Vol. XXXVIII No. 4
BUTCHER, F. GRAY-Starting the Second Century of Pro-
fessional Entomology ---..--....--.......-.....------........--....... 135
DORWARD, KELVIN-Progress of the Cooperative Economic
Insect Survey Program ...--------------.... ---................------ 139
DODGE, HAROLD R.-New Muscid Flies from Florida and the
West Indies (Diptera: Muscidae) ---.....................-------..... 147
GILBERT, I. H., and H. K. GouCK-Evaluation of Repellents
Against Mosquitoes in Panama ------..... --------------. ...153
SPENCER, HERBERT, and ALLEN G. SELHIME-Sampling of
Infestations of Citrus Red Mite .......................-............... 165
Book Reviews ------......... .............. ------------.... ............. 167
News and Comments ............---............---..........-------......... 168
Minutes of the Thirty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society ..............-..-............---- ..............---- 169
The Florida Entomological Society Constitution and By-Laws 173
Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
STARTING THE SECOND CENTURY OF
F. GRAY BUTCHER
University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida
Preparing a presidential address has certain similarities in
its development to the normal course of events associated with
the birth of a baby. Thus, there is a momentary pleasure in
the conception of the assignment, i.e., the recognition of the honor
of being elected to this office. Sometime later, there follows
the sudden realization that the thing must be delivered a few
months hence; periods of near hysteria at the thought of the
awful ordeal alternate with periods of unrealistic optimism that
the item will work its way out in some effortless manner. As
the fateful deadline approaches more closely, unmistakable signs
of anxiety crease the face of the unfortunate individual con-
cerned, and there is a conspicuous protrusion into thoughts and
activities more properly devoted to other duties. Eventually,
after many wakeful hours, much pain, and real labor, the hour
of delivery arrives, and the new-born becomes an entity unto
itself, to stand or fall, and to take its place with others of its
kind. From such a procedure, I wish to present some thoughts
to you regarding our Profession.
In this first year of the second century of Professional Ento-
mology, we are still thrilling to the complimentary centennial
reports of the accomplishments of our profession. We are proud
to have helped increase production of food and fibre to more
adequately feed and clothe the people of the world; we are proud
that entomology has justly earned a position of high repute in
the field of public health; and we are proud that our profession
has developed a well-rounded procedure of experimentation,
adaptation, and education for meeting the various pesticidal de-
mands of agriculture and industry.
These accomplishments of the last century are well worth our
pride in their enumeration, and we would have been remiss in
our allegiance and loyalty to the founders and early workers in
this field had we not participated in our Centennial Celebra-
tion. Fortunately that recent activity has well recorded our
'Presidential Address delivered at the thirty-eighth annual meeting
of the Florida Entomological Society, September 1, 1955, at Jacksonville,
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
professional development, and those records now stand for our
intimate and personal review as we search for inspiration and
guidance in our continuing endeavors.
Now it is time to get back to work again. Insect problems
confront us; essential food is being destroyed; available pesti-
cides fail to provide adequate needed protection; diseases of
man and animals which appear to be insect-borne mock us with
wasted energy devoted to non-productive growth; the great mass
of laymen outside of our profession are unversed in the ways
of insects and in methods of preventing their depradations. As
long as these conditions exist, our job requires full-time atten-
My students wonder why counting antennal segments or
studying wing venation cannot be eliminated as an approach to
lessons in applied entomology. My administrative supervisor
is irritated at the delay in naming the species of maggot found
in a mango fruit; my next door neighbor is displeased with the
necessity of protecting his papaya fruit with cheese-cloth bags
to keep fruit flies away. These and similar items are the normal
components of our profession, and are readily explained and
understandable by the trained entomologist. But what about
other common questions? Do house flies or other insects carry
the viruses of polio? Have Dade County chinch bugs really de-
veloped an immunity to chlorinated hydrocarbons? Can we
avoid another establishment of a pest like the khapra beetle
within our borders? I do not know any co-workers willing to
answer such inquiries, even tho the answers to these types of
questions are of prime importance to many segments of the
Ours is an exciting profession in its various facets. To call
ourselves trained entomologists we must first have thrilled to
the pleasures of time allotted to observing Sphex dragging cater-
pillars to her nest; or to watching the mature nymph of Tibicen
crawl from its underground home to the bright light of day and
adult-hood; or to the countless other experiences in getting ac-
quainted with details of insect habits. As teachers in the halls
of learning, it is our privilege to lead students into paths of
inquiry which eventually become main thorough-fares of
knowledge. As research workers with insect problems, we find
unlimited avenues for accomplishments that can dis-credit Wads-
worth's suggestion that we are "lost in the gloom of un-inspired
research". We make the first record of a complete life history,
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
we correct an earlier hypothesis of relationship, we see the re-
arrangement of a molecule on the structural formula improve an
insecticidal compound. In short, our field of work leads to ac-
complishments of varying degree, all of which bring real personal
satisfaction that may not be apparent to the layman.
But the layman is still our staff of life, and servicing his de-
mands is our ultimate assignment. Although entomological
knowledge is vastly greater among the general public than it was
a few years ago, there is ample evidence that we must recognize
that much of their information is in-adequate or incorrect. A
few months ago a lady was quite concerned because each day
she found a new group of an insect form on her porch in spite
of continued treatments of the floor and walls with a good house-
hold spray. Her concern changed to interest and amazement
when specimens she brought were recognized as lace-wing flies
which had been trying diligently to cope with pests on her near-
by foliage plants. A home-owner was quite disgusted recently
when I could not answer his telephoned request for a spray to
kill big beetles eating his lineoleum floor covering until he
brought a specimen and found it was the cerembycid adult
Eburia merely escaping from its larval home in the flooring under
the lineoleum. All of you have encountered similar experiences
revealing a continuing need for adequate layman education of
accurate entomological information.
Where do we go from here? I would dedicate this thirty-
eighth annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society to
the industrious pursuit of our profession in deliberate contest
with our forebears. While our numbers have grown, there is ade-
quate work for all. Let those of us who are teachers enlarge our
perspective to encompass the vision of imparting more complete
training of our students to stimulate their greater curiosity in
the fundamentals of entomological subject matter, and to en-
courage their continued interests in this field in its relationship
to all other vocations and professions. Let those of us who are
research workers enlarge our perspective to include a complete
critical analysis of established procedures and practices asso-
ciated with our fields of interest, and apply earnest efforts to
devise thorough study of all factors capable of manipulation in
determining true factual information. Let those of us who are
in the realms of public relations of our profession enlarge our
perspective to keep abreast of research findings and adapt the
same to a practical demonstration of accurate information for
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
the layman, and to continually visualize the relationship of en-
tomology in the every-day life of our neighbor.
An important segment of our profession, which is integrated
with all of the interests just enumerated, is the group collectively
designated as "Industry Representatives". This group has the
most extensive contact with the general public, and thus is in a
position to acquaint the layman with our profession and its opera-
tion. This group has done an outstanding job in this assignment
to date, and thus merits the high esteem with which it is held
both by other segments of our profession and by the layman.
The position of this group in this respect dictates the necessity
for continued honest and industrious attention to accurate infor-
mation, as well as the critical direction of efforts for the rest of
us to interpret with accuracy the major public demands, and the
maintenance of wholesome relationships with the entire profes-
As we visualize the tremendous strides between Harris' old
recommendation in his 1841 "Report on Insects Injurious to Vege-
tation" for such measures as protecting woodpeckers for control
of tree borers, to the recent and very exciting control of screw-
worm fly by release of irradiated males there is just cause for
pride of accomplishment. On the other hand, we must humble
ourselves in acknowledging the many unanswered entomological
questions, and industriously contribute our best efforts to even
greater accomplishments during this Second Century of Profes-
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
PROGRESS OF THE
COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT SURVEY PROGRAM1
Many of you are aware of the Cooperative Economic Insect
Survey program and we trust that you have actively participated
in this cooperative undertaking during the past few years. It
is a program for all entomologists and perhaps an explanation
of the developmental background, the objectives, accomplish-
ments and an expression of our hopes for the future will better
inform those of you who have been cooperating of the value of
your contribution. We also hope that others will be encouraged
to assist with the program by submitting regularly, current in-
The Insect Pest Survey, initiated by the late J. A. Hyslop in
1921, was active for many years and demonstrated what a group
of entomologists working together might accomplish by providing
insect condition information. During the early years informa-
tion was submitted by a number of appointed collaborators (serv-
ing without pay) and released once each month. The informa-
tion obtained was important and made possible the accumula-
tion of many valuable records. A reduction in funds and per-
sonnel had restricted the program to such an extent that by
World War II much of its original effectiveness was lost.
Following World War II the many aspects of Biological War-
fare created national interest in the dangers from the possible in-
tentional introduction of insects and diseases affecting humans,
animals and plants.
Prompted by this outlook, the Federal Civil Defense Adminis-
tration in 1950, requested the Department of Agriculture to uti-
lize its facilities to carry out certain functions in the National
Program of Civil Defense-particularly with respect to the
measures necessary to protect this country against the inten-
tional introduction and spread of diseases and pests of livestock,
crops and forests. The Department of Agriculture assumed a
large measure of the responsibility for this assignment through
modification and strengthening of the peacetime procedures. To
1 Presented at the 38th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological
Society, September 1-2, 1955.
SHead, Economic Insect Survey Section, Plant Pest Control Branch,
Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
facilitate the program, the Secretary of Agriculture directed the
Administrator of the Agricultural Research Service to assume the
major responsibility insofar as the Department was concerned.
Within the research service the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine was the qualified Bureau to assume the phase of the
program dealing with insects.
