Volume 39, Number 2 June, 1956
De Leon, Donald-Six New False Spider Mites from
Southern Florida (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) --..- .- ......-- 55
Kerr, S. H.-Chinch Bug Control Tests-1955........................ 61
Selhime, Allen G.-Brumus suturalis, a Beneficial
Lady B eetle ...................................................... .. .. 65
Carriker, M. A., Jr.-Report on a Collection of
Mallophaga, Largely Mexican (Part II) .......----....--.. ...... 69
Denmark, H. A.-The Mediterranean Fruit Fly Infests
Florida Again: Early Chronology.--....----------------.......... 85
----Hussey, R. F.-Additions to the United States List of
Hemiptera ........ ----------...-------------.-.. 88
CMembership List ofthe Florida Entomological Society_... 89
List of Past Presidents of the Florida Entomological Society 94
Patton, Constance Nicholas-Observations on the Mating
Behavior of the Green June Beetle, Cotinus nitida,
(Linn.) ...... -------- .......--- ----.... .......... 95
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
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SIX NEW FALSE SPIDER MITES FROM SOUTHERN
FLORIDA (ACARINA: TENUIPALPIDAE)
DONALD DE LEON
Coral Gables, Florida
The genus Tenuipalpus has twenty-five recognized species
including those described below; ten species have been collected
only in Florida, and two others primarily tropical in distribution
also occur here. More than half the members seem to be host
specific, but further collecting may reveal wider host acceptance.
Nearly all the species are greatly flattened and a few are nearly
as wide as long. Those I have collected appress themselves to
the leaf when feeding so that at first sight, except sometimes for
color, they look like young unarmoured scale insects; when mov-
ing, they have a peculiar fluttering motion.
Tenuipalpus tetrazygiae, n. sp.
T. tctrazygiae belongs to the group of species in this genus having one
pair of anterior medioventrals and one pair of posterior medioventrals. It
is distinguished from all other members of the group reviewed by Baker
and Pritchard (1953)1 chiefly by the small, elliptic to obovate mediodorsal
hysterosomals and by the irregularly ridged dorsal surface of the body.
FEMALE: Red; dorsal surface covered by irregular folds or ridges.
Rostral shield broadly cleft, mediolateral lobe small; no lateral lobe. First
and second dorsal propodosomals small, elliptic "; third dorsal propodosomal
short (17 microns) narrow-elliptic, spiculate; humeral seta narrow-elliptic
to obovate, spiculate, about half the length of third propodosomal; medio-
dorsal hysterosomals elliptic, first pair slightly less in length than half
the distance between bases, second and third pair equal to or slightly less
than transverse distance between bases; first three dorsolateral opis-
thosomals narrow-elliptic, spiculate, and shorter than, to about as long as,
distance between adjacent bases; fourth flagelliform, exceptionally long,
about as long as hysterosoma; fifth similar in shape to third but slightly
smaller. Pore present. Podosoma with one pair of anterior and one pair of
posterior medioventrals. Ventral hysterosomals bare. Palpus with sensory
seta on terminal segment, preceding segment with barbulate seta near distal
end. Femora I and II with elliptic to setiform types of setae; patellae I and
II each usually with two setiform setae anteromedially; patellae III and IV
bare; tibia IV usually lacking anteromedial setae; tarsi I and II each with
posterodistal sensilla. Length, including rostral shield, 291 microns;
width 157 microns.
SBaker, E. W. and A. E. Pritchard. 1953. A review of the false spider
mites of the genus Tenuipalpus Donnadieu (Acarina: Phytoptipalpidae).
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 46 (3): 317-336.
2 Elliptic is used to describe setae widest at the mid-section and lanceo-
late to describe those widest near the base.
56 The Florida Entomologist Voi. 39, No. 2
MALE: Resembles female, except ridges of dorsum not as numerous
or as pronounced.
NYMPH AND LARVA: Lack irregularly ridged dorsum, third dorsal
propodosomal setiform and proportionally longer than in adult.
EGG: Red to orange; dorsal surface with longitudinal ridges; length
105 microns, width 79 microns.
Holotype: Female, west of Perrine, Florida, 15 November 1954 (D.
De Leon) from Tetrazygia bicolor. Paratypes: Five females, three males,
ten nymphs, seven larvae; same data as for holotype.
Tenuipalpus metopii, n. sp.
T. metopii belongs to the group of species in this genus which bears
one pair of anterior medioventrals and one pair of posterior medioven-
trals; the mediodorsal hysterosomals are minute. Metopii has many of
the characters given by Baker and Pritchard (loc. cit.) for T. knorri
Baker and Pritchard from Argentina, but it differs from knorri among
other characters by the absence of setae posteromedially on patellae I and
II, by the absence of setae on patellae III, and by a strong carina ex-
tending longitudinally forward from the base of dorsolateral opisthosomal
FEMALE: Usually red (some specimens mostly greyish), translucent;
dorsum rather smooth, a few weak striae extending diagonally down from
third propodosomal; a carina or fold just behind second pair of mediodorsal
hysterosomals; a longitudinal carina extending forward from base of
first dorsolateral opisthosomal, carina becoming less distinct anterior to
pore. Some specimens show a second carina arising from third dorsolateral
opisthosomal and extending forward to where it nearly touches carina from
first dorsolateral, both then continuing towards anterior margin of hys-
terosoma. Rostral shield deeply cleft; a small mediolateral lobe, and a
small lateral lobe from the upper, outer edge of which the third dorsal
propodesomal seta arises; first and second dorsal propodosomals minute,
third short (25 microns in length), narrow-elliptic, spiculate; humeral seta
about one third the length of third dorsal propodosomal, narrow-elliptic,
and about as long as distance between adjacent bases, fourth flagelliform,
fifth, half as long as third. One pair of anterior and one pair of posterior
medioventrals. Ventral hysterosomals bare. Palpus apparently two-seg-
mented, a seta at end of last segment; all ventral coxal setae barbulate;
femora I, II, and III with both narrow-elliptic and setiform types of setae
on anterior margin, posteromarginal seta of femur II narrow-elliptic;
tarsi I and II each with posterodistal sensilla. Length of body, including
rostral shield, 291 microns, width 192 microns.
MALE: Not known.
NYMPH AND LARVA: Body weakly striate; third dorsal proposomal pro-
portionally longer, and dorsolateral opisthosomals one, two, three, and five
more slender than in adult; fourth flagelliform.
EGG: Red to orange; longitudinal ridges on upper surface; length 105
microns, width 69 microns.
HOLOTYPE: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, 13 September 1955 (D. De
Leon) from Metopium toxiferum. Paratypes: 18 females, 28 nymphs,
13 larvae; same data as for holotype.
De Leon: Six New False Spider Mites
Tenuipalpus bucidae, n. sp.
T. bucidae belongs to the group of species in this genus which bears
one pair of anterior medioventral and one pair of posterior medioventral
setae. The minute mediodorsal hysterosomals and the large dorsolateral
opisthosomals, place it in the micheli-podocarpi complex. Bucidae has many
of the characters given for the South African species podocarpi Lawrence
by Baker and Pritchard (loc. cit.), but differs from their description and
drawing (after Lawrence) in other characters including the location of the
third dorsal propodosomal, the lack of a conical body-projection anterior to
coxa III, and the absence of an enlarged seta on coxa III.
FEMALE: Body, in live specimens, translucent, iridescent, pale yellow
with tinge of green. Dorsum of body shagreened, without distinct striations
except for a few extending diagonally in from lateral lobe. Rostral shield
deeply cleft; a small mediolateral lobe and a more pronounced lateral lobe.
First and second dorsal propodosomals minute, second adjacent to eye;
third arising from about middle of outer edge of lateral lobe, very narrow,
almost setiform, spiculate, about 42 microns in length and about a third
as long as distance between its base and caudal margin of propodosoma;
humeral seta oval, spiculate, about one third the length of third dorsal
propodosomal; mediodorsals minute. First, second and third dorsolateral
opisthosomals elliptic, spiculate and appreciably longer than distance be-
tween adjacent bases; fourth flagelliform, fifth narrow-elliptic to obovate,
spiculate, and slightly smaller than third. Podosoma with one pair of
anterior and one pair of posterior medioventrals; all ventral body-setae bare.
Palpus apparently 1-segmented with a long, spiculate setae distad. Femora
I and II each with setiform and elliptic types of setae, patellae I and II
each with only anteromedial seta, tarsi I and II each with posterodistal
sensilla, patella III bare. Length, including rostral shield, 270 microns,
width 203 microns.
MALE: Not known.
DEUTONYMPH: Pale orange-yellow; third dorsal propodosomal setiform,
proportionally longer than in adult; dorsolateral opisthosomals narrow,
elliptic, except the fourth which is flagelliform.
LARVA: Resembles nymph, but body-setae setiform.
EGG: Pale orange, shining, with faint longitudinal ridges dorsally.
Length 84 microns, width 59 microns.
Holotype: Female, Fairchild Tropical Garden, Coconut Grove, Florida,
4 August 1955 (D. De Leon), from Bucida buceras. Paratypes: Three
females, three nymphs, four larvae; same data as for holotype.
This mite is sometimes so numerous on Bucida buceras, a common street
tree in Coral Gables, that it causes discoloration of the leaves.
Tenuipalpus hastaligni, n. sp.
T. hastaligni belongs to the group of mites in this genus having one
pair of anterior medioventrals, one pair of posterior medioventrals and
the mediodorsals minute. The third dorsal propodosomal is long and
the first three dorsolateral opisthosomals are large. The'mite appears to
be closely related to T. micheli Lawrence from South Africa, but it differs
among other characters from the description and drawing (after Lawrence)
The Florida Entomologist
given for micheli by Baker and Pritchard (loc. cit.) in that the third
dorsal propodosomal arises from the base of the lateral lobe which is
large; the posteromedial seta of femur II is ovate and extends only to
about the distal end of patella II; the projection anterior to coxa III
is triangular in outline, and patella IV is bare.
FEMALE: Body translucent, iridescent, pale yellowish with a tinge of
green in live specimens; legs, especially basally, orange. Dorsum smooth
with a few weak striae extending diagonally down from the lateral lobe.
Rostral shield narrowly cleft; mediolateral lobe small; lateral lobe promi-
nent, extending beyond base of femur II, broadly rounded at apex; a
triangular body-projection anterior to coxa III. First and second dorsal
propodosomals minute, third narrow-lanceolate, arising from base of lateral
lobe, 66 microns in length and about half as long as distance between its
base and posterior margin of propodosoma; mediodorsals minute; first,
second, and third dorsolateral opisthosomals broadly elliptic, spiculate,
and more than twice as long as the distance between adjacent bases,
fourth flagelliform, fifth narrow-elliptic, nearly half the length of third;
outer anteroventral propodosomal seta long (ending beyond apex of lateral
lobe), barbulate; podosoma with one pair of anterior and one pair of
posterior medioventrals, the posterior pair unusually long, extending be-
yond bases of the two pairs of genital setae; medioventral hysterosomals
bare; anterior ventrolateral hysterosomal seta barbulate. Palpus with
terminal sensory seta, preceding segment with barbulate seta near distal
end; posteromedial setae of femur II ovate, extending to about distal
end of patella; patella IV without seta, tarsi I and II each with a
posterodistal sensilla. Length of body including rostral shield, 327 microns,
width 262 microns.
