of the tiny new
larvae fed along the midrib on the inside of the V-shaped sec-
tions of St. Augustine grass. The new larvae fed on all parts
of the blade but the "floored" bottom section of the inside of
the V seemed particularly attractive. Through their first three
or four instars, the larvae did not chew through the leaves but
they fed along one side, stripping off the cells in a straight path
lengthwise of the leaves. Thus longer and shorter strips were
taken out of one side of the blades. The frass was found in a
continuous strip along the feeding path. This scraping away
of cells along one side of the leaves by young larvae is a negligi-
ble and hardly noticeable injury. Not until the webworms had
but 10 to 12 days of larval life remaining did they begin to
devour whole portions of the leaves and only in the last five
or six days were large amounts eaten. It somewhat justifies
the exclamation often made by homeowners that the damage
"appeared overnight". When within a day or two of their
sixth instar, eight of 10 laboratory-reared larvae started to chew
out complete sections of leaf; the other two did not start until
their sixth larval instar. A record was kept of the amount of
leaf areas consumed by these ten individuals. Their food was
St. Augustine grass blades which were six to seven millimeters
in width. The following averages are in columns aligned under
"days after hatching" rather than under amounts eaten on first
day of sixth instar, second day of sixth instar, etc. This seemed
a better procedure, for although all of the individuals hatched


within 48 hours, the time to reach a given molt varied up to
five or six days.


Days After Hatching
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

in mm. 11 17.4 19.3 24.1 40.7 44.6 69.7 78.0 119.3 123.6 101 71

Table III shows that a larva averaged 540 mm. or 20.3 inches
of grass eaten in the last 12 days of its larval life, with four to
seven inches being eaten daily through the last few days. Rough
estimates of the amount of foliage in a square yard indicate
that a population of up to 200 larvae per square yard could not
strip the leaf material off entirely. This is the case in the field,
and although a lawn may be severely chewed back the grass
can almost always quickly recover when the larvae pass to their
next stage and if the grass is managed so that it is growing
actively. The larvae are active only at night and are quite sen-
sitive to light. They remain hidden down below the grass foliage
during the day.
The resting position of the larva is tightly curled, and in the
field these insects are easily found lying curled up on the soil
surface when one parts the grass foliage. Sometimes they spin
a shapeless silken bag which incorporates bits of grass and soil
in the outer surface, but this is not done by all individuals even
when pupation time is near. The larvae left trails of silk along
the blades of grass where they traveled and frequently bound
themselves to the grass clippings with a few strands of silk
when they rested during the day. When disturbed, the larvae
could travel rapidly forward or backward with apparently equal
facility although the normal action is forward.
PUPAE: At the higher rearing temperature of about 780 F.
the pupal period was seven days. At 720 F. it averaged 15.5
to 16.8 days, daily observations of the latter not being possible.
Field-collected individuals held for observation under outdoor
temperatures varied considerably in length of pupal stage. When
they pupated in the last week of October, the stage lasted 12-13
days, but the pupal period was three to four weeks when they


pupated in the first week in November. The time from the ob-
served peak of larval damage in the field to the peak of adult
emergence coincided very closely with the predicted time from
laboratory work.
OVERWINTERING STAGE: The observations made lead the au-
thor to surmise that the tropical sod webworm does not over-
winter above central Florida in most years, and that it over-
winters only where all stages can continue to develop. In
Gainesville, it appeared that the pupae and adults could survive
the winter temperatures but new broods could not get started.
Probably few if any eggs were laid by the late emerging adults,
and even if a few eggs did hatch in the winter, the small larvae
could not survive. Thus, the population was slowly reduced
until none were left alive above the middle and lower parts of
the state. In Gainesville, larvae were not found again until
July. Repeated laboratory and field observations showed that
reduced temperatures had a marked effect on the larvae. It was
pointed out above that a drop of about 5 degrees in rearing
temperature nearly doubled the time for larval development,
and the young larvae in cages perished at outdoor temperatures
in December when the overnight readings dropped into the low
forties Fahrenheit. Further, the larvae in the field became so
sluggish at temperatures in the mid-sixties that they could
rarely be brought to the surface to be collected even when a
pyrethrum solution was soaked into the turf to agitate them and
bring them up. This collecting method was not very successful
unless the temperature was at least 700 F. and with the sun
shining brightly.
One might suggest that if some eggs hatched in late October
or early November the larvae would be large by December and
should be able to survive the winter as is the habit with large
crambid larvae farther northward. Actually, eggs of some of
the overlapping generations were hatching through October and
early November but this apparently did not work as an over-
wintering device either. In northern Florida the winter tempera-
tures do not remain at a low level. There are periods of days
at a time when the daytime temperature is in the high seventies
and may reach the low eighties. This serves to keep the larvae
and pupae developing and the adults continue to emerge. It
was mentioned earlier that adults emerged into February. The
1953-54 winter was relatively mild in the Gainesville area and
so the surmise seems fairly well supported from the observa-


tions available that this tropical species is killed back south-
ward in the winter. Apparently there is no single overwintering
"stage" and all stages are present where it is warm enough for
the insect to last through the year.

The only parasites noted emerged from the nearly mature
larvae. Of 25 larvae brought in from the field and held for
observation, eight, or about one-third, were parasitized by Ich-
neumonid wasps. There are several records of such parasitism
on file at the Florida Experiment Station and all of the parasites
have been identified as Horogenes sp. by L. M. Walkley of the
Federal Entomology Research Branch.

The tropical sod webworm, Pachyzancla phaeopteralis Guen.,
was the principal species involved in the unusually severe out-
break of lepidopterous larvae on Florida lawns in 1953. it was
determined that at about 780 F. this insect could develop from
egg to adult in about six weeks. The eggs, which were flat-
tened and sometimes laid in clusters, hatched in six to ten days.
There were seven larval instars requiring about 25 days for com-
pletion, and the pupal stage lasted about seven days. Lowering
the rearing temperature about five degrees nearly doubled the
length of the larval and pupal stages, and it is surmised that
this tropical species can not survive the winter temperatures of
northern Florida.
Forbes, W. T. M. 1923. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring
states. N. Y. State Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Mem. 68: 1-729.
Grossbeck, J. A. (ed. by F. E. Watson). 1917. Article 1, Insects of Flor-
ida. IV. Lepidoptera. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 37, pp. 1-147.
Longstaff, G. B. 1912. Butterfly hunting in many lands. Longmans, Green,
and Co., London. xviii + 728, 19 figs., 16 pls.
Wolcott, G. N. 1936. Insectae Borinquenses. Jour. Agr. Univ. Puerto
Rico. Vol. 20(1) : 1-600.





The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service
to Florida Farmers through the facilities of its 14 Stores, Lab-
oratory and technically trained Field Staff.



Stores located at





Varying degrees of success have attended attempts to con-
trol the corn earworm [Heliothis armigera (Hbn.)] on sweet
corn with sprays and dusts in different areas of the United States
as well as during different seasons of the year in the same areas.
Much of this variation in effectiveness of control measures can
be traced to the infestation level of the earworm. Dusts espe-
cially are more effective when the infestation is light or mod-
erate than when it is severe. However, DDT-oil emulsion
sprays have at times also shown considerable variation in
effectiveness even when they were apparently timed and ap-
plied properly.
Barber (1943) brought out the fact that the earworm
moth will oviposit on all parts of the corn plant. His studies
showed that "larvae that hatch from eggs laid on plants before
silks are exposed feed on whatever parts of the plants are most
attractive at the time of hatching, the most suitable of which
are the tender leaves of the whorl and the green tassel." He
states further that "these larvae may migrate to the ears over
a period of several days and they offer one of the greatest diffi-
culties in the control of the insect in the ears." However, with
the development of better methods of applying DDT-oil emul-
sion sprays, these migrating larvae have not been difficult to
control. Chamberlain (1951) found that the earworm could be
controlled in South Carolina in spring-planted corn with sprays
applied after the corn began to silk, but that two pre-silking
sprays were necessary for summer-planted corn because infes-
tation was occurring before the silks appeared. With the addi-
tion of pre-silking sprays to those applied after silking, excellent
control of the earworm was secured with a DDT-oil emulsion.
In the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, the first fields to
come into silk in any particular area often have had small ear-
worms in the silk channels of young ears before any silks
emerged. In most cases these appeared to originate from eggs
SEntomologist, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Weslaco, Texas.
2 Entomologist, U.S.D.A., Agricultural Research Service, Entomology
Research Branch.


laid on the ear shoots. Ear shoots with long flag leaves seemed
particularly attractive to the moths. Where eggs were laid on
the embryo ear below the entrance to the silk channel the newly
hatched larvae bored through the tender husks to reach the ear.
Larvae from eggs on the flag leaves above the silk channel fed
slightly on the flag leaves and then entered the silk channel to
the developing silks.


Percent of

Avg. No.
Eggs per

of Ears with Larvae
In On Ear
Silk Tip

Avg. No.
of Larvae
per Ear



Golden Security



In 1951 earworm infestation records were taken in three
sweet corn hybrids isolated by several miles from other corn
near LaVilla, Texas. The data are shown on Table 1. The per-
centage of plants silking was determined by counting the num-
ber of silks showing on 100 consecutive plants in five areas taken
at random in each field. Then ten consecutive ears with silks
showing were examined for the number of corn earworm eggs
and larvae. The greatest egg population per silk occurred be-
fore 50 percent of the sweet corn plants had silked. After that
time some of the silks had started drying, and the moths were
laying eggs only on the fresh silks. A high percentage of the


Peeaves Percent of of Inches
Date of Corn Flag Leaves Percent of Larvae Larval
in Ears with Silks with per Penetration
April Silking Eggs Larvae Eggs Larvae Silk in Silks
Golden Security

14 0 12 12 -
15 0 20 32 -
17 6 20 36 -
19 11 28 64 100 0 -
21 49 0 80 94 4.9 0.25 to 2.0
23 66 55 60 -
25 94 92 65 4.1 0.25 to 2.5
27 100 5.4 1.5 to 4.0
(ear tip)

Calumet, Field No. 1

15 0 20 40 0.25 to 2.0
18 1 32 32 1.1 0.25 to 2.0
21 5 7 75 100 100 3.0 0.25 to 1.0
23 0 67 100 100 3.8
26 96 100 100 5.0 0.25 to ear tip

Calumet, Field No. 2

21 8 33 33 67 75 1.6 0.25 to 0.5
24 65 92 61 2.5 0.25 to 0.5
27 92 100 100 5.6 0.25 to 1.0
29 100 100 7.5 1.0 to ear tip


silks contained earworm larvae on one or two days after the
silks had appeared. These larvae must have developed from
eggs laid on the flag leaves as sufficient time had not elasped
for the eggs to be laid on the silks and then hatch. Some of the
larvae had eaten their way down to the ear tip in a period of five
or six days after the first silk had appeared in the field.
Similar data were taken in 1952 from the first fields to silk
near Mercedes, Texas. In addition, data were taken on the
number of earworm eggs and earworms present on potential
ears before silking occurred in the field, as well as after silking
started. The data are presented in Table 2. A large percentage
of the potential ears were infested with eggs and larvae before
a single silk appeared in the field. In one case, larval penetra-
tion was as much as 2 inches in the silk channel even before the
silks were extruded.
Data are presented showing that in the Lower Rio Grande
Valley of Texas earworm larvae infested as high as 32 percent
of the potential ears before the silks appeared in the field. Ear-
worm larvae were found in the silk masses before and very
shortly after silking began in the field.

To obtain maximum control of the corn earworm in areas
where the infestation is likely to be very severe, and when no
other corn in the vicinity is in silk, insecticide applications
should be started after the ears have partly formed and at
least 2 or 3 days before the first silks appear in the field.
Growers should consult their county agricultural agent or State
agricultural experiment station for latest recommendations on
corn earworm control.

Barber, G. W. 1943. Oviposition habits of the earworm moth in relation to
infestation in ears and to control. Jour. Econ. Ent. 36(4) : 611-618.
Chamberlain, W. F. 1951. Pre-silking sprays to control the corn earworm
and fall armyworm. Jour. Econ. Ent. 44(4) : 590-592.



Department of Entomology, University of Florida

Several investigators throughout the world have studied the
effects of fire on the abundance of ticks. Fricks (1915) reported
that grass burning was one method used in efforts to control
the Rocky Mountain wood tick during early investigations of
that species, de Jesus (1935) recommended the burning of
pastures as a control for the cattle tick in the Philippine Is-
lands. Buck (1935) recommended brush burning as a method
of tick control in Madagascar. Bishopp (1932) reported that
neither burning nor plowing pastures destroyed all specimens
of the cattle tick. Smith et al (1946) noted that wildfires
greatly reduced the abundance of adults of the American dog
tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), in Massachusetts.
The study reported here on the black-legged tick was only
one phase of a much broader investigation of the biology and
ecology of this tick in northern Florida. Data were obtained
on this phase of the study during the years 1950, 1951, and

Areas selected for sampling, henceforth referred to as blocks,
were located in a typical pine-palmetto flatwoods area in Alachua
County, Florida. Blocks of approximately one square mile, or
larger, were selected for sampling based upon their histories
of forest fires. Blocks I, II, and III had histories of frequent
and recent fires. Block I was last burned one year before sam-
pling, block II two years before sampling, and block III three
years before sampling. Block IV, which was considered non-
burned in this study, was last burned approximately 14 years
prior to sampling. Blocks were divided into plots approximately
200 feet in width and 1,500 feet in length. Plots were adjacent
to roads or plowed fire lanes.