Realizing the need for current information on economic insect
pests in normal times, as well as in times of emergency, Dr. Avery
S. Hoyt, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine, in April, 1951, sent letters to the Directors of Extension,
Directors of Experiment Stations, and the Commissioners, Direc-
tors and Secretaries of Agriculture of each State requesting sug-
gestions for strengthening insect pest surveys through coopera-
tion of all entomological agencies. In the original correspon-
dence, it was suggested that the various entomological agencies
in each State not so organized might give consideration to the
possibility of establishing a central point or a clearing house for
screening insect specimens and reports on insect occurrence or
abundance within the respective States. It was also suggested
that such information be transmitted to the Bureau in Washing-
ton for permanent record and for incorporation into a national
report. This report would be issued at frequent intervals for the
mutual information and benefit of all entomologists, agricultural
workers and the pesticide and related industries throughout the
country. The response to Dr. Hoyt's letter was excellent and it
is with pleasure I tell you that almost immediately Mr. Arthur
C. Brown, Plant Commissioner at that time, Mr. W. M. Fifield,
Director of Experiment Stations and Mr. H. G. Clayton, Director
of Extension, met and discussed the suggested cooperative work
in Florida. At that meeting the office of Mr. Brown was selected
to act as coordinator and clearing house for insect information
By the end of 1951, 35 States had established central clearing
houses and others indicated that steps were underway to organ-
ize. In addition to the cooperative plans with the States, the
territories of Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico similarly organized
and a cooperative arrangement with Canada was effected.
To further determine the desire of entomologists of this coun-
try for such an undertaking a special session on surveys was
held at the 1951 Cincinnati Meeting of the American Association
of Economic Entomologists. It was apparent at that session that
such a program was necessary and acceptable to the entomolo-
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1955
gists of this country. The Association, in order to assist in such
an undertaking, appointed an interim survey advisory commit-
tee consisting of six members. It included one representative
each from the Experiment Stations, State regulatory agencies,
Extension Entomology, Industry, the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine with the head of the Federal survey program as
ex-officio. Incidentally, at the 1954 meetings of the Entomologi-
cal Society of America, in Houston this Committee was designated
as a permanent committee and enlarged to 10 members with the
addition of Public Health, Forest Entomology and the Ento-
mology Research Branch and as an ex-officio member the head of
the Federal Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Sec-
The evident interest of the States and entomological workers
made it apparent to the Bureau that such a cooperative program
was acceptable and needed and would be supported. With this
assurance, the Bureau on January 18, 1952, announced the forma-
tion of an Economic Insect Advisory Service for the purpose of
developing such a program. The Section headquarters are main-
tained in Washington where the weekly Cooperative Economic
Insect Report is compiled and released and where the permanent
records are maintained. At the outset, five regional men were
assigned to the field to coordinate the program within the regions
and work with entomologists to stimulate participation in the
program. Mr. F. S. Chamberlin was originally assigned the
southeastern region but has since returned to tobacco insect re-
search. The areas were enlarged this year and the supervisors
reduced to four with Mr. J. I. Cowger being assigned Mr. Cham-
berlin's territory in addition to some of the southwestern states
The original thinking behind the program was for a com-
pletely voluntary undertaking. The voluntary cooperation has
been outstanding with more than 400 entomologists contributing
information in 1952. This number was over 600 in 1954. From
the outset, the states have been encouraged to make timely re-
leases of insect condition information within the state to permit
the timely and orderly use of the information. Please don't mis-
understand me-weekly releases on insect conditions were being
issued by some of the states long before this program was con-
ceived. It is felt, however, that either directly or indirectly the
cooperative survey program has been responsible for the inaugu-
ration of several weekly reports. Presently about three-fourths
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
or more of the States issue some type of information release on
current insect conditions. It would be an important milestone in
economic entomology if each State would report on current insect
It was mentioned previously that in the beginning this co-
operative undertaking was entirely upon a voluntary basis. A
majority of the reports still come from voluntary contributors but
in some States the Plant Pest Control Branch has entered into
a cooperative survey agreement which provides for joint State-
Federal financing of the cost of one entomologist on the survey
program. This agreement may include one or more state agricul-
tural agencies. This aspect of the program has been made pos-
sible by the reassignment of funds formerly allocated to specific
surveys, such as the European corn borer, cotton insects and a
limited number of others.
During and since World War II these federally-financed survey
programs were known as Service Surveys and the purpose for
their origin was to insure the most effective distribution of the
limited supplies of insecticides, and to enable farmers to protect
their crops through the aid of timely information.
All of the Service Surveys were under the supervision of En-
tomology Research Divisions and their operation utilized time
needed for other work; therefore, the administrative responsi-
bility for the survey activities (exclusive of control project
surveys) was gradually transferred to the Economic Insect Sur-
vey Section. It was recognized that the specific emergencies
dealing with the establishment of such surveys no longer existed
and the question was frequently asked why these funds were not
used to service a wider range of crops and cover other economic
insects in additional States.
Predicated on this philosophy, attention was focused on a new
phase of the survey program in the spring of 1953. The plans,
of necessity, required the development of a much broader pro-
gram that could be operated for approximately the same amount
of money. This problem was presented to the Advisory Com-
mittee of the Entomological Society of America for consideration
and recommendations. The Committee proposed that the Service
Surveys be replaced by a program in which survey personnel
would be jointly financed by the State and Federal Governments
and conduct surveys designed to cover the more important crops
and economic insects. This type of program was concurred in
by the Bureau and the Section as well as by the States with which
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
it was discussed. The program involves sharing the over-all cost
of one survey man on approximately a 50-50 basis between the
State and the Plant Pest Control Branch for the active insect sur-
vey season. The survey entomologist, as a State employee, oper-
ates under a work plan acceptable to the cooperating agencies and
in addition to making routine and special surveys, works to im-
prove the voluntary aspects of the program. Weekly reports
are submitted through the State Clearing House to insure com-
pliance with the agreement. By mutual consent the cooperators
may be the Extension Service, the Experiment Station or the
State Department of Agriculture or any combination of the three.
This program is accomplished through a cooperative agreement,
or contract which is renewable annually or may be revoked by
either cooperator on 60 day's notice. It is again with pleasure
that I can say that Florida was one of the first states to sign a
cooperative survey agreement. As you know, Mr. H. A. Den-
mark is the cooperative survey entomologist and has been doing
a very creditable job. The agreement is with the State Plant
Board and the entire state financing is from that source. To illus-
trate the cooperative spirit that entered into the Florida agree-
ment, Mr. Ed L. Ayers, discussed the program with both the
Experiment Station and Extension Service prior to signing. In
developing the work plan representatives of the three agencies
met with a representative from the Plant Pest Control Branch
and discussed the work plan to be followed for the program.
Twenty-two states have entered into cooperative agreements and
at the present time active negotiations are in progress in four
You are probably asking, what has been accomplished? First,
I might say that each state has a better knowledge of its insect
problem and most States are doing a better job of keeping their
agricultural interests informed. The Cooperative Economic In-
sect Report, issued weekly, is sent to over 2600 entomologists,
agricultural workers and industry representatives in each of the
states in addition to several foreign countries. Too, on a national
level a permanent insect file is maintained for use of the public
which consists of more than 500,000 notes on 11,500 domestic
genera which includes more than 24,000 species and on 8,000 for-
eign genera including 20,000 species. Over 2,000 host plant
species references are maintained.
Our cooperators have consistently increased and improved
their notes and the coverage of insect conditions within the
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
States. In 1954 we received 1,297 clearing house reports (exclu-
sive of reports from PPC Branch, Entomology Research Branch,
Forest Service and Agricultural Marketing Service) from more
than 600 contributors; State summaries from 36 States; a list
of the ten most important insects from 23 States. We have pre-
pared and published special reports or summaries on such in-
sects as armyworm, yellow clover aphid, grasshoppers and Mor-
mon crickets, chinch bugs, European corn borer (abundance and
loss estimates), forest insects, etc.
One very graphic illustration can illustrate the monetary
value of the work that is being done. The advance reports re-
ceived by the State of Pennsylvania during the armyworm out-
break in 1953 is credited by entomologists with saving the
farmers over $1,000,000 in losses. Of course other states have
received similar if not as marked benefits.
The Section has cooperated with the States and other agencies
in several specialized detection surveys including the European
chafer in the mid-western and northeastern States and the cotton
stem moth and Matsucoccus scale in the Eastern and North-
eastern States. The European corn borer and the khapra beetle
surveys in the Western States were conducted at the request of
the Western Plant Board. Program or project surveys such as
grasshopper, pink bollworm of cotton, Japanese beetle and
others are made by the projects concerned, but the information
obtained is also made available through the Cooperative Eco-
nomic Insect Report. There will be numerous occasions, some
of an emergent nature, when other special surveys will be neces-
What of the future? One of the most pressing questions is
that which pertains to the prediction of insect situations. On
several insects it is possible to give an indication of what to ex-
pect, but such information is needed on many others. What
about insect loss figures? We need more information on the
losses caused by insects and by other pests. True, on some in-
sects we have some figures and in some cases we are not afraid
of them but in the majority of cases we shake our head and just
hope no one asks us for justification. Improved survey methods
are badly needed. We are fortunate that economic and research
entomologists have developed so many methods but still more are
needed which can be applied on a universal basis. Tests of
course are under way. Perhaps the largest scale test program
under way at the present time is the study in relation to light
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1955
traps. In cooperation with the Farm Electrification Section of
the Agricultural Engineering Research Branch, traps are being
tested in several Southern and Southeastern States. Florida was
one of the first to enter this program and Mr. Denmark is to give
us a discussion on the program in this State. I would also like
to compliment Mr. Denmark and others on the fine work they
are doing in developing a card system for recording insect data.
The use of IBM or some type of card system is receiving more
and more attention throughout the country. The coding system
is the important phase as the mechanical system is only a means
of fast utilization of the records. In this connection it might be
well to mention that considerable interest is developing in the
adoption of a uniform coding system for use by entomologists and
other scientific workers.
You can see that this program has many ramifications. It
needs the cooperation of all entomologists. Before closing I would
like to read the objectives which were outlined when the work
was first started and it is believed that the same objectives still
apply to this cooperative program.
(1) To assist farmers and other agricultural workers to
more adequately protect their crops from insect attack
by supplying current information on insect activity.
(2) To aid manufacturers and suppliers of insecticides and
control equipment to determine areas of urgent need for
supplies and equipment.
(3) To aid and assure more prompt detection of newly-
introduced insect pests.
(4) To develop a workable insect pest forecasting service.
(5) To develop nationwide uniformity in reporting insect
(6) To determine the losses caused by insects.
(7) To maintain records on the occurrence of domestic and
foreign economic insects.
(8) In case of necessity, provide a nation-wide basic struc-
ture for biological warfare defense.
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VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
NEW MUSCID FLIES FROM FLORIDA AND THE
HAROLD R. DODGE
Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Service, U. S. Dept. of
Health, Education and Welfare, Atlanta, Ga.
The genera Philornis and Neomuscina are Neotropical; both
occur in southern Texas, but heretofore they have been unknown
in the Southeastern States. The following two new species of
these genera have been taken by fly trap in southern Florida.
One of the species is known to occur also in the West Indies. The
types are deposited in the U. S. National Museum; paratypes
will be distributed to the Communicable Disease Center Museum,
the American Museum of National History, and in the collections
of Dr. F. M. Snyder and the author.
Members of this genus are parasitic on birds, especially nest-
lings of the smaller songbirds, according to present knowledge.
There is but one record from a pullet of the domestic hen, and
none are recorded from waterfowl or birds of prey. The genus
is badly in need of revisional work. The following species ap-
pears to differ from those previously described by having the
fourth apparent tergite of the abdomen broadly reddish. It also
differs from other material before me by the presence of "beret
hairs" on the dorsal extremity of the hypopleuron anterior to
the metathoracic spiracle. All species examined have a similar
small group of hairs on the postero-ventral aspect of the hypo-
pleuron immediately above the hind coxa.
Philornis porteri, new species
Length 9 to 11 mm; wing 8 to 10.5 mm.
MALE: Head dark, with silvery grey pollen, the frontal stripe and
antennae reddish. Eyes large, reddish, bare. Front at narrowest 0.05 to
0.07 of head width (average 0.066 of three); at vertex 0.07 to 0.09 and at
lunule 0.24 of head width. Frontal rows of 14 bristles, reduced in size at
narrowest part of front. Frontal stripe linear on posterior half of its
length, narrowly triangular anteriorly, dull black to reddish brown in color.
Parafrontals and parafacials narrow, bare, grey pollinose. Frontal lunule
yellowish, non-setose, thinly pollinose. Antennae reddish brown, the third
segment more than twice the length of the second and three times as long
SNow with the U. S. Forest Service, Missoula, Montana.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
as wide. Arista half again as long as antenna, long plumose nearly to
tip, the upper and lower rays of equal length; second segment of arista
slightly longer than its diameter. Clypeus shallowly depressed, not carinate,
with faint antennal depressions. Vibrissae separated by a distance greater
than the length of the third antennal segment, situated slightly above the
epistoma. Frontal ridges setuled less than half the distance to base of
antennae. Cheeks black haired, one sixth of eye height. Occiput slightly
concave, with whitish vestiture and one row of black postocular setae. Ver-
ticals small, the outer pair larger; ocellars proclinate, as large as outer
vertical bristle. Palpus reddish brown, slender, flattened, nearly as long as
antenna, with rather numerous, short, recumbent bristles dorsally and a
few long, erect bristles ventrally on outer side; inner side bare.
Thorax dark, grey pollinose, with four blackish stripes dorsally which
nearly reach the scutellum and a pair of short lateral stripes above the
notopleurae. Scutellum uniformly pollinose; humeri concolorous with the
thorax or yellowish. Thoracic spiracles yellowish, with distinct apertures,
the posterior pair with a few black, recumbent setules in the lower margin.
Chaetotaxy: acrostichals 0:1, dorsocentrals 2:4 (3:5 in one specimen);
intra-alars 1:1; supra-alars 1:3, the prealar half the length of the follow-
ing bristle and two-thirds as long as the posterior notopleural; humerals 3,
in a nearly transverse line, the outer one largest; notopleurals 2, each sur-
rounded by numerous hairs, sternopleurals 1:2; posterior callus 2; scutellum
with 3 pairs marginals, 2 pairs discals, no apicals, and with some ventral
yellowish hairs on the sides at base. Propleuron, prosternum and meta-
sternum bare; pteropleuron with numerous hairs; hypopleuron with two
small hair groups, one above the hind coxae and the other at the dorsal ex-
tremity of the sclerite. Supraspiracular convexity with erect pubescence; in-
frasquamal setules absent; postalar declivity with a group of hairs. Halter
Wing hyaline, veins brown, without setules. Costal segments 1-5, re-
spectively, 1.5/2.4/1.6/3.3/1.2. Anterior cross vein slightly beyond middle
of discal cell; apical cell diverging apically, the third vein slightly bowed
forward at the middle of its length and fourth vein slightly bowed back-
ward subapically, the apex of the vein in line with its course before the bend.
Basicosta yellowish; epaulet darker brown; squama white, the upper lobe
has a darkened margin.
Legs yellowish red, including the coxae; tarsi darker. Fore femur with 2
complete posterodorsal and one posteroventral rows of strong bristles and a
very weak row of about 5 anterior bristles on basal half; fore tibia with 2
dorsal preapicals and 1 posteroventral preapical bristle, a complete antero-
dorsal row of short bristles, and an anteroventral streak of yellow hairs on
the apical third of its length. Middle femur with an anterior row of about
9 bristles on the basal half, of which the last bristle is conspicuously stouter,
5 or 6 weak anteroventrals on basal third, a complete posteroventral row,
of which those on basal half are erect and the distal three are stoutest, a
weak posterior row of about 8 bristles on apical half and two strong
posterodorsal preapicals, each longer than diameter of the femur; middle
tibia with 2 strong posterior bristles at middle of length, a posterodorsal
at apical quarter, and apically with 1 dorsal and 6 on ventral half, of
which 2 are the longest bristles on any leg. Hind femur with complete
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955 149
anterodorsal and anteroventrdl rows, of which those on apical half are
strongest, and anterior bristle at middle of length, 1 dorsal preapical, and
6 fine posteroventrals on basal half; hind tibia with 1 strong anterodorsal
and about 5 anteroventrals at about the middle of its length and 6 apicals
on anterior surface, of which 2 are longer than its diameter, the posterior
surface without bristles. Tarsi simple, dark brown, basal segment longest,
4th segment shortest, segments 3 and 5 of about equal length; claws simple,
the claws and pulvilli about as long as the 4th segment. Hind coxae bare
Abdomen dark (partly brownish in some general specimens), with an
irregular, changeable pollinose pattern, the apparent 4th tergite largely
reddish, the reddish color continued to the base of the segment middorsally
in some specimens. Intermediate segments each with a median elongate
darker pollinose spot. Tergites 1-3 with lateral bristles only; fourth tergite
with scattered bristles over the apical two-thirds of its surface. Fifth
sternite yellow, pollinose, setose, with two small, shining, bare, widely separ-
ately processes on the posterior margin, which is weakly excised between
them. Genital segments small, yellow pollinose, the first clearly divided into
two parts, of which the basal is bare, the other strongly setose; each bears a
spiracle on each side ventrally. The second genital segment is cleft
broadly to its base by the perianal membrane. Both superior and inferior
forceps broad, curved, flattened, their apices broadly truncate.
FEMALE: Similar to the male, except in genitalic characters and certain
others as follows: Front wider, 0.16 to 0.17 of head width at narrowest
(vertex), 0.30 at lunule, bristles of frontal row uniformly strong; frontal
stripe wider than either parafrontal at every point of its length; para-
frontals each with a row of hairs; vertical bristles of equal size. Fourth
tergite without a marginal row or other bristles except a weakly differ-
entiated, scattered row at basal third, the bristles becoming larger on the
sides. Legs as in male except that 1) the claws and pulvilli are smaller,
and 2) the hind femur lacks the anterior bristle, and has only the apical
3-4 anteroventral bristles strongly developed. Intra-alar bristles 1:2. Geni-
tal segments protruded in the females taken by bait trap, shorter than
fourth tergite, without hooks or prickles, the cerci rather slender and
HOLOTYPE MALE AND ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Miami Beach, Florida, Aug.
4, 1949, fly trap no. 4, J. E. Porter. Type no. 62775, U. S. National
PARATYPES: 2 males, 2 females, same data as above; 1 male, same data
but July, 1949; 2 females, Miami, Florida, August 13, 1953, McPhail bait
trap-Florida Plant Bd. 115 143, 0. D. Link; 1 male, Orlando, Florida,
July 5, 1947, at light, F. M. Snyder.
This genus was revised by Snyder (1949, Amer. Mus. Novi-
tates, No. 1404, 39 pp). Snyder (1954, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
Hist. 103 (6) : 424-429 reviewed it, with a key to 26 species of two
subgenera. The following species is the first one known from
Florida or the Greater Antilles.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Neomuscina (Spilopteromyia) ruf6scutella, new species
Length 5 to 6 mm.
MALE: Head nearly twice as high as long, grey pollinose, dark with
frontal stripe, facialia and cheek grooves reddish. Eyes large, bare. Front
at narrowest 0.05 of head width, at vertex 0.13 and at lunule 0.21 of head
width. Frontal rows of 11 well-developed bristles; frontal stripe linear
posteriorly, diverging and reddish anteriorly. Parafrontals and parafacials
narrow, silvery grey pollinose, not setuled. Ocellar bristles large; frontal
lunule yellow; antennae reddish yellow, the second segment with 2 dorsal
bristles, the 3rd over twice as long as the 2nd and thrice as long as wide.
Arista dark brown, the basal segment yellow, the apical segment moder-
ately long plumose its entire length; the lower rays are as long as the
diameter of the 3rd antennal segment; the upper rays longer. Clypeus
shallowly depressed, not carinate; epistoma warped forward and situated
slightly below the vibrissae, which latter are separated by a distance
slightly greater than the length of the 3rd antennal segment. Frontal ridge
with fine setules half way to lunule. Cheeks black-haired, 0.23 of eye height.
Occiput slightly concave, with 1 row of black postocular bristles, otherwise
pale-haired. Verticals small, equal, about half as long as the ocellar
bristles. Palpi yellow, flattened, slightly clavate, sparsely bristled, slightly
shorter than antennae or haustellum, the latter yellowish.
Thorax dark, humeri yellowish and scutellum entirely reddish yellow;
mesonotum grey pollinose, with 4 black stripes, the outer pair narrowly
interrupted at the transverse suture and the inner pair extending half way
from the suture to the scutellum, a short lateral stripe is present above the
notopleuron. Thoracic spiracles with dark vestiture, the anterior closed,
the posterior with aperture evident. Chaetotaxy: acrostichals 0:2; dorso-
centrals 2:4; intra-alars 1:1; supra-alars 1:2, the prealar hair-like;
humerals 3, in a nearly transverse line; posterior callus 2; notopleurals 2,
with 1-2 setules near the anterior one; sternopleurals 1:2; scutellum with 2
strong marginals and a smaller bristle before the basal, discals 2 weakly
differentiated pairs; ventral margin of scutellum setuled to apex. Propleuron
and prosternum bare; pteropleuron haired; hypopleuron with a few supra-
coxal setules; supraspiracular convexity with fine, yellow, erect pile; in-
frasquamals none; postalar declivity with a group of hairs. Halter entirely
Wing slightly infuscated with yellow, especially along the costal margin
and the veins; costal spine vestigial; costal sections 1 to 6, respectively,
3.7/7/3/9/3.5/1.4 Vein 1 with a basal setule ventrally; vein 3 setuled
above and below half way to the anterior cross vein; vein 4 slightly curved
forward anteriorly, ending behind the wing tip. Epaulet brown; basicosta
yellow; subcostal sclerite yellow, bare; squamae grey-brown infuscated,
the lower lobe whitish toward the base, the margins somewhat darkened.
Legs yellowish, including the coxae; tarsi darker. Chaetotaxy similar
to Philornis porteri, except that the front femur has no anterior row, the
middle femur with very weak posteroventral row and 3 subapicals; middle
tibia bare anteriorly, with 2 posterior bristles and 2 large, 5 small apicals;
hind femur with a complete anterodorsal row, an anteroventral row of about
10, of which the last 4 are large, a posteroventral row of about 12 on
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
basal half; hind femur with an anterodorsal and anteroventral bristle at
middle and three strong apical bristles. Hind coxae bare posteriorly.
Abdomen dark with vague yellowish markings on basal half and the
apex of the 4th apparent tergite vaguely reddish; in posterior view the
silvery pollen is somewhat marmorate and tergites 2-4 have wide, dark
spots confined to the basal halves of the segments. Intermediate seg-
ments with weak marginal rows and lateral bristles; fourth tergite with 2
rows of discal and 1 marginal row of bristles.
FEMALE: Similar to the male except for the usual sexual differences
and the wings are not infuscated, the squamae white.
HOLOTYPE MALE AND ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Florida Keys, March 16, 1952,
fly trap no. 21, Dodge and Seago. Type no. 62776, U. S. National Museum.
PARATYPES: 4 males, 12 females, same data as above; 10 females, Miami
Beach, Florida, September 19, 1949, fly trap no. 8, J. E. Porter; 1 male,
Merritt Island, Fla., January 20, 1948, F. M. Snyder; 1 female, Pinar del
Rio, Cuba, May 5, 1953, Fernando de Zayas.
The reddish scutellum easily distinguishes this species. Its
relationship to Musca scutellaris Fabricius, which Stein referred
to the genus Cyrtoneurina, is unknown. Snyder (1954) believes
that scutellaris may be a Spilopteromyia. The type locality is
South America, and in Stein's redescription the color of the
scutellum is not mentioned (Snyder, in litt.).
In Snyder (1954) the male of this species runs to N. (S.)
atincticosta Snyder because the costal cell is clear and the follow-
ing two cells are only slightly yellowed; the female wing is clear.
It differs from atincticosta by the red scutellum and the vittate
thorax. If the costal margin is considered darkened it runs to
transversalis (Stein) (lapsus calami for tinctinervis Stein) on
the basis of the margins of the squamae darkened.
Neomuscina (Spilopteromyia) rufoscutella farri, new variety
Length 5.5 mm.
FEMALE: Very similar to the preceding species but the legs are black,
with only the apices of the femora brown. The body is uniformly black,
instead of dark brown with some paler areas as in the typical species.
The scutellum is red, its basal third black. Humeri, antennae, and palpi
HOLOTYPE FEMALE: Clarendon, 1 mile West of Jacob's Hut, Jamaica,
B. W. I., September 28, 1954, T. H. Farr. Type no. 62777, deposited in the
U. S. National Museum by courtesy of the collector and of Dr. C. Bernard
Lewis, Director, Science Museum, Institute of Jamaica.
The differences noted between this and the typical species are
not considered specific, pending the discovery of additional ma-
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VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955 153
EVALUATION OF REPELLENTS AGAINST MOSQUITOES
I. H. GILBERT and H. K. GouCK2
Entomology Research Branch, Agr. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A.
Field evaluation of repellents against the various species of
mosquitoes in Panama was made in February 1953 under the re-
search program supported by the Army Committee for Insect and
Rodent Control. Previous tests in the laboratory against Aedes
aegypti (L.) and field studies against the salt-marsh mosquito
Aedes sollicitans (Wlkr.) and taeniorhynchus (Wied.) had
shown all the individual repellents and mixtures to be equal to or
more effective than the standard repellent (M-250) against these
species. Many of the repellents were also found highly effec-
tive against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Psorophora con-
finnis (L.-Arr.) by Gilbert et al. (1955). Altman and Smith
(1955) conducted similar stududies in Alaska against subarctic
species of mosquitoes.
All tests were conducted in the vicinity of the Juan Mina,
C. Z., field station of Gorgas Memorial Institute, in an old orange
grove and along jungle trails. The relative abundance of various
species of mosquitoes as shown by five representative collections
made while testing was as follows:
Species Number collected
titillans (W lkr.) .... ................................ ..--....... 361
indubitans D. & S ... ....................------ ....----- 6
fasciolata (L.-A rr.) ....-..-............. ..................... 2
nigricans (Coq.) ........------------. ............. .... ....... 39
albimanus Wied. ..................... ................... 9
strodei Root ............................... ......--- -.......... 1
The testing period began near the end of the rainy season
and continued into the dry season. Rains occurred daily during
1 This work was conducted under funds allocated by the Department of
the Army to the Entomology Research Branch.
2 The authors express their gratitude to the following for their as-
sistance in these studies: Dr. H. C. Clark and Dr. Harold Trapido of
Gorgas Memorial Institute; Col. F. P. Kintz, Surgeon, and Lt. Col. E. J.
Dehne, Preventive Medicine Officer, of the U. S. Army Caribbean Com-
mand; and Lt. Col. F. S. Blanton, Commanding Officer, 25th Preventive
Medicine Survey Detachment. Also to W. C. McDuffie and C. N. Smith
under whose supervision this work was done.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
the first two weeks but only once during the last two weeks. The
river level had dropped one foot at the dock of Juan Mina by the
end of the test period.
The names of the individual repellents and the formulas of
the mixtures are given below, together with their Orlando code
numbers for convenient reference.
262 Dimethyl phthalate
375 1,3-Hexanediol, 2-ethyl-
3916 Dimethyl carbate
6168 Succinamic acid, N,N-diethyl-, propyl ester
15510 Senecioic acid, 2-[2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester
17586 Benzamide, o-chloro-N,N-diethyl-
20023 Citral-malonic acid condensate No. 1
20034 3-Buten-l-ol, 1-(o-methoxyphenyl)-
20127 Mandelic acid, amyl ester
20145 Mandelonitrile, (3,4-methylenedioxy) -
20188 Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 1-hydroxy-, 2-propoxyethyl ester
20217 o-Toluamide, N,N-diethyl-
20218 m-Toluamide, N,N-diethyl-
20224 Mandelic acid, propyl ester
20241 Mandelic acid, allyl ester
20293 Piperonyl alcohol, alpha-tert-butyl-
20297 Benzamide, o-ethoxy-N,N-diethyl-
M- 250 Standard mixture-262 (60%), 375 (20%), Indalone (20%)
M-1960 2-Butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (30%), N-butylacetanilide (30%),
benzyl benzoate (30%), Tween 80 (10%)
M-2020 262 (40%), 375 (30%), 3916 (30%)
M-2040 Undecenoic undecylenicc) acid (30%), N-butylacetanilide (30%),
N-butyl-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide (30%), Tween 80
M-2042 375 (40%), 6168 (30%), 17586 (30%)
M-2043 262 (40%), 375 (30%), 6168 (30%)
M-2059 M-1960 (99%), lindane (1%)
M-2063 375 (50%), 20297 (50%)
M-2065 N-Butyl-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide (29%), undecenoic acid
(29%), N-propylacetanilide (29%), lindane (3%), Tween
M-2066 N-Butyl-4-cyclohexene-l,2-dicarboximide (29.7%), undecenoic acid
(29.7%), N-propylacetanilide (29.6%), lindane (1%), Tween
M-2068 M-1960 (97%), linCane (3%)
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
SKF C-36 M-2020 (40%), zinc oxide (10%), Deltyl Prime (10%), Vee-
gum (0.75%), Span 80 (3%), Tween 80 (2%), distilled water
(34.25%) (oil-in-water emulsion)
SKF C-39 M-2020 (40%), zinc oxide (10%), Deltyl Prime (10%), Span
80 (2.4%), Tween 80 (1.6%), Veegum (0.25%), Pluronic F-68
(1.75%), distilled water (34%) (oil-in-water emulsion)
The chemicals with code numbers above 20000 were pre-
pared in a special synthesis program at the Beltsville, Md.,
laboratories of the Entomology Research Branch, which has been
discussed by Barthel et al. (1954), Leon et al. (1954), and
McCabe et al. (1954). Mixtures SKF C-36 and SKF C-39 were
lotions prepared by the Smith, Kline & French Laboratories
under a contract with the Department of Defense.
TESTS WITH REPELLENTS APPLIED TO THE SKIN
A repellent was spread evenly over the forearm from wrist to
elbow or the leg from ankle to knee, and compared directly with
another repellent on the other arm or leg. The rate of application
was usually 0.50 ml. for an arm and 0.75 ml. for a leg, but in
tests with lotions varying amounts and concentrations were used.
The treated arms and legs were exposed continuously to natural
infestations of mosquitoes. Effectiveness was based on com-
plete protection, that is, the time between treatment and the
first confirmed bite (a bite followed by another within 30 min-
utes). Since there were no consistent differences in protection
times between arms and legs treated with the same repellents,
no distinction is made between results on different limbs in the
following discussion. The relative effectiveness of a repellent
was expressed as the ratio of the protection time of the test re-
pellent to that of a standard. The ratio is a more reliable index
than the actual protection time, which varies greatly between
different hosts and different populations of mosquitoes.
TESTS WITH 16 INDIVIDUAL REPELLENTS.-A series of tests
was conducted with 16 individual repellents in which each chemi-
cal was tested eight times (once on the arm and leg of each of
four men), while the standard was tested 20 times (four to six
times each test period and two or three times on the arm and
leg of each man) and the data for each repellent were averaged.
The results of the tests are shown in table 1. None of the re-
pellents differed markedly from the standard, No. 375. Seven
repellents appeared slightly more effective, showing ratios of
1.10 to 1.17, and two appeared slightly less effective, with ratios
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
TABLE 1.-RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF 16 REPELLENTS AS SKIN APPLICA-
CATIONS AGAINST MANSONIA SP. (AVERAGE OF EIGHT REPLICATIONS, 20
WITH No. 375.)
Repellent Protection time (minutes) Ratio to
No. Range Average No. 375
375 208-437 313 1.00
262 229-433 304 .98
3916 223-445 318 1.02
6168 226-398 311 .99
15510 228-368 291 .93
17586* 198-383 308 .98
20023 207-385 259 .83
20034 213-435 366 1.17
20127 248-418 344 1.10
20188 206-358 259 .83
20217 142-436 332 1.06
20218 252-462 349 1.12
20224 258-457 362 1.16
20241** 368-408 387 1.12
20293 253-421 361 1.15
20297 237-425 356 1.14
Solid compound, tested as 80% solution in ethanol.
** Four replications; chemical caused skin irritation; average of 346 minutes obtained
with No. 375 in concurrent tests.
TESTS WITH SEVEN MIXTURES.-A series of tests was con-
ducted with the standard mixture (M-250), three mixtures that
had proved better than M-250 against several species of Aedes
(M-2020, M-2042, and M-2043), a mixture containing one of the
new repellents (M-2063), and two lotions (SKF C-36 and SKF
C-39). The experimental design employed was a round-robin
series, i.e., each mixture was paired against each other mixture
on opposite limbs of the same subject. An adjusted average
protection period, which adjusts for individual variations be-
tween hosts and testing conditions, was computed by the follow-
ing formula: 2Ti Bi
Average Ti =--- + M
where Ti is the total protection time for all tests with repellent
i, Bi is the total protection time for both repellents in all pairs
in which repellent i occurred, n is the total number of repellents,
r is the number of times each pair was replicated, and M is the
grand mean of all protection times in the series. The results are
given in Table 2. There were no marked differences between any
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
of the mixtures except the lotions, which were about half as ef-
fective as the others. The poor showing of the lotions was sur-
prising, as they had been equal to the best of the other mixtures
in tests against several species of Aedes.
TABLE 2.-RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF SEVEN REPELLENT MIXTURES IN
A ROUND-ROBIN SERIES OF TESTS AS SKIN APPLICATIONS AGAINST MAN-
SONIA SP. (AVERAGE OF 36 TESTS.)
Mixture Minutes to first bite Ratio to
No. Range Average M-250
M-250 156-459 328 1.00
M-2020 173-470 305 .93
M-2042 178-491 318 .97
M-2043 208-493 325 .99
M-2063 193-478 346 1.05
SKF C-36 114-304 195 .59
SKF C-39 106-223 180 .55
ADDITIONAL TESTS WITH LOTIONS.-Because of the poor
showing of the lotions, two additional series of tests were con-
ducted with them in comparison with M-2020, their principal
repellent component. In the first series a 50-percent solution of
M-2020 in ethanol was paired with an equal volume of each lo-
tion, and in the second series full-strength M-2020 was paired
with twice the volume of each lotion. These tests were con-
ducted by the paired tests design, in which the experimental
repellent was compared directly with M-2020 on opposite limbs
of the same subject. The results are given in table 3. The
pairings at full strength and equal volume, a portion of the data
for these mixtures included in table 2, are repeated to complete
the comparison. The two lotions were about equal to M-2020 at
half strength or half the volume, confirming the tests in which
they were half as effective as an equal volume of M-2020 at full
COMPARISONS OF TWO MIXTURES WITH THE COMPONENTS OF
EACH.-The results of paired tests to compare the two mixtures
M-2020 and M-2063 with the components of each are given in
table 4. No. 20297 was slightly more effective and No. 375
very slightly less effective than the 50-50 mixture of the two
(M-2063). There was no evidence of activating action when the
two compounds were mixed, as the protection time of the mix-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
ture was not significantly increased over that to be expected
from joint action of the combined repellents. Mixture M-2020
and its three components were all about equal in effectiveness,
confirming the observations on the relative effectiveness of the
ingredients given in table 1.
TABLE 3.-RESULTS OF PAIRED TESTS WITH TWO REPELLENT LOTIONS AND
M-2020 AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS AND RATES OF APPLICATION.
Milliters Minutes to first
applied confirmed bite
Arm Leg Range Average
.75 195-282 230
1.50 201-291 236
.75 193-276 225
1.50 206-298 234
.75 209-440 317
.75 114-199 163
.75 224-439 317
.75 106-209 180
* Average of 10 tests.
** Average of 6 tests; a
part of the data for these mixtures in table 2.
ACTIVATING EFFECT OF ALPHA-CYANO-2-FURANACRYLATE.-
The results of paired tests to determine the activating effect of
ethyl alpha-cyano-2-furanacrylate on repellent No. 262 and mix-
tures M-2020 and M-2063 are presented in table 5. The cyano-
furanacrylate increased the effectiveness of all three repellents
REPELLENCY TO ANOPHELES ALBIMANUS.-During the tests
with various repellents and repellent mixtures as skin applica-
tions against Mansonia sp., observations were made of biting by
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
TABLE 4.-COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO REPELLENT MIXTURES AND
THE INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS OF EACH AGAINST MANSONIA SP. (ALL WERE
TESTED AT 50% CONCENTRATIONS IN ETHANOL. AVERAGE OF EIGHT
Minutes to first bite
Ratio of component
TABLE 5.-RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF REPELLENT 262 AND REPELLENT
MIXTURES M-2020 AND M-2063, ALONE AND WITH THE ACTIVATOR ETHYL
ALPHA-CYANO-2-FURNANACRYLATE, IN PAIRED TESTS AS SKIN APPLICA-
IONS AGAINST MANSONIA SP. (AVERAGE OF EIGHT TESTS WITH ETHANOL
Percent concentration Minutes to first bite
Repellent Activator Range Average
Anopheles albimanus. Bites by albimanus were recorded in 24 of
the 600 tests. An attempt was made to compare the protection
periods against the two mosquitoes in the few tests in which bites
of both genera were received. The results are summarized in
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
TABLE 6.-RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF REPELLENTS AGAINST MANSONIA
SP. AND ANOPHELES ALBIMANUS.
SRatio of repellent
Repellent Number of Minutes to first bite time
No. observations Anopheles Mansonia Mansonia to Anopheles
262 2 244 248 1.02
262* 1 214 228 1.07
375* 1 216 189 0.87
6168 1 257 269 1.05
17586 1 254 243 .96
20297 1 236 225 .95
20297* 1 377 389 1.03
M-2020 4 224 219 .98
M-2020* 5 211 211 1.00
M-2043 1 274 281 1.03
M-2063 1 389 426 1.09
M-2063* 1 211 222 1.05
SKF C-36 3 224 236 1.05
SKF C-39 1 217 243 1.12
50% repellent in ethanol.
Although four percent of the tests is hardly an adequate pro-
portion on which to draw conclusions, the results indicate that
protection times of the repellents were about the same for both
genera of mosquitoes.
TESTS WITH REPELLENTS APPLIED TO CLOTHING
Eight relatively new compounds and six all-purpose mixtures
were tested as clothing impregnants by the stocking technique,
and the mixtures were also tested on shirts.
In these tests cotton stockings were treated with two grams
of the individual repellents or 3.6 grams of the mixtures per
square foot. The individual repellents were applied in acetone
solutions and the mixtures in water emulsions. About 50 ml.
of solution or emulsion were used to saturate a single stocking.
The stockings were hung on lines on a screened porch and tested
concurrently after various intervals of aging. At each test the
stockings were exposed for 10 minutes on each of three hosts.
Stockings were dropped from testing when on an average five
bites per exposure period were received. The mixtures and the
better individual compounds were also tested at reduced dos-
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955 161
The results of the tests are presented in table 7. Of the
eight individual compounds tested, only three (20127, 20297, and
15510) had less than five bites per test period after seven days
of aging. Repellent 20127 at two grams per square foot was
comparable to M-1960 at 3.6 grams after seven days of aging,
but less effective after 14 days, and the two were roughly com-
parable at correspondingly reduced dosages after four days.
TABLE 7.-COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF EIGHT INDIVIDUAL REPELLENTS
AND SIX MIXTURES APPLIED TO STOCKINGS AGAINST MANSONIA SP.
(AVERAGE OF THREE REPLICATIONS.)
Rep t Average number of bites after aging
Repellent (grams per
No. sq. ft.) 4 days 7-8 days 14 days
20127 2 0.. 0 38.1
20297 2 .... 3.2 23.7
15510 2 .... 4.5 21.2
1 14.2 ....
20241 2 .. 12.3
20188 2 .... 13.5
20219 2 .... 13.7
20217 2 .... 17.7
20145 2 .... 25.3
M-1960 3.6 .... .3 5.3
1.8* 6.9 27.3
M-2059 3.6 .... .2 7.5
M-2068 3.6 .... 0 5.7
M-2040 3.6 .... 1.5 5.5
1.8 4.2 10.7
M-2066 3.6 .... .9 5.9
1.8 3.5 9.5
.9 4.9 38.4
M-2065 3.6 ... .6 4.4
1.8 3.8 23.1 ....
* 5 replications of all mixtures
at this dosage.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
The standard general-purpose clothing treatment (M-1960)
and the related lindane mixtures (M-2059 and M-2068) were
about equal to M-2040 and its related lindane mixtures (M-2065
and M-2066) at dosages of 3.6 grams, but at reduced dosages
M-2065 and M-2066 were distinctly better than the others. The
different proportions of lindane in the mixtures caused no con-
sistent differences in their effectiveness.
TESTS WITH IMPREGNATED KHAKI SHIRTS.-Three heavy
khaki shirts were impregnated with the six mixtures at 3.6
grams per square foot. The mixtures were applied as water
emulsions, about 500 ml. being needed to saturate a shirt. Each
shirt was tested on the 10th, 17th, 20th, and 24th days after
treatment. It was exposed for ten minutes on each of three
subjects. Four untreated shirts were used as controls.
The results of the tests are given in table 8. There was little
consistent difference in effectiveness between the six treatments
during the first 20 days. The relative effectiveness varied from
day to day, but the average number of bites was usually less
than five. After 24 days all the mixtures had lost much of their
effectiveness. M-2040 appeared slightly better than M-1960, but
the lindane mixtures related to M-2040 were slightly less ef-
fective than those related to M-1960.
TABLE 8.-COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF SIX REPELLENT MIXTURES AP-
PLIED TO SHIRTS AGAINST MANSONIA SP. (AVERAGE OF THREE REPLI-
Repellent Average number of bites after aging
No. 10 days 17 days 20 days 24 days
M-1960 0.4 3.4 1.7 15.9
M-2059 .2 2.7 3.8 10.8
M-2068 .7 .2 2.3 8.2
M-2040 2.1 2.3 5.2 10.9
M-2066 .8 1.3 2.9 20.2
M-2065 .2 5.8 3.9 13.6
Check* 44.2 61.7 55.7
4 check shirts used.
Field tests with mosquito repellents were conducted in Pan-
ama in February 1953 against mixed populations of Mansonia
titillans (Wlkr.), M. indubitans D. & S., M. fasciolata (L.-Arr.),
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
M. nigricans (Coq.), Anopheles albimanus Wied., and A. strodei
Root. Tests were made with 16 individual repellents and seven
repellent mixtures for application to the skin, and with eight
individual repellents and six mixtures for application to the
Of the 16 individual repellents tested on skin, none differed
very markedly in effectiveness from 2-ethyl-l,3-hexanediol. The
seven that appeared slightly more effective were N,N-diethyl-m-
toluamide, o-ethoxy-N,N-diethylbenzamide, 1-(o-methoxyphenyl)
-3-buten-l-ol, alpha-tert-butylpiperonyl alcohol, and the amyl,
allyl, and propyl esters of mandelic acid.
There were no marked differences between any of the mix-
tures except the two lotions, which were about half as effective as
the others. The lotions contained 40 percent of repellent. There
was no evidence of synergistic action between o-ethoxy-N,N-
diethylbenzamide and 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol, or between 2-ethyl-
1,3-hexanediol dimethyl phthalate, and dimethyl carbate in a
mixture. Ethyl alpha-cyano-2-furanacrylate slightly increased
the effectiveness of dimethyl phthalate and two mixtures.
In a few tests in which biting by Anopheles albimanus as
well as Mansonia sp. was recorded, the protection times were
about the same against both species.
The three most effective individual repellents for applica-
tion to the clothing were the amyl ester of mandelic acid, o-ethoxy-
N,N-diethylbenzamide, and the 2-[2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy]-
ethyl ester of senecioic acid. A mixture containing undecenoic
undecylenicc) acid, N-butylacetanilide, N-butyl-4-cyclohexene-
1,2-dicarboximide, and Tween 80 appeared slightly better than
the other mixtures.
Altman, R. M., and C. N. Smith. 1955. Investigations with repellents for
protection against mosquitoes in Alaska, 1953. Jour. Econ. Ent.
Barthel, W. F., J. Leon, and S. A. Hall. 1954. Insect repellents. I. Esters
of mandelic and substituted mandelic acids. Jour. Org. Chem. 19(4): 485-
Gilbert, I. H., H. K. Gouck, and C. N. Smith. 1955. New mosquito re-
pellents. Jour. Econ. Ent. (In press)
Leon, J., W. F. Barthel, and S. A. Hall. 1954. Insect repellents. II.
Esters of 1-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid. Jour. Org. Chem.
McCabe, E. T., W. F. Barthel, S. I. Gertler, and S. A. Hall. 1954. Insect
repellents. III. N,N-Diethylamides. Jour. Org. Chem. 19(4) : 493-98.
FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service
to Florida Farmers through the facilities of its 14 Stores, Lab-
oratory and technically trained Field Staff.
THE KILGORE SEED COMPANY
GENERAL OFFICES: PLANT CITY, FLORIDA
LABORATORY: WEST PALM BEACH, FLORIDA
Stores located at
BELLE GLADE, FT. MYERS, GAINESVILLE, HOMESTEAD,
MIAMI, OCALA, PAHOKEE, PALMETTO, PLANT CITY,
POMPANO, SANFORD, VERO BEACH, WAUCHULA,
WEST PALM BEACH
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1955
SAMPLING OF INFESTATIONS OF CITRUS RED MITE
HERBERT SPENCER and ALLEN G. SELHIME
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service,
Entomology Research Branch
The citrus red mite,' known generally in Florida as the
purple mite, has become a major pest of citrus, especially in the
last ten years. Since 1913 the Subtropical Fruit Insects Labora-
tory at Orlando has conducted many experiments with insecti-
cides and miticides for control of this pest, and also experiments
designed to reveal the causes of infestation increases. Sampling
methods have been devised to measure natural infestations and
also the control obtained with the many treatments that were
Sampling for reliable experimental data is at best a time-
consuming and expensive work. Through the years several
methods have been tried in a continuing effort to obtain more
reliable data at less cost of time and labor, and to find a simple
method that might be useful also to citrus growers in checking
their own groves.
Experiments involving comparisons of insecticides or miti-
cides for control of red mites are conducted in a single grove
of uniform trees to avoid variations between groves. A ran-
domized-block design is used (Spencer and Osburn, 1948). Ten
compact blocks of trees are outlined on a map of the grove, each
block including a tree for each treatment. By this method all
treatments are subjected equally to any variations that may exist
between different parts of the grove.
Our present method of estimating infestations has several
advantages. We use a hand lens in the grove, and so avoid
collection and transportation of samples to the laboratory and
use of the microscope. We examine only top surfaces of the
leaves, since that is where most of the red mite eggs and crawl-
ing stages are found. This is simpler than examining upper
and lower leaf surfaces and fruits, and gives larger numbers and
less variation for equal time spent.
The hand lens we use is a linen tester with frame having an
opening, or field, one inch square. The opening is placed diag-
onally over the midrib on the upper surface of the leaf, and
records are made of the numbers of crawling mites and unhatched
viable eggs in the square. This is done for 25 leaves equally
1 Metatetranychus citri (McG.).
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
spaced around the tree at chest level. Mature, hardened leaves
just back of the tender new growth are examined, since tender
new-growth leaves may not have been out long enough to develop
Adding the values recorded for each 25 leaves gives a tree
estimate, or index, and adding the indexes of the 10 trees getting
the same spray treatment gives the treatment index. This index
may be compared directly with other indexes similarly obtained
for other treatments, or those found before spraying or later in
The treatment index numbers may be reduced to mites or
eggs per square inch if desired, and such indexes may be com-
pared with those obtained in other years in the same grove or in
other groves. It is also possible to derive the percentage of
leaves infested from the basic leaf records if this is needed
for comparison with infestation records so summarized in former
Data from infestation estimates made by this new method
are better suited for analysis of variance, calculation of ex-
perimental errors, and checking adequacy of sample size than
data obtained by the percentage method. It is a method capable
of showing very small difference in control from different miti-
There is a decided advantage in recording eggs separately.
By doing so one can decide on the probable red mite infesta-
tion trends in a grove. If there are fewer unhatched eggs than
mites on the leaves, the infestation is probably declining natur-
ally and spraying or respraying may be avoided. If the mites
run more than two per square inch and eggs four or more, a
large increase in infestation may be expected in the near future
and immediate spraying is advisable. The index of infestation
that calls for spraying can probably be set rather closely when
additional data become available.
A grove owner can adapt the method by examining 25 leaves
on each of ten trees well spaced across each grove. One man
with a lens and notebook can examine ten trees in an hour and
get information that will help him answer the ever-present
question, "Shall I spray these trees for red mites now, or wait ?"
And he can come back ten days after spraying and determine
whether or not his efforts have been successful.
Spencer, Herbert, and Osburn, Max R. 1948. Randomized-block arrange-
ment for insecticide experiments on citrus trees. Fla. Ent. 31(1): 2-7.
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1955 167
It is seldom that an editor has the opportunity of reviewing two books
whose authors are husband and wife. This unusual circumstance has come
about through the publication of the books by the Goins within the past
few months by two separate publishers. The high quality of both books
is a reflection of the effects that may be achieved when husband and wife
have similar interests and are both keen naturalists.
WORLD OUTSIDE MY DOOR, by Olive Bown Goin. viii + 184 pp., illustrated.
The Macmillan Co., New York. 1955. Price $3.50.
"World Outside My Door" is the product of many years of observation
by Mrs. Goin. Written with a style and vocabulary that is easily under-
stood by the layman, the daily and seasonal life of the animals around
her-mostly small things, frogs, lizards, turtles, songbirds and the like-
comes vividly to life. The book contains original observations on the peck
order of wild birds, the life history of Bipalium, a large terrestrial flat-
worm, the homing instincts of frogs, and many other phenomena that are
overlooked by the casual observer.
Mrs. Goin received her biological training at Wellesley College, the
University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Florida. She has worked
as a biologist at the Carnegie Museum and the University of Florida.
Presently, she is keeping alive her interest in natural history while carrying
on the complex duties of a housewife.
GUIDE TO THE REPTILES, AMPHIBIANS, AND FRESH-WATER FISHES OF
FLORIDA, by Archie Carr and Coleman J. Goin. ix + 341 pp., 30 figs., 67 pls.
University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 1955. Price $6.50.
"This is a book about the backboned animals of the classes Reptilia,
Amphibia, and Pisces that are known to occur in Florida." It is more than
that, it is a book that should take its place in the library of both scientists
and laymen interested in natural history and fishing. The book has been
magnificently illustrated with drawings by Miss Esther Coogle and photo-
graphs by Dr. and Mrs. Roger Conant.
The introduction leads the reader gently into what could be an over-
whelming book but one which the authors have made every effort to make
as clear as possible to the non-biologist. The book is divided into three
sections, each organized in the same manner-a glossary of terms, a key,
an account of each species, and plates showing each species. Fishes are
treated first, followed by amphibians, and then reptiles. An appendix
gives the latest information on first-aid treatment of snake bite.
The high quality of printing and reproduction of figures in this book
reflects most favorably on the publishers who have endeavored to give the
public a book that is well worth the cost.-L.B.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
NEWS AND COMMENTS
Mr. George B. Merrill, Chief Entomologist of the Florida
State Plant Board, will retire from this position effective January
15, 1956. He has been a member of the staff of the Plant Board
continuously since 1916. Mr. Merrill is also a charter member
of the Florida Entomological Society and served as President in
1920, 1923, and 1924.
Dr. Louis C. Kuitert, Entomologist at the University of Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station, expects to leave sometime
during December for San Jose, Costa Rica. While in Costa
Rica, Dr. Kuitert will be a participant under the terms of a con-
tract that has been arranged between the University of Florida
and the Ministry of Agriculture of Costa Rica. His mission will
be to attempt to discover a suitable control under tropical condi-
tions for the Mediterranean fruit fly, which is a pest of citrus,
coffee, bananas and other tropical fruit in that country. Dr.
Kuitert will spend a year away from Gainesville and will be ac-
companied by his family.
Dr. T. M. Dobrovsky, Assistant Entomologist at the Hastings
Potato Laboratory, University of Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, is leaving in December to become a member of the
staff of the Agricultural Division (Plant Protection), Food and
Agricultural Organization of the United Nations at Viale delle
Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy.
Many of our readers will undoubtedly note the absence of the
"Black Leaf 40" advertisement from the back cover of the FLOR-
IDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Tobacco By-Products and Chemical
Corporation has helped to support our publication continuously
from 1923 to March, 1955, through advertisement of its products
in each issue. Nearly every number of the journal subsequent to
September, 1926, has carried the advertisement on the back cover.
Early in 1955, the Company was sold to the Diamond Alkali Com-
pany and has been renamed the Diamond Blackleaf Company
with headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio. The members of the Flor-
ida Entomological Society extend their good wishes for continued
success of the Company in its new organization.
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1955
MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The thirty-eighth annual meeting of the Florida Entomologi-
cal Society was held in the Floridan Room of the Roosevelt Hotel,
Jacksonville, during September 1st and 2nd, 1955. The meeting
opened at 10:00 a.m., September 1st. Dr. F. Gray Butcher
gave the presidential address. Twenty papers were presented
before the Society, including two invitational papers. The in-
vitational papers were "Progress of the Cooperative Economic
Insect Survey Program," by Mr. Kelvin Dorward and "Hemiptera
from the Apalachicola River Area," by Dr. R. F. Hussey.
A most enjoyable hospitality hour was provided by Industry
followed by an excellent buffet supper at the hotel. More than
one hundred members attended the meeting, which was con-
sidered by many members as one of the most successful meet-
ings the Society has ever held. Much of the credit for the
success of the meeting should go to Mr. M. C. Van Horn, Chair-
man of Local Arrangements, and Mr. G. W. Dekle, the Program
The business meeting was. called to order by President Butcher
at 4:30 p.m., September 1st. The first order of business was
the report of the Treasurer and Business Manager of the So-
ciety. Mr. W. P. Hunter gave the following financial statement
and reported the Society to be in the best financial condition that
it has been in years:
REPORT OF THE TREASURER-BUSINESS MANAGER FOR THE YEAR ENDING
AUGUST 15, 1955
From residue from Hospitality Hour (last meeting) .....------... $ 10.00
From residue of registration and banquet (last meeting) ............ 53.67
From membership dues and subscriptions ..................-............... -737.10
From reprints and plates (sale of) ....----..-----............... .......... 64.93
From sale of sets and back numbers of FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST ........------------.......... ----...--- ........... .---- ....... 40.25
From advertisements in the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST ........ 681.50
From sale of Centennial Stickers ................... --....-----......... ..... 20.00
Sub-total ..------..-------.. -------.. ... ...--................ -$1,607.45
Bank balance as of August 23, 1954 ........................................ 771.46
GRAND TOTAL .$2.............
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
To Pepper Printing Co., Gainesville, Fla. .................................... $1,229.20
To F. Gray Butcher, (Stamps and misc. expenses) ..........--....~..... 3.00
To U. S. Postmaster, Gainesville, Fla. (Stamps and cards) --...... 29.90
To L. C. Kuitert (Refund on Centennial Sticker Expenses)..--.... 30.00
To Lewis Berner (Stamps and misc. expenses) .................-..-...... 5.00
To Milledge Murphey, Jr. (Stamps and misc. expenses) ............ 10.00
To Lincoln Memorial Library (Rare back numbers) .................... 6.00
To Herbert Spencer (Refund for printing annual program) ...... 37.50
To Chesnut Office Supply, Gainesville, Fla. (Office supplies).... 9.52
To Parker Office Machine Co. (1 cabinet and office supplies).... 39.14
To Chas. R. Stearns (Printing signs for Society) ........................ 12.36
To Mrs. W. P. Hunter (Misc. stenographic work) ........................ 5.00
To Franklyn Square Agency-Advertisement for Society............ 40.00
To Refunds to subscribers ..--......----------.. --......-.. 3.50
To Bank charges of all kinds ---------------.---..----.....----.. 8.79
Sub-total .................--.....------------- ......... $1,468.91
Bank balance as of August 15, 1955 .................--............------. 910.00
GRAND TOTAL --------~......----.... -------- ..-- $2,378.91
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF BUSINESS MANAGER FOR THE YEAR 1955
The following assets of the Society are not properly a part of the
Treasurer but should be made a matter of record:
1. COLE-Steel filing cabinet for storage of envelopes and paper, corre-
2. Two COLE-Steel filing cabinets for the storage of back numbers of
the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
3. Miscellaneous rubber stamps, files, etc.
4. Deposited to the credit of the Society with the Florida National Bank
at Gainesville-Savings Account-the sum of $27.50 (Residue from
Hospitality Hour of last year). See Journal-Page 41.
Mr. Norman Hayslip, Chairman of the Auditing Committee,
reported his Committee had checked the records of the Treasurer
and they were found in order.
President Butcher called for the Secretary's report. Secre-
tary Murphey reported the Society had grown to 282 members,
and that at a recent Executive Committee meeting the following
items were passed upon: The report of the special committee
for a constitutional amendment was accepted. It was suggested
that in the future the Executive Committee act as the Member-
ship Committee because only the Executive Committee could
pass on new members. The Committee studied the proposal pre-
sented at the last meeting by Editor Berner that the Society
publish supplements in the form of articles of interest which
would be too long to go into the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4- DECEMBER, 1955
The Committee felt the present constitution allowed for such pub-
lications if sufficient funds were available, provided such publi-
cations be approved by the Board of Managers. The Committee
recommends the Board of Managers print the constitution of the
Society, as amended, in the next issue of THE FLORIDA ENTO-
MOLOGIST. The Secretary made an announcement of the 10th
International Congress of Entomology which is to be held in
Montreal, Canada, August 17-25, 1956.
President Butcher thanked Herman S. Mayeux for the work
of the Committee that aided the Cotton States Branch Meeting
The president brought up the proposed constitutional amend-
ment on honorary members. He had the Secretary read the
present constitution and then the proposed amendment. Dr.
Weems moved the adoption of the amendment and was seconded
by Dr. Wolfenbarger. The amendment passed.
The President called for new business. Dr. Griffiths said he
wanted to bring up the subject of the Florida Agricultural Coun-
cil for the Society to consider. He said the Horticultural Society
was a member of the Florida Agricultural Council and he felt
that maybe the Florida Entomological Society should be a
member. He added he realized the Council was a political body
and for that reason he felt some thought and discussion should
be had on this subject before an effort was made to become a
Dr. Butcher thanked the officers for their support during the
past year and he said he wanted to particularly thank Dr.
Lewis Berner for his work in editing THE FLORIDA ENTO-
MOLOGIST. Meeting adjourned at 5:05 p.m.
The second business meeting was called to order by President
Butcher at 11:15 a.m., September 2nd. New business was called
for and Dr. J. T. Griffiths spoke for his proposal of the Society
having representation on the Florida Agricultural Council. He
said he had heard favorable comments in the hall of the Society
becoming active in the Council. Mr. W. L. Thompson said he
did not think the Society should become connected with the
Council; that our membership was made up mostly of scientists,
teachers and others who were devoid of politics; and that he
felt we should let our members from Industry carry our part
in the Council. Dr. Wolfenbarger said he thought we should
study the proposal under consideration. He suggested a com-
mittee to study this idea and report back to the Society at the
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
next meeting the pros and cons of their findings and a favorable
or unfavorable recommendation. Dr. R. M. Pratt said he felt the
scientific members of the Society should not be involved; that he
felt nothing could be gained by our being connected with the
Council. Dr. L. C. Kuitert moved a committee of 3 members be
appointed to investigate the matter and report back to the
President Butcher called for the report of the Resolutions Com-
mittee. The Committee, consisting of D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Chair-
man, A. A. Whipp and H. H. True, submitted the following reso-
Be It Resolved by the Florida Entomological Society:
1. That a special committee be considered to look into possi-
bilities of publishing the proceedings of our annual meet-
ings in a single number.
2. That a vote of thanks be extended to officers, individuals
and committees of our Society, to the Management and
Employees of the Roosevelt Hotel, and to the Jacksonville
Tourist and Convention Bureau which contributed to the
success of the 38th Annual Meeting, and to Industry for a
most enjoyable Hospitality Hour.
The resolutions were adopted.
President Butcher called for a report of the Nominating Com-
mittee. Mr. W. C. Rhoades, Chairman, reported for the Commit-
tee as follows:
President-..--.........-.-----------. ....Herman S. Mayeux
Vice President ------------ Milledge Murphey, Jr.
Secretary...................--------. --- Robert 0. Kirkland
Treasurer and Business Manager-....-Harold A. Denmark
Executive Committee Member.......-----..--....W. P. Hunter
Editor ....----- ---..---... -.....................--..Lewis Berner
Assistant Editor ------.............--...........Norman C. Hayslip
President Butcher called for nominations from the floor. Mr.
J. A. Mulrennan moved the Secretary be instructed to cast a
unanimous ballot for the slate as proposed by the Nominating
Committee. The motion passed. Mr. Rhoades then suggested
that when the next list of members is published in THE FLOR-
IDA ENTOMOLOGIST, the past Presidents be starred as an aid
to future nominating committees.
Mr. Mayeux was escorted to the speakers stand where he
thanked the Society for the honor bestowed upon him. He said
he wanted to appoint a few committees before the meeting ad-
journed. The following appointments were made:
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955
A special committee to develop a list of past presi-
dents-Dr. Lewis Berner, Chairman, Dr. J. W. Wilson
and Mr. Norman C. Hayslip.
A special committee to study the possibility of the
Society being a member of the Florida Agricultural
Council-Dr. J. T. Griffiths, Chairman, Mr. W. L.
Thompson, and a third member to be appointed later.
A special committee to consider the publishing of the
papers presented at the annual meeting in one volume-
the present Board of Managers for Publications.
He appointed the Executive Committee to function
as the Membership Committee for 1956.
President Mayeux thanked the State Plant Board for the use of
their slide projectors for the Jacksonville meeting. He said he
especially wanted to thank Mr. C. E. Brian for his publicity work
for the meeting just completed.
The business meeting adjourned at 11:50 a.m.
MILLEDGE MURPHY, JR.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS
Name and Objectives
Section 1.-The association shall be known as The Florida Entomological
Section 2.-The objectives of the Society shall be: (1) to promote the
study of entomology; (2) to encourage research relative to insects and
related Arthropods in Florida; (3) to distribute widely knowledge per-
taining to insects; and (4) to publish THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
Composition of Association
Section 1.-The Florida Entomological Society is a statewide organization.
It may recognize regional branches and may approve the affiliation of
societies and organizations which are permanently established, provided
the aims of these organizations are consistent with the aims of the
parent organization. Branches or affiliated societies shall function under
such agreements and understandings as may be entered into at the time
of their organization or their becoming affiliated with the Society, subject
thereafter to such subsequent modification as may be mutually satisfac-
Section 1.-All persons having entomological training or a sincere interest in
entomology may become active members of the society. Applications for
174 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
membership will be endorsed by two members of the Society, accom-
panied by the payment of the annual dues and submitted by the Mem-
bership Committee to the Executive Committee for action. The Secre-
tary will notify the applicant of the action taken.
Section 2.-Honorary membership may be conferred by action of the
Society on anyone who has performed distinguished service in the field
of Florida entomology. Such individuals shall be required to have been
active in entomological work for a minimum of 20 years. Any active
member may propose the name of a person for Honorary Membership.
The name shall be submitted to the Executive Committee. Upon ap-
proval by the Executive Committee, the name or names of the proposed
individuals will be referred to a vote by the Society. Such vote to be a
secret mail ballot at least 30 days prior to any annual meeting. Elec-
tion to Honorary Membership shall require a two-thirds majority of
those balloting. No more than two names may be voted upon in any
Section 3.-Upon payment of one hundred dollars ($100.00) any active
member may become a life member and shall thenceforth be granted the
privileges of the Society, be exempt from annual dues, and supplied with
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST without further charge.
Section 4.-Members shall not use the name of the Society for commercial
advertising. Such a practice shall constitute sufficient grounds for a
recommendation by the Executive Committee that said member be
dropped from the Society.
Section 1.-The officers of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
shall consist of a President, a Vice-President, a Secretary, each of
whom shall be elected annually; and a Treasurer, who shall be elected
for a term of three years.
Section 2.-There shall be an executive committee consisting of the presi-
dent, the vice president, the immediate past president, the secretary,
the treasurer, and two active members, one of whom shall be elected
each year to serve a period of two years. The president shall act as
chairman of this committee.
Section 1.-The funds of the Society shall consist of two types:-General
funds, and a permanent fund.
Section 2.-The general funds shall be collected, entered, disbursed, and
accounted for by the treasurer and shall be available for current ex-
Section 3.-The permanent fund shall include all donations, bequests, fees
for active membership for life, and such other property or funds as may
be added from time to time. This fund shall be left in custody of the
treasurer. The principal of this fund shall be invested. The interest
from the investment may be used to meet necessary expenditures, but
if not used during the year it is to be placed in the permanent fund.
VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 DECEMBER, 1955 175
Expenditures from the principal of this fund are to be made upon the
recommendation of the Executive Committee and the approval of the
Society at any meeting. Notice of such proposed action must be given
in the call for said meeting.
Meetings, Quorum and Voting
Section 1.-There shall be an annual meeting. The time and place of
such meeting may be decided by the membership at the previous annual
meeting, or by the Executive Committee.
Section 2.-Special meetings may be called by the Executive Committee
and shall be called by the president upon the written request of six (6)
Section 3.-Six (6) active members shall constitute a quorum for transac-
tion of business of the Society.
Section 4.-Voting and holding of office shall be limited to active members
of the Society.
Section 1.-All proposed amendments to the Constitution shall be presented
at the annual meeting. The president shall then appoint a special
committee to consider said amendment; this committee shall report its
recommendations at the next annual meeting. Each member shall be
supplied with a copy of the proposed amendment at least thirty (30)
days prior to the annual meeting by the secretary. A two-thirds vote of
the active membership present shall be required to sanction a consti-
tutional change. Minor changes in the proposed amendment may be
made by the Society, during the course of its consideration.
Section 1.-All members have equal privileges as to the presentation of
papers and discussions at meetings.
Officers and Their Duties
Section 1.-The president shall preside and deliver an address at the annual
meeting over which he presides. He shall announce his appointment
of the necessary committees at the first session of the annual meeting.
He shall exercise such powers as are necessary to carry out his official
Section 2.-In the absence of the president, the vice-president shall assume
the duties of the president.
Section 3.-It shall be the duty of the treasurer to act as business manager
of publications. He shall collect all monies due, pay all bills incurred by
the Society, and submit a report at each annual meeting. His accounts
shall be audited annually, which audit shall be submitted at each annual
176 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Section 4.-The secretary shall make necessary arrangements for the meet-
ings of the Society, keep a record of proceedings, and attend to general
Section 5.-The Executive Committee shall transact the business of the
Society between annual meetings. It shall make recommendations on
policies to the Society and shall give an annual report. The Executive
Committee may receive and approve or reject the reports of the stand-
ing or special committees. The committee shall hold an annual business
session at the close of each annual meeting.
Section 6.-All officers and standing committees shall be elected by ballot,
unless otherwise provided for.
Section 7.-All elected officers of the Society shall assume office at the
close of the annual meeting, and shall serve for one year unless other
provisions are made.
Section 1.-The Society may issue a publication containing the transac-
tions of the organization's meetings and such other matter as may be
of interest to entomologists. A copy of each issue (THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST) shall be sent to each member of the Florida Entomo-
logical Society. The direction of the publication of the Society shall
be entrusted to a Board of Managers, consisting of an editor, an asso-
ciate editor, and a business manager, who shall be the treasurer of the
Society. This Board shall be elected annually unless otherwise provided
for. The official publication shall be issued at such intervals as may be
determined by the Society or by the Board of Managers.
Section 1.-The annual dues of active members shall be $3.00, except for
University or High School students who may affiliate with the Society
by the payment of $1.25. At least three-fourths of said dues shall be
used for a year's subscription to the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
Honorary members shall be exempt from payment of dues. Dues shall
be paid annually in advance.
Section 1.-Special meetings may be called as provided for in the Con-
stitution. Notice of such meetings shall be given by the Secretary at
least ten (10) days prior to such meetings.
Amendments to By-Laws
Section 1.-Changes in these By-Laws may be made by a two-thirds vote
of the members at any meeting; provided that notice in writing of the
proposed change shall have been sent to each member at least ten
(10) days before the date of the meeting at which it will be considered.