MALE: Not known.
NYMPH: Third dorsal propodosomal narrow-lanceolate, shorter than
half the distance between its base and caudal margin of propodosoma,
and arising from base of a pronounced anteriorally directed lobe; no
lobe anterior to coxa III.
EGG: Glassy white, elongate, with dorsal longitudinal ridges. Length
133 microns, width 59 microns.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, 13 September 1955 (D. De
Leon), from Ocotea coriacea. Paratypes: Ten females, six nymphs;
same data as for holotype.
Tenuipalpus coccolobicolus, n. sp.
T. coccolobicolus belongs to the group of species in this genus with two
pairs of anterior medioventrals and one pair of posterior medioventrals.
In Baker and Pritchard's key to the genus (loc. cit.) it keys to carolinensis
Baker on the basis of its minute mediodorsal hysterosomals, but it differs
from the description and illustration of that species chiefly by its being nearly
as wide as long, by its third dorsal propodosomal seta arising from a promi-
nent lateral lobe, and by its broad sub-quadrate lateral body-projection
anterior to coxa III.
FEMALE: Body, in live specimens, translucent, shining, pale yellow with
tinge of green. Dorsum sparsely shagreened, with a few weak more
IVol. 39, No. 2
De Leon: Six New False Spider Mites
or less transverse grooves medially. Rostral shield broadly cleft;
mediolateral lobe pronounced and lateral lobe prominent; large sub-
quadrate body-projection anterior to coxa III. First and second dor-
sal propodosomal setae minute (about six microns in length), elliptic;
third dorsal propodosomal about 43 microns in length, narrow-elliptic,
arising from the outer edge of lateral lobe, and about one-third as long
as distance between its base and posterior margin of propodosoma;
humeral seta one-third the length of third dorsal propodosomal, narrow-
elliptic and arising from near base of sub-quadrate projection and behind
its anterior edge; mediodorsal hysterosomals minute; dorsolateral opis-
thosomals one, two, and three narrow-elliptic, sub-equal in length, about
twice as long as distance between adjacent bases; fourth flagelliform, fifth
narrow-elliptic, about two-thirds the length of three. Pore present.
Podosoma with two pairs of anterior and one pair of posterior medio-
ventrals. Ventral hysterosomals bare. Terminal segment of palpus with
sensory seta at distal end; preceding segment enlarged at base, barbulate
seta arising from near distal end. Legs I and II each with narrow-
elliptic and setiform types of setae; one pair of setae anteromedially on
each of patellae and tibiae I and II; patella IV without seta, tarsi I and
II each with sensilla posterodistally. Length, including rostral shield,
334 microns, width 308 microns.
MALE: Resembles female in general characters, but setae less robust.
NYMPH: Pale yellow; lateral lobe of propodosoma not developed; third
dorsal propodosomal setiform, proportionally longer than in adult; sub-
quadrate lobe anterior to coxa III not developed; fourth dorsolateral opis-
EGG: Pale yellow; faintly ridged longitudinally. Length 100 microns,
width 60 microns.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, 27 July 1955 (D. De Leon),
from Coccolobis laurifolia. Paratypes: Five females, three males, two
nymphs; same data as for holotype.
Tenuipalpus chiococcae, n. sp.
T. chiococcae belongs to the group of species in this genus which has
two pairs of anterior medioventrals and one pair of posterior medio-
ventrals; the mediodorsal hysterosomals are enlarged, but they are shorter
than the transverse distance between pairs. In the key to the species
by Baker and Pritchard (loc. cit.) it runs to pigrus Pritchard and Baker,
but differs among other characters from pigrus by its third dorsal propo-
dosomal being about a fifth longer than the first and elliptic to obovate,
by its first three dorsolateral opisthosomals being shorter than the distance
between adjacent bases, and by the absence of a pronounced body-pro-
jection anterior to coxa III.
FEMALE: Body, in live specimens, apricot. Dorsum raised centrally
forming a prominent longitudinal ridge full length of body, near caudal
margin narrow, declivous. Except at hysterosomal suture, dorsum strongly
striate, striae convoluted forming intricate patterns. Rostral shlield
broadly cleft; mediolateral lobe small, acute; lateral lobe small, not ex-
tending beyond distal end of coxa II. First and second dorsal propodoso-
mals oval to obovate, sub-equal in length, about half as long as width of
The Florida Entomologist
coxa II, each arising from a conical protuberance; third elliptic to obo-
vate, ten microns in length, sightly shorter than wdth of coxa II; humeral
seta elliptic to oblanceolate, about as long as first dorsal propodosomal,
and situated on a tubercle above a small anterolateral lobe of hysterosoma;
dorsolateral metapodosomal seta oblanceolate about as long as humeral;
mediodorsal hysterosomals narrow, oval and shorter than transverse dis-
tance between pairs; dorsolateral opisthosomals one, two, and three narrow-
elliptic to oblanceolate, sub-equal in length, shorter than or equal to dis-
tance between adjacent bases, fourth flagelliform, fifth similar to two.
Pore present. Podosoma with two pairs of anterior medioventrals and one
pair of posterior medioventrals; ventral hysterosomals bare. Palpus
with second segment strongly enlarged basad, barbulate seta arising from
near distal end; terminal segment with sensory seta on distal end. Femora
I and II with both narrow-elliptic and setiform types of setae, patella I
and II each with pair of setae medially on inner margin and one seta on
outer margin, tarsi I and II each with posterodistal sensilla, patella IV
and femur IV bare. Length, including rostral shield, 328 microns, width
MALE: Resembles female, but lateral lobe more pronounced, second
palpal segment with a small projection near inner distal end, tarsi
I and II each with two sensillae.
NYMPH: Third dorsal propodosomal setiform and proportionally longer
than for female; first dorsolateral opisthosomal setiform.
LARVA: Resembles nymph.
EGG: Length 128 microns, width 86 microns; apricot; longitudinally
ridged dorsally. In each species these longitudinal ridges are formed by a
Sthin membrane that apparently covers only the upper surface of the egg.
When mounted in Hoyer's Medium the membrane usually sloughs off. The
eggs of both species of Tuckerella are similarly ridged.
Holotype: Female, west of Perrine, Florida, 28 September 1955 (D. De
Leon), on Chiococca pinetorum. Paratypes: Three females, one male, nine
nymphs, one larva; same data as for holotype.
The types of these six species have been deposited in the U. S. National
Museum; paratypes in the University of Florida Collections, Gainesville.
Vol. 39, No. 2
CHINCH BUG CONTROL TESTS-19551
S. H. KERR
University of Florida, Gainesville
Records of very damaging attacks on St. Augustine grass
lawns by the chinch bug Blissus insularis Barber date back into
the last century. The ravages of this insect have been most
marked in the past decade, however. The increase in reports
of injury may be at least partially accounted for by the fact that
many more St. Augustine grass lawns have been planted in re-
cent years due to the rapid expansion of private housing and
tourist facilities in Florida.
Previous tests on control of the chinch bug conducted by
Kerr (1956) showed that emulsion concentrates of DDT and
parathion were more consistently reliable than chlordane, dield-
rin, strobane, and demeton. These 1954 trials also indicated
that DDT and parathion could be used satisfactorily at lower
dosages than those often used in Florida.
Methods and Materials: In 1955, DDT and parathion were compared
with malathion and lindane in'a factorial test contrasting the emulsion con-
centrate and granular formulations of the four insecticides. Dieldrin
granules were also tried in one or two plots at each location.
There was particular interest in the performance of malathion, because
the use of parathion has been banned in at least one community. Com-
mercial spray operators have been interested in turning to malathion as a
phosphatic substitute for the very effective parathion. Since it was not
possible to make observations on the effectiveness of one versus two appli-
cations, the effects of a single application were followed over a six-week
Insecticidal dosages are shown in table 1. Granules were applied at
about 1.5X the emulsion concentrate dosages since some previous ex-
perience indicated this was necessary to get comparable control. Emulsion
concentrates were applied with a sprinkling can at the rate of five gallons
of liquid per 100 square feet of lawn. The granules were shaken from a
jar with a perforated lid, and then washed from the grass foliage by light
sprinkling. Care was taken to ensure that the soil was moist prior to appli-
cation of the toxicants.
Chinch bug counts were made, as in 1954, by sampling one square foot
of each plot with a flotation method. The sample was taken where it was
estimated that the population level in each plot was highest. A pre-appli-
cation count was made. The pre-application counts were arranged d seri-
1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 470.
SThe writer wishes to extend his deep appreciation for the help given
in conducting these tests by Mrs. Kerr and by Mr. Frank A. Robinson. Secur-
ing of test sites was made possible through the cooperation of Mr. Sidney
Kirkpatrick in Fort Lauderdale, and Messrs. Robert, L. Perry and C. M.
Coursen in Tampa.
62 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 2
atum and the list was divided into high, medium, and low populations.
In Tampa, the average number of chinch bugs per square foot in the
high, medium, and low population replicates was 155.3, 74.9 and 45.7
respectively. At Fort Lauderdale, there was room for only two replicates,
and the pre-application count was split into high versus low population
(averages of 51.3 and 14.1 chinch bugs per square foot respectively) to
determine the placing of the replicates. The location of the plots within
the replicates was randomized. Plot size at Tampa was 43.5 square feet,
and at Fort Lauderdale 65 square feet.
TABLE I.-INSECTICIDES AND DOSAGES.
Insecticide Amount of active ingredient per acre in pounds
Emulsion concentrate Granules
DDT ..............-------.......... -............ 10 15
Parathion ---................-...----....- ... ...... 1.5 2
M alathion ---- ------.... ............ --..--.--- 6 10
Lindane ..------- ---...-~~...~........ -.............-. 2.5 4
D ieldrin ............---- ..... .................... 8
The insecticides were applied on June 7 in Fort Lauderdale and on July
12 in Tampa. Subsequent counts were taken at two-, four-, and six-week
intervals. The plots at Tampa were inadvertently sprayed by the coopera-
tor there just prior to the six-week count, so the data for the count at that
time are not included in the combined analysis for the two locations in
table 2. In Fort Lauderdale, there were seven inches of rain during the
First two-week interval and 1.71 inches in the following two-week interval.
This was considerably less than the 121 inches that fell there during the
three-week testing period in 1954. The rainfall in Tampa was less extreme
in both seasons.
Results: The data for locations 1 and 2, and for the two- and four-week
counts, were combined and subjected to an analysis of variance. There
was no interaction between locations and insecticides as there was in
1954 when the tests were conducted on widely differing types of turf at
locations over 300 miles apart. With some of the insecticides, there was
a statistically better control with one formulation or the other but the
differences were too small to have practical meaning.
The finding of a significant F for replicates within locations was not
unexpected and was also observed in 1954. It indicates that the level of the
population at the start of the test may have an effect on the results at-
tained. The number of chinch bugs left in the plots which had a high
population at the start of the test was larger than the number left where
the population was low at the -outset.
The significant F value for locations probably reflects the fact that the
average population at the start of the test at Tampa was much larger than
the population at Fort Lauderdale. Yet the numbers of chinch bugs at the
end of the test were nearly the same for each location.
The significance of the differences between treatment means was
examined by Duncan's (1955) multiple range test. Results are shown in
Table 2. At the time of the first or two-week count, all treatments reduced
Kerr: Chinch Bug Control Tests 63
chinch bugs populations significantly from the check. There were no
significant differences among control figures for lindane, parathion, and
DDT formulations. Malathion formulations were significantly less effective
than parathion and DDT at the rates tested. By the multiple range test,
however, some lindane means were not significantly different from some
malathion means. Lindane, then, was intermediate between malathion and
DDT or parathion in effectiveness. At the four-week count malathion
formulations did not give significant reductions from chinch bug numbers
in the check. Lindane, parathion and DDT formulations all gave signifi-
cant reductions from the check at the four-week count and were not sig-
nificantly different from each other. Dieldrin gave practically no control in
the plots where it was tried.
TABLE 2.-NUMBERS OF CHINCH BUGS PER SQUARE FOOT. AVERAGE FROM
COMBINATIONS OF ALL REPLICATES AT Two LOCATIONS.*
I .1Q E-'c H- (
u gO P 4 Ul P0 PiH Pa QH QO
count ........ 68.6 63.2 80.2 54.8 83.4 68.2 57.4 77.6 61.0
2 Weeks ...... 72 26.8 17.6 4.8 3.6 1.8 0.0 2.0 1.8
4 Weeks ..... 71.4 81.0 38.6 9.6 7.4 3.4 1.2 3.2 1.0
Any two means underscored by any given line are not significantly different from each
other at 5 percent level. Any two means not underscored by the same line are significantly
A decline in the residual effectiveness of the insecticides with the
passage of time is clearly shown. A significant F for counting dates X
insecticides was expected, and table 2 shows that malathion, particularly,
had rapidly lost its ability to control the insects. The other insecticides
were not as effective in control after four weeks as after two weeks, al-
though the numbers of bugs were still below a damaging level. It was
pointed out above that the six-week counts could not be included in the
analysis, but the data obtained showed a rapid rebuilding of chinch-bug
numbers for most of the other materials. Parathion plots, especially,
had large numbers of bugs present after six weeks, although DDT-treated
plots still showed consistently small numbers of insects.
Although the average reduction in chinch bug numbers by lindane
was not significantly different from that by DDT and parathion, lindane's
performance was not as impressive because of its erratic control. While all
of the parathion and DDT plots had counts ranging between 0 and 8 chinch
bugs per square foot, lindane plots included some with counts of 14, 16,
18, 19, and 32 bugs.
The Florida Entomologist
Summary: A test for the control of chinch bugs on St. Augustine
grass lawns was conducted at two locations with emulsion concentrate and
granular formulations of DDT, parathion, malathion, and lindane. Mala-
thion failed to give satisfactory control. Chinch bug numbers in some
lindane plots were rather high, although the average control figure for
this material was satisfactory. Granular formulations gave practically
,the same control as emulsion concentrates. All treatments except mala-
thion formulations still showed very satisfactory average control four weeks
from the date of application. Only DDT-treated plots had small numbers
of chinch bugs after six weeks.
Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics
Kerr, S. H. 1956. Chinch bug control on lawns in Florida. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 49(1): 83-85.
NOTICE OF ANNUAL MEETING
The Thirty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society
will be held on August 30-31, 1956, at the Floridan Hotel, Tallahassee.
This is the first meeting of the Society to be held in the state capitol and
advance planning indicates that it will be one of the best. In addition to the
program of presented papers, a tour of the North Florida Experiment
Station is planned as part of the program.
So that the program can be printed in time for members to receive
their copies before the meeting, all persons planning to present papers
should submit the title and time required for presentation to Dr. S. H.
Kerr, Department of Entomology, Agricultural Experiment Station, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, before July 31.
Vol. 39, No. 2
REPORT ON A COLLECTION OF MALLOPHAGA,
LARGELY MEXICAN (PART II)
M. A. CARRIER, JR.
(Continued from p. 43, Vol. 39, No. 1)
Degeeriella angusta (Giebel), 1874
(Figures 43 and 44)
Nirmus angusta Giebel, Insecta Epizoa, p. 126. Host: Buteo" lagopus
Giebel's description gives very few characters not common to many
species of the genus; however there is nothing which does not agree with
the specimens before me from Buteo lagopus sancti-johannis. Also, to
further corroborate this identity, Hopkins & Clay give the same species of
Craspedorhynchus from both Buteo 1. lagogus and B. 1. sancti-johannis,
so that there seems to be no valid reason for not doing the same with
Degeeriella, particularly since the two hosts are very closely related sub-
The only character of value mentioned by Giebel in his description of
the species is the shape of the prothorax ("rectangular"), which agrees
with the present specimens. These have the exposed sides of the prothorax
nearly straight and the posterior angles but slightly curved. Most species
of this genus have the prothorax with noticably convex sides. No measure-
ments are given by Giebel.
DIAGNOSIs.-There is a slight sexual dimorphism in the shape of the
head and structure of the preantennal carina; the male has the frons
flatter and narrower than the female; the carina is slightly wider and
is unbroken medially at the frons, while in the female there is a decided
interruption (see figure); there are four setae "canals" on each side of the
frons, more or less as in falconoidea. The abdomen is very similar to that
of borealis, with no special distinguishing characters.
The male genitalia are closer to falconoidea, but the shape of the en-
domera is quite different, with much smaller lateral wings and concave
posterior margin, while the penis is much shorter. The distinguishing
characters seem to be the shape of the preantennal portion of the head,
the sexual dimorphism of the head, the shape of the prothorax and the
male genitalia. The species is represented by 2 males and 2 females
from Buteo lagopus sancti-johannis, collected by R. Baker at Colorado Co.,
Texas, March 23, 1941; also by 3 females in my collection from the same
host collected by J. S. Hunter, at Lincoln, Nebraska, October 9, 1894.
SThere seems to be a strong similarity between specimens of parasites
from the different groups of raptores, those from Buteo being of one type,
with longer head and heavy preantennal carina with flattened frons and
often with strong sexual dimorphism of the head. Those from Falco are
smaller, with shorter, more rounded head, and those from the kites have a
long head, tapering to a narrow frons, these last being the most aberrant
forms of the genus that I have seen.
70 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 2
MEASUREMENTS OF TYPES OF D. genitalia, AND MALE AND FEMALE OF
D. angusta (GIEBEL).
Male Female Male Female
4- 4 4 4 j
Body ....--...........--.. -1.94 ..... 1.96 ..--.. 1.78 ....- 2.09
Head (at clavi) .... ...... .39 ...... .39 ...... .391 ...... .412
Head (at temples) .564 .43 .564 .423 .53 .413 .586 .445
Prothorax .............. .163 .287 .185 .28 .165 .222 .19 .26
Pterothorax ........... .205 .434 .205 .434 .185 .375 .185 .435
Abdomen .--.--.... 1.14 .564 1.193 .57 1.025 .477 1.30 .54
Antennae --..- .22 .045 .228 .048 --
Basal plate ---...-- .128 .087 .24 .086
Paramers -..-...--...... .077 .076 .036 .015
Endomera ....------- .063 .066 .043 .056
Genus Picicola Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938.
Genotype: P. praeposterus Clay and Meinertz. Host: Dendrocopus as-
similis. The genus was originally established for three species of Ischno-
cera, parasitic on the Picidae, the genotype from India and the other two
from Africa (P. campethera and P. thripias). I have not seen material of
any of these three species, but have two pairs of P. marginitulus Harrison
. (= Nirmus marginatus Osborn) from Dryocopus pileatus picinus, as well
as several undescribed species from neotropical hosts. In the present col-
lection there is a series of six specimens of the genus from Melanerpes
carolinus zebra (Boddaert) which are very closely related to P. praepos-
terus, the genotype.
Later (in the 1952 checklist) other species, not parasitic on Picidae,
were placed in the genus, one of them, Nirmus foedus Kellogg and Chap-
man, 1899, is of special interest. This species, together with closely
allied forms, is found on very many species of Passerine birds, both of
North and South America, especially on the Tyrannidae and Furnariidae,
and I am very doubtful of its congeneric relationship with Picicola. In typi-
cal Picicola the dorsal preantennal carinae encircle the whole front of the
head from base of clavi, unbroken and uniform in width, heavily chitinized,
and with four to six narrow "canals" across it on each side of the anterior
portion, leading to marginal setae; the sternal carina also encircles the
front but it is not always heavily chitinized and is somewhat wider than
the dorsal carina. The inner carina, attached to the anterior mandibular
condyle and the outer carina, encircles the large buccal cavity parallel to
the maginal carina. There is no trace of any plate in the front of the head
as in Oxylipeurus, Trogonirmus, Epicolinus and Cotingacola.
"In the Nirmus foedus group we have the preantennal carina heavily
chitinized to the point where the sides of the head begin to curve around
the frons, and here it is almost broken in some species and entirely so in
others. From this point the carina widens and continues unbroken and
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
faintly chitinized around the frons, with 4 short, stout setae across its
posterior margin. Posterior to this encircling, marginal carina the front
of the head is filled by a plate extending backward to the point where the
marginal carina is almost broken and where there is unquestionably a
somewhat obsolete preantennal suture crossing the head. The posterior
margin of this frontal plate is more or less thickened and corrugated, the
whole front of the head resembling very strikingly that of the species
of Oxyliperus found on the genus Ortalis.
This group contains numerous, quite distinct species. Many of those
from South American Tyrannidae and some Furnariidae tend to have the
frons slightly pointed instead of flatly convex as in Foedus, but all have
the same type of genitalia, abdominal structure, chaetotaxy and head struc-
ture, with the transverse suture very clear in some species, slightly ob-
scured in others.
The abdominal tergites are continuous transversely in both sexes, quite
strongly chitinized in some species, less so in others (almost colorless). The
male genitalia resembles those of typical Picicola but differ in several
details. The abdomen in the males is very small, tapering rapidly poster-
iorly from segment V to VIII, but IX is comparatively large, larger than
in Picicola (see figures).
It seems logical to me that this large group of species, parasitic on
entirely different families of birds, and with head structure so distinct,
should merit at least subgeneric rank, and I have, accordingly, given them
the name Tyrannicola subgenus novum, since they are most abundant on
Picicola praeposterus americana, n. subsp.
(Figures 45 and 46)
Types, male and female adults, from Melanerpes carolinus zebra (Bod-
daert), collected by G. H. Lowery at Lawrence, Kansas, October 27,
1946 (in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-These specimens are in very poor condition for describing
and figuring. They are possibly immature and were also evidently left
too long in the clearing solution, so that many important details are in-
visible. This is very unfortunate since they constitute the second record of
the genus from the New World, and the specimens are very similar to the
genotype, apparently conspecific with it, differing more from marginatula
(mentioned above) than from praeposterus. Unfortunately, Miss Clay gave
no measurements with her description of the genotype, and only figured
the head and genitalia, so that it is impossible to give full details of the
differences between the two races.
The anterior portion of the head is more uniformly rounded in ameri-
cana, with sides more divergent; the preantennal carina is wider, marginal,
and uniformly, but not deeply, colored; the marginal temporal carinae are
also narrow, very slightly submarginal, and pitchy black; the carinae of
the thorax are also deeply colored (dark brown, almost pitchy in anterior
portion of pterothoracic carinae).
Very little can be distinguished of the abdominal structure; however,
the chaetotaxy seems to be the same as described by Clay for the male,
excepting on segment IX, where in americana there are many more setae
on the sides.
72 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 2
Miss Clay does not mention the abdominal sternites, but they are
more deeply pigmented in americana than the tergites, which can be
distinguished with difficulty, and are entire transversely but widely sep-
arated from the pleurites, and are visible only in the posterior segments
of the abdomen. There is a faint outline, uncolored, of the cellulation
along the inner edge of the cephalic carina, which is so conspicuous in
several undescribed species in my collection and which is shown in the
figure of praeposterus.
The genitalia are not clearly visible in the three males of americana,
and the details of the median portion of the mesosome are impossible to
delineate, so that there may be some errors in the figure here presented.
The type of genitalia is the same, however, as in praeposterus, differing
only in details, which, together with the other characters mentioned above,
are sufficient to warrant subspecific rank.
There is one immature male in the series which presents a curious
variation from the adults in the chaetotaxy of the entire body, all setae
being almost double the length of those of the adults, even to the abundant
setae on segment IX. This male must be in the preadult stage, since the
genitalia are quite well developed, though they differ in some details from
those of the adults.
The tip of the abdomen of the female agrees with Clay's description,
being rounded and slightly bilobed; there is a small, pigmented, trans-
verse sternite across anterior portion of IX; the sternite in VI is deeply
colored and that in V somewhat less, while in I to IV the sternites are not
Across the posterior portion of VII may be seen a flatly curving line,
which is, apparently, the posterior margin of the genital plate ("valve" of
Clay) and which is sparsely set with short setae.
MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPE OF Picicola praeposierus americana.
length width length width
Body .... ........... ...... 1.58 ..... 1.74
Head (at clavi) ..............--- ....-- .293 ...... .326
Head (temples) ................... .475 .347 .495 .358
Prothorax ................................ .14 .25 .152 .25
Pterothorax --.. --... ---............ .13 .38 .152 .37
Abdomen ......--- .. .................- .87 .445 1.02 .446
Basal plate --....... ....--....-- .25 .10
Param er ............... --..... .......--. .06..
Endomera ........--....... ....--. .... .054 .086
This structure may be clearly seen in P. marginatula, as well as in
other undescribed females of my collection. Clay says of the female of
praeposterus: "somewhat similar to the male, with thorax and abdomen
broader," but gives no further details. In the females of americana, and
other undescribed forms, the abdominal tergites are clearly divided medially,
but in the males which I have seen they are entire. The tergites in most
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
specimens are very faintly colored, and often quite invisible in the median
portion of abdomen, so that their divided character is easily overlooked.
The species is represented by the male holotype, female allotype, 1 male
and 1 female adult and 2 male immature paratypes.
Subgenus Tyrannicola, new subgenus
Type species: Nirmus foedus Kellogg & Chapman, 1899.
DIAGNOSIS.-Most nearly related to Picicola Clay and Meinertz., from
which it differs in the structure of the anterior portion of the head, re-
sembling in this respect species of Oxylipeurus parasitic on the genus
Differs also in the sexual dimorphism of the abdomen and antennae, the
antannae of the males being longer and with larger first segment than
in the females. In the genotype this character is not conspicuous, but in
other undescribed species the 1st antennal segment in the male is twice as
large as in the female; the abdomen of the male is slender apically and
very small with segment IX large (see figure of T. rubina, n. sp.).
For more complete details of the differences between Picicola and
Tyrannicola see remarks under Picicola on previous pages.
Picicola (Tyrannicola) foedus (Kell. & Chap.) 1899
(Figures 47 and 48)
Nirmus foedus Kellogg and Chapman, Occ. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 6, p.
87, P1. VI, fig. 7. Hosts: six hosts are given, three of them Tyrannidae, and
the first mentioned is Myiarchus c. cinerascens. I have not seen speci-
mens from M. cinerascens but have a series from another of Kellogg's
hosts, viz: Tyrannus verticalis (Sioux Co. Nebraska), and from Sayornis
phoebe, while he gives S. s. saya as one of his hosts. Since no particular
host was designated by the describers I herewith designate Tyrannus
verticalis as the type host of Nirmus foedus.
I also present figures of the male of this species from Tyrannus verticalis,
together with the genitalia. Apparently these specimens are slightly
immature, or were cleared too much, since the details of the abdominal
structure, especially in the male, are not clearly visible. Also the abdomen
of the male seems to be expanded laterally, specially in the posterior portion,
being much wider than in other, closely related species of the genus (see
figure of male of P. rubina, described below).
The species has been quite fully described under the remarks concerning
the genus Picicola and Tyrannicola on previous pages.
Picicola (Tyrannicola) rubina, n. sp.
Types, male and female adults, from Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus
Sclater, collected by R. Newman at Xilitla, San Luis Postosi, M6xico,
January 25, 1947 (in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-Male very much smaller than male of P. t. foedus, especially
in thorax and abdomen; sides of head in preantennal portion more divergent,
with frons narrower and slightly pointed medially (see figure).
Abdominal segments I to III are much longer than the remainder, and
74 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 2
longer than in foedus, with the heads of the pleurites II to V extending
far under succeeding segment; pleurites are narrow dorsally, with a nar-
row, submarginal, pitchy black stripe, but wider on ventral side and
paler; tergites are entire and rather deeply and unformly pigmented, al-
most filling the segments; sternites are also entire transversely, but widely
separated from pleurites and deeply and uniformly pigmented; the genital
sternite is large, covering median portion of segments VII and VIII and
anterior part of IX; segment IX is longer than VIII and almost as wide,
proportionately much larger than in foedus.
The legs are well developed and stout, as in foedus, with same style of
marginal carinae; antennae are also similar.
The male genitalia are not clearly visible and could not be figured, but
they apparently differ very little from those of foedus, excepting in size,
the basal plate being slightly narrower basally, but the whole mesosome
wider. A single female in my own collection from Pyrocephalus rubinus
saturatus (Venezuela) seems to be inseparable from the Mexican material.
The species is represented by the male holotype, female allotype, 1 male
and 6 female paratypes.
MEASUREMENTS OF P. (Tyrannicola) foedus AND P. (T.) rubina.
Male Female Male Female
*Body ........................1.54 ...... 1.89 ...... 1.31 ...... 1.67
Head (at clavi) ...... .337 .337 ...... .38 ...... .293 ...... .358
Head (at temples) .51 .38 .553 .412 .456 .338 .52 .39
Prothorax ................ .135 .263 .14 .27 .14 .22 .152 .24
Pterothorax ............ .174 .412 .195 .423 .13 .314 .14 .36
Abdomen ................ .80 .542 1.085 .586 .66 .347 .998 .565
Antennae ................ .26 .06 .217 .054 .217 .054 .195 .043
Basal plate ............. .158 .115 .12 .10
Paramer ................. .074 .026 .05 .018
Mesosome ................ .077 .09 .095 .097
Genus Lunaceps Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1939
Genotype: Docophorus actophilus Kellogg & Chapman,
Lunaceps pusillus, n. sp."
(Figures 50 and 51)
Type, male adult, from Ereunetes pusillus (Linn6), collected by G. H.
Lowery at Lawrence, Kansas, May 15, 1947 (in coll. L. S. U. M. Z.).
6 Timmermann has recently described eleven new species of this genus,
only one of which I possess (drosti), but with the exception of one host
(Ereunetes mauri) all are Old World species or of genera very different
from Ereunetes. I have not yet seen this paper. It is possible that the
present species (pusillus) will closely resemble cabanisi Timmermann, from
E. mauri. Measuresments appear after the next species.
1. ^ *^TiN I'52
Fig. 43a. Degeeriella angusta (Giebel) 9 head, thorax, and abdominal
Fig. 43b. D. angusta (Giebel) Y, front of head
Fig. 44. D. angusta (Giebel) &, genitalia
Fig. 45. Picicola praeposterus americana, n. subsp. 8, head, thorax, and
portions of abdomen.
Fig. 46. P. p. americana, n. subsp. &, genitalia
portions of abdomen
Fig. 47. P. (Tyrannicola) foedus (Kell. and Chap.), $, head, thorax, and
portions of abdomen
Fig. 48. P. (Tyrannicola) foedus (Kell. and Chap.) $, genitalia
Fig. 49. P. (Tyrannicola) rubina, n. sp. S, head, thorax, and parts of
abdomen; tip of 9 abdomen
Fig. 50. Lunaceps pusillus, n. sp. 8, head, thorax, and portions of
Fig. 51. L. pusillus, n. sp. S, genitalia
Fig. 52. L. wilsoni, n. sp. head, thorax, and portions of abdomen
Fig. 53. L. wilsoni, n. sp. S, genitalia
The Florida Entomologist
DIAGNOSIS.-The head, thorax, and abdomen are narrower than in acto-
philus, the shape of the head being more nearly as in phaopi (Denny), but
the pterothorax, as well as the abdomen, is much narrower, and the mar-
ginal carinae of the head and the thorax are quite different, as is also
the anterior plate of the head; there are also differences in the male
From numenii (Denny) it differs in more slender and differently shaped
thorax and abdomen, more slender legs and decidedly different male geni-
talia and thoracic carinae.
C. drosti Timmermann is also quite different, more closely resembling
the species actophilus in the shape of its head, and in other characters.
The male genitalia of the type are partially obscured by foreign matter
(at basal portion of paramers and endomera), so that a complete figure
was impossible to draw. The genitalia of the single male paratype are in
much worse condition. This is unfortunate, since the genitalia are very
important characters for separating these closely related species. No fe-
males were taken. The species is represented only by the male hototype
and 1 male paratype.
Lunaceps wilsoni, n. sp.7
(Figures 52 and 53)
Type, male adult, from Charadrius w. wilsoni Ord, collected by D. S.
Farner near Lawrence, Kansas, May 25, 1946 (in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-This species seems to be closer to actophilus in shape of
head and body segments. The- head is, however, narrower in anterior
portion, as well as more attenuated and longer in the portion anterior to
the preantennal suture; it also lacks the prominent, deeply colored, narrow
submarginal carina which in actophilus encircles the whole front of the
'head, anterior to the suture; there is a slight difference in the pattern of
the preantennal carinae.
The thoracic carinae differ in shape, while the acetabular bars of the
2nd pair of coxae are entirely different, those of wilsoni being quite com-
plicated and apparently unique (see figure).
The paramers are thicker apically and less curving and lack the
strongly developed nodi on inner side at base to which the endomera is
attached; the apical prongs of the endomera are twice as long in wilsoni
as in actophilus, and the whole endomera is slightly shorter (.076 x .038
against .087 x .04). The species is represented by a single male, the holotype.
Genus Britelia Keler, 1936
The genotype of Bridelia is Nirmus brachythorax, 1936, Giebel, from
Bombycilla garrulus, and is of the same type as quite a large number of
species found on the Thraupidae and Fringillidae of the Western Hemisphere,
it seems to be nearest to B. angustifrows (Carriker) but has wider temples,
while cedrorum (Piaget) is apparently very close to infrequens (Carri-
ker) but has a wider frons and the sides of the preantennal portion of
head are straight, not flatly convex. The species of this group are closely
related and not easy to separate, but I doubt very much that exactly
7A single male from Charadrius wilsoni beldingi, collected on the Pacific
coast of Colombia, S. A., is very close to wilsoni, as would be expected,
but seems to be subspecifically distinct.
Vol. 39, No. 2
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga 77
the same subspecies is found on any two host species. It seems advisable
at this time, in connection with the description of new species of the
genus to review some of the old species described from New World hosts
and to publish new, enlarged figures of them. The species most commonly
recorded from North American passerine birds is B. vulgata (Kell.),
which the describer has listed from quite a number of hosts. This species
will be considered first.
MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES OF L. pusillus AND L. wilsoni.
length width length width
Body ........- .....--.....-.......-- ... .. -- .52 --.. 1.57
Head (at clavi) ......... .-...... ..... .175 .... .217
Head (at temples) ........................ .36 .23 .37 .255
Prothorax -........ ---...---...............- .13 .14 .13 .198
Pterothorax .--------.------..--..... ..163 .187 .163 .282
Abdomen --......--. .......-....--.. .......... .93 .24 .955 .303
Antennae ------.................---.....---- .14 .03 .14 .038
Basal plate -...-...... ...- ...... ..... .084 .051 .115 .054
Paramers ..-- ...........................----... .097 .056 .105 .07
Endomera .-......................... .... ..------ .077 .033 .076 .038
Briielia vulgata (Kellogg), 1896
(Figures 54 and 55)
Nirmus vulgatus Kellogg, Occ. Pap. California Acad. Sci. (2)6, p. 495, pl.
67, fig. 5. Eight hosts are given.
Kellogg did not designate any particular host as the type, and we
cannot be certain which host furnished the specimens from which his de-
scription and figure were made and from which measurements were taken.
The first host mentioned is Carpodacus purpureus californicus, which, ac-
cordingly may be accepted as the type host. Whether or not the material
from the other hosts given by him is identical with the specimens from
Carpodacus cannot be determined without actual examination of the ma-
terial. I have not seen specimens from Carpodacus purpureus but have
specimens from two species of finches (Zonotrichia querula and Passerher-
bulus caudacutus), which agree very closely with Kellogg's description
and figure of vulgatus. One of the hosts given by Kellogg was Zonotrichia
There is considerable variation in head measurements of females from
the same bird, for example females from Zonotrichia querula measure: .36
x .282; .40 x .305; and .38 x .303. Kellogg's measurements for the female
head are .37 x .29. Females from Passerherbulus measure: body, 1.63 x .435
and 1.67 x .40; head, .37 x .29 and .39 x .303. Males of the above series are
somewhat smaller than Kellogg's measurements: body, 1.31 x .36 and 1.28 x
.37; head, .31 x .25 and .345 x .25, against Kellogg's 1.47 x .40 and .33 x .28,
but here again we have much individual variation. It will be seen that in
the above measurements a female from both Zonotrichia and Passerherbulus
has exactly the same head measurements as given by Kellogg for the type
The Florida Entomologist
of vulgata, viz: .37 x .29, but males from both hosts have heads of slightly
different proportions (.345 x .25 and .31 x .25 against .33 x .28).
The figures of vulgata here presented are specimens from Passerherbulus
caudacutus. The genitalia of the male from Zonotrichia querula are exactly
the same as those shown from Passerherbulus, except that they are slightly
smaller in size, while those of B. parabolicybe (Carr.) are of the same
type, but have shorter, narrower paramers and smaller endomera.
B. vulgata may be recognized by the shape of the head and thorax and
the detailed structure of these parts. The frons is narrow, with the en-
trance to the buccal cavity extremely small and with a rounded, hyaline
proturberance (see figure). The buccal canal expands laterally to a point
halfway to the buccal cavity, then abruptly narrows to same width as at
frons. The buccal cavity is extremely small, being almost filled by the
well developed mandibles.
Kellogg says that there is no "signature," but there is present a very
minute one, rounded and pointed anteriorly, not easily distinguishable; he
also gives the pterothorax as having a "flatly rounding posterior margin,"
which is incorrect, it being angulated medially, as in all of the species of
this group here treated, excepting parabolocybe, in which it is flatly con-
The thoracic segments are small, but abdominal segment I is usually
long (see figure). The shape of the head in vulgata is closest to that of
infrequens (Carriker), excepting that it is considerably narrower at tem-
ples, clavi, and frons and the buccal cavity is much smaller and the canal
narrower and of a different shape; there is a slight emargination of the
lateral margin of the head at the anterior end of the preantennal carinae,
which is quite noticable and characteristic of the species. The genital ster-
nite is very similar in this whole group, but unfortunately the male geni-
talia are wanting in several species. In my specimens, which I have called
vulgata, the abdominal tergites of the female are closer together medially
than stated by Kellogg ("a rather broad, uncolored median line"), while
in the male they are almost touching. Kellogg also states that there is
but one seta at the posterolateral angles of the abdomen, but there are 2
setae in my specimens in segments III to VI, 3 in VII, 1 in II and none in
I. .There is a single seta set on posterior margin of tergites I to VI, just
inside the head of the pleurites, quite small on I and increasing in length to
I do not assume that the insect here described and figured is typical
vulgata, since it has not been compared with Kellogg's type or with speci-
mens from its supposed host (Carpodacus purpurascens californicus) but
merely compared with Kellogg's description and figure. It certainly is con-
specific, if not subspecifically the same.
Briielia infrequens (Carriker), 1902
Nirmus infrequens Carriker, Jour. New York Ent. Soc., V, 10, p. 220;
pl. 20, fig. 5. Host: Calcarius I. lapponicus; type in coll. of M. A. C.).
DIAGNOSIS.-The head is perhaps nearest in shape and structure to
that of vulgata (as given in this paper) but differs in being wider at
temples, clavi, and frons; the preantennal carinae are wider, the anterior
Vol. 39, No. 2
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga
plate much larger and crescent-shaped; the buccal canal is much shorter
and almost uniform in width; and the buccal cavity is much larger.
In vulgata the clavi are minute, pointed and colorless (as stated by
Kellogg) but plainly visible, as in infrequens, although very difficult to
observe in this species. The prothorax is much wider in infrequens but of
same shape (sides strongly convex); the pterothorax is also much wider,
with sides straight (convex in vulgata) ; and the thoracic carinae also differ
(see figure). There is practically no difference in the abdominal sclerites,
but the abdomen is somewhat wider. Measurements follow the next species.
Briielia angustifrons (Carriker), 1902
Nirmus angustifrons Carriker, Jour. New York Ent. Soc., vol. 10, p. 221;
pl. 21, fig. 2. Host: Chondestes grammacus strigatus Swainson, Bad
Lands of Sioux Co., Nebraska.
DIAGNOSIS.-This species has a very long, narrow head, very long in the
preantennal portion. It is about the same width as in vulgata at temples
but narrower at clavi, and the sides of head (anterior to clavi) are very
flatly convex. The frons is about equal in width to that of infrequens, but
buccal canal is wider, slightly expanded medially, and longer than in
either vulgata or infrequens. The dorsal preantennal carinae are just as
in vulgata, but the inner, ventral carinae differ (see figure) ; the anterior
plate is round, as in vulgata, but longer; the thoracic segments are very sim-
ilar to those of vulgata, except that the sides of the pterothorax are
slightly concave instead of convex and the posterior margin is bluntly
pointed medially (not flatly convex as shown in the figure here given).
The abdominal sclerites are very similar to those of vulgata, excepting
the genital sternite, which differs from that of both vulgata and
infrequens (see figure). No males were taken, but "numerous females."
Type and paratypes are in collection of M. A. Carriker.
MEASUREMENTS OF FEMALE HOLOTYPE OF B. infrequent AND B. angustifrons.
length width length width
Body ....--------------...........--...... 1.65 ...... 1.66
Head (at clavi) .........------- -..... .275 ...... .24
Head (at temples) .....--......-.... .38 .33 .38 .277
Prothorax .--..-..-..-.. --.........--.--.. .12 .205 .12 .184
Pterothorax ..-..................--------- .174 .314 .163 .284
Abdomen .....---.. .. -................ .92 .42 1.05 .39
Briielia parabolocybe (Carriker), 1903
Nirmus parabolocybe Carriker, Univ. Nebraska Stud. III, p. 137, pl. 2, fig. 3,
Host: Tyrannus melancholicus chloronotus, Costa Rica (type in coll. of
M. A. C.)
DIAGNOSIS.-This is a well-marked species easily distinguished from the
three previous species by the shape of the head, which is very broad at
The Florida Entomologist
the frons, the whole frontal end being broadly rounded, with sides very
slightly concave in front of the clavi. The preantennal carinae are wide,
with inner margin corrugated and narrowly pitchy black, the outer portion
pale brown; the marginal temporal carinae are narrow, submarginal, and
pitchy; and the buccal canal is very wide, expanding posteriorly to the trans-
verse, curving anterior plate. Prothorax wide, as in infrequens, but con-
siderably longer; pterothorax long and narrow posteriorly, with convex sides
and flatly rounded posterior margin; thoracic sternal plate narrow as in
vulgata, but of almost uniform width. Abdomen rather similar in size and
shape to that of infrequens, but the dorsal markings of the pleurites differ
(see figure); segment VIII is wide and transverse, with IX very small; the
genital plate is large, being slightly longer than in any of the three previous
species, but with the shape of that of vulgata.
The genitalia of the male allotype are small, especially the paramers
and the endomera, and cannot be clearly seen for drawing, the paramers
being doubled back over the endomera, but they seem to be similar to those
of vulgata. Measuresments are given with those of following species.
Brilelia straminea (Denny), 1842
(Figures 59 and 60)
Nirmus stramineus Denny, Mon. Anop. Brit., p. 53, 139; pl. 8, fig. 9. Host:
Dendrocopus major anglicus.
This is the first record of the taking of Briielia on any New World species
of Picidae, although two species B. superciliosa (Nit.) and the present one,
are known from European woodpeckers.
A series of 5 males, 1 female and 3 nymphs were taken on Melanerpes
carolinus zebra, collected by G. H. Lowery near Lawrence, Kansas, on
October 27, 1946, and are in the collection of the Louisiana State University
Museum of Zoology.
In my own collection is a single female sent me by Col. Emerson, collected
in Oklahoma, from the same host. In the L. S. U. M. Z. collection are 2
females from Sphyrapicus various, collected by R. Newman at Cerro Conejo,
S. L. P., Mexico, which seem to be very close to the series from Melanerpes,
but they are in no condition for identification. I, also, have a good series
of Britelia from Melanerpes formicivora flavigula and Chrysoptilus a. atri-
collis, the former close to straminea but the latter quite different, possibly
somewhat like superciliosa (Nit.), considering the shape of the head.
There are very few discrepancies between Denny's description, as far
as it goes, and these specimens, while the figure also agrees very well. He
says: "vertex concave," but it is flatly convex in these specimens; he further
says: "prothorax transverse, rotundate before and behind." The meaning
of this phrase is not entirely clear to me, but at any rate the prothorax has
convex sides, rounded anterior margin and transverse posterior margin. The
"metathorax" is also wider than the head in my specimens and has a rounded
posterior margin. Until actual comparison can be made with typical
straminea, it seems best to identify these specimens as that species.
Referring to the species treated in this report, B. straminea resembles
most strongly parabolocybe (Carr.), from which it differs in larger size and
much paler coloration throughout; head wider at temples and clavi, and with
temples less rounded; sides of preantennal portion of head more divergent
and anterior portion less rounded; the preantennal carinae narrower but
Vol. 39, No. 2
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga 81
otherwise similar; chaetotaxy of head the same; prothorax very similar, but
pterothorax much wider and with sides straight instead of convex.
The abdominal sclerites are very similar to those of parabolocybe, but
much paler in color, and the abdomen is more pointed posteriorly (see
The male genitalia differ from those of all of the males treated in this
paper. There is no unusual difference between the sexes, merely the usual
sexual dimorphism of size and shape of apical segments of the abdomen.
MEASUREMENTS OF SPECIMENS OF Briielia straminea AND B.
parabolocybe (Carr.) .
B. straminea B. parabolocybe
Male Female Male Female
Body ........-..-..... .....1.46 ..-.. 1.84 .... 1.38 ..... 1.73
Head (at clavi) .... ..... .26 ....- .282 ...... .22 ...... .25
Head (at temples) .35 .314 .41 .336 .326 .27 .393 .314
Prothorax ...........--- .108 .185 .13 .24 .12 .195 .15 .22
Pterothorax .. .. ..195 .303 .205 .37 .14 .255 .185 .293
Abdomen ............. .89 .412 1.21 .50 .835 .347 1.13 .423
Basal Plate ..-.....- .. .13 .07 .13 .06
Paramers .....----- .043 .053 .026 (?) ..
Endomera ...........- .026 .04 .02 .03
Briielia longifrons, n. sp.
Type, female adult, from Parus atricapillus longicaudatus Harris, collected
by D. S. Farner, Douglas Co., Kansas, March 29, 1947 (in L. S. U. M. Z.
Dr. Kellogg has recorded B. vulgata from Parus atricapillus, but I
suspect that what he had was the species described below, which, while
resembling vulgata in some ways, differs very much in others. Unfortunate-
ly no male of longifrons was taken.
DIAGNOSIS.-A large species, the largest of the vulgata group, the fe-
male measuring 1.82 x .50. The head has a peculiar shape, the preantennal
portion being very long, with flatly convex sides; the frons is of medium
width and concave margin; the buccal canal narrows abruptly at posterior
edge of the small, semilunar anterior plate, then gradually narrows to a
very constricted opening into the long, narrow buccal cavity. No other
species treated in the present report has a buccal canal approaching in
shape that of the present species. The antennal sinus is V-shaped, with
constricted inner end; the preantennal carinae are narrow, marginal, and
pitchy black, but deeply shaded along inner side (see figure), the shading
not uniform, but somewhat scalloped; the marginal temporal carinae are
59 '60 62
Fig. 55. B. vulgata (Kell.) 8, genitalia
Fig. 56. B. infrequens (Carr.) 9, head, thorax, and apical segments of
Fig. 57. B. angustifrons (Carr.) Y, head, thorax, and apical segments of
Fig. 58. B. parabolocybe (Carr.) Y, head, thorax, and apical segments of
Fig. 59. B. straminea (Denny) 9, head, thorax, and portions of abdominal
Fig. 60. B. straminea (Denny) $, genitalia
Fig. 61. B. longifrons, n. sp. (, head, thorax, and apical segments of
Fig. 62. B. nitzschi moriona, n. subsp. entire body
Fig. 63. B. n. moriona, n. subsp. $, genitalia
Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga 83
also pitchy black, and corrugated along inner edge, with adjacent area
deeply shaded; the gular plate extends beyond occipital margin.
The pterothorax has straight sides, while the sides of the flatly pointed
posterior margin are also straight; the thoracic carinae are also deeply
colored and the thoracic sternite of distinct shape.
The abdomen is of the usual shape and structure of the vulgata group.
The pleurites are narrow and of medium coloration, with a marginal hya-
line border; the color of the pleurites becomes paler anteriorly, those of
I and II being almost uncolored and III slightly colored. In fact almost the
entire portion of segments I and II is without color, excepting a slight patch
of brown on anterior portion of tergite adjoining the pleurite. Segments
IV to VIII are of normal color, as shown in figure. The tergites are
rather deeply colored contiguous to the paratergals, paler in median por-
tion, and are more deeply colored than in most of the vulgata group. The
genital sternite is typical of this group. The remaining sternites are of
same density of color in V and IV, paler in III, and practically invisible
in II and I. The chaetotaxy is characteristic of the group. The legs are
unusually small, with much thickened femora and tibiae, the latter with
expanded, rounded ends with one long straight claw and the other very
minute; pitchy bands cross subapical portion of tibiae and various parts of
The species is represented by a single specimen, the female holotype.
Measurements appear with those of following species.
Britelia nitzschi moriona, n. subsp.
(Ffgures 62 and 63)
Types, male and female adults, from Psilhorinus morio (Wagler), collected
by M. Newman at Xilitla, S. L. P., M6xico, February 14, 1947 (in
L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-Very similar to B. nitzschi Keler from Cyanocorax cyano-
melas. The markings of the head, thorax and abdomen are exactly the
same; the length of the female is the same (1.88), but head measure-
ments differ (.49 x .45 against .442 x .454). The male measures (body)
1.49 against 1.47 for nitzschi; head, .445 x .44 against .405 x .417. The
head in moriona is narrower at the clavi, with sides of preantennal area
less convex, so that the whole head presents a somewhat triangular shape,
with the three angles rounded, while in nitzschi the head has a more
All of the segments of the legs are short and stout, largely hyaline,
but with pitchy markings on both femora and tibiae; the 1st and 2nd
segments of the antennae are hyaline, the last three deeply colored except
for a narrow band across base.
Keler gives no data at all on the male genitalia, which in moriona are
quite large for this genus, especially the paramers (see figure). The
male is much smaller than the female, with a short, rounded abdomen
(.85 x .58 against 1.20 x .54) and a protruding, rounded apical segment;
the shape of head and thorax is the same, but smaller; the markings of
the abdomen are also quite similar, though the genital sternite is slightly
different in shape.
Comparison with other related species shows the following differ-
ences: the shape of the head is similar to that of varia (Burm.) from
The Florida Entomologist
Corvus monedula, but the markings are quite different; the abdominal
markings are similar, but not the same; the head is much more pointed
than in multipunctata (Clay) from Nucifraga multipunctata, while mark-
ings of both head and abdomen differ. It is also quite different from both
biocellata (Piaget), nigripicti (Carriker) and rotundata (Osborn), all
three from species of Corvidae.
Specimens from Cyanocorax chrysops (So. Bolivia) are extremely close
to nitzschi, practically inseparable without the genitalia. Specimens
from C. violaceus (E. Peru), while of the same type, have sides of pre-
antennal area quite straight and frons narrow, with sides of temples
less convex. Three males from C. cyanus (Venezuela) are also very close to
nitzschi. A single male from C. affinis (Colombia) has the head the same
shape as moriona, but small, as in nitzschi. A pair from Xanthoura yncas
seems to be a distinct species. The new form is represented by female holo-
type, male allotype and 3 female paratypes, also 2 other females and a
nymph from the type host.
MEASUREMENTS OF B. longifrons AND B. nitzschi moriona.
ns B. n. moriona
length width length width
Body .......................1.82 ..... 1,50 ...... 1.91
Head (at clavi) ... ...... .26 ...... .358 ...... .415
Head (at temples) .40 .33 .445 .445 .48 .495
Prothorax ......--..--.... .14 .205 .163 .27 .163 .293
Pterothrax ..---......... .185 .31 .17 .445 .195 .477
Abdomen ....--...--..-- 1.18 .50 .855 .586 1.20 .54
Antennae ...--- -. ..... .24 .045 .24 .045
Basal Plate ........... .18 .13
Paramers ................ .095 .105
Endomera ................ .10 .06
(To be continued)
Vol. 39, No. 2
THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY INFESTS FLORIDA
AGAIN: EARLY CHRONOLOGY
April 13, 1956: Mr. O. L. Prior, 93 N.W. 93rd Street, Miami Shores,
Florida, found insect larvae in grapefruit that he was preparing to eat. He
called the Miami Herald and they referred him to the Assistant County
Agent Douglas M. Knapp. Mr. Knapp carried the larvae to Dr. D. 0.
Wolfenbarger, Entomologist, at the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station,
Homestead. Dr. Wolfenbarger recognized the possibility of these larvae
being Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata [Wied.]). He contacted
Mr. C. E. Shepard, regional inspector for the State Plant Board. One
larva was forwarded to the entomological department at Gainesville, and
two, larvae were forwarded to Dr. W. L. Popham, Director of the Crops
Regulatory Program, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.
A tentative determination of Mediterranean fruit fly was made of the
larvae by the State Plant Board and by Dr. R. H. Foote, Federal fruit fly
identification specialist for the Bureau.
April 18, 1956: Mr. Ed L. Ayers, the Plant Commissioner, directed
Mr. H. A. Denmark, Acting Chief Entomologist, to go to the infested area
in Miami to collect adults with McPhail traps.
April 19: Mr. Denmark met C. E. Shepard and E. F. Miles and traps
were set up on the properties of Messrs. Prior, 93 N.W. 93rd Street, Dario
Mazzoleni, 71 N.W. 93rd Street, and A. Scheeschmidt, 101 N.W. 93rd
Street. Eleven adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly were collected in the
McPhail traps on the property of Mr. Prior at 8:30 p.m. Mr. Shepard
was notified, and a night letter was sent to Dr. Popham as follows:
"CAUGHT MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY IN SWEET BAIT TRAPS.
AM FORWARDING SPECIMENS."
April 20: Nine more adults were caught )n Mr. Prior's property.
Three adults were caught on Mr. Scheeschmidt's property, and one adult
on Mr. Mazzoleni's property.
A visit was made to the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station to inform
Dr. Wolfenbarger that the infestation was definitely Mediterranean fruit
fly. The information was released to the public on April 23 by Mr. Jack
Matthews from Lakeland.
April 21: Seven more adults were caught on Mr. Prior's property,
and one adult on Mr. Mazzoleni's property. Mr. Shepard and the in-
spectors for the Miami area continued to scout areas around the original
infestation, and spread out in each direction for several blocks. Infesta-
tions were located at 9826 N.W. First Avenue, 148 N.W. 90th Street,
3078 91st Street, 85 N.W. 94th Street, 93 N.W. 97th Street, and 78 N.W.
April 23: One more adult was collected on Mr. Prior's property. The
traps were picked up and relocated. One trap was placed at 1958 N.W.
42nd Avenue at the edge of a tomato field, since the owner suspected his
tomatoes to be infested. All tomatoes examined were infested with
Euxesta sp. No Mediterranean flies were caught in the McPhail trap.
A second trap was located at 7425 S.W. 2nd Street, the third trap at 308
E. 9th Street, the 4th trap at 301 E. 16th Street, Hialeah. The 5th trap
was placed at 2984 E. 6th Avenue, the 6th at 710 E. 39th Street, the 7th
at 597 E. 38th Street, and the 8th and 9th at 4435 E. 8th Avenue.
86 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 2
Dr. R. H. Foote, of the U. S. National Museum, arrived the evening of
the 23rd, and plans were discussed for setting up a laboratory to make
April 24: Messrs. Ed L. Ayers, N. O. Berry, R. H. Foote, and H. A.
Denmark met at the Cortez Hotel to make plans for a survey and trapping
for the fruit fly. Mr. Ayers set up his headquarters at the office of the
County Agent, at 2690 N.W. 7th Avenue.
Spraying and picking crews were located at E. 4th Avenue and 131st
Street, Hialeah Race Track. Dr. R. H. Foote, G. W. Dekle, and H. A.
Denmark are located at 2204 Salzedo Street, Coral Gables, at the office of
the Wild Cotton Eradication crew. Mr. N. O. Berry was also located at this
address to conduct large-scale McPhail trapping.
April 20: Mr. Berry arranged for three thousand traps and eight men
to arrive in Miami on April 30. He planned to use partially hydrolyzed
yeast portein as an attractant.
April 27: A meeting of the State Plant Board was held at the Chamber
of Commerce building to discuss the plan of eradication of the Mediterranean
fruit fly. Mr. Fred H. Kent, Chairman of the Board, and Governor LeRoy
Collins attended this meeting and offered their support to a program to
eradicate the fly. Mr. Ayers gave a general review of the fruit fly situation
to date, and Mr. Berry was called upon to express his opinion of the
situation and the size of the task. Mr. Berry estimated a campaign of two
to three years. Mr. E. P. Reagan explained the condition of baggage
inspection, which needs revision according to him and Mr. Ayers. Mr.
Reagan has made an on-the-spot-check of the Mediterranean fruit fly situa-
tion in Costa Rica, which is the closest infestation to the United States.
Mr. H. G. Clayton, Director of the Extension Service, pledged his support
and offered the help of any of the county agents in the areas of infesta-
.tion. Dr. Ralph Miller, member of the State Plant Board, reviewed the
situation and emphasized the importance of an eradication program.
Senator Jim Haley pledged his support and offered to do everything possible
to get federal aid.
April 27: There were 89 infestations that had been positively determined
as the Mediterranean fruit fly. The infestation extends as far north as
Hollywood in Broward County. Six infestations have been located on
Miami Beach to the east; 3 infestations have been located in Hialeah
to the west; and one infestation extends to Kendall on the south. The
heaviest infestations are located in the Miami Shores area.
April 27-28: Fruit picking began in the Miami Shores area and in the
Biscayne Park area April 28.
April 30: Spraying operations began with ground equipment. The
equipment was furnished by the State Plant Board and additional equip-
ment was hired from B. & L. Farms.
May 3: Mr. Wilber Charles was appointed to direct the Mediterranean
fruit fly campaign. Mr. E. G. Donahue was placed in charge of road
blocks. Their office is located at 2690 N.W. 7th Avenue, Miami, 37.
May 4: Messrs. N. O. Berry, W. R. Heard and F. D. Bittner, H. A.
Denmark and W. Charles met to organize the trapping of the fruit fly in
the citrus belt as far north as Marion County. Mr. Berry, USDA, in
charge of the trapping operations and located at 2204 Salzedo Street, Coral
Gables, made arrangements for county agents, production managers and/or
Denmark: The Mediterranean Fruit Fly
Plant Board Inspectors to operate the McPhail traps. The traps will be in-
spected once or twice a week and specimens sent to the Miami office for
The attractant for the fruit fly is 2 pounds of partially hydrolyzed yeast
protein, 2 pounds ammonium chloride, which is added to enough water to
make 5 gallons. This will bait approximately 50 traps. The bait sprays
consist of 2 pounds of 25% wettable malathion, 1 pound of partially
hydrolized yeast protein, or 2 pounds of sauce bait No. 2 in 100 gallons
Messrs. H. A. Denmark, in charge of determinations, and G. W. Dekie
are located at 2308 Salzedo Street, Coral Gables.
Mr. C. E. Shepard, in charge of field operations, under whose direc-
tions fruit inspection, supervised by Mr. K. P. Bragdon, spraying,
supervised by Mr. L. W. Holley, clean-up and fruit picking supervised by
Mr. T. E. Whitmore, and Mr. G. B. Ellis, assistant to Mr. Shepard, are
located at E. 31st and 4th Avenue, Hialeah.
A fumigation station will be set up at the Hialeah Race Track. Eight
ounces per 1000 cubic feet of ethylene dibromide for a period of 2 hours,
under supervision of a Plant Board man, will be used for citrus, and
10 ounces for the same period of time and area will be used for mangoes.
Green, wrapped tomatoes and green limes will not have to be fumigated.
Road blacks have been set up on highways: Fla. A1A, US 441, and
Fla. 27 (Krome Avenue) leading to US 41.
May 14: Kendall remains the southernmost point of infestation and
Pompano Beach the northernmost.
H. A. DENMARK,
State Plant Board,
The Florida Entomologist
ADDITIONS TO THE UNITED STATES LIST OF HEMIFTERA: These five species,
all well known in Cuba, were among some Hemiptera from southernmost
Florida recently received for determination from the Entomology Divi-
sion of the State Plant Board of Florida. The first is a scutellerine
pentatomid, the others are Coreidae.
Augocoris illustris (Fabr.). One female representing the immaculate
color form of the species, from Key Largo, at light, Feb. 26, 1956.
Leptoglossus stigma (Herbst). One female, taken on lychee at the Plant
Introduction Station near South Miami, June 7, 1956.
Sethenira ferruginea Sthl. Three specimens from Key Largo, Feb. 13,
1956. I have also seen a specimen from Dade County, collected some twenty
years ago, in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
Zicca taeniola Dallas. Apparently well established in Dade County.
One specimen from Miami, April 30, 1954; three from Matheson Hammock,
just south of Miami, Oct. 22, 1954; five from Homestead, March 1, 1956.
Though Van Duzee doubtfully listed this species from "N. Am." in his
1917 catalog, these are the first definite records of which I have knowledge.
Megalotomus rufipes (Westwood). A female from Key Largo, Feb. 26,
1956, is darker than most individuals of this common West Indian species.
ROLAND F. HUSSEY,
Department of Biology,
University of Florida
Vol. 39, No. 2
MEMBERSHIP LIST OF THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL
The following list of members has been compiled from the
records of the Society. Any discrepancies should be reported
to either the secretary or the business manager. Honorary mem-
bers are indicated by having their names followed by a double
asterisk; student members have a single asterisk.
Edwin B. Acree, 19140 N. Miami Ave., N. Miami, Fla.
J. C. Alden, Woolfolk Chem. Co., Fort Valley, Ga.
Chris W. Anderson, Newell Hall, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Gainesville, Fla.
Darrell Wayne Anthony, Dept. of Veterinary Science, Parasit. Lab., Univ. of
Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Philip S. Arey, Naugatuck Chemical Div. U. S. Rubber Co., P. O. Box 2288,
211 E. Robinson Ave., Orlando, Fla.
James F. Aycock, 2324 Garfield St., Hollywood, Fla.
Ed. L. Ayers, Plant Commissioner, State Plant Board, Seagle Bldg., Gaines-
Corbin C. Ballentine, P. O. Box 3751, Orlando, Fla.
C. O. Bare, 6019 Bonneau Rd., Chamberlayne Heights, Richmond 27, Va.
Joe P. Barnett, R-l, Box 163-B-1, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
R. E. Bartnett, 112 Zorato Ave., St. Augustine, Fla.
Edward I. Barwick,* Box 281, Groveland, Fla.
Edward G. Batte, California Spray Chem. Corp., Haddonfield, N. J.
Alfred, H. Baumhover, Box 3391, Orlando, Fla.
Elizabeth C. Beck, 1621 River Bluff Rd., Jacksonville, Fla.
R. E: Bellamy, 2311 B Street, Bakersfield, Calif.
J. M. Bellows, P. 0. Box 1311, Miami, Fla.
Lewis Berner, Biology Dept., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
David M. Bleech,* 104 N.W. 14th St., Gainesville, Fla.
C. Verne Bowen, Box 3425, Sta. A., Savannah, Ga.
Dr. G. H. Bradley, U. S. Public Health Service, Room 5126 HEW Bldg.,
Washington 25, D. C.
K. E. Bragdon,** P. 0. Box 114, Indian River City, Fla.
Arthur Branan, P. O. Box 65, Leesburg, Fla.
Charles E. Brian, Florida Agr. Supply Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
James E. Brogdon, 12 N.E. 4th St., Gainesville, Fla.
Rue L. Brown, 607 S. 4th St., Ft. Pierce, Fla.
W. G. Bruce, Plant Pest Control Branch, U.S.D.A. Agr. Res. Service,
Washington 25, D. C.
George S. Burden, 600 S. Summerlin St., Orlando, Fla.
T. C. Burns, Palmetto, Fla.
J. Everett Bussart, 215 W. Harrison St., Wheaton, Ill.
F. Gray Butcher, Univ. of Miami, P. O. Box 1015, South Miami, Fla.
Francis C. Byers, Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
Thomas L. Cain, Jr., P. O. Box 1467, Cocoa, Fla.
Irving J. Cantrall. George Reserve, Pinckney, Mich.
H. C. Chapman, Dept. of Entomology, N. J. Agric. Exp. Sta., New Bruns-
wick, N. J.
Row W. Chase, 134 Peachtree St., Atlanta 3, Ga.
The Florida Entomologist
C. W. Chellman, P. O. Box 151, Gulfport, Miss.
James R. Christie, 619 E. 7th Ave., Mount Dora, Fla.
Philip Clark, P. O. Box 3391, Orlando, Fla.
William B. Clements, P. O. Box 65, Leesburg, Fla.
Kenneth Coleman, Speed Sprayer Co., Orlando, Fla.
George Cooper, Glade & Grove Supply, Princeton, Fla.
Mac D. Couch, 104 W. Forest Circle, Orlando, Fla.
Prof. J. T. Creighton, College of Agriculture, Gainesville, Fla.
Roy A. Crossman, Jr.,* Flavet III, 229-T, Gainesville, Fla.
Wayne P. Dean, Swift & Co., Winter Haven, Fla.
J. W. Decker, Ft. Clinch State Park, Fernandina, Fla.
G. W. Dekle, State Plant Board, Seagle Bldg., Gainesville, Fla.
Donald DeLeon, 16 Oviedo Ave., Coral Gables, Fla.
H. A. Denmark, State Plant Board, Seagle Bldg., Gainesville, Fla.
John J. Diem, P. O. Box 324, Palmetto, Fla.
Curtis F. Dowling, Jr., P. O. Box 178, Coral Gables 34, Fla.
J. E. Driggers, P. O. Box 428, Lake City, Fla.
Joe C. Elkins, 2747 Ridgemore Rd., N.W., Atlanta 18, Ga.
Joe K. Enzor, Jr., 106 Auck NE, Winter Haven, Fla.
Dr. G. B. Fairchild, Box 651, Ancon, Canal Zone
William E. Feistner, Jr., 423 So. Orange Ave., Orlando, Fla.
Russell Fiedler, 1933 "S" St., S.E., Washington, D. C.
Miss F. E. Fisher, Citrus Exp. Station, Lake Alfred, Fla.
John A. Fluno, 1550 Grove Terrace, Winter Park, Fla.
Harland W. Fowler, Jr., 826 N.E. Oak St., Arcadia, Fla.
Irving Fox, Dept. of Medical Zoology, School of Tropical Medicine, San
Juan, Puerto Rico
John M. Fredrick, P. O. Box 455, Homestead, Fla.
Ellery W. French, 7639 Blaisdell Ave., Minneapolis 23, Minn.
Herbert J. Friedman, 4602 N. Dale Mabry Highway, Tampa 3, Fla.
Paul E. Frierson, State Plant Board, Seagle Bldg., Gainesville, Fla.
J. B. Gahan, Box 3391, Orlando, Fla.
Gary Garesehe, 2339 N. Orange Ave., Orlando, Fla.
Winston L. Garesche, California Spray Chemical Corp., Box 7067, Orlando,
W. G. Genung, RR No. 1, Box 520, Lake Worth, Fla.
Kenneth E. Gibson, Box 1100, Twin Falls, Idaho
I. H. Gilbert, 2111 Gerda Terrace, Orlando, Fla.
Thomas R. Goodwin, Jr., 109 South 29th St., Ft. Pierce, Fla.
Harry K. Gouck, 250 Benmore St., Winter Park, Fla.
A. B. Gurney, Div. of Insects, U. S. National Museum, Washington 25, D. C.
W. B. Gresham, Jr., 937 E. Broadway, Tampa 5, Fla.
J. T. Griffiths, 230 Ave. K. N.E., Winter Haven, Fla.
Joseph Gross, 107 N. Armenia, Tampa, Fla.
J. S. Haeger, 1906 33rd Ave., Vero Beach, Fla.
Roger H. Hale, Rt. 1, Palmetto, Fla.
Frederick W. Harden, 2460 N.W. 61st St., Miami, Fla.
Emmett D. Harris, Jr., Everglades Exp. Station, Belle Glade, Fla.
Bob Hasler, 1737 4th Ave. N.E., Lake Worth, Fla.
J. D. Haynie, Apiculturist, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Gainesville, Fla.
Norman C. Hayslip, Box 507, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
W. B. Hayter, P. O. Box 536, Leesburg, Fla.
Vol. :39, No. 2
James H. Heidt, 965 N.E. 138th St., N. Miami, Fla.
Robert B. Henderson, 1509 Woods Road, Florence, S. C.
L. A. Hetrick, Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
Russell K. Herring, 3004 Ridgeway Ave., West Palm Beach, Fla.
Wayne A. Hibbs, P. O. Box 1209, Sarasota, Fla.
Charles C. Hill, 13025 N.W. 21 Ave., Miami, Fla.
Lt. Col. Sam. 0. Hill, 336 Harmon Drive, San Antonio, Texas
William D. Hogan, 1027 Nottingham Ave., Orlando, Fla.
Kenneth R. Holden, 925 N. Thornton, Orlando, Fla.
Frank L. Holland, Box 392, Winter Haven, Fla.
Robert E. Holland, 324 Ave. B., N.E., Winter Haven, Fla.
I. Harold Holtsberg, 132 N. 12th St., Ft. Pierce, Fla.
J. Douglas Hood, Biology Dept., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
Frank L. Howard, Box 996, Winter Haven, Fla.
Dr. T. Hubbell, Museum of Zoology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
R. W. Hudson, 224 E. Government St., Pensacola, Fla.
Burton P. Hunt, Zoology Dept., Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla.
Paul J. Hunt, Fla. State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Fla.
Jack V. Hurst,* 1434 N.W. 3rd Ave., Gainesville, Fla.
William P. Hunter, Rt. 2, Box 61, Alachua, Fla.
Roland F. Hussey, 1117 N.W. Third Ave., or Dept. of Biology, Univ. of
Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Julius Hyman, P. 0. Box 571, Coral Gables 34, Fla.
C. Dennis Hynes, Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Max Isbill, 102 City Park, New Orleans, La.
Dr. 0. A. Johannsen,** Dept. of Entomology, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y.
Roger B. Johnson, P. O. Box 289, Lake Alfred, Fla.
Calvin M. Jones, Ent. Dept., Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr.
Frank M. Jones, 2000 Riverview Ave., Wilmington, Del.
Milford C. Jorgensen, Box 233, Ruskin, Fla.
Edward Carlton Johnson, P. 0. Box 146, Pompano Beach, Fla.
P. E. Kasper, P. 0. Box 906, Tampa, Fla.
Dennis Kelemen, 880 Bunker Hill Blvd., Jacksonville, Fla.
John C. Keller, 319 Charles St., Orlando, Fla.
E. G. Kelsheimer, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton, Fla.
Stratton H. Kerr, Dept. of Entomology, Newell Hall, Univ. of Fla., Gaines-
Charles P. Kimball, R-4, Box 942, Sarasota, Fla.
C. D. Kime, Jr., R-l, Box 325, Winter Haven, Fla.
C. D. Kime, County Agent, P. O. Box 232, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
Dr. W. V. King,** 1336 Seabreeze Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.
Robert 0. Kirkland, 552 Ross PI., Orlando, Fla.
R. B. Kleinhans, 3535 Evanston Ave., Cincinnati 7, Ohio
E. F. Knipling, Bureau of E. & P1. Quar., U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Md.
Jaroslav Kreysa, Jr., Apartado Postal 576, San Salvador, El Salvador, C. A.
L. C. Kuitert, Apartado 1649, San Jose, Costa Rica, C. A.
C. F. Ladeburg, P. 0. Box 6085, West Palm Beach, Fla.
James A. Lanier, 2nd, The Chemagro Corp., 101 Park Ave., N. Y. 1, N. Y.
Ellis Lanquist, Bolles School, Jacksonville, Fla.
Hamilton Laudani, 204 Harlan Dr., Fairway Oaks, Savannah, Ga.
The Florida Entomologist
Kent S. Littig, 439 Ansley St., Decatur, Ga.
Paul K. Long, P. O. Box 838, Winter Park, Fla.
Wallace T. Long, P. O. Box 507, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
Williard W. McCurdy, Box 357, Pahokee, Fla.
Frederick H. McDiarmid, 3 E. New Hampshire Ave., Orlando, Fla.
John McGuinness, 74 South St., St. Augustine, Fla.
Jean E. Mabry, 819 E. Harwood Ave., Orlando, Fla.
Douglas Maughan, P. O. Box 7067, Orlando, Fla.
James Wilson Maxwell, 134 Peachtree St., Atlanta, Ga.
L. S. Maxwell, Jackson Grain Co., Box 1290, Tampa 1, Fla.
Herman S. Mayeux, General Delivery, Arlington, Fla.
Frank W. Mead, State Plant Board, Seagle Bldg., Gainesville, Fla.
G. B. Merrill, 203 N.W. 15th St., Gainesville, Fla.
Z. P. Metcalf,1 P. O. Box 5215, Raleigh, N. C.
Ralph L. Miller, 701 So. Hyer St., Orlando, Fla.
Thomas W. Miller, Jr., P. O. Box 111, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
Alfred S. Mills, 2305 N.W. 87th St., Miami, Fla.
Edward Mockford,* No. 9766 T. U., Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland
Dr. Roger A. Morse, 1619 N.W. 12th St., Gainesville, Fla.
Philip John Moses, P. O. Box 542, Lake City, Fla.
Harold Mowry, Apartado 1649, San Jose, Costa Rica, C. A.
J. A. Mulrennan, State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Fla.
Martin H. Muma, Box 324, Lake Alfred, Fla.
Milledge Murphey, Jr., Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Forest E. Myers, Vegetable Crops Specialist, Fla. Agr. Exp. Station,
C. Marion Nabors, P. O. Box 5737, Tampa, Fla.
Gerald G. Norman, P. O. Box 41, Winter Haven, Fla.
James G. Needham,** 6 Needham Place, Ithaca, N. Y.
Paul A. Norman, R 6, Box 221k, Orlando, Fla.
John B. O'Neil, American Cyanamid Co., Brewster, Fla.
Max R. Osburn, Box 107, Albany, Ga.
Prof. J. M. Osorio, Escuela de Ingenieros Agronomos, Quinta De Los
Molinos, Habana, Cuba
Constance C. Patton,* Box 2919, Univ. Sta., Gainesville, Fla.
J. W. Patton, 545 W. Park St., Lakeland, Fla.
J. O. Pepper, 413 Ridge Ave., State College, Pennsylvania
Louis Pesce, 1000 Anderson St., Orlando, Fla.
A. M. Phillips, Pecan Laboratory, P. O. Box 25, Monticello, