Volume 39, Number 1 March, 1956
Wilson, John W., and Walter H. Thames-Experiments
with Some Mosquito Repellents for Corn Earworm
Control on Sweet Corn ........---------........ .....--.----..---- 1
Cross, William H.-Dragonflies in the Tallahassee Region.... 9
Elkins, Joe C.-A New Villiersella ..------.. --... --......---..------- 17
Carriker, M. A., Jr.-Report on a Collection of Mallophaga,
Largely Mexican (Part II) --....-.........----------------.. 19
Elkins, Joe C.-A Synonymic Note on Atrachelus A. and S.
(Hemiptera; Reduviidae) --............---------------------- 44
Zeno Payne Metcalf, an Obituary --...--..----......--................ 45
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
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EXPERIMENTS WITH SOME MOSQUITO REPELLENTS
FOR CORN EARWORM CONTROL ON SWEET CORN1
JOHN W. WILSON and WALTER H. THAMES, JR.
Central Florida and Everglades Experiment Stations
Insect repellents have been more generally used against the
insects that attack man than for the protection of agricultural
crops. In spite of the wide popularity and high effectiveness
of the hydrocarbon and phosphatic insecticides, the idea of pro-
tecting a crop by preventing insect oviposition or feeding is
fascinating. This is particularly true of an insect such as the
corn earworm, Heliothis armigera Hbn., which has a high biotic
potential, a wide range of host plants and which is, under some
conditions, difficult to control with insecticides.
DDT-either in a dust or a liquid form-is highly effective
against the corn earworm on sweet corn when populations of
this insect are low to moderate in numbers. But during periods
when populations of earworms are high, adequate control is
difficult to obtain. Oil-DDT mixtures applied at 48-hour inter-
vals give the highest degree of control; however, under some
conditions such applications may reduce the yield of marketable
sweet corn. The cost of such frequent applications is an addi-
tional stimulant to the investigation of the effectiveness of re-
Dethier (1947), in his discussion of repellents, has pointed
out that the investigation of repellents has been largely by the
hit-or-miss trial method. This method has been used of neces-
sity because there appears to be no relationship between repel-
lency and chemical structure. Our knowledge of the mode of
action of repellents is, thus far, limited to the simple fact that
some chemicals repel insects and others do not.
Lime and Bordeaux mixture were among the first materials
used for their repelling effect. These two materials have been
shown to repel a number of insects, including flea beetles, leaf-
hoppers and cucumber beetles. Plant extracts have been found
to repel some insects. Derris repels the Japanese beetle (Flem-
ing and Baker 1936), rotenone extracts and rotenone-bearing
dusts alone or in combination with Bordeaux Mixture repels
the Mexican bean beetle (Huckett 1941) and the Colorado potato
beetle (Turner 1932). Nicotine sulfate in combination with
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 412.
The Florida Entomologist
Bordeaux Mixture has been reported by Marlowe (1940) to
repel the melonfly, Dacus cucurbitae.
Various other chemicals have been reported to be effective
repellents to different insects. Among these are tetramethyl
thiuram disulfide for the Japanese beetle (Guy and Dietz 1939,
and Pierpont 1939), emulsions of pyridine, naphthalene or
creosote for pests of beets and cauliflower (Mesnil 1934), and
furfurol, Dippel's oil, ammonium sulfide or Amyl acetate for
ovipositing oriental fruit moths (Lipp 1929). Chamberlin (1954)
tested several chemicals for repellency to the corn earworm.
Of the 12 chemicals tested, only turpentine showed any promise.
In a test conducted during June, 17 per cent worm-free ears
were produced in plots treated with a dust containing 50 per
cent turpentine. In another test conducted during August, 40
per cent turpentine-dust-treated plots produced 24 per cent mar-
Materials and Methods. During the spring of 1954, six repellents
effective in protecting man against mosquitoes were used in preliminary
trials at Sanford and Belle Glade. During the spring of 1955, three addi-
tional repellents-as well as six tested during 1954-were used at Sanford
in screening trials. All of these chemicals were obtained from the U.S.D.A.,
Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory at Orlando, Florida, through
the courtesy of Drs. W. C. McDuffie and C. N. Smith. These chemicals
with the Orlando Laboratories accession numbers are listed in Table 1.
The six repellents listed first in Table 1 are those used in 1954. The
Orlando acquisition numbers are used hereafter for brevity.
TABLE 1.-REPELLENTS USED IN SCREENING TRIALS DURING 1954 AND 1955
FOR THE CONTROL OF THE CORN EARWORM.
Accession Number Repellent
0-262 Dimethyl phthalate
0-375 2 Ethyl-1, 3-hexanediol
0-523 Benzyl benzoate
0-3916 Dimethyl carbate
0-20297 O-Ethoxy-N, N diethylbenzamide
0-283 Dibutyl phthalate
0-22542 N, N diethyl-m-toluamide (crude)
M-1916 A mixture of 30 per cent N-butylacetanalide, 30 per
cent 2-butyl-2 ethyl-1, 3-propanediol, 30 per cent benzyl
benzoate and 10 per cent "Tween 80"
For the 1954 experiments and for the screening tests conducted during
the spring of 1955, a water-white mineral oil having a viscosity of 900 950
Vol. 39, No. 1
Wilson and Thames: Corn Earworm Control
Seyboldt and U.S.P. grade was used to dilute the repellents. The above-
described mineral oil is marketed under the trade name Blandol and was
supplied by L. Sonneborn Sons, Inc.
At Sanford, the liquid formulations were applied by means of a 1-gallon
compressed-air sprayer, equipped with a MulTeeJet Nozzle set at orifice
number 50015. In the 1954 experiment, the sprays were applied to both
sides of the row by moving the nozzle up and down to cover the silks of
the primary and secondary ears. Approximately 75 gallons per acre of
the liquid were used. In the 1955 experiments, the oil-repellent mixtures
were applied at the rate of about 3 milliliters per ear; this is equivalent
to approximately 25 gallons per acre. The mixtures of repellent with
emulsifiable DDT in water and the emulsifiable formulations of benzyl
benzoate in water were applied at the rate of about 75 gallons of spray
per acre. The dust formulations of benzyl benzoate were applied with a
rotary-type hand duster at the rate of 20 to 35 pounds per acre. At Belle
Glade only liquid formulations were used. These were applied with a
Cornelius hand atomizer to the silks of each ear at the rate of two to three
milliliters per ear.
At Belle Glade each of the repellents was applied to five plots of ten
ears each. All of the ears from each plot were harvested and examined
for the degree of earworm injury and the effect of the repellent on pollina-
tion. At Sanford in 1954 and 1955 unreplicated single row plots 66 feet
long were used for each treatment. All of the mature ears were harvested
and weighed. A 25-ear sample was examined for earworm injury and the
effect of the repellent on pollination recorded.
Results and Discussion. For the first test at Belle Glade during 1954,
the repellents were diluted in oil at the rate of 5, 12 and 25 per cent by
volume. One application was made to the variety Golden Security two
days after the silks had appeared. All of the repellents at these dilutions
severely injured the corn plants as well as causing some interference with
pollination. In the second series of tests at Belle Glade, two formulations
of the repellents were used. For one formulation, 2.5 per cent by volume
of the repellent was diluted in mineral oil. For the other formulation an
emulsifiable concentrate containing (by volume) 16.67 per cent repellent,
50 per cent oil and 33.33 per cent Triton X-155 was diluted with water to
produce a spray containing 0.025 per cent of the repellent. In these pre-
liminary tests, some promise of control was obtained with very little inter-
ference with pollination by a single application of the above described
sprays. Data from these preliminary tests are not presented.
As a result of the experience at Belle Glade, the concentration of the
repellent in oil was reduced to 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 per cent for the tests at
Sanford. Each dilution of each repellent was applied to Ioana sweet corn
once on the second day after first silks appeared in one series of plots.
In a second series of plots two applications were made, the first at the
same time as in the first series of plots and the second application was
made 4 days after the first. Untreated check plots were scattered through
both series of plots but there were no oil treated check plots.
The application of the repellents in mineral oil at the rates and dilu-
tions used caused no apparent injury to the plant or husk. No reduction
The Florida Entomologist
in yield resulted from the repellents and mineral oil under the conditions
of this test. When a comparison between the number of unfilled ears due
to a lack of pollination is made between one and two applications, the
injury increased in most cases where two applications were made. The
per cent of worm free ears produced in plots treated once was very low
and was high in plots treated twice. Although the data for two applica-
tions shows a high degree of control, later experiments showed that the
control was due to the oil used as a diluent and not to the repellents. Data
are given in Table 2.
TABLE 2.-PER CENT OF WORM FREE EARS OF SWEET CORN HARVESTED
FROM PLOTS TREATED ONCE AND TWICE WITH 3 DILUTIONS OF REPELLENTS
IN MINERAL OIL AT SANFORD DURING THE SPRING OF 1954.
Per Cent Worm Free Ears Treated Av. Length
Repellent at Dilutions of Unfilled
0.01% 0.1% 1.0% Ear Tip
One Application *
0-262 --...- -- --- .. 12 16 24 0.34
0-375 ..--.... .....-... .... 20 12 28 0.11
0-523 ..........- .... -- 60 56 32 0.27
0-2484 ....-..-- ....--- ...-- 48 36 20 0.15
0-3916 ............-- .... ... 40 48 24 0.19
0-20297 .................. 52 24 24 0.12
Two Applications *
0-262 .... ........ 52 56 76 0.86
0-375 .......- 84 76 84 0.19
0-523 .................- 96 84 84 0.77
0-2484 ........-- .......-.. 92 64 56 0.59
0-3916 ............-...... 60 64 72 1.09
0-20297 .---..-...-.... .... 96 88 80 0.61
Per cent worm free ears from untreated check plots were: 0, 4, 0 and 0.
The differences between the per cent of worm-free ears harvested from
plots treated with the different dilutions were very low. In most cases,
the lower dilution produced the higher per cent of worm-free ears.
A later planting of sweet corn was treated twice on June 3 and 7 with
an emulsifiable concentrate containing 90 per cent repellent and 10 per cent
Triton X-155. At the time of application, these concentrates were diluted
with water to 2.5, 5 and 10 per cent of repellent and applied at the rate of
approximately 75 gallons of spray per acre. All of these treatments pro-
duced injury ranging from slight to very severe burning of the entire plant.
The treatments producing slight plant injury included 2.5 and 5 per cent
0-523, and 2.5 per cent 0-262 and 0-375.
Vol. 39, No. 1
Wilson and Thames: Corn Earworm Control
All of the 1955 experiments with repellents were conducted at Sanford
on Calumet sweet corn. Because of the preliminary nature of the experi-
ments, only single-row plots 66 feet long were used for each treatment.
In the screening test, all nine of the repellents listed in Table 1 were
diluted in mineral oil at the concentration of one per cent by volume of
the repellents. Two applications were made, the first on the day after
the first silks appeared and the second four days after the first application.
The per cent worm-free ears harvested ranged from 28 per cent in the
untreated check and 92 per cent in the mineral oil treated check, to 64
per cent for 0-22542 and 100 per cent for 0-252, 0-283, 0-523 and M-1960.
It was evident that the major part of the control was due to the oil used
as the diluent.
Mixtures of two of the repellents were used to test the possibility of
synergistic effects. Combinations of each of the repellents with all of the
other repellents in equal parts were prepared. These mixtures were diluted
to one per cent by volume with mineral oil. All of the mixtures failed
to control the corn earworm. Both where the repellents were used alone
and as mixtures, the oil diluent seriously interfered with pollination and
discolored the ear husk.
Since benzyl benzoate (0-523), in the 1954 experiments, appeared to
be one of the least phytotoxic and the most effective of the materials used,
it was applied at three dilutions in combination with 25 per cent emulsifiable
DDT to an early and a later planting of Calumet sweet corn. Three quarts
of 25 per cent emulsifiable DDT in 75 gallons of water per acre with each
dilution of benzyl benzoate were applied three times. The first application
was made on the day after the first silks appeared and the two subsequent
applications at four-day intervals. Results from this experiment are given
in Table 3. The per cent of worm-free ears from the untreated checks is
very high for the first planting and normal for the second planting. The
degree of control indicated in Table 3 is attributed to the DDT because
of the results from other tests conducted at the same times.
TABLE 3.-RESULTS OF TESTS COMBINING BENZYL BENZOATE WITH EMULSI-
FIABLE DDT FOR CORN EARWORM CONTROL ON SWEET CORN AT SANFORD
DURING THE SPRING OF 1955.
First Planting Second Planting
Amount of Average Wt. of Average
Benzyl Ben- Wt. of Worm Length Un- Worm Length
zoate Added Unhusked Free Unfilled husked Free Unfilled
to Spray Ears Ears Ear Tip Ears Ears Ear Tip
Lbs. Per Cent Inches Lbs. Per Cent Inches
Untreated ...... 34.3 32 0.45 27.3 4 0.16
2 pint .......... 34.3 96 0.32 26.3 96 2.00
1 pint .-......... 31.1 96 0.60 28.8 80 0.12
2 pints .......... 33.3 96 0.28 26.3 76 0.12
Untreated ...... 31.2 24 0.24 18.8 0 0.06
The Florida Entomologist
Most of the acreage of sweet corn in Florida is treated with dust formu-
lations for earworm control. Because of this popularity of dust prepara-
tions, benzyl benzoate and combinations of benzyl benzoate with DDT were
applied three times as described in the preceding paragraph at rates of
20 to 34 pounds per acre by means of a rotary-type hand duster. All of
the dust formulations used in this series of tests were prepared by The
Florida Agricultural Supply Company. Results from this experiment are
given in Table 4. A study of Table 4 will show that the plots treated with
benzyl benzoate were very little better than the untreated check and that
the combination benzyl benzoate and DDT did not give effective control
of the corn earworm.
TABLE 4.-RESULTS OBTAINED WITH BENZYL BENZOATE APPLIED IN DUST
FORMULATIONS FOR CORN EARWORM CONTROL AT SANFORD DURING THE
SPRING OF 1955.
Average First Planting Second Planting
Dust Wt. of Average Wt. of Average
Active per Un- Worm Length Un- Worm Length
Ingredient Appli- husked Free Unfilled husked Free Unfilled
and Per Cent cation Ears Ears Ear Tip Ears Ears Ear Tip
Lbs./Acre Lbs. Per
B-b* 1 --......... 33.8
B-b 5 ........... 19.8
B-b 0.5 and
DDT 5.0 ......... 25.3
B-b 1 and
DDT 5 ........... 22.5
B-b 10 ........... 25.3
A fourth set of plots
27.3 68 0.56 27.3 36 0.20
was treated with benzyl benzoate formulated as
Five emulsifiers supplied by Rohm & Haas Com-
pany were used in this experiment. The emulsifiable concentrates were
prepared in the laboratory by mixing 90 per cent of benzyl benzoate with
10 per cent of the emulsifier. Immediately prior to the field application
of these prepared concentrates, each of the concentrates was diluted with
water to produce an emulsion containing one per cent of benzyl benzoate.
These sprays were applied twice at the times previously indicated at the
rate of approximately 75 gallons per acre.
The data presented in Table 5 indicate that water dilutions of emulsi-
fiable concentrates of benzyl benzoate are not effective for the control of
the corn earworm on sweet corn.
Vol. 39, No. 1
Wilson and Thames: Corn Earworm Control
TABLE 5.-THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BENZYL BENZOATE FORMULATED AS AN
EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATE FOR CORN EARWORM CONTROL AT SANFORD
DURING THE SPRING OF 1955.
First Planting Second Planting
Emulsifier Wt. of Worm Length Wt. of Worm Length
Used in Unhusked Free Unfilled Unhusked Free Unfilled
Formulation Ears Ears Ear Tip Ears Ears Ear Tip
Lbs. Per Cent Inches Lbs. Per Cent Inches
Untreated ...... 34.8 24 0.72 29.3 8 0
Triton X-45.... 35.8 32 0.68 36.3 16 0.76
Triton X-100.. 36.1 28 0.88 26.8 16 0.08
Triton X-155.. 36.6 28 2.16 20.3 4 0.12
Triton X-160.. 36.7 28 1.24 21.3 0 0
Triton B-1956 25.3 8 1.00 33.1 8 0.48
Untreated ...... 32.8 24 1.16 25.8 0 0.08
Six repellents, effective against insects that annoy man,
applied to sweet corn in mineral oil at dilutions of 5, 12 and
25 per cent of the repellent, severely injured the corn plants.
Dilutions of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 per cent of the repellent did not
injure the plants. Later tests showed that the corn earworm
control obtained was due to the mineral oil used as a diluent.
Additional screening tests conducted during the spring of 1955
failed to reveal a promising repellent for earworm control among
the nine chemicals tested. Field experiments with benzyl ben-
zoate in combination with emulsifiable DDT, as a dust formula-
tion alone, or in combination with DDT and formulated as
emulsifiable concentrates with five emulsifiers also failed to con-
trol the corn earworm.
The authors are indebted to Dr. W. C. McDuffie and C. N.
Smith, U.S.D.A. Orlando Laboratory, Insects Affecting Man and
Animals, for making available to us the repellents used in these
experiments. Dr. C. V. Bowen of the same organization assisted
materially with technical advice on preparing the dust formula-
tions. The mineral oil was supplied by L. Sonneborn Sons, Inc.,
the dust formulations were prepared by the Florida Agricul-
tural Supply Company, the emulsifiable DDT was supplied by
The Florida Entomologist
the California Spray Chemical Corporation, and the emulsifiers
were supplied by Rohm & Haas Company. The authors also
wish to express their appreciation to Dr. L. C. Kuitert and Mr.
Norman C. Hayslip for reading the manuscript and making
helpful suggestions for its improvement.
Chamberlin, W. F. 1954. Repellents for corn earworm control. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 47 (2): 364-365.
Dethier, Vincent G. 1947. Chemical insect attractants and repellents.
P. Blackiston Sons.
Fleming, W. E., and F. E. Baker. 1936. Derris as a Japanese beetle re-
pellent and insecticide. Jour. Agr. Res. 53 (3): 197-207.
Guy, H. G., and H. F. Dietz. 1939. Further investigations with Japanese
beetle repellents. Jour. Econ. Ent. 32 (2): 248-252.
Huckett, H. C. 1941. Derris and the control of the Mexican bean beetle.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 34 (4): 566-571.
Lipp, J. W. 1929. Preliminary tests with possible repellents of the oriental
peach moth. Jour. Econ. Ent. 22 (1): 116-126.
Marlowe, R. H. 1940. Some deterrents as a control for the melonfly.
U.S.D.A., Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. Circ. E 510.
Mesnil, L. 1934. Nouvelle m6thode de lutte Contre les insects par l'emploi
de substances insectifuges. Compt. Rend. Acad. Agr. France 20 (6):
Pierpont, R. L. 1939. Japanese beetle control tests on American elm trees
in Delaware. Jour. Econ. Ent. 32 (2): 253-255.
Turner, Neely. 1932. Notes on rotenone as an insecticide. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 25 (6) : 1228-37.
Vol. 39, No. 1
DRAGONFLIES IN THE TALLAHASSEE REGION1
WILLIAM H. CROSS
A. S. Division, Camp Detrick, Maryland
A study of the dragonflies, exclusive of the Zygoptera, was
undertaken during the period between the spring of 1949 and
the spring of 1952 2 in an area including several counties in the
vicinity of Tallahassee. These counties, including Jefferson,
Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, Franklin, Jackson, Calhoun,
and Gulf, make up the eastern portion of the Florida panhandle.
Collecting was concentrated in localities within about ten miles
of Tallahassee, but interesting records were obtained as far
east as the Aucilla River and as far west as the drainage of the
Containing a wide variety of aquatic habitats, this area sup-
ports an interesting and diverse odonate fauna. In the higher
red-clay hill region of northern Leon County there is a con-
centration of lakes of varying sizes. Most of these were formed
by solution of the underlying limerock strata, many having
active sinks in some part of their basin. The majority of these
lakes are well filled with vegetation and offer excellent sites
for collecting and studying dragonflies. Just south of Talla-
hassee, the land becomes sandy, much lower in elevation, and
on the whole is flat, sloping gently to the coast. In this region
small sinks are common, and there are springs which give rise
to streams and rivers, also rich in vegetation. The Wakulla,
St. Marks, and Wacissa Rivers, as well as many of their tribu-
taries, arise in this manner. In these are found species of
Odonata partial to flowing water.
Large, artificially impounded pools on the St. Marks National
Wildlife Refuge, with their slightly brackish water, offer an-
other type of habitat. The dragonfly species Cannacria gravida,
Erythrodiplax berenice, and Macrodiplax balteata typically oc-
cur here, although the first named is not restricted to this habitat.
The Aucilla River to the east and the Ochlockonee River to
the west have origins farther north. Westward the Apalachicola
River drainage represents a unique region for Florida and cer-
tainly one of the most interesting from the standpoint of its
1 Condensed from a Master's thesis completed at Florida State Univer-
sity in June, 1951.
The records of a few specimens collected since that time are included
in the present paper.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 39, No. 1
Odonata. Several species of animals and plants not found else-
where in the state extend their ranges into Florida along the
Apalachicola River and there are indications that this may also
be true with a few dragonfly species.
Byers (1930) has written the only work on Florida Odonata
which was done with the purpose of covering the entire state, or
even a sizable part of it. He mentioned several brief papers
published before 1930 which concern dragonflies in Florida, and
a few have been written since that time. Several of these are
referred to in the annotated list of species.
Approximately 990 adults, 300 nymphs, and 220 exuviae were
examined and 73 species are here recorded for the nine counties
listed above. The majority of the specific identifications were
verified by Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr., of the University of Flor-
ida. This aid as well as much information on recent develop-
ments in the Odonata is greatly appreciated. Unless otherwise
indicated specimens were collected by the writer and are largely
in his collection.
ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES
Tachopteryx thoreyi (Hagen). Leon Co.--Tallahassee: 1 June 19,
1949. Sight records in Leon County on May 6 and 11, 1951.
Cordulegaster fasciatus Rambur. Leon Co.-Ochlockonee River at U.
S. 27: exuviae of 1 individual, June 22, 1950; Tallahassee (stream): 1
nymph. Gadsden Co.-stream 7 miles west of the Ochlockonee River on
U. S. 90: 1 nymph. No adults taken.
Cordulegaster maculatus Selys. Gadsden Co.-Monroe Creek at U. S.
90: 1 nymph, February 23, 1951; stream 7 miles west of the Ochlockonee
River on U. S. 90: 1 nymph, February 23, 1951 ( emerged, February
27, 1951). Liberty Co.-Sweetwater Creek: 18, March 24, 1951. Leon
Co.-Tallahassee: 1 March 27, 1951.
Progomphus obscurus (Rambur). 9 adults from May 6 to June 10, in
Leon and Liberty Counties. Nymphs collected in these as well as Gadsden
and Wakulla Counties.
Progomphus alachuensis Byers. Leon Co.-Lake Bradford: about 12
adults and several exuviae, June 17 and 21, 1951. A considerable north-
ward extension of its range.
Aphylla williamsoni Gloyd. Leon Co.-Lake Bradford: 1 June 17,
1951. Several years ago 2 $ S and 19 were taken at Lake Jackson in
Leon County. It is unfortunate that the date of capture was not recorded.
Emergence in this area begins prior to June 2, on which date several
exuviae were collected at pools on the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge
in Wakulla County. Single exuviae were also found at Lake Hall and
Lake Jackson in Leon County and at the Wakulla River in Wakulla County.
Hagenius brevistylus Selys. Jefferson Co.-Lloyd Creek: 19, Edgar
Evans, August 2, 1950. Calhoun Co.-Chipola River 3 miles south of
Cross: Tallahassee Dragonflies
Scott's Ferry: 1 June 16, 1951. Wakulla Co.-McBride Slough: 3
nymphs, August 11, 1950.
Erpetogomphus designatus Hagen. This species is included here on
the basis of the following record by Byers (1930). Liberty Co.-Near the
Apalachicola River, 1 June.
Dromogomphus spinosus Selys. Leon Co.-Ochlockonee River at U. S.
27: 1S, June 11, 1950. Gadsden Co.-Ochlockonee River at U. S. 90:
1 nymph, February 26, 1951 ( emerged in laboratory, April 16, 1951).
Calhoun Co.-Chipola River 3 miles south of Scott's Ferry: 1 and 2 9,
June 16, 1951. Nymphs from rivers and streams of Gadsden, Liberty, and
Jefferson Counties. Descriptions for adults (Needham and Heywood, 1929)
and nymphs (Wright, 1946) of spinosus agree well with the present speci-
mens except that the adults have dark stripes on the fronto-clypeal suture
and the base of the labrum rather than having entirely yellow "faces."
It is possible that these are D. armatus Selys if this is a valid species.
Gomphus pallidus Rambur. Twenty-one adults taken in Leon County
from April 27 to June 21. Exuviae of one individual from Gulf County
(April 22), however, indicates somewhat earlier emergence.
Gomphus hybridus Williamson. Collections in this area were made by
Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr., and have been previously recorded by him
(1953b). For completeness they are listed here. Liberty Co.-Sweetwater
Creek: 1 March 24, 1951. Gadsden Co.-Apalachicola River at Chatta-
hoochee: 10 & S and 49 9 April 3, 1953.
Gomphus dilatatus Rambur. Leon Co.-Natural Bridge: 1 taken
with exuviae, April 1, 1951. Calhoun Co.-Scott's Ferry on Chipola River:
19, May 19, 1951; Chipola River 3 miles south of Scott's Ferry: 19,
June 16, 1951.
Gomphus lividus Selys. Adults from March 23 to May 6, in Leon,
Liberty, Calhoun, and Gadsden Counties. All records discussed by Westfall
(1953b) except the following: Leon Co.-Tallahassee: 2 9 May 6, 1951.
A peculiar dipping motion during flight was several times exhibited by
individuals of lividus. For several consecutive times the dragonfly would
rise and fall approximately three feet before settling again on the ground
or low grass.
Gomphus brimleyi Muttkowski. Adults about large lakes and sinks in
Leon, Wakulla, and Liberty Counties from March 12 to April 27. See
more complete discussion for brimleyi in this area by Westfall (1953b).
Gomphus minutus Rambur. Found flying from March 25 to May 2,
in Jefferson, Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Calhoun, Jackson, and Gulf Counties.
Emergence began in the laboratory on March 10. A common spring dragon-
fly in this area.
Gomphus australis Needham. Leon Co.-Lake Bradford: 2 9 9, March
31, 1951, exuvia of 29 9, April 14, 1951; sink near Dog Lake: 1 small
nymph, February 15, 1951. These records extend the known range con-
siderably northward in Florida. Because the female has been unknown
since Needham described the male in 1897, the two females recorded above
have been recently described (Cross, 1955).
G"m,,Jh-s descriptus Banks. Needham (1943) described as Gomphus
mortimer two males which he collected in April, 1929, at Chipola Lake
(Dead Lakes) in Gulf County. One of these was taken in transformation.
The Florida Entomologist
Westfall (1945) considered mortimer synonymous with descriptus. The
record stands as the only one from this area.
Gomphus plagiatus Selys. Wakulla Co.-Wakulla River: 19, July 30,
Gomphus ivae Williamson. Liberty Co.-Sweetwater Creek: 1 nymph,
August 9, 1950 ( emerged, August 25, 1950), exuviae of 1 individual and
29 9, September 2, 1951. This material is discussed in more detail by
Gomphaeschna antilope Hagen. Wakulla Co.-Ochlockonee River: 19,
June 2, 1950. Leon Co.-Tallahassee: 19, Murray Voth, May 16, 1951.
Basiaeschna janata Say. Two specimens taken in this area, represent-
ing the first for Florida, were previously recorded by Westfall (1953b).
The records are again listed here. Calhoun Co.-Chipola River 3 miles
south of Scott's Ferry: 19, Robert Cumming, March 25, 1951. Gulf Co.-
Wewahitchka: 1 March 26, 1951.
Boyeria vinosa (Say). Several nymphs from Leon County streams;
two nymphs from Sweetwater Creek in Liberty County. No adults seen.
Anax longipes Hagen. Adults seen flying from March 12 to August 11
in Leon and Wakulla Counties. These sight records are mentioned since
none were collected and since the species is unmistakable in the field.
Anax junius (Drury). Collections and sight records from February 17
to December 30 in Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, Franklin, and Calhoun
Counties. Rather extensive swarms were occasionally seen.
Coryphaeschna ingens (Rambur). Leon Co.-Lake Jackson: 18 and
1 9, no date; Tallahassee: 1 nymph, April 30, 1949 (3 emerged, May 23,
1949); Lake Jackson: 1 9, June 4, 1949, 19, April 27, 1951; junction of
Fla. 20 and Silver Lake road: 1, April 18, 1954.
Nasiaeschna pentacantha (Rambur). 8 adults from March 31 to July
28 in Leon, Wakulla, Liberty, and Calhoun Counties. Nymphs from gum
swamps, river oxbows, and streams in Leon and Gadsden Counties.
Epiaeschna heros (Fabricus). Leon Co.-Lake Bradford: 1, May
10, 1950; Ochlockonee River at U.S. 27: 2 nymphs, February 21, 1951;
Tallahassee: 1 April 19, 1951. Gadsden Co.-Ochlockonee River at U.
S. 27: 13, June 22, 1950. Liberty Co.-Sweetwater Creek: 19, Septem-
ber 2, 1951.
Gynacant:a nervosa Rambur. Leon Co.-Tallahassee: 1 May 23,
1949, 19, October, 1949, 1 9, October 23, 1949, 1 adult, May 4, 1950 (not
collected). Franklin Co.-Alligator Point: 1 September 7, 1950. A
crepuscular species which probably migrates into the Tallahassee area from
Didymops transverse (Say). 7 adults from March 2 to April 14 in
Calhoun, Liberty, and Leon Counties. Byers (1930) mentions a single
male taken in Jackson County in April.
Didymops floridensis Davis. 12 adults from March 12 to April 14 in
Leon and Wakulla Counties. On March 25, 1951 numerous exuviae were
found in the drift along the shore of Lake Mystic in Liberty County but
no adults were seen.
Macromia taeniolata Rambur. Gadsden Co.-Ochlockonee River at U.
S. 90: 18, October 10, 1950. Calhoun Co.-Chipola River 3 miles south
of Scott's Ferry: 19, June 16, 1951.
Vol. 39, No. 1
Cross: Tallahassee Dragonflies
Macromia georgina Selys. Gadsden Co.-Ochlockonee River at U. S.
90: 1 and 19 (collected while in tandem), October 9, 1950; Little River
at U. S. 90: 1 nymph, February 23, 1951 ( emerged April 25, 1951).
Liberty Co.-Torreya State Park: 1 August 5, 1951.
Neurocordulia virginiensis Davis. Jackson Co.-Florida Caverns State
Park: 2$ 3, May 11, 1950. Liberty Co.-Ochlockonee River: 1, May
13, 1950. Leon Co.-Ochlockonee River at U. S. 27: 1$, June 11, 1950.
Jefferson Co.-Aucilla River near Walker's Springs: 4 nymphs, February
24, 1951 (1 & emerged, April 21, 1951).
Neurocordulia alabamensis Hodges. Jefferson Co.-Coney Branch at
the Fanlew-Wacissa road: 4 nymphs, February 24, 1951. Leon Co.-
stream near Silver Lake: 1 nymph, March 3, 1951. No adults taken. West-
fall (1953b) mentions the above Coney Branch specimens in a discussion
of this species, listed there as Neurocordulia sp. Needham and Westfall
(1955) give the first description of alabamensis.
Epicordulia regina Selys. 15 adults from April 24 to July 13 in Leon,
Wakulla, and Calhoun Counties. Nymphs and exuviae from along rivers
and around lakes in Leon, Gadsden, and Jefferson Counties.
Tetragoneuria sepia Gloyd. 30 adults from March 3 to May 6 in Leon
and Gulf Counties. The peak of the flight period of this southern species
seems to occur somewhat later than that of the other species of the genus.
Adults are most common during the last week of April and the first week
Tetragoneuria stella Williamson. Leon Co.-Ochlockonee River at Old
Bainbridge road: 1 &, April 2, 1950.
Tetragoneuria cynosura Say. 54 adults, probably this species, from
March 3 to April 28 in Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, Calhoun, and Gulf
Counties. 31 of these specimens seem to be Muttkowski's (1911) variety
simulans in which the color on the hind wings extends to the tip of the
triangle or beyond. The remaining specimens have much less color in the
Tetragoneuria williamsoni Muttkowski. 41 adults, placed tentatively
in this species, from March 2 to March 31 in Leon, Liberty, and Gulf
Counties. On March 31, 1951 two pairs of Tetragoneuria were taken in
copulo at Lake Bradford in Leon County. The males are both of the type
here placed in williamsoni. The two females seem similar in all characters
except for the pigmentation of the wings. In one they are clear with only
a small amount of dark brown in the hind pair in the costal and subcostal
spaces and along the veins in the anal triangle. The other female has in
addition a dark, smoky-brown bar extending along the anterior margins
of all four wings much as described by Muttkowski (1911) for T. costalis
Selys. During the spring of 1951, 8 females without bars and 7 with bars
Somatochlora linearis (Hagen). Gadsden Co.-Little River at U. S.
90: 1 September 2, 1951. Byers (1934) lists the following record: Liberty
Co.-"Camp Torreya": 1 Y, T. H. Hubbell, July, 1925. Williamson and
Gloyd (1933) also record linearis from Liberty County.
Somatochlora provocans Calvert. Leon Co.-Bradford Brook at Silver
Lake road: 1 August 30, 1951. This record previously listed by Westfall
(1953b). Williamson and Gloyd (1933): Liberty County in August.
14 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 1
Somatochlora filosa (Hagen). Gadsden Co.-Ochlockonee River at U.
S. 90: 19, October 10, 1950, 1?, August 31, 1951. Williamson and Gloyd
(1933): Liberty County in August.
Somatochlora calverti Williamson and Gloyd. Two males taken in
Liberty County on August 25, 1932 are the specimens used for the original
description by Williamson and Gloyd (1933).
Perithemis seminole Calvert. 36 adults from April 14 to October 10 in
Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, and Jackson Counties.
Celithemis eponina (Drury). 22 adults from April 23 to November 4
in Leon, Wakulla, and Franklin Counties.
Celithemis fasciata Kirby. Leon Co.-Lake Jackson: 3 & and 19,
no date, 2$ $, June 4, 1949, 18, June 11, 1950; Lake Lafayette: 18, June
Celithemis amanda Hagen. 9 adults from June 10 to September 10 in
Leon, Liberty, and Jackson Counties.
Celithemis ornata (Rambur). 27 adults from March 12 to June 9 in
Leon, Wakulla, Franklin, and Gulf Counties.
Celithemis verna Pritchard. Leon Co.-small pond just north of Talla-
hassee: 1 nymph, April 7, 1950 ( S emerged, April 18, 1950); pond near
Lake Bradford: 19, April 9, 1950. These records represent the first for
Florida and were previously listed by Westfall (1953b).
Celithemis bertha Williamson. Leon Co.-Lake Jackson: 3 S $, no date,
18, June 5, 1951; Lake Hall: 5S S, June 6, 1951; Lake Bradford: 1I
and 19, June 21, 1951. Westfall (1952) lists the Lake Bradford female
as C. b. leonora and one of the Lake Hall males as an intergrade between
C. b. bertha and C. b. leonora. Most of the other specimens appear to be
C. b. bertha as described by Westfall.
Macrodiplax balteata (Hagen). Wakulla Co.-Paddy Island: 18, H.
M. Stevenson, June 6, 1950; St. Marks Lighthouse: 2 S S and 29 ,
August 28, 1950, 1 September 2, 1950, several adults seen, October 21,
1950, 1 September 9, 1951.
Orthemis ferruginea (Fabricius). Wakulla Co.-Syfrett Creek: 19,
April 28, 1951.
Ladona deplanata (Rambur). 51 adults from March 2 to April 28 in
Leon, Wakulla, Calhoun, and Gulf Counties.
Libellula auripennis Burmeister. 14 adults from April 14 to August
31 in Leon and Gadsden Counties. Westfall (1943) lists records of this
species for Jefferson, Leon, and Liberty Counties.
Libellula needhami Westfall. Franklin Co.-Alligator Point: 1 June
8, 1949, 2S 5 and 2 9 June 9, 1949; Carrabelle: 3 S and 3? 9, May
12, 1951. Wakulla Co.-Wakulla Beach: 2 S, June 2, 1951; Panacea:
1 S, July 7, 1951.
Libellula flavida Rambur. Leon Co.-Tallahassee: 18, May 21, 1949,
18, August 4, 1954. Gadsden Co.-Quincy: 1 adult (sight record), Feb-
ruary 26, 1950. Liberty Co.-Sweetwater Creek: 19, September 2, 1951.
Libellula semifasciata Burmeister. Leon Co.-Lake Jackson: 13, no
date; Tallahassee: 1 and 19, April 30, 1949, 1 May 21, 1949.
Libellula pulchella Drury. Leon Co.-Lake Jackson: 1 no date.
Wakulla Co.-near Wakulla Station: 18 and 19, September 30, 1950.
These records previously listed by Westfall (1953b).
Cross: Tallahassee Dragonflies
Libellula incesta Hagen. 48 adults from April 14 to September 2 in
Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, Calhoun, and Jackson Counties.
Libellula vibrans Fabricius. 32 adults from May 2 to October 10 in
Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, and Calhoun Counties.
Libellula axilena Westwood. 13 adults from April 28 to August 31 in
Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, and Liberty Counties.
Plathemis lydia (Drury). 17 adults from March 23 to August 5 in
Leon, Wakulla, Liberty, and Jackson Counties.
Erythrodiplax minuscule (Rambur). 39 adults from March 10 to
October 10 in Leon, Wakulla, Franklin, and Gadsden Counties. Byers
(1930) lists minuscule also for Liberty County.
Erythrodiplax berenice (Drury). Wakulla Co.-St. Marks Lighthouse:
5 3& and 15 9 2, 7 occasions between May 20 and September 9; Wakulla
Beach: 2& $ and 4 92, June 2, 1951.
Sympetrum ambiguum (Rambur). Leon Co.-Tallahassee: 1&, Murray
Voth, November 11, 1949.
Erythemis simplicicollis (Say). 53 adults from March 8 to October 19
in Leon, Wakulla, Franklin, and Gadsden Counties. Byers' (1930) records
establish the occurrence of this species also in Gulf County. The nymphs
were found in almost any body of static permanent water where vegetation
Cannacria gravida Calvert. 18 adults from May 20 to September 9 in
Leon (Lake Jackson), Wakulla (St. Marks Lighthouse and Paddy Island),
and Franklin (Alligator Point) Counties. Probably greater local concen-
trations were noted for this species than for any other. During the last
of August and the first of September adults were very numerous on vege-
tation and along telephone lines near the St. Marks Lighthouse.
Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister). 62 adults from March 8 to
October 11 in Leon, Wakulla, Franklin, Gadsden, and Jackson Counties.
Jefferson County was represented only by the collection of nymphs. Records
for Gulf and Liberty Counties are given by Byers (1930). The nymphs
were collected in all types of fresh-water habitats except rapidly flowing
Miathyria marcella (Selys). Gadsden Co.-Ochlockonee River at U.
S. 90: 2 S& October 10, 1950. Leon Co.-Lake Bradford: 19, H. T. Kelly,
October 20, 1950, 1 S, R. L. Jenkins, Nov. 17, 1950. Specimens of marcella
have previously been taken in Florida from Alachua County and southward
(Needham, 1946; Bick, et al., 1950; Westfall, 1953a),3 from Louisiana (Bick,
et al., 1950), and from Texas (Needham, 1946) but these are apparently
the first records for North Florida.
Tramea lacerata Hagen. Leon Co.-Lake Jackson: 1 September 7,
1951. Wakulla Co.-near St. Marks Lighthouse: 1 August 6, 1950, 1 ,
August 28, 1950, 3 $& September 9, 1951; near Wakulla Station: 1 adult
seen, August 11, 1950. Franklin Co.-Dog Island: 1 adult seen, September
Tramea carolina (Linnaeus). 39 adults collected and sight records made
from March 2 to October 10 in Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, Franklin,
and Jackson Counties.
3The writer collected 15 adults of M. marcella at Loxahatchee and
Pahokee in Palm Beach County, Florida, on March 24 and 26, 1954.
16 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 1
Pantala hymenea (Say). Leon Co.-Lake Jackson: 19, April 27, 1951,
1 $, August 2, 1954.
Pantala flavescens (Fabricius). 22 adults from June 10 to November
16 in Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, and Jackson Counties. Three late
adults were seen on December 30, 1954, near the St. Marks Lighthouse.
Bick, G. H., J. F. Aycock, and A. Orestano. 1950. Tauriphila australis
(Hagen) and Miathyria marcella (Selys) from Florida and Louisiana.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 52: 81-84.
Byers, C. F. 1930. A contribution to the knowledge of Florida Odonata.
Univ. of Fla. Publ., Biol. Ser. No. 1: 1-327.
.1934. Records of Florida dragonflies-1. Ent. News. 45:
Cross, W. H. 1955. Gomphus australis Needham in north Florida, with a
description of the female. Fla. Ent. 38: 125-127.
Muttkowski, R. A. 1911. Studies in Tetragoneuria. Bull. Wisc. Nat. Hist.
Soc. 9: 91-134.
Needham, J. G. 1943. New species of North American gomphine dragon-
flies and life history notes on some of them. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc.
.1946. Some dragonflies of early spring in South Florida.
Fla. Ent. 28: 42-47.
---, and H. B. Heywood. 1929. A Handbook of the Dragonflies
of North America. C. C. Thomas, Baltimore.
-, and M. J. Westfall, Jr. 1955. A Manual of the Dragonflies
of North America. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Westfall, M. J., Jr. 1943. The synonymy of Libellula auripennis Burmeister
and Libellula jesseana Williamson and a description of a new species,
Libellula needhami. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 69: 17-31.
1945. A note on synonymy in the genus Gomphus. Ent.
News. 56: 200-202.
1952. Celithemis bertha Williamson in Florida with a
description of a new subspecies. Fla. Ent. 35: 109-116.
1953a. The nymph of .Il ,/ iihI; marcella Selys. Fla. Ent.
1953b. Notes on Florida Odonata, including additions to
the state list. Fla. Ent. 36: 165-173.
Williamson, E. B., and L. K. Gloyd. 1933. A new Somatochlora from
Florida. Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan. No. 262.
Wright, Mike. 1946. Taxonomic notes on the nymphs of the dragonfly
genus Dr.,, ,,.,, ,,ps Selys. Jour. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 21: 183-186.
A NEW VILLIERSELLA
JOE C. ELKINS
American Optical Co., Instrument Division, Atlanta, Georgia
This paper describes a third species of the African genus
Villiersella agalma sp. n.1
Male, 6.4 mm. Generally testaceous; head, pronotum, pygophore and
metathoracic femoral knees light piceous.
Dorsal interocular transverse impression almost obsolete (Fig. 1),
present only as a faint suture. Eyes moderately large and prominent.
Basal antennal segment slightly surpassing posterior pronotal border. One
pair of inconspicuous spines ventro-laterally on genae; second pair ventro-
laterally behind eyes and conspicuous, each equal in length to basal tibial
spine. Pair of spines on basal rostral segment divergent and conspicuous;
other segments lacking spines; second segment slightly bulbous; proportion
of segments (basal first), 10:9:8.
FIG. I FIG. 2
Villiersella agalma sp. n.
Fig. 1. Head, lateral view; Fig. 2. Male pygophore and claspers.
Lengths of pronotal lobes subequal when measured along total lateral
lengths. Antero-lateral pronotal spines short. Scutellar spine broken.
1 Specific name from Greek dyaAXa, statue.
The Florida Entomologist
Spine of basal abdominal segment long and erect, subequal in length to
Prothoracic coxa without spines; femur with three moderately long
ventral spines along basal half, interspaced with several smaller spines
and setae, inner lateral surface with five robust spines; tibia with three
robust inner lateral spines.
Other legs spineless. Metathoracic femur surpassing abdominal apex.
Hemelytra attaining abdominal apex. Wing venation almost identical
to that of Villiersella schoutedeni Miller 1954.
Abdomen of male ovate, pygophore longer than any abdominal segment.
Posterior border of pygophore broadly U-shaped (Fig. 2), claspers long,
parallel and erect, each subequal in length to basal abdominal spine.
Allied to Villiersella inermis (Villiers) and V. schoutedeni Miller; can
be readily distinguished by the faint interocular dorsal suture; also, the
male pygophore lacks strongly acute processes on lateral apical margins
of the posterior border.
Holotype, male, BRITISH CAMEROONS, Matute, Tiko PI., May 1,
1949, B. Malkin. Deposited in collection of California Academy of Science.
A female bearing same data as holotype seems to fit the description of
Miller, N. C. E. 1954. New Genera and Species of Ethiopian Reduviidae
Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Ann. Mus. Congo Tervuren inl40, Zool. 1:
Schouteden, H. 1951. Reduviidae Saicinae novae (Hem.). Rev. Zool. Bot.
Afr., Brussels 45: 15-16.
Villiers, A. 1950. Hemipteres R6duviides r6colt6s en Angola par A. de
Barros Machado. Publ. cult. Mus. Dundo, Comp. Diam. Angola, Lisbon,
No. 7, p. 102.
Vol. .39, Nuo. 1
REPORT ON A COLLECTION OF MALLOPHAGA,
LARGELY MEXICAN (PART II)1
M. A. CARRIKER, JR.
This is the second installment of a paper dealing with a col-
lection of Mallophaga in the Louisiana State University Museum
of Zoology. Many of the lice here treated were taken from birds
in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, by persons connected
with the Museum. The remainder were collected in various
parts of the United States, chiefly around Lawrence, Kansas.
The present installment terminates the treatment of the
Ischnocera. The greater portion of the genus Philopterus-all
those species not included in Part I or in the present installment
-will be omitted from this report. The final part, which will
appear at a future date, will contain the remainder of the species
of the Amblycera, those not already treated in Part I.
This report lists all species found in the collection (excepting
those of Philopterus as mentioned above), describing all which
appear to be new and giving critical notes on, and figures of,
little known or controversial forms. All measurements are in
millimeters, and all drawings were prepared by me. All types
have been returned to Louisiana State University, such paratypes
and other duplicates as were available having been retained in
Philopterus tropicalis, n. sp.
(Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4)
Type, male adult, from Stelgidopteryx ruficollis serripennis (Audubon),
collected by R. J. Newman at Tamuin, S. L. P., Mexico, January 4, 1947
(in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-Resembles in many ways P. domesticus (Kellogg), from
Progne subis, but is smaller in most measurements, especially those of the
head. There is much less difference in size of thoracic segments; the head
is porportionately longer, with narrower frons; the anterior plate is of
same width, but shorter; the prothorax is proportionately shorter and
wider; and the pterothorax has much more divergent sides.
There are many differences in the shape of the abdominal sclerites and
their chaetotaxy (see figures). In the figure of tropicalis the sternite of
segment III is not shown, but it is somewhat similar to IV, shown in its
proper position in front of the genital sternite.
The male genitalia are also quite different, those of domesticus being
very much larger, with larger paramers, and a quite different basal plate
'Part I appeared in Nos. 3 and 4, Vol. 37, of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLO-
g 2 P l . 5 e l
Fig. -P. domestics ( l.) 8, g '
Fig. 1. Philopterus topicalis n. sp. (, body complete except abdominal
segments III and IV
Fig. 2. P. tropicalis, n. sp. $, gentalia
Fig. 3. P. domesticus (Kell.) S, head, thorax and segments of abdomen
I, VII, VIII, and IX
Fig. 4. P. domesticus (Kell.) &, genitalia
Fig. 5. Craspedorhynchus obscurus (Giebel) Q, head, thorax, and abdomi-
nal segments I, II, VII, VIII, and IX; also genital sternite of S
Fig. 6. C. obscures (Giebel) S, genitalia
Fig. 7. C. candidus (Rudow) 9, head, thorax, and abdominal segments
I, II, VII, VIII, and IX; also genital sternite of &
Fig. 8. C. candidus (Rudow) S, genitalia
Fig. 9. C. dilatatus (Rudow) S, head, thorax, and abdominal segments
I, II, and VI to IX; also genital sternite of S
Fig. 10. C. dilatatus (Rudow) S, genitalia
Carrier: Mexican Mallophaga
and mesosome. Figures of the body and male genitalia of P. domesticus
are also presented in order to show the differences.
The female of tropicalis is not known, but it will doubtless show the
same sexual differences as in domesticus. The species may be easily recog-
nized by the above diagnosis and the figures given. All of the Philopteri
which I have seen from neotropical swallows seem to be of this same type,
but they all differ, one from another-those from Progne dominicensis, P.
tapera, P. chalybea and P. fuscus all differing at least subspecifically from
domesticus, while those from the other genera of swallows are usually
specifically distinct. The specific differences in this difficult genus are
often small and are not always appreciated. The species is represented
by the male holotype and two female paratypes.
MEASUREMENTS OF Philopterus domesticus AND P. tropicalis.
Male Female Male
Length Width Length Width Length Width
Body ............................ 1.50 .... 1.736 .... 1.32
Head (at clavi) ..... ... .325 .... .358 .... .293
Head (temples) ........ .532 .505 .585 .558 .49 .437
Prothorax ....-.... .22 .293 .225 .335 .175 .28
Pterothorax ..---........- .217 .402 .26 .488 .205 .39
Abdomen ................... .746 .685 .868 .78 .63 .586
Antennae ...--.......- ..--. .175 .048 .206 .045 .175 .04
Basal plate .......--.... -.194 .071 .133 .07
Paramer -.....-- ..-....--.... .048 .018 .026 .013
Mesosome .---------- .054 .076 .035 .07
Genus Craspedorhynchus Keler, 1938
This Philopteroid genus is parasitic exclusively on Raptores (Falco-
noidea). Twenty-seven species are listed in the 1952 checklist, of which 11
are from the Western Hemisphere, with seven of neotropical origin. Eight
of the 11 species found in the New World are in my collection, together
with about 20 undescribed species, in addition to the four Mexican species
described in this paper.
The genus, as a hole, seems to be very homogenous, there being but
very few abnormal species, and, as far as I have been able to determine
from the available material, no two hosts harbor the same species of para-
site. I have not been able to check many parasites from closely related
subspecies of hosts, but specimens from two subspecies of Busarellus nigri-
collis, Buteo magnirostris, and Leucopternis albicollis are reconizably
While many of the species are superficially quite similar in appearance,
there are a surprisingly large number of characters by which they may be
separated. The best characters for separating the species are: size and
shape of head; shape of anterior plate; amount and shape of the hyaline
margin surrounding the anterior portion of head; the endocarinae; the
genital sternites of both sexes, and, lastly, the male genitalia.
22 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 1
The basal plate is fairly large, but the paramers are very small and
nonmovable (merely flexible at point of attachment) and the endomeral
sclerites are numerous, small, and very complicated. The chaetotaxy differs
but little in the species, and as a rule the setae are exceedingly slender
and delicate, so that in many cases, where great care in handling has not
been taken, many setae will be missing.
Before describing the new species I wish to make a few remarks on
several species which were described by Rudow, Giebel, and myself.
Craspedorhynchus obscurus (Giebel), 1874
(Figures 5 and 6)
Docophorus obscurus Giebel, Insecta Epizoa, p. 72. Host: "Rostrhamus
hamatus" probably equals: R. sociabilis Vieillot, fide Guimaraies, 1943,
p. 430, but perhaps Helicolestes hamatus (Temminck), another member
of the same subfamily.
Dr. Guimaraes contends that the true host of this species is much more
likely to be Rostrhamus sociabilis than Helicolestes, which is a very rare
bird, and on these grounds I agree with him. I have a series of five males
and five females of this genus from Rostrhamus sociabilis, collected in
Colombia, and a comparison of them with Giebel's description of obscurus
adds further proof to Guimaries' contention. Giebel's description is very
meager and most of the characters which he uses might apply to many
species of the genus. However, he ends his remarks with the following
words: "Das letzte Segment des Wiebschens hat eine sehr breite Einker-
The apical abdominal segments of the females in this genus usually
are more or less as shown in the figures. Segment VIII is usually covered
almost entirely by a deeply colored tergal plate, while IX, closely fused
with VIII, is almost entirely hyaline. However, in some species (including
the one from R. sociabilis) there is a sternal sclerite which extends back-
ward from VIII across IX and would give the appearance of the tip of
the abdomen with a "sehr breite Einkerbung."
There is nothing about these specimens from R. sociabilis which disagrees
with Giebel's description. He says: "Head longer than wide", and these
measure about .91 x .81 (female), which is strong proof in favor of the
host's being R. sociabilis, since I know of but one other species (from
Busarellus nigricollis) with head having these proportions. The anterior
margin of the anterior plate is concave, also agreeing with Giebel's de-
With so much evidence in favor of R. sociabilis being the host of C.
obscurus (Giebel), and practically none against it, I would consider the
matter definitely proved. The species is easily recognized by the long
head, shape of anterior plate, premarginal carinae (both dorsal and ven-
tral) and male genitalia.
Craspedorhynchus candidus (Rudow), 1870
(Figures 7 and 8)
Docophorus candidus Rudow, Zeit. ges. Naturwiss. 35, p. 457. Host: Buteo
ghiesbreghti Du Bus equals: Leucopternis albicollis ghiesbreghti (Du
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
The description of this species by Rudow is quite useless, while Piaget
merely confirms the impossibility of recognizing it. I have a series of nine
males and nine females of this genus taken from the type host of C. can-
didus (Rudow), collected by myself at Cerro Tuxtla, Veracruz, M6xico,
March 19, 1940.
This species is among the smaller ones (see table of measurements),
with head longer than wide, but not excessively so, as in obscurus (female,
.88 x .845 against .895 x .80); the hyaline margin of the anterior portion
of the clypeal area is very narrow, beginning near end of premarginal
carinae; the anterior plate is long and narrow, scarcely widened medially,
with anterior margin slightly thickened and undulating; the preantennal
nodus is strongly developed, is rounded posteriorly, and has a semi-hyaline
band down the center. A unique character, not present in any other species
treated in this paper, is the type of anterior mandibular condyle, this being
exactly as shown in the figure.
The genital sternites are slightly different and the male genitalia have
a shorter than usual basal plate, with paramers and endomeral sclerites
Since Rudow's type of this species is certainly lost, I herewith designate
a pair of this series as neotypes and the remainder as neoparatypes of
Craspedorhynchus candidus (Rudow). For measurements see table at end
Craspedorhynchus dilatatus (Rudow), 1869
(Figures 9 and 10)
Docophorus dilatatus Rudow, Beitr. Kenntn. Mall. p. 14. Host: Falco
lagopus equals: Buteo lagopus lagopus (Pontoppidan).
Docophorus taurocephalus Kellogg, 1896, Proc. California Acad. Sci. (2),
6, p. 471; pl. 65, fig. 1. Host: Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis equals:
Buteo lagopus sancti-johannis (Gmelin).
In the 1952 checklist C. taurocephalus (Kell.) is given as a synonym
of dilatatus (Rudow), and since I have no material from B. 1. lagopus for
comparison with the specimens from B. 1. sancti-johannis, I accept this
I have before me one male and two females of this genus taken on
B. 1. sancti-johannis, collected by R. Baker in Colorado County, Texas,
March 23, 1941. Kellogg's figure of taurocephalus is very poor, especially
with regard to the head, but there is nothing about it which disagrees with
the single male examined. Kellogg's measurements differ slightly, but not
more, I think, than would be found in individual variation. For the male
he gives: body, 2.06 against 1.91; head, .78 x .78 against .79 x .78. For
the female he gives: body, 2.53 against 2.32; head, .87 x .87 against .89 x
.86. Doubtless the types of dilatatus are also lost, but since these speci-
mens from Texas are not from the type host they cannot be used for
establishing neotypes. A figure is given of the female, showing the details
of the head, thorax, and abdominal segments I, II and VI to IX, with
genital sternites of both sexes and the male genitalia. There are no out-
standing characters to distinguish this species, merely a combination of
details which a careful examination of the figures will show.
The Florida Entomologist
The setae of the whole body are very slender, those of the head
being longer than usual while the anterior plate has a darker, shield-shaped
area over its anterior portion (see figure). The male genitalia are also
quite distinctive. Complete measurements are given in the table at end
of the genus. In addition to the three specimens collected in Mexico by
Mr. Baker, I have in my own collection two males from the same host
collected by L. Bruner at Lincoln, Nebr., October 9, 1894, and two males
from same host taken at Turnavik, Labrador, by Harry Lance in August,
Craspedorhynchus umbrosus (Carriker), 1903
(Figures 11 and 12)
Docophorus platystomus umbrosus Carriker, Univ. Nebraska Stud., 3, p.
126. Host: Lezcopternis semiplumbea Lawrence.
The original description is short and of little value, since it was com-
pared with specimens wrongly identified as C. platystomus (Nit.) from
"Buteo borealis costaricensis," a bird wrongly identified, being in reality
The species was described from a single male (female unknown), which
was well mounted and is still in good condition.
DIAGNOSIS.-It is one of the longer species (2.08) and has by far the
longest head of the eight species identified (male, .868 x .78), but the width
at the preantennal suture is proportionately great (.326). The anterior
plate is long and slender and but little expanded medially; the preantennal
portion of head is short and wide; the preantennal nodus has a narrow,
clear, median stripe, found in but few species (see figure).
The genital sternite is characteristic of the species, as are the marginal
carinae of the basal plate, the endomeral plates, and the seminal duct, which
in this species is double, a tube running back from each side of the endo-
mera, through the basal plate and disappearing in segment II. This is
the only species which I have thus far examined which has two seminal
ducts. The marginal carinae of the basal plate are of the same type as in
femoralis n. sp., but longer. Measurements are given at end of the genus.
Philopterus transversifrons (Carriker), 1903
Docophorus transversifrons Carriker, Univ. Nebraska Studies No. 3, p.
127; pl. I, fig. 1. Host: Micrastur guerrilla Cassin equals: Micrastur
ruficollis interests Bangs.
C,,. p !,l 1, l.,,,ir l,.. transversifrons (Carriker), Checklist of Mallophaga,
1952, p. 193.
The original description of this species is very complete, as far as it
goes, but it lacks many details, while the figure is very poor.
A very careful examination of the type reveals the fact that it really
is a Philopterus, as originally described, and not a Craspedorhynchus at
all. It lacks entirely the characters which so definitely characterize
Craspedorhynchus, viz.-the long clypeal area and the long inner pre-
marginal (clypeal) carinae, which do not extend beyond the front of the
anterior plate. The chaetotaxy of head and abdomen also differs, as well
as the mandibular condyles, while the male genitalia are decidedly not the
type found in Craspedorhynchus.
Vol. 39, No. 1
7' h'' ' />
I an II d i of '. bdo me
Fig. SC.b, g -,i..
Fig. 1. C. us
Fig. 11. Craspedorhynchus umbrosus (Carr.) $, head and tip of abdomen,
drawn from type
Fig. 12. C. umbrosus (Carr.) S, genitalia
Fig. 13. C. brevicapitis, n. sp. 9, head, thorax, and abdominal segments
I and II and tip of abdomen
Fig. 14. C. brevicapitis 5, genitalia
Fig. 15. C. brevicapitis, right mandible (dorsal view)
Fif. 16. C. tubulus, n. sp. 9, head, thorax, and abdominal segments I and
II; also tip of S abdomen
Fig. 17. C. tubulus o, genitalia
Fig. 18. C. hirsutus, n. sp. 9, head, thorax, abdominal segments I, II,
and VI to IX
26 .The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 1
It is very probable that Micrastur is not the true host, and I would
consider its host as being unknown. The type series (two males and a
female) have been cleared and remounted so that all details are clearly
Craspedorhynchus brevicapitis, n. sp.
(Figures 13, 14 and 15)
Types, male and female adults, from Buteo magnirostris griseocauda (Ridg-
way), collected by R. Newman, at Xilitla, S. L. P., Mexico, Feb. 12,
1947 (in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-This is one of the smaller of the known species found in
America. Indeed, the male is the smallest (1.82) of the nine identified
species seen by me. The length and width of head are equal in both sexes;
the abdomen of the male is very short and wider than long (.86 x .93),
while that of the female is more rounded than in most species (1.24 x 1.06).
The hyaline margin of the front of the head is well developed, extending
backward beyond the middle of that portion of the premarginal carinae
anterior to the preantennal suture. Its anterior margin is deeply indented
much more so than in any other of the eight American species I have
seen (see figure). The preantennal margin of the head is straight (very
unusual); the premarginal carinae and nodi are narrow; the temporal
carinae are broken in anterior portion (see figure) and the occipital carinae
are only half as wide in the posterior portion.
The pterothorax is unusually small, with posterior margin strongly
pointed medially and with four large, clear-cut emarginations (in reality
they are pustules), from which arise the strong setae. The carinae of the
pterothorax are unusually small; the male and female genital sternites are
of normal size and shape, these sclerites always differing more or less
in the different species (see figures).
The male genitalia are rather striking in appearance, especially the
marginal carinae of the basal plate, the unusually long paramers, without
marginal carinae, and the strongly developed seminal duct leading from
the endomera back through the basal plate and finally disappearing in an-
terior portion of abdomen. The chaetotaxy is normal for the genus, the
setae of the head being fairly short and those of the abdomen somewhat
coarser than in most species but of normal length (about 11/ times as
long as the width of the succeeding segment); the setae on the ventral
surface are finer and shorter. The types, and only specimens, are not
in the best condition and many setae are missing. For measurements
see the table at end of the genus.
Craspedorhynchus tubulus, n. sp.
(Figures 16 and 17)
Types, male and female adults, from Busarellus n. nigricollis (Latham),
collected by C. Shaw at Tamuin, S. L. P., M6xico, Sept. 19, 1946 (types
in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-Species of medium size but may be readily distinguished
by the shape of the head, the marginal carinae, genital sternites, and male
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
The head is longer than wide (female, .89 x .80), while that portion
anterior to the preantennal suture is unusually long and narrow, with
hyaline margin very wide and extending far beyond the end of the anterior
plate (see figures). The anterior plate is short and wide, with straight
sides which are completely covered (and concealed) by both dorsal and
ventral preantennal carinae. The preantennal nodus is neither rounded
nor expanded laterally, being no wider than the carina; the temporal
carinae are broken in anterior portion (see figure) and the occipital carinae
taper to a point at occipital margin.
The abdomen in both sexes is unusually round (male, .92 x .89; female,
1.20 x 1.13); in the male abdominal segments VIII and IX are closely fused
and appear as one segment, but there is no tergal plate on IX, which is
rounded posteriorly and strongly protruding.
The pleurites in both sexes are strongly developed and deeply pigmented
(more so in male) and have well developed "heads" of unusual shape (see
figure). In the female holotype segment IX and the genital sternites are
mutilated, making them impossible to figure.
In the male the abdomen is somewhat heart-shaped, being widest at
segment III, tapering from there to the rounded, narrow IX. The genitalia
are distinctive (see figure). The seminal duct is well developed, but differs
in structure from that of brevicapitis.
The basal plate is long (.45), with simple, narrow marginal carinae;
the paramers are very short, with a different type of tip (not tubular as
in most species), the endomeral plates are very large and of distinctive
shape, although their complex structure is not always possible to differ-
entiate clearly. The species is represented only by the female holotype
and male allotype. Table of measurements appears at the end of this genus.
Craspedorhynchus hirsutus, n. sp.
Type, female adult, from Buteo regalis (G. R. Gray), collected by K.
Abegg in Kansas (?). (Type in L. S. U. M. Z coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-One of the smaller species (body length, 2.20), with rather
short, egg-shaped abdomen, widest at segment III (1.11 x .94); the head
as wide as long (.88), with short, very wide clypeal area (.26 x .38), and
well developed and pigmented carinae, including the postmarginal carinae,
a feature not present in many species.
The thoracic segments are small but have well developed carinae and
five strong, pustulated setae on each side of posterior margin of pterothorax.
The tergites are rather small, and the paratergals narrow, with small
"heads," most strongly developed in segments IV to VII.
The chaetotaxy is normal and of medium length and texture, the setae
of abdomen being finer than in some species. Segment IX is well developed,
and hyaline, except for the posterior genital sternite, which extends across
VIII and IX. The genital sternites across VI and VII are of the usual
type, as is the small sclerite at their outer edges (see figure). The patch
of short, thickened setae at sides of VIII is not found in all species (in the
figure these setae are incorrectly shown as being on IX).
The species is represented by the female holotype and one female para-
type (male, unknown).
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 39, No. 1
a 1- 1 ._ -+'_
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Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga 29
Craspedorhynchus genitalis, n. sp.
(Figures 19 and 20)
Types, male and female adults, from Geranospiza n. nigra (Du Bus), col-
lected by R. Newman at Hacienda Capulin, S. L. P., M6xico, July 1,
1947 (types in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-This species resembles in some ways C. dilatatus (Rudow),
especially in the size and shape of the head and type of male genitalia.
The head is about as long as wide in both sexes (male, .79 x .78; female,
.87 x .85), while that of the male of dilatatus is exactly the same and that
of the female is .89 x .86. However, it differs from dilatatus in many
details. The premarginal carinae are narrower, with the portion anterior to
the suture much shorter, while the preantennal nodus has a prominent, me-
dian hyaline streak. The anterior plate is much narrower, scarcely expanded
medially, and quite different in shape (see figures). That portion of the
head anterior to the preantennal suture is also narrower. The temporal
carinae are very narrow, less than half the width of those bands in dilatatus.
There is a difference in the shape of the thoracic segments, as well as
in the abdominal tergites and their incrassations, while the genital sternite
of the female is very different (see figure).
The male genitalia seem to be entirely without seminal duct (at least
none is visible), the same as in dilatatus and candidus, while the basal
plate is similar in shape to that of dilatatus. The paramers are, however,
much longer in genitalis, and more slender, and there are the usual differ-
ences in the complicated sclerites of the endomera.
The species is represented by the female holotype, male allotype, and
two male and three female paratypes. See table of measurements follow-
ing the genus.
Genus Saemundssonia Timmermann, 1935
This genus contains numerous species already described and many more
yet undescribed. It is parasitic on shore birds, gulls, terns, and other
maritime hosts, and the greater portion of the described forms are from
Old World hosts. There are but four species described from New World
gulls, and these are quite different from the species described below from
Saemundssonia atricilla, n. sp.
(Figures 21, 22 and 23)
Types, male and female adults, from Larus atricilla Linn6, collected by the
author at Nuqui, Dept. Choc6, Colombia, March 3, 1951 (in coll. U. S.
DIAGNOSIS.-This is one of the smaller species, with slight difference in
size between the sexes; the head is slightly longer than wide in the male
and slightly wider than long in the female. The portion of the head an-
terior to the preantennal suture is long and narrow (.24 long x .24 wide
at tips of premarginal carinae (female) and only .27 at the suture). The
premarginal carinae are wide and heavily chitinized, with inner margin
undulating; the anterior plate is composed of two portions, the main plate,
with deeply colored posterior point, and a somewhat shield-shaped plate at
anterior end (see figure). The gular plate is very small and the prothorax
extends but slightly beneath the head; the mesosternum is small, is pointed
K P. Q. V
N''" 20 ,A
eg m e,, --Tn--.
"-- 19 sj, ,, 23 I9A \ .
Fig. 19. Craspedorhyncehus genitais, n. sp. head, thorax, and abdominal
Fig. 20. l, n. sp.i genl
Fig. 21. Saemundssonia atiieilla, n. sp. 9, head, thorax, and abdominal
segments I an II a I
Fig. 20. C. genitalicilla, n. sp. S, genitalia
Fig. 23. S. atricilla, n. sp. and S. steganopa, genital sternites of Y
Fig. 21. S.aemundssoni a tmericna, n. sp. 9, head, thorax, and abdominal
segments I andto II
I eand I I II
Fig. 29. S. tricolor, n. sp. 9, body
Fig. 30. Penenirmus auritus californiensis (Kell.) 9, head, thorax, and
abdominal segment I
Fig. 31. P. a. californiensis (Kell.) S, genitalia
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
anteriorly and has a single pustulated seta on each side of the posterior
margin; the carinae of the pterothorax consist of a curved longitudinal
band extending from anterior margin of segment into tergite I and two
transverse carinae extending inward from it, the anterior one shorter,
slender, and pointed apically.
The genital sternite of the female is fairly simple in structure, as com-
pared with that of other species (see figure).
The male genitalia are large and massive, characteristic of the genus,
the combined basal plate and paramers extending from the posterior margin
of tergite II to the tip of the abdomen. There are numerous details of
structure, both in paramers and endomera, which distinguish the species.
Compared with the other American species of the genus, it differs from
S. gonothorax (Larus marines) in the shape of the head and from S. lari
and tridactyla (L. hyperboreus and Rissa tridactyla) in the male genitalia.
I have no data on S. parva (Piaget) from Larus dominicanus.
S. atricilla seems to be most nearly related to a series of undescribed
specimens from Larus serranus Tschudi, of Peru, resembling also, but in
a lesser degree, specimens from Larus modestus Tschudi, also from Peru.
For measurements see table at end of the genus.
The species is represented by the female holotype, male allotype and
eight male and three female paratypes, also a male and female from the
type host collected by myself at Lincoln, Nebraska, March 11, 1900, and
by two males and a female from the type host collected by R. Newman at
Baton Rouge, La., August 19, 1947, these three specimens being in the coll.
of the L. S. U. Museum of Zoology.
Saemundssonia humeralis americana, n. subsp.
(Figures 24 and 25)
Type, female adult, from Numenius a. americanus Bechstein, collected by
Rollin Baker in Colorado Co., Texas, May 25, 1940 (in coll. L. S. U.
DIAGNOSIS.-Resembles strongly S. h. humeralis (Denny), from Numen-
ius arquata, but is easily separated on size alone, being very much smaller
in all measurements. Body (female) 1.92 against 2.67; head, .705 x .792
against .825 x .945 (width at suture .328 against .40). The remaining
measurements are proportionately smaller (see table at end of genus).
The structure of head and body is quite similar to that of humeralis but
differs in several details, especially in the premarginal carinae and pre-
antennal nodus, as well as in the temporal and occipital carinae.
Unfortunately no males were secured. It is possible that the genitalia
will show distinguishing characters. In addition to the female holotype,
the race is represented by three female paratypes. This series has been
compared with a female and four males of S. h. humeralis (Denny), from
the type host. Measurements of S. h. humeralis are included in the table
Saemundssonia haemastica, n. sp.
(Figures 26, 27 and 28)
Types, male and female adults, from Limosa haemastica Linn6, collected
by J. C. Crawford, Jr., at Lincoln, Nebraska, May 20, 1899 (in coll. of
M. A. C., Jr.).
The Florida Entomologist
DIAGNOSIS.-Differs quite strongly from both S. limosae (Denny) (from
Limosa lapponica) and S. thompsoni Timmermann (from L. 1. limosa).
The head is of quite a different shape, being longer and narrower, and the
male genitalia are quite different.
It is nearest to thompsoni in shape of head, but the head is longer
(male, head .63 x .542 (.26 at suture) against .61 x .58; female, .67 x .62
(.303 at suture) against .67 x .66). The portion of head anterior to the
preantennal suture is longer and narrower, with sides more divergent than
in thompsoni; the anterior plate differs in shape and structure, as well as
the cranial carinae. The genital sternite of the female is very close to
that of thompsoni (see figure), but the male genitalia differ strongly,
having much longer paramers and entirely different endomera.
The species is represented by the female holotype, male allotype and
one male and one female paratype, also two males and two females from
the type host collected by G. H. Lowery at Lawrence, Kansas, May 15, 1947,
which are in the collection of the L. S. U. Museum of Zoology. There are
no discernible differences between the type series and the specimens from
Saemundssonia tricolor, n. sp.
Type, female adult, from Steganopus tricolor Vieillot, collected by D. S.
Farner near Lawrence, Kansas, May 18, 1946 (in coll. L. S. U. M. Z.).
DIAGNOSIS.-Characterized by the extremely short, wide head, with
broadly expanded temples and very short anterior portion of head (clypeal
area). The anterior plate is short and wide, with short, blunt posterior
tip; the gular plate is unusually large; tergite I of the abdomen is un-
usually wide in median portion, and tergite VIII very large; the genital
sternite is also unusually large (see figures).
Unfortunately the male is unknown, but the male genitalia will un-
doubtedly present additional distinguishing characters. This is the first
record for this genus from any species of the family Phalaropidae. The
new species is represented only by the female holotype.
Saemundssonia cephalosa (Carriker) 1902
Docophorus cephalosus Carriker, Journ. New York Ent. Soc., vol. 10, p. 217;
pl. 20, fig. 1. Host: Colaptes cafer (error) equals Tringa s. solitaria
While engaged in the study of the above new forms I compared with
the type of S. cephalosa all of the material in my collection from kinds of
birds which might have been collected at Lincoln, Nebr., where the type
host of cephalosa was taken. I found a single male in fine condition, from
Tringa s. solitaria, collected at Mamotoco, D. Magdalena, Colombia, Sept.
5, 1913, which is an exact duplicate, in all respects, of the type of S. cepha-
losa. There is no question but what they are one and the same thing, and
since Tringa solitaria was a common migrant at Lincoln at that time, there
is no reason to doubt the correctness of this identification.
Genus Penenirmus Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1938
Genotype: Pediculus albiventris (Scopoli) = Docophorus troglodytes Water-
Vol. 39, No. 1
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
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34 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 1
A very careful study has been made of the description and figures of
the type of this genus, as given by Waterston2 and Hopkins and Clay,'
comparing them with a pair of Penenirmus from Troglodytes musculus
striatulus from Colombia, which is very similar to albiventris, although at
least subspecifically distinct, and there can be no question of their congeneric
I have also studied a large series of the Penenirmus group parasitic on
the Picidae (woodpeckers), having had a pair of neoparatypes of P. auritus
(Scopoli) -P. superciliosus (Burmeister), from the common European
woodpecker, for comparison with the New World forms. The latter are
so closely related to auritus (Scopoli) that most of those which I have
seen are conspecific with it, though all seem to be separable subspecifically.
This group of Penenirmus, parasitic on the woodpeckers, is very differ-
ent from the genotype in the structure of the anterior portion of the head,
so much so that it leads one to doubt whether or not it is congeneric with
Pediculus albiventris (Scopoli). The woodpecker parasites of the genus
Penenirmus, of which P. californiensis is the typical New World representa-
tive, are a very large group of species, found on most woodpeckers, and a
surprisingly homogenic group, but further discussion of its relationship
with albiventris will be deferred for a future article.
Penenirmus auritus californiensis (Kellogg), 1896
(Figures 30 and 31)
Docophorus californiensis, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 2 (6), p. 483; P1.
66, fig. 6. Host: Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi Ridgway.
A pair of this species (male and female) from Melanerpes f. formi-
civorus, collected by R. J. Newman at Xilitla, S. L. P., Mexico, June 12,
1947, is in L. S. U. M. Z. coll. I also have a large series of this species from
Costa Rica taken on Melanerpes formicivorus formicivorus and another
larger series from Colombia taken on M. f. flavigula, but I have not seen
specimens from the type host M. f. bairdi. A careful examination of this
series shows that the species varies greatly in measurements. Generally
speaking, specimens from Costa Rica and Mexico are smaller than Kellogg's
types and smaller than Colombian material, but there are specimens from
Costa Rica as large as the types and almost as large as the largest from
Colombia, but, excepting in size, no other differences were found in the
The range in measurements in Costa Rican females is body: 1.76 x .575
to 1.98 x .694; and head: .532 x .67 to .57 x .51. The range in males is
body: 1.59 x .575 to 1.63 x .586; and head: .52 x .467 to .50 x .445. Mexican
specimens fall within these extremes, while the largest Colombian speci-
men (a female) measures 2.08 x .69 (body) and .575 x .51 (head). Kellogg's
types measured (female), body: 1.90 x .72; head, .60 x .53; (male), body:
1.75 x .62 and (head) .53 x .47. It may be noted that the largest Colom-
bian female has the head smaller than the type (.57 x .51 against .60 x .53).
In view of the above series of measurements it would be very foolish to
attempt any separation of this series on size alone, while other differences
2 Waterston, 1915. Zool. Jb., Abt. Syst., 39: 27, fig. F.
SHopkins & Clay, 1951. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ent., Vol. 2, No. 1,
p. 28, figs. 38-40.
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
do not exist. It is possible that Kellogg's female type was an unusually
large specimen, since the measurements he gives for the male show the
head to be but slightly larger than Costa Rican and Colombian males.
It is also possible that an error was made in the measurements of the
female. It would, therefore, seem advisable to identify specimens from
all of the races of Melanerpes formicivorus merely as P. californiensis
This species, by the way, is very closely related to P. auritus (Scopoli)
= P. superciliosus (Burm.). I have compared my specimen with a pair
of neoparatypes of auritus and they are surprisingly alike. Kellogg states
that californiensis differs from superciliosus in the presence and absence
of certain setae of the prothorax and abdomen. This, however, is incorrect,
since their chaetotaxy is exactly the same. The difference between the two
species lies in the shorter head of auritus, especially the portion anterior
to the preantennal suture, which in auritus measures (female) .13 x .25,
while in californiensis it is .163 x .228. There are also differences in the
structure of the pleurites, those of californiensis having the median ridge
higher and more sharply defined; the pterothorax of auritus is wider in the
female (.526 against .51) and narrower in the male (.423 against .456).
There is very little difference in the male genitalia. The width at base
of paramers is the same, as well as the width of the central, deeply colored
portion of the endomera, but the posterior, almost hyaline portion is longer
and wider in auritus, and the median portion much longer, as well as the
penis. Considering the very slight differences between auritus and cali-
forniensis it seems best to consider them as conspecific, so that the latter
becomes a subspecies of the former.
Penenirmus auritus evagans (Kellogg), 1896'
Docophorus evagans Kellogg, Proc. California Acad. Sci., vol. 6 (2), p. 480,
pl. 66, fig. 2. Host: Dryobates pubescens =Dendrocopus pubescens
This species was described from a single male; host collected at Law-
rence, Kansas. In my own collection there is a single female from the
type host, taken at Lincoln, Nebr., April 20, 1901. This female agrees
in all respects with Kellogg's description of the male, excepting for size
and slight discrepancies in chaetotaxy. He gives the head measurements
as .53 x .47, while my female (which should be larger) measures only
.50 x .456, with a total length of 2.06 against Kellogg's measurement of
2.00 for the male. In this group there is an average difference in size
of head of .05 to .07 in both length and width. I am beginning to suspect
that we cannot always depend on Kellogg's measurements. They seem to
4 Two female adults and one female immature from Piculus aeruginosus
(Malherbe) collected at Xilitla, S. L. P., Mexico, January 25, 1947, are
practically impossible to separate from evagans, all head measurements
being the same, not varying in any case more than .02. The anterior plate
is a little longer and a trifle wider; the pterothorax and abdomen are a
trifle wider. Unfortunately no males are available for comparison of the
genitalia, nor have I seen the male of evagans. It seems best, from lack
of material, to identify them merely as P. auritus evagans.
36 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. I
run greater than they should in many instances, another example being the
measurements of P. californiensis.
In his description and figure of evagans the frons is noticeably wider
than in californiensis, and he places considerable stress on this character.
In my female from D. pubescens, which must be evagans, the frons is
noticeably wider than in californiensis, being actually .022 at the tips of
the preantennal carinae, while the anterior plate is wider (.108 x .10
against .108 x .087). Kellogg also says that "the trabeculae are acute and
reach to end of segment I of antennae," which agrees exactly with my
specimen, the clavi being longer than in californiensis, with very straight
sides and sharp point, while in californiensis the posterior margin is con-
cave and the tip less sharply pointed.
P. evagans also differs from californiensis in the shape of the abdominal
sternites, which, in the latter species are wider (transversely) and occupy
only the anterior half of the segment, while in evagans they are as wide
as the tergites.
I have examined three females which are apparently this species, taken
from Dendrocopus scalaris giraudi, collected by R. Newman at Ciudad del
Maiz, S. L. P., Mexico, March 23, 1947, and which are in the collection of
the L. S. U. Museum of Zoology.
These females are exactly like my female from pubescens, except for
slight discrepancies in measurements and their wider frons. They agree
in this respect exactly with Kellogg's figure of evagans, averaging about
.09 in width, while my female from pubescens measures .065 and cali-
forniensis averages about .043. The anterior plate is also larger, being
.15 x .108 against .108 x .10 for the pubescens female.
MEASUREMENTS OF P. auritus auritus AND P. a. californiensis
Male Female Male Female
Body ...--.--..-...-............1.67 .... 2.04 .... 1.63 .... 1.93 ---
Head (at clavi) .... ... .347 .38 .31 ... .314
Head (at temples) .54 .50 .575 .532 .52 .456 .545 .456
Prothorax ........-..... .14 .27 .185 .306 .185 .285 .185 .293
Pterothorax ....-- .237 .423 .24 .52 .217 .46 .228 .495
Abdomen ..............---- .92 .553 1.27 .716 .90 .50 1.15 .685
Basal plate .......... .20 .094 .15 .10
Paramer ...............---- .046 .016 .06 .026
Endomera .............. .08 .053 .07 .048
Taking into consideration the great individual variation in measure-
ments of the series of californiensis, it would seem rational that the same
thing would be found in evagans. The heads of the three females from
scalaris measure .553 x .488; .542 x .467; and .55 x .467, while the female
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
from pubescens measures .51 x .456. I do not consider that the differences
between auritus and evagans justify specific rank and have made the latter
a race of auritus.
Penenirmus auritus various Emerson, 1953
Penenirmus various Emerson, Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc., vol. 26, No. 4, October,
1953, p. 134; figs. 6 and 8, p. 135. Host: Sphyrapicus v. various (Linn6).
I would consider Emerson's species to be a race of P. auritus (Scopoli).
It is very close to the nominate form, resembling more closely auritus than
any of the other races I have seen, although it is very close also to evagans
(Kellogg). It is in no sense an outstanding subspecies.
A series of five males and three females were taken on the type host
collected by R. Newman at Xilitla, S. L. P., M6xico, on January 25, 1947.
Penenirmus auritus aurifrons, n. subsp.
(Figures 34 and 35)
Types, male and female adults, from Melanerpes aurifrons grateloupensis
(Lesson), collected by G. H. Lowery at Ebano, S. L. P., Mexico, Feb-
ruary 25, 1947 (in coll. L. S. U. M. Z.).
DIAGNOSIS.-Very close to evagans (Kell.), agreeing with that race in
practically all measurements. P. a. aurifrons differs in size, shape and
position of the anterior plate, that sclerite being set much further back
from margin of frons. It is much shorter and differently shaped in posterior
portion (see figure).
The preantennal carinae (back of suture) are considerably wider; the
inner carinae which support the anterior plate are much shorter and wider
in median portion; the area between the outer and inner carinae is deeply
chitinized and mottled; the preantennal nodus is much smaller, tapering
to a round tip; there are distinct dorsal temporal carinae, extending' from
preantennal nodus to anterior margin of prothorax. These are absent in
the other races. The male genitalia are smaller, the basal plate being
narrower and the component parts more slender (see figure). The species
is represented by the female holotype, male allotype and seven male and
seven female paratypes. Measurements will be found beyond.
Sturnidoecus caligineus (Carriker), 1903
Nirmus caligineus Carriker, Univ. Nebraska Stud. vol. III, p. 22, pl. III,
fig. 2. Host: Merula grayi= Turdus grayi casius (Bonaparte).
Penenirmus caligineus (Carriker), Carriker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1949,
vol. 100, No. 3266, p. 384. List of types described by the author 1903-
1910; Checklist of Mallophaga, Hopkins and Clay, 1952, p. 274.
When I published the list of my types in 1949, with their proper generic
allocations, I had not seen authentic specimens of Sturnidoecus Eichler,
and I do not remember whether I or Dr. Hopkins was responsible for the
allocation of Nirmus caligineus in Penenirmus.
Since I had no occasion to work with this genus until the present time,
this error was not previously discovered. Meanwhile, I had received from
Fig. 32. Penenirmus auritus evagans (Kell.) 9, head, thorax, and ab-
dominal segment I
Fig. 33. P. a. various Emerson 9, head, thorax, and abdominal segment I
Fig. 34. P. a. aurifrons, n. subsp. 9, anterior portion of head
Fig. 35. P. a. aurifrons, n. subsp. $, genitalia
Fig. 36. Sturnidoecus caligineus mexicanus, n. subsp. 9, head, thorax, and
abdominal segments I, II, and VII to IX
Fig. 37. S. c. mexicanus, n. subsp. &, genitalia
Fig. 38. Degeeriella borealis, n. sp. 9, head, thorax, and portions of ab-
Fig. 39. D. falconoidea, n. sp. 9, head, thorax, and portions of abdomen
Fig. 40a. D. falconoidea, n. sp. &, genitalia
Fig. 40b. D. borealis, n. sp. $, genitalia
Fig. 41. D. genitalis, n. sp, head, thorax, and abdominal segments I and II
Fig. 42. D. genitalis, n. sp. $, genitalia
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
Miss Clay neoparatypes of Sturnidoecus sturni (Schrank) (type of the
genus) and a pair of S. capensis (Giebel). When these were compared with
the types of Nirmus caligineus, the relationship was instantly apparent.
Nirmus caligineus is a typical Sturnidoecus in all respects and proves
to be the type of that genus most commonly found on the Neotropical
Turdidae, as well as occasionally on other Passeriformes of the New World.
The species is easily recognized by the structure of the anterior portion
of the head, the inner preantennal carinae and anterior plate extending
far beyond the tips of the outer, marginal carinae.
Sturnidoecus caligineus mexicanus, n. subsp.
(Figures 36 and 37)
Types, male and female adults, from Turdus infuscatus (Lafresnaye),
collected by R. Newman at Cerro Conejo, S. L. P., M6xico, May 27, 1947
(in coll. L. S. U. M. Z.).
DIAGNOSIS.-The anterior portion of the head in the whole caligineus
group is the same, and we have the following structure: The dorsal pre-
antennary carinae are unbroken and heavily chitinized, terminating in a
slender point apically; the inner carinae, which encircle the buccal cavity,
continue forward on each side of the anterior plate, but there is a third,
ventral(?) carina arising from between the two dorsal carinae and extend-
ing far beyond their tips (see figure). There is a slight suture running
backward between the point of the outer carinae and the median ventral
one which actually forms the anterior portion of the head and encloses the
anterior portion of the anterior plate.
Tho prothorax is short and much wider than long, with almost straight,
slightly divergent sides; the pterothorax is larger, with strongly divergent,
convex sides and posterior margin pointed medially, with a series of seven
strong setae, evenly spaced, along each side. The abdominal tergites are
all broken medially in both sexes, excepting in VIII, where it is entire at
the posterior margin; there are no pustulated setae on the tergites as in
Penenirmus, but there are three on each side, set in the clear space between
the tergites and the posterior margin of the segment, in II to VII, and
two on VIII; there are two shorter setae on each side of the posterior
margin of the sternal side of the pterothorax and three on each side of
the sternum; there is a single longer, heavier seta on posterior margin
of tergites III to VII, just behind the spiracles; a single submarginal seta
on each side of posterior margin of sternites I to VI.
The sternites are entire transversely, but widely separated from the
pleurites; the genital sternite is small, ending posteriorly in a point at
the anterior margin of segment VIII; segment IX is much narrower than
VIII (in female), hyaline and deeply incised medially; there are five short
setae on each side of posterior margin of VIII, and six short, sternal setae,
pointing inward, at each side of segment.
In the male, segment VIII is short, but almost as wide as VII, while
IX is longer and much narrower than VIII, with circular posterior margin
set with six rather long setae on each side. The male genitalia are well
developed but have a very short basal plate, expanded apically; the para-
mers are comparatively large, with broadly rounded tips curved inward
and touching; there are deeply colored carinae extending inward from the
40 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 1
basal portion of the paramers which possibly support the mesosome, but
this detail is not clear. These carinae are characteristic of the species;
at least all of the few males of this group which I have seen possess them,
and all have more or less similar genitalia. The structure of the mesosome
is rather complicated and difficult to differentiate, so that there may pos-
sibly be some slight errors in the figure.
MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES OF Penenirmus a. aurifrons AND Sturnidoecus
P. a. aurifrons S. c. mexicanus
Male Female Male Female
.) 44 .) 49 + 4 4) 49
Body .................. 1.73 ... 1.99 ... 1.27 ... 1.45
Head (at coni) ... .... .34 .. .358 295 ... .314
Head (at temples) .564 .477 .597 .50 .47 .445 .488 .456
Prothorax .............. .174 .314 .174 .30 .14 .24 .15 .267
Pterothorax ... .25 .477 .26 .48 .174 .37 .195 .39
Abdomen ......----....... .955 .605 1.19 .65 .625 .445 .80 .52
Basal plate ----.. .17 .09 .... .. .16 .11
Paramer ....----- .05 .02 .. .06 .01
Mesosome .....---- .076 .048 .... .08 .058
Genus Degeeriella Newmann, 1906
This genus has been restricted to the species parasitic on the Birds of
Prey (Suborder Falcones). They are characterized by a deeply colored,
heavily chitinized premarginal carina, usually corrugated along the inner
margin and with well developed preantennal nodus. In some species this
carina (dorsal portion) is interrupted in the median portion of the frons,
in others almost interrupted, and in still others with no trace of a median
constriction or interruption. There is present a more or less well developed
marginal temporal carina. The preocular and postocular nodus and post-
marginal carinae are less well developed and pigmented. There is no trace
of a preantennal suture or anterior plate and the clavi are small, pointed
The thoracic segments are small, the pterothorax with strongly diver-
gent sides and more or less transverse posterior margin, with a short median
point and bearing two pairs of long setae on each side of posterior margin
and one at lateral angle. The abdomen is elongated oval, the pleurites
with very long heads; the legs are short and stout; and the male genitalia
are minute, but with component parts rather complicated.
There is a row of six to eight (usually eight) longish setae across the
median portion of the tergites and usually four to six shorter ventral setae,
slightly posterior to the dorsal row, often difficult to see; there is a single
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
long, pustulated seta on the posterior margin of the tergites, just within
the head of the pleurites on segments II to VI, in addition to the usual
setae in the angles of the abdominal segments.
The genus is a large one, now containing 32 valid species and certainly
many undescribed forms. While many of the species are very similar in
appearance there are numerous small differences which may be used for
their separation. The most important of these are the following: Size of
body, size and shape of head, width and outline of preantennal carina,
thoracic sternal sclerites, shape of pleurites and their heads, but perhaps
the most important of all are the male genitalia.
Degeeriella borealis, n. sp.
(Figures 38 and 40b)
Types, male and female adults, from Buteo jamaicensis borealis (Gmelin),
collected by D. S. Farner at Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A., December 4,
1946 (in. coll. L. S. U. M. Z.).
DIAGNOSIS.-The size of the body is medium, with head considerably
longer than wide (female: .61 x .456), and almost as wide at clavi as at
temples (female: .434 x .456). There is very little difference in size be-
tween the sexes.
The frons is flatly rounded, with sides of head in preantennal portion
almost straight; the dorsal preantennal carina is rather wide and strongly
corrugated on inner margin and deeply incised in middle of frons, but not
completely interrupted; there are five transverse "canals" on each side of
frons, leading to minute marginal setae; there are inner, preantennal
carinae extending from the sides of mandibles and encircling the buccal
cavity, and it is not completely clear whether these carinae are dorsal
or ventral, but they are shown in figure as being ventral. The pulvinus
is well developed, as in the entire genus, with but little variation in the
different species. The temporal carinae are short, joined basally with the
postmarginal carinae and preantennal nodus, as well as with the posterior
mandibular condyle. These carinae seem to be dorsal, with ventral carinae
absent (see figure).
The thoracic sternal plates are unusually large, especially that of the
prothorax, which extends beyond the occipital margin of head. In segment
I of abdomen there is a row of six setae across the middle of tergite, with
another at anterior edge on each side of the median emargination; sternite
VII also has six setae (figure incorrect in this detail), while II to VI have
eight; there are three sternal setae on each side of median line in segments
I to VI; in the female the heads of pleurites II to IV are long and wide,
with rounded ends, but they decrease rapidly in size from V to VII, while
in the male those of II to V are smaller and the reduction in size back
to VI is very little.
The male genitalia are very small, with the ends of the paramers curved
back alongside the endomera, and with a bar from the lateral wings of
the endomera across the inner basal portion of the paramers; only the
tip of the penis is visible. The species is represented by the female holo-
type, male allotype, and one female paratype. Measurements are given
after the following species.
42 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 1
Degeeriella falconoidea, n. sp.
(Figures 39 and 40a)
Types, male and female adults, from Falco mexicanus Schlegel, collected by
C. Shaw at San Luis Potosi, S. L. P., M6xico, December 12, 1946 (in
coll. L. S. U. M. Z.).
DIAGNOSIS.-This species differs strongly from borealis, the male being
much smaller than the female, and the abdomen in both sexes much slen-
derer; the head is much shorter, with frons narrower and sides of pre-
antennal region more strongly divergent (female: head, .54 x .42 against
.61 x .45).
The preantennal carina is of uniform width across the frons, with no
trace of median interruption; the inner margin, along sides of head, is
strongly corrugated, but in the frontal portion the margin is straight,
and the carina narrower; there are four "canals" across the carina to
marginal setae, but none near the middle of frons as in borealis (see
figure); the preantennal nodus is much smaller than in borealis and the
marginal temporal carinae are narrower and more uniform; the temporal
carinae are faintly chitinized, but there are apparently both dorsal and
ventral bands, while in borealis there is only the dorsal.
MEASUREMENTS OF TYPES OF D. borealis AND D. falconoidea.
Male Female Male Female
4I 4 4I 4 i
Body .....................1.93 .... 2.09 .... 1.73 .... 2.08
Head (at temples) .575 .434 .61 .456 .51 .40 .542 .423
Head (at clavi) .... .40 .... .434 .... .358 .... .40
Prothorax ........~..... .185 .28 .195 .282 .163 .25 .195 .26
Pterothorax .......... .195 .45 .205 .475 .14 .326 .185 .38
Abdomen ......-.........1.13 .57 1.25 .63 1.02 .39 1.30 .542
Antennae ...----...... .23 .045 .24 .045 .217 .043 .217 .043
Basal plate --...... .16 .09 .15 .098
Paramers ....---..... .04 .... .055
Endomera ....--.... .04 .06 .05 .077
The pterothorax is much smaller than in borealis (female: .185 x .38
against .205 x .475). The thoracic sternites are quite different from those
of borealis; there are eight setae on tergite I, in addition to the one on
each side of the median emargination, and eight on all of the remaining
tergites except VII, which has six. There are six sternal setae on segments
I to VI, those on VI small and set further back on segment.
The pleurites are long, all with long heads except VII, and there are
deep emarginations on the anterior side of tergites just within the pleurites;
the outer half of pleurites are more deeply colored than the inner (the
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga 43
ventral); segment VIII is very similar to borealis, except for a median
protuberance in falconoidea. There is practically no difference between the
sexes, except in size and the shape and chaetotaxy of abdominal segments
VII and VIII. The male genitalia are considerably larger than in borealis
and very different in structure (see figures). The species is represented
by the female holotype, male allotype and one male and three female
paratypes; also a male and female in my collection from the type host
collected by Lawrence Bruner at Harrison, Nebraska, February 25, 1896.
Degeeriella genitalis, n. sp.
(Figures 41 and 42)
Types, male and female adults, from Buteo regalis (G. R. Gray), collected
by M. A. Carriker, Jr., at Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A., October 19, 1900
(in coll. of M. A. C.).
DIAGNOSIS.-The shape of the head differs from the other three species
treated in this paper, the frons being more rounded and whole head nar-
rower, with very little difference in width between the bases of the clavi
and the temples (female: .39 against .43 and male: .39 against .423).'
The preantennal carinae is interrupted in the male and female; a dis-
tinguishing character is the almost identical size of the male and female,
most all measurements being either the same or very close, even those of
the abdomen (see table of measurements). There is no sexual dimorphism
in the head. Another character distinguishing the species is the color-
ation of preantennal carinae, with the corrugations almost black and with
a series of five rounded clear spots (not hyaline) along each side of the
head. The gular plate is small and very narrow, and the metasternum
very large (see figure).
There is no distinguishing character in the abdomen, and the chaetotaxy
is typical, a series of four setae on each side of median portion of tergites
I to VI, and three on VII, with an extra seta on I at each side of the
median emargination on anterior side; there are two sternal setae on each
side of the median line of segments I to VI, slightly posterior to the dorsal
setae; a long, strong pustulated seta just within head of pleurites on
posterior margin of tergites II to VI.
The most distinguishing character is the male genitalia, with small basal
plate and very large paramers and with differently constructed endomera
The species is represented by female holotype, male allotype and two
male and one female paratypes. A single male in rather poor condition
in the collection of the L. S. U. Museum of Zoology was collected from the
type host by K. Abegg in Kansas(?). Measurements follow together with
(To be continued)
44 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 1
A SYNONYMIC NOTE ON ATRACHELUS A. ANDS. (HEMIPTERA; REDUVIIDAE) :
In a recent exchange of specimens with the British Museum (Natural
History) I was fortunate enough to obtain one male and two females of
Repipta mucosa Champion which are from material used in writing the
Biologia Centrali-Americana and identified by Champion. These three
individuals are typical Atrachelus (Phorobura) Amyot and Serville, 1843,
and belong to the species described by me as Atrachelus (Phorobura) beieri.
A formal synonymy is as follows:
Atrachelus (Phorobura) mucosa (Champion). Comb. nov.
Repipta mucosa Champion 1898, Biol. Cent.-Am., II: 271, pl. 16, fig. 17.
Atrachelus (Phorobura) beieri Elkins 1954, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 56(3):
105-106 (in key), 110 (description), figs. 6, 7.
JOE C. ELKINS
The Sub-Tropical Entomologists of Florida was started September 14,
1955. At the four meetings held since then, 19 to 29 people with an active
interest in Entomology attended. The speakers on these occasions were
Dr. Maurice W. Provost, Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger, Mr. G. Wally Dekle,
and Mr. Fred H. Stutz.
At the January meeting, a motion was passed to ask the Florida Ento-
mological Society for permission to become its first branch and to request
advice as to the requirements for doing this.
All people interested in Entomology are invited to come to the meetings
which are held the second Wednesday of each month at 7:30 P.M. in
Room 385, North Campus, University of Miami.
ALFRED S. MILLS
Zeno Payne Metcalf 45
ZENO PAYNE METCALF
Dr. Z. P. Metcalf died at his home at Raleigh, N. C., January 5, 1956.
Even though he had suffered poor health for many months, he died quite
suddenly and unexpectedly while talking to his wife and daughter, Mrs.
Micou Brown of Raleigh.
Dr. Metcalf was born in 1885 at Lakeville, Ohio, and was educated at Ohio
State University where he received his A.B. degree in 1908. He earned his
D.Sc. degree at Harvard University in 1924. From 1912 until the time
of his death he was a member of the faculty of North Carolina State College.
Dr. Metcalf was the author of 9 books and an active member of 36 learned
and professional societies. He was a key speaker at the International
Congress of Zoology which convened in Paris in July, 1948, and at the
International Congress of Entomologists which met in Stockholm in
August, 1948. In addition he was president of 3 major national scientific
organizations, The Entomological Society of America, The Ecological So-
ciety of America and the American Microscopical Society-a distinction
accorded few scientists in the United States.
Dr. Metcalf also served on the editorial boards of 4 of the large national
professional journals and was the author of 96 professional publications.
At the time of his death he was engaged in preparing a 42-volume catalog
of the homoptera of the world. Fifteen volumes had been or were in press
at the time of his death, and several more volumes are nearly ready to
go to press. An attempt is being made to provide means of completing
the entire set of 42 volumes. Dr. Metcalf has spent much of the past 40
years collecting notes for the series. In an effort to obtain material he
read and checked over 20,000 books and papers dealing with insects and
visited all the principal libraries in the United States and England. The
order Homoptera comprises about 4,000 described genera and 30,000
described species. The catalog now contains 512,000 references, probably
the greatest catalog of any order of insects to be found anywhere in the
CLYDE F. SMITH