1 Taken from a thesis presented to the Graduate School, University of
Maryland, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor
of Philosophy.
2 The author is indebted to Dr. W. D. Hanson, Department of Agronomy,
College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for his assistance on the
statistical phase of this study.


Other than the obvious effects of fire on the density and
growth habit of the vegetation, there were no apparent differ-
ences in soil type, vegetation, and topography of the various
blocks studied. Blocks were contiguous and were separated only
by plowed fire lanes, roads, and wire fences. All blocks were
grazed throughout the period of study.
Randomized samples of 500 steps each were taken in a
similar manner with a cloth drag in all blocks on each sampling
date. Ticks were collected from the drag at intervals of 25
steps. When weather conditions and time permitted, two plots
were sampled in each block on the same date. Samples were
taken only during the seasonal period of activity of the adult
stage of the tick, which is in the fall and winter months. Only
the adult stage of the tick was considered in recording sample
The data for three years are shown in Table I. More blocks
were included during the 1950 season than could be sampled
effectively. This resulted in fewer samples per block that year.
Samples from block III were not taken in 1950.
A study of the data in Table I shows a relatively small total
number of ticks collected in all blocks. This is attributable to
several factors. It was noted by studying the behavior of this
tick in field cages that the adults will climb vertical vegetation
when stimulated by the presence of a host, but the ticks return
to ground level after a few hours if a host is not found. Ticks
at the ground level have poor chance of clinging to a cloth
drag. Many ticks that made contact with the cloth were dis-
lodged before the sample was completed and were not included
in the sample count. Thus, the data in Table I are not indicative
of the true population density of this tick in the areas studied,
but represent only sampling comparisons between blocks.
In order to eliminate some negative samples and a few
missing plot samples, the samples were grouped in pairs and
the average number of ticks of the combined samples was used
as the basis for analysis.
An analysis of the 1951 data showed no significant difference
between blocks for that year. This was probably due to varia-
bility within samples and the small total number of ticks col-
lected. However, since data are comparable in Blocks I, II,
and IV for all three years, these data were combined and years
were used as replications in the analysis. Analysis of these


data (Table II) showed a highly significant difference between


DURING 1950, 1951, 1952

Ixodes scapularis SAY


Block I Block II Block III Block IV

0.0 0.0 3.0
0.0 1.0 8.0
0.0 1.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 3.0
0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 1.0 7.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0
2.0 0.0 0.0 4.0
0.0 2.0 6.0
0.0 1.0 3.0
0.0 2.0 3.0 3.0
1.0 6.0 0.0 3.0
0.0 1.0 1.0 3.0
0.0 0.0 1.0 9.0
0.0 6.0 3.0 0.0
1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
0.0 4.0 2.0 3.0
0.0 0.0 1.0 3.0
1.0 2.0 1.0 10.0
0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0
0.0 1.0 3.0 3.0




II, AND IV DURING 1950-'51-'52.

Year Block I Block II Block IV

1950 0.00 0.50 3.50
1951 0.25 0.88 2.86
1952 0.30 2.40 4.20

Totals 1.55 3.78 10.56
Mean 0.18 1.26 3.52

1.s.d. at 5%: 1.20; 1%: 1.98.







Data are comparable for all blocks for the years 1951 and
1952 (Table III). There was a significant difference between
blocks when these data were combined and years were used as


Year Block I

Block II Block III Block IV

1951 .25 .88 1.00 2.86
1952 .30 2.40 1.30 4.20

Totals .55 3.28 2.30 7.06
Mean .28 1.64 1.15 3.52

l.s.d. at 5%: 1.65; 1%: 3.04.

Further analysis of data in both Tables II and III gave a
highly significant difference between the average number of
ticks collected in the control block and the average of the
combined collections from all burned blocks. There was no
significant difference between collections in blocks I, II, and III.

From the results of this study it is concluded that there are
fewer adults of the black-legged tick in recently burned areas
of the flatwoods of northern Florida having histories of fre-
quent burning than in areas not burned for at least 14 years.
The results also show that more than three years without fire
are required in the frequently burned areas for populations of
this tick to attain a level comparable to that of areas considered
non-burned in this study.

Bishopp, F. C. 1932. The cattle tick: its biology and control. Abstr. Doct.
Dissert., Ohio State Univ. (9) : 17-28.
Buck, G. 1935. Les tiques a Madagascar et les maladie quelles inoculent
aux animaux domestiques de la Grande Isle. Rev. Agr. Maurice. (84):
de Jesus, Z. 1935. The cattle tick pest in the Philippines-its control
and eradication. Philip. Jour. Anim. Ind. 2(4):263-81.
Fricks, L. D. 1915. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Pub. Hlth. Rep.
30: 148-65.
Smith, Carroll N., Moses M. Cole, and Harry K. Gouck. 1946. Biology
and control of the American dog tick. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 905.



Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii
The present paper was prompted by the discovery of an
interesting addition to the veliid fauna of the salt marshes in
southernmost peninsular Florida. This proved to be the species
originally described as Microvelia turmalis by Drake and Harris
(1933) from British Honduras. It was transferred by them
later (1936) to Xiphovelia Lundblad, 1933, a genus whose type
and only species was collected in Sumatra. Further study of
the Florida material discloses that turmalis Drake and Harris
is generically distinct from Xiphovelia ensis Lundblad, and it
is here made the type of the new genus Husseyella.
Husseyella belongs to the subfamily Microveliinae, which
is characterized as follows: Ocelli absent. Tarsal formula 1,
2, 2; all claws pre-apical. Apical segment of middle tarsi not
deeply cleft, and without plumose hairs arising from the base
of such cleft. Hemelytra, when present, with four closed cells,
not divided into distinct corium and membrane.

Husseyella,1 new genus
(Fig. 1)
Head strongly deflected before the eyes. Gular region short, not longer
than an eye. Hind margins of eyes subcontiguous with pronotal margin.
Antennae slender; first and second segments subequal, third longest, slightly
longer than fourth; first segment surpassing apex of head by one-half of
its own length. Rostrum surpassing hind margins of front coxae; pre-
apical segment thickened beyond base, then gradually tapering apically,
about twice as long as apical segment.
Pronotum of apterous form more than twice as wide as long; anterior
lobe about three-fourths as long as posterior lobe, the lobes separated by
a transverse impression; hind margin of posterior lobe convex behind,
mesonotum and metanotal triangles visible at sides (fig. 1, G).
Legs (fig. 1, B, D, F) relatively long and slender; middle legs one-half
longer than entire body, hind legs about as long as the body; hind femora
slightly surpassing apex of abdomen; hind tibiae straight in both sexes.
Middle acetabula far removed from front acetabula and contiguous with
the hind ones, much as in Rhagovelia. Prosternum and metasternum
about equally long on the median line, mesosternum about twice as long
as either. Metathoracic orfices placed laterally at base of hind acetabula,
as in Microvelia, and with a spine-like tuft of setae arising within the

1 Named for Dr. Roland F. Hussey, whose many contributions to the
study of Hemiptera are well known to entomologists.


/, I

7/ N

Figure 1. Husseyella turmalis (Drake and Harris), 8
A. Antenna. B. Fore leg. C. Distal end of fore tibia. D. Middle leg.
E. Last segment of middle tarsus. F. Hind leg. G. Head and pronotum.


Fore tarsi laterally compressed, widest at or beyond middle, claws
inserted somewhat beyond middle of the single tarsal segment. Fore tibiae
of male with an apical spur whose edge is covered by a comb composed
of many fine teeth (fig. 1, B, C). Middle and hind tarsi 2-segmented,
Tarsi of middle legs two-thirds as long as the tibiae, first segment one-
half longer than second, provided (in males only) with a row of small, peg-
like teeth on its ventral edge; second tarsal segment with the claws and
arolia (?) modified into four broad, flat, thin, blade-like structures (fig.
1, E), the outer two (claws) thicker and preserving a somewhat claw-
like outline, the inner pair (arolia?) pellucid, thinner, and membranous,
more rounded at the tips but virtually of the same size as the outer pair,
all of these, together with several long hairs, inserted on the second seg-
ment somewhat beyond the middle; claws and arolia similarly formed in
both sexes. Middle tibiae with a row of long erect hairs on ventral side,
some of these hooked at the tips. Hind tibiae more than twice as long
as hind tarsus; first tarsal segment much shorter than the second; claws
normal, inserted slightly before apex of second segment.

GENOTYPE: Microvelia turmalis Drake and Harris, 1933. Also included:
Microvelia diffdens Drake and Harris, 1933, from Brazil, a specimen of
which has been examined.
This new genus runs to Xiphovelia Lundblad, 1933, in the
keys to the genera of Veliidae by China and Usinger (1949).
It is easily distinguished from that genus by having the middle
acetabula closely approximated to the hind ones and far removed
from the front pair, whereas in Xiphovelia (as in Microvelia)
the middle pair is nearly equidistant from the other two, ac-
cording to information kindly furnished in correspondence by
Dr. Lundblad. Other distinguishing characters are the rela-
tive lengths of the tarsal segments on the middle legs, and the
presence of four, rather than three, blade-like plates on the
middle tarsi. In Xiphovelia the middle tibia is less than twice
as long as the second tarsal segment, and this one is consider-
ably longer than the first, while in Husseyella the tibia of the
middle leg is three times as long as the second tarsal segment,
which is notably shorter than the first one. The peg-like teeth
on the basal segment of the middle tarsus of the male are
reminiscent of similar denticles on the middle femora of males
of the Madagascan genus Millotella Poisson, 1948.
The following table gives measurements, expressed in milli-
meters, of both sexes of Husseyella turmalis (Drake and Har-
ris). The measurements for the male are averages of three

SThis new emendation, for M. diffidentis D. & H., is mandatory under
the 1953 "Copenhagen Decisions on Zoological Nomenclature," Paragraphs
71, 72, 73, and 81.


specimens; those of the female were taken from the single speci-
men at hand. The femora were measured along the ventral
9 $
Total length of body ......... ......--- .....-......... 2.32 1.99
Greatest width of body ..-..-....--................-....... 1.26 1.03
Antennal segment I ...--....---..-..--- ...........---- .30 .31
II ....................-.........-...... .30 .32
III ................. ....... ...... .47 .48
IV .............-..-- .-- ..--- ...--..- .42 .43
Length of head .......... .................. ...- ... 36 .44
W idth of head .....-......... ~......... .... ......... .71 .66
Interocular width ...--. --..... ---....... ...-- ....----- ..... 42 .40
W idth of eye .................-.............- ..... .14 .13
Anterior pronotal lobe, median length -.... .20 .21
Posterior pronotal lobe, median length .--... .27 .24
Fore leg: Femur ........... ......... ..- ............... .88 .84
Tibia ...........-........_ ..... .57 .56
Tarsus ........--...................-- .. ........-- .31 .26
M iddle leg: Femur .....-.................. ..- ......... 1.35 1.37
Tibia .................. ... ................ 1.24 1.15
Tarsus I ............... -.. .. .46 .45
Tarsus II .............. ............. .... .33 .32
Hind leg: Femur ......................... ..... .... 91 .87
Tibia .....-.............-.- ....- ...... .88 .78
Tarsus I ...........- ..- ...- ..- ...--- .11 .10
Tarsus II ...................... ... .28 .24

The material of H. turmalis that I have studied was collected
by myself from salt water on the east coast of Florida, 2.5 miles
southeast of Perrine, in Dade County, on April 8, 1948. The
area is a mangrove swamp, with a small, sluggish, muddy, tidal
stream that flows through a culvert beneath the road. These
water-striders were extremely active and hard to capture. Sev-
eral hours were spent in securing the four adults and six
nymphs that I have examined. Further collecting along the
southern coast of Florida and on the Florida Keys failed to
produce additional material.

China, W. E., and R. L. Usinger. 1949. Classification of the Veliidae
(Hemiptera), with a new genus from South Africa. Ann. Mag. Nat.
Hist. (12) 2: 343-354.
Drake, C. J., and H. M. Harris. 1933. New American Veliidae (Hemip-
tera). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46: 45-54.

VOL. XXXVIII, NO. 1 MARCH, 1955 25

1936. Notes on American water-striders. Proc. Biol. Soc.
Wash. 49: 105-108.
Hemming, Francis (ed.). 1953. Copenhagen Decisions on Zoological
Nomenclature. London. 135 pp.
Lundblad, 0. 1933. Zur Kenntnis der aquatilen und semiaquatilen Hemip-
teren von Sumatra, Java und Bali. Arch. Hydrobiol., Suppl. 12: 1-195,


Ants Mosquitoes
Armyworms Onion Maggots
Blister Beetles Onion Thrips
Boxelder Bugs Plum Curculio
Brown Dog Ticks Sarcoptic Mange
Cabbage Maggots Seed-Corn Maggots
Cattle Lice Serpentine Leaf
Chiggers Miners
Chinch Bugs Sheep Ked
Cockroaches Silverfish
Cotton Boll Weevils Sod Webworms
Crickets Southern Corn
Cutworms Rootworms
Earwigs Strawberry Crown
Fleas Borers
Flies Strawberry Weevils
Grasshoppers Sweet Clover
Household Spiders Weevils
Japanese Beetle Tarnished Plant
Larvae Bugs
Lawn Moths Termites
Lygus Bugs Ticks
Mole Crickets White Grubs
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gi4S I g 1c
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Cornell University

That part of the large cosmopolitan genus Hoplothrips to
which the present species belongs, because of the great disparity
between the different forms of both the female and male, and
the large amount of variation within each form, is one in which
the description of species is difficult. Too, the decision that
any species of this genus is new is a precarious one to make,
because many of the older names are based upon only one of
the several forms which may be presumed to exist; and no
matter how well-mounted was the author's material, how
thoroughgoing his description and measurements, or how ac-
curate his drawings, there is no way, except as the result of
experience-and then only approximately-even to surmise what
the other forms of his species may be like in color or structure.
Furthermore, many of our thrips-especially, it seems, the
bark-inhabiting ones, though others are nearly as well gifted-
have an almost uncanny facility for getting from place to place,
even negotiating long voyages by ship or wind-aided flight
from such distant regions as the Orient, or Africa, or South
America,-if, indeed, they have not gone to those areas from
ours. Florida has species in common with the regions men-
tioned, as well as with still other regions just as far away.
Our inevitable synonymical burden may in time become great.
Fortunately, however, the type material of the present
species constituted a single colony. There can be no doubt that
the several diverse forms described below represent one species,
only. The specific name mutabilis, meaning changeable, though
it would be equally appropriate for any one of a number of
allied species, serves nevertheless to draw attention to, and
emphasize, some of the points made above.

Hoplothrips (Odontoplothrips) mutabilis, sp. nov.
(Fig. 1-7)
Thoroughly typical of the subgenus and resembling bruneri 2
1 The cost of the line engraving was borne by Cornell University through
its committee on Faculty Research Grants.
SHoplothrips (Odontoplothrips) bruneri (Watson), subgeneric refer-
ence new; placed in Hoplothrips (from Plectrothrips) by Hood, in 1939; 3


in the type of heterogony displayed by the male, but differing
most noticeably from all of its close allies by the following char-
acters: (1) in the macropterous female, with the sense-cones
on the third and fourth antennal segments long, slender, curved,
and surpassing the middle of the following segment (see Fig.
2), and with the pale yellow posterior part of metathorax and
the first abdominal segment forming a contrasting light trans-
verse band across the body, readily seen by the naked eye; (2)
in the bachypterous female and the male, with the thorax yel-
low and unshaded, and the second abdominal segment heavily
FEMALE, FORMA MACROPTERA.--Length about 2.3 mm. (fully distended,
2.9 mm.). Color of head, prothorax, mesothorax, and anterior part of
metathorax yellowish brown, the posterior part of metathorax and all of
first abdominal segment pale yellow, the remainder of abdomen fundamen-
tally yellow but overlain with gray-brown to a variable extent, the whole
of segments II-IX sometimes so darkened but usually with their posterior
halves or more fading to yellow or nearly so and with a tendency toward
lightening at the ends of dark transverse dashes which are often developed
just behind the antecostal lines in the median third of segments III-VIII;
head darkest in front of ocelli; tube usually yellow across base and in about
apical two-fifths, the intervening portion bright brownish orange, the tip
lightly shaded with gray; antennae yellow or nearly so in segments I and
II and in basal half of III, the remainder of III and all of IV-VIII more or
less dark blackish brown, III sometimes yellowish brown throughout, and IV
and V often paler apically than at base; legs yellow except for the brown
fore and mid coxae, rarely with the mid and hind femora somewhat shaded
with brown; fore wings gray-brown, paler in basal half or less, narrowly
margined with darker except basally, darkest in anal area, and with a short,
median dark streak before middle.
Head (Fig. 1) about 1.3 times as long as width across eyes, broadest
across cheeks shortly behind eyes, cheeks rounded to eyes and converging
to a point in front of the distinct basal collar, roughened by short trans-
verse striae; base of head finely reticulate, especially at sides; postocular
setae brownish yellow, pointed, well separated, about 79 , long, 179 apart,
and 29 from eyes, all other setae minute. Eyes rounded, dorsally about 83 p
long, 57 wide, and 93 apart. Median ocellus about on a line with anterior
margin of eyes, flanked by two pairs of setae and a pore. Antennae normal,
segment VIII narrowed at base; III and IV (Fig. 2) with the sense-cones
long, curved, and slender apically, III with 1 major cone on inner surface
margined with darker except basally, darkest in anal area, and with a short,
(about 123 /), semicircularly rounded at tip.

topotypic paratypes and 145 additional specimens in collection. New
synonymy: (1) H. psidii Moulton holotypee studied through the kindness
of Dr. Edward S. Ross, of the California Academy of Sciences) and (2) H.
(Trichothrips) wilsoni Watson (5 topotypic paratypes in collection).


Prothorax (Fig. 1) moderately long, nearly 0.9 the length of head, and
less than 1.7 times as broad across coxae as along midline of pronotum;
three pairs, only, of large major setae, these pointed, the epimerals about
87 /, postero-marginals 114, coxals 86, other pronotal setae 13-20 /; surface
with a stria or two near anterior margin and a few at sides and posteriorly,
otherwise smooth and shining; median apodeme strong. Pterothorax very
lightly sculptured; fore wings with about 8 accessory setae on posterior
margin. Legs normal to the subgenus, fore tibiae slightly produced at lower
inner surface of apex to form a slight, flattened obtuse spur underlying
the base of the tarsus; fore tarsi with a long strong tooth.
Abdomen normal, its setae long, pointed, and yellow, segment IX with
seta I 135 1, II 142, III 160; one pair of sigmoid wing-retaining setae on III-
VII; tube nearly 0.6 the length of head, broadest across basal collar, sides
subparallel to basal pores, thence straight and evenly tapering to tip,
its sides appreciably thickened, with a few minute setae in apical half
or more, surface without sculpture; terminal setae grayish yellow, nearly
as long as tube.
MEASUREMENTS of holotype (macropterous ): Length about 2.3 mm.
(distended, 2.87 mm.). Head, total length 0.291, width across eyes 0.223,
greatest width across cheeks 0.238, least width near base 0.172. Prothorax,
median length of pronotum 0.259, width across fore coxae 0.428. Meso-
thorax, width across anterior angles 0.393; fore wings, length 1.09. Meta-
thorax, greatest width posteriorly 0.407. Abdomen, greatest width (at
segment IV) 0.462; tube, length 0.168, width across basal collar 0.092,
greatest subbasal width 0.087, least apical width 0.043, terminal setae 0.160.

Antennal segments: I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Length (M) : 69 73 94 94 76 59 50 50
Width (/) : 51 37 44 44 34 30 25 17

Total length of antenna, 0.565 mm.

FEMALE, FORMA BRACHYPTERA.-Length about 2.3 mm. (distended, 2.9
mm.). Color bright yellow, with head often lightly shaded with brown
across front and abdomen heavily shaded with gray-brown in basal portions
of segments II-VIII, the shading on II darker and more extensive than
that on the following segments, occupying about two-thirds of the length and
either paler or lacking medially, that on III-VIII consisting of a transverse
dash in median third just posterior to the subbasal line and a less clearly
defined and paler patch at anterior angles, these latter sometimes nearly
connected with the median series of dashes and always less exten-
sive on the more posterior segments; antennae and tube colored as in long-
winged form; legs yellow. Head (Fig. 3) broadened anteriorly, sculptured
as in macropterous form; median ocellus vestigial, others wanting; eyes
greatly reduced in size and consisting of few facets; antennae much as in
long-winged form, with the same arrangement of sense-cones, but these
straight and shorter (Fig. 4). Prothorax enlarged, longer than head and
only 1.5 times as broad across coxae as along midline of pronotum; fore legs


5 6 7
Hoplothrips mutabilis, sp. nov.
Fig. 1.- 9, macropterous; head and prothorax setaee omitted from all parts
excepting head, prothorax, antennae, and fore coxae; paratype, x121.
Fig. 2.-9, macropterous; segments III and IV of right antenna; para-
type, x161.
Fig. 3.-9, brachypterous; head; paratype, x121.
Fig. 4.-9, brachypterous; segments III and IV of right antenna; para-
type, x161.
Fig. 5.- &, brachypterous; head of heterogonic maximum individual; para-
type, x121.
Fig. 6.-S, brachypterous; head of medium-sized individual; paratype,
Fig. 7.-S brachypterous; head of heterogonic minimum individual; para-
type, x121.

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 1- MARCH, 1955 31

longer and stouter (especially the femora), fore tibiae similarly spurred,
tarsal tooth longer. Abdomen not distinctive.
Measurements of morphotype brachypterouss ): Length about 2.3 mm.
(distended, 2.89). Head, total length 0.273, width across eyes 0.183, greatest
width across cheeks 0.225, least width near base 0.176, width across basal
collar 0.181; eyes, dorsal length 0.041; postocular setae, length 0.109, inter-
val 0.169, distance from eyes 0.043; mouth-cone, length beyond posterior
dorsal margin of head 0.121. Prothorax, median length of pronotum 0.294,
width across coxae 0.444, antero-marginal setae 0.025, antero-angulars 0.025,
midlaterals 0.025, epimerals 0.087, postero-marginals 0.093, coxals 0.090.
Mesothorax, width across anterior angles 0.375. Metathorax, greatest
width posteriorly 0.363. Abdomen, greatest width (at segment IV) 0.437;
tube, length 0.160, width across basal collar 0.090, greatest subbasal width
0.085, least apical width 0.042; terminal setae, length 0.153; segment IX,
seta I 0.149, II 0.134, III 0.139.

Antennal segments: I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Length (,) : 67 70 77 74 62 51 50 50
Width (,) : 53 38 40 38 34 29 26 19

Total length of antenna, 0.501 mm.

MALE (BRACHYPTEROUS): Length 2-2.4 mm. (distended, 2.4-2.9). Color
as in brachypterous female. Head strongly heterogonic, varying extremely
in form (Fig. 5-7), large individuals with several large setigerous tubercles
on cheeks just behind eyes and with a deep grove on each side just in front
of basal collar, small ones without tubercles or groove; sculpture as in
female; antennae also variable, large individuals with the segments elon-
gated; sense-cones as in short-winged female. Prothorax enlarged and
greatly elongated in major forms, sometimes as much as 1.4 times as long as
head and only 1.2 times as broad across coxae as along midline of pronotum;
fore legs in such forms much elongated, their tibiae with a strong tooth
resulting from the prolongation of the upper inner surface of apex, their
tarsi with the tooth on inner surface very long and stout. Abdomen with
a narrow and somewhat irregular glandular area on sternum VIII, crossing
it at about middle.
Measurements of morphotype (largest ) : Length about 2.37 mm. (dis-
tended, 2.88). Head, total length 0.302, width across eyes 0.185, greatest
width across cheeks 0.274, least width near base 0.164, width across basal
collar 0.168; eyes, dorsal length 0.040, width 0.031, interval 0.124; postocu-
lar setae, length 0.089, interval 0.167, distance from eyes 0.047; mouth-
cone, length beyond dorsal margin of head 0.117. Prothorax, median length
of pronotum 0.424, width across coxae 0.505, antero-marginal setae 0.013,
antero-angulars 0.013, midlaterals 0.015, epimerals 0.093, postero-marginals
0.070, coxals 0.095. Mesothorax, width across anterior angles 0.395. Meta-
thorax, greatest width posteriorly 0.356. Abdomen, greatest width (at
segment II) 0.403; tube, length 0.146, width across basal collar 0.084,


greatest subbasal width 0.088, least apical width 0.039; terminal setae 0.146;
segment IX, seta I 0.149, II 0.075, III 0.137.

Antennal segments: I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Length (p) : 82 73 87 78 70 55 50 51
Width (/p) : 51 37 39 37 31 27 24 17

Total length of antenna, 0.546 mm.

Measurements of morphotype (smallest o ) : Length about 1.95 mm. (dis-
tended, 2.35). Head, total length 0.228, greatest width across eyes 0.164,
greatest width across cheeks 0.192, least width near base 0.154, width
across basal collar 0.158; eyes, dorsal length 0.034, width 0.031, interval
0.103; postocular setae, length 0.085, interval 0.145, distance from eyes
0.037; mouth-cone, length beyond posterior dorsal margin of head 0.127.
Prothorax, median length of pronotum 0.249, width across coxae 0.382,
antero-marginal setae 0.015, antero-angulars 0.015, midlaterals 0.015-0.035,
epimerals 0.075, postero-marginals 0.074, coxals 0.090. Mesothorax, width
across anterior angles 0.335. Metathorax, greatest width posteriorly 0.322.
Abdomen, greatest width (at segment II) 372; tube, length 0.147, width
across basal collar 0.080, greatest subbasal width 0.083, least apical width
0.036; terminal setae 0.134; segment IX, seta I 0.130, II 0.074, III 0.143.

Antennal segments: I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Length (t) : 60 60 71 62 56 45 44 47
Width (1)): 46 33 36 33 31 26 23 17

Total length of antenna, 0.445 mm.

FLORIDA: Miami, July 23, 1954, J. D. H., 18 macropterous 9's, 9
brachypterous 's, and 13 's (including holotype, allotype, and three
morphotypes), from a dead branch on the ground. (Other specimens taken
on later days were not included in the type series.)


THE WATER BEETLES OF FLORIDA, by Frank N. Young. Gaines-
ville, University of Florida Press, 1954. ix + 238 p., 31 figs.
Biological Science Series, Volume V, Number 1. Price $6.00.
Dr. Young's original plan in writing this book was to collect
and determine all the species of water beetles known from Flor-
ida and to study in detail the various ecological factors influenc-
ing their occurrence and distribution. He soon found that the
problem of applying names to the various forms was such a
difficult and involved task that the greater portion of his time
was expended in taxonomic problems. The culmination of this
search resulted in the compilation given in this book, including
keys to species and ecological notes on each form. The chapter
dealing with the ecological distribution of Florida species is par-
ticularly illuminating because in this Dr. Young has a clear, yet
concise, discussion of the ecological conditions of Florida and
those factors which influence the presence or absence of cer-
tain beetles in different sections of the state. The results of
observations made during the many years spent in roaming
over Florida by Dr. Young in his search for water beetles is
clearly revealed in his authoritative discussions of the aquatic
ecology of the state. The final part of his section on ecological
distribution gives his conclusions as to the origin of the Florida
water beetles.
The major portion of the book is devoted to an annotated list
of 187 species with keys to the subfamilies, genera, and species.
Under each species, its taxonomic status and a short diagnosis
is given first, followed by distribution, habitat preference, and
selected references; taxonomic notes and variations are added
where necessary. Pertinent line drawings are included to assist
in the use of keys. Ten pages are devoted to references and six
to an index to the species.
The University of Florida Press has indeed done the State of
Florida a service in publishing this book on water beetles by Dr.
Young. Works of this caliber help to enhance the reputations of
the institutions at which the studies are done, as well as that of
the publishers. The greater part of the investigations reported
in this book were carried out while Dr. Young was a student and
a staff member at the University of Florida. It is to be hoped
that additional works of this sort will be published in the future
by the University of Florida Press.
This book, concerned with adult water beetles, will certainly
prove to be indispensable to those working in the field of aquatic
biology in the southeast, especially in Florida. In spite of its
great value, the problems of larval ecology and taxonomy still
remain to be investigated. Perhaps in the near future a student
of the Coleoptera will undertake such a task. At least we who
work in aquatic ecology in Florida can continue to hope so.-L. B.


Minter J. Westfall, Jr. xi + 615 pp., col. front., 341 figs. Uni-
versity of California Press, Berkeley, California. 1955. Price
At the turn of the century, Dr. James G. Needham, then a
young man 32 years of age, announced to those interested in
Odonata that he was working on a book of North American
dragonflies. It would have been a colossal task if he had at-
tempted publication at that time. As many as 249 (75%) of
the 332 species covered by the present volume had been described
by 1900. The great amount of revisional work of the current
century was still in the future. For example, in the present
book there is (pp. 50-51) a list of "Titles Frequently Cited"; of
the 22 entries, 15 are for works done in the 20th century, and
these do not include such pioneer compendia as R. A. Muttkow-
ski's Catalogue of the Odonata of North America, published in
1910 (Bull. 1, Pub. Mus. Milwaukee, Wisconsin).
However, Dr. Needham's usual sound judgment came to his
rescue as he realized the great amount of basic and critical
work involved and the book was deferred from year to year until
1929 when A Handbook of the Dragonflies of North America was
published with Hortense B. Heywood as the junior author and
with extensive contributions by Elsie Broughton and C. Francis
Byers (C. C. Thomas Pub. Co., Springfield, Ill.)
The 1929 handbook was the first comprehensive attempt to
bring together available information on the Odonata, both Ani-
soptera and Zygoptera, known to occur in Canada and the United
States. It treated some 360 species and was illustrated with line
drawings. Except as a pioneer attempt, the work could hardly
be considered an unqualified success. A few months after its pub-
lication, Dr. Needham issued an errata sheet running into dozens
of items.
Dissatisfied with the 1929 handbook, Dr. Needham, with his
usual vigor and courage, began work on a complete and more
satisfactory redoing of the project. In 1944 he was joined at
Cornell University by Minter J. Westfall, Jr., now associated with
this reviewer in the Department of Biology at the University of
Florida. They made a fine team. After 10 years of hard work
and painstaking attention to minutia, especially on the part of
the junior author, the present volume was completed after half


a century of Dr. Needham's original announcement and within
a few weeks of his 87th birthday.
This book fulfills admirably the purpose for which it was
written: namely, "an authoritative manual, for expert and ama-
teur alike, of the various kinds of Anisoptera found on the North
American continent, including the border provinces of Mexico
and the Greater Antilles".
To write a book for the layman and the expert is usually
not easy to do satisfactorily. If we picture the layman with
no more than a very general knowledge of entomology, but with
enthusiasm for it, he will find the present book a rather tough
proposition. However, by judicious use of keys, pictures, and
tables, he will find clearly set out the essential information for
the identification of dragonflies and may be stimulated to, in the
words of the authors, "enjoy being out of doors with the dragon-
flies where they haunt natural parks, spring fed brooks, grass-
bordered ponds, placid lake shores and winding river banks".
The expert on the other hand, will welcome the bringing to-
gether of a large amount of scattered material, the orderly pres-
entation of it, and the very fine illustrations provided. He may
be somewhat dissatisfied by the omissions and condensations
necessary in any handbook or manual such as the condensed
handling of geographic distribution, dates of collection, descrip-
tion of species, and literature references.
The volume is a beautiful example of the printer's art, and
is illustrated by one colored plate (frontispiece) and 341 figures
mostly half-tones. Practically all of the half-tones are made
from photographs supplied by the junior author who spent long
hours photographing and very skillfully retouching them. These
photographs constitute the greatest original contribution the
present book has to offer, and are well worth the increased cost
of publication. Dr. Westfall's photographs may be grouped as
follows: (1) about 70 from whole specimens illustrating the
known genera of nymphs; (2) about 73 illustrating the fore and
hind wings of adults for each genus treated; these are large
(3" x 4.5") and unbelievably clear; (3) some 324 of terminal
abdominal appendages (lateral and dorsal views) and/or the 2nd
abdominal segment genitalia of more difficult genera such as
Ophiogomphus, Gomphus, Aeschna, Neurocordulia, Somatoch-
lora, Sympetrum; (4) general, whole or parts of heads, labia,
wings, etc.


The book is arranged in two parts. Part One-"Dragonflies
in General"-pages 3 to 59, is written in the inimitable style of
the senior author and covers the general biology of dragonflies
in a broad and delightful manner. This section includes, under
separate sub-heads: a description of the dragonfly adult with
much attention given to wing venation; the dragonfly nymph; a
chapter on "Field Studies" which stresses methods of collecting,
mounting, and preservation; and a very useful chapter on "Pro-
cedure" giving lists of authors cited, states and provinces in-
cluded in the manual, titles of important books and monographs
frequently cited, and a list of the genera and species treated in
the second section of the book.
Part Two-"Systematic Classification"-covers pages 62 to
603 and is the body of the book. It is built on the plan, wherever
feasible, of giving a general account of the family and each of
its genera with brief diagnostic keys and tables for the species
of adults and known nymphs. For each of the 332 species in-
cluded there is given a concise description of the adult preceded
by one or more selected literature references and followed by very
condensed statement of geographic distribution by states or
provinces, and dates indicating the time of adult activity. With
the many excellent photographs already referred to this treat-
ment is quite satisfactory for the stated purposes of the book.
Of the vast amount of zoogeographic and ecological information
on dragonflies available, very little is included, but one would
be asking too much for this also, having been supplied with a
generous helping of taxonomy.
In a book as well done as this one is it seems ungracious to
mention errors. There are very few of them. The editorial
work, most of which fell to Dr. Westfall, has been done with
amazing thoroughness. Only a few very minor omissions and
transpositions have come to my attention. As examples: Neuro-
cordulia (Platycordulia) xanthosoma has been omitted from the
key to adult species of that genus. Marcromia margarita has
been omitted from the list of unknown nymphs in the key. The
labels of figure 187, Aeschna mutata, and figure 188, Aeschna
multicolor, have been transposed. Because of a situation beyond
their control the treatment of the genus Neurocordulia is not sat-
isfactory. In general the keys are perhaps too brief for accurate
use in the more difficult groups, for example: Tetragoneuria
and Gomphus.


The publication of a book such as this manual always repre-
sents a mile-stone in the development of any field of scholarly
endeavor. A great amount of work on the part of many indi-
viduals must come before it, to be followed by an increased
awareness of all students of the discipline of deficiencies in their
science and a drive toward the completion of work in progress.
New students may be attracted to the field with fresh view
points and youthful vigor. Equally important, it causes the
oldster to contemplate past accomplishments and future direc-
The pattern for the development of our knowledge of North
American Odonata culminating in the Needham-Westfall volume
was set in substantially its present form through the works of
H. A. Hagen and the Baron de Selys-Longchamps a hundred
years ago. The late E. B. Williamson and Clarence Kennedy
together with Drs. P. P. Calvert, E. M. Walker, and J. G. Need-
ham developed and extended this tradition through the early
part of the 20th century. These men directly, and through their
students, over the years have extended our knowledge of the
North American fauna to a point where new vistas must be
opened and investigations along different lines initiated.
With the possible exception of the genus Gomphus, the taxo-
nomy of North American Anisoptera is well in hand. Of the
species listed in the Handbook, two are based on the nymph
only (a somewhat dubious practice), 74% of the immature forms
are known (245 out of 332), only a few of the species are in doubt.
Routine museum and field work to fill in such blank spaces, extend
ranges, and uncover new species is about the extent of the work
to be done unless new approaches are made. We must become
interested in the whole species instead of a few specimens.
What such new approaches are to be may not be clear or
would be made difficult by the very nature of the animals we are
dealing with. Controlled studies in ecology, including migration
and geographic variation; studies in hybridization; physiologi-
cal studies are difficult to work out but offer possibilities. Cer-
tainly the Odonata offer material and a challenge for biologists
interested in other approaches than the taxonomic. One of the
many values of Dr. Needham's and Dr. Westfall's book is to
emphasize this by bringing the taxonomy to such a high level
of attainment.
Having worked with Dr. Needham on the 1929 volume and
being associated with Dr. Westfall while the present book was


being completed, I am able to appreciate the genius and drudgery
contributed by both in the writing and illustrating of the Dragon-
flies of North America. It is indeed a very satisfactory contri-
bution to our knowledge of one of the smaller but most fascinating
groups of insects. Dr. Westfall has promised a companion volume
on the Zygoptera or Damselflies of North America for the future,
but considering the work involved, it will not be in the near future.

Department of Biology
University of Florida


In the past several years, two species of sawflies have been
observed in Alachua County, Florida. These species have not
been previously reported from the State but it seems likely
that they have existed here for many years. Neither species
appears to be of economic importance at the present time.
Croesus latitarsus Norton (Hymenoptera-Tenthredinidae):
This species has been found in relative abundance on river
birch or black birch (Betula niger L.) growing on the banks
of the Santa Fe River. The insect has the assigned common
name of "dusky birch sawfly" and is a defoliator of birch trees
in the northeastern United States and Great Lakes region. One
generation is the rule in the northern United States with a
partial second generation in some seasons. Under Florida con-
ditions there are numerous successive generations beginning
when birch foliage becomes available in the springtime.
The larvae are dull green with black spots and glistening
black head capsules. Seven pairs of abdominal prolegs are
present and a glandular structure is found between the pro-
legs of each pair. Each larva is approximately one inch long
when full grown. Larvae occur in groups, and eight or more
may feed on the same leaf at the same time. The posterior
end of the abdomen of feeding larvae is curved upward and
they have the appearance of so many question marks sur-
rounding a leaf. Prepupae enter the soil where they spin silken
cocoons. Adults are black with flattened tibia and tarsi. Con-
firmation of the identity of the insect was made by Mr. C. F. W.
Muesebeck of the U. S. National Museum.
Acantholyda tesselata (Klug) (Hymenoptera-Pamphilidae) :
This species is associated with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)
in the Gainesville area. Several of the large black and yel-
low adults have been collected in recent years. In 1954 a single
full-grown larva was found hanging from a silken thread at-
tached to a loblolly pine tree. This larva was pale green with
a dorsal and two lateral purplish longitudinal stripes. Prolegs
are absent in this species and a pair of terminal abdominal
filaments gives the larva the appearance of having a head on
both ends. Pamphilid larvae are web-spinners and pine needles
are webbed together by the feeding larvae of this genus. The


insect has not been found in abundance and more observations
are needed. Newly emerged adults have been dug from the
soil during the early spring months which indicates that the
winter is passed as prepupae within cocoons in the soil. Since
all collections have been during the spring months, there is
probably only one generation each year. Identification of the
insect was made by Dr. W. W. Middlekauf of the University
of California. Previous collection records indicate that the
insect is most commonly encountered in the northeastern United
College of Agriculture
University of Florida


Observations were made in late 1953 and in 1954 regarding
the occurrence of small brown spittlebugs on Fisher Island,
Miami Beach, Florida. These insects, identified as Clastoptera
undulata Uhler (Homoptera, Cercopidae) by Thomas E. Moore,
State Natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois, were found in
abundance during December, 1953, and January and May, 1954.
Clastoptera undulata Uhler has been reported previously as
occurring in Cuba upon Casuarina spp. and various species of
Malvaceae. This is its first reported occurrence in the United
States and constitutes a verification of the primary host record
and the addition of varieties of cultivated Hibiscus as secondary
The nymphs of the species have been observed most frequently
in frothy masses of spittle on the Australian pine (Casuarina
equisetifolia L.) and to a lesser extent on certain varieties of
cultivated Hibiscus. The adults are active fliers, but when
observed resting they were found principally upon the tender
twigs of the Australian pine.
Heavy infestations of this insect occurred in December and
January; however, by mid-January they had decreased in number
until it was difficult to collect even a small series of specimens.
Their population increased in April and reached a peak during
May. From early June to the present time (September 1954)
their numbers have decreased, until the population is as light
as that of February and March.
The damage caused by both nymphs and adults feeding on
their host plants appears negligible. However, the adults con-
stitute a considerable nuisance by resting or crawling in large
numbers on persons who enter the infested area. The adults
are often transported in this manner into offices, homes, and
automobiles, where their presence is also annoying.

Dept. of Health, Education, and
Miami Beach, Florida

1 Entomologist, Quarantine Station.

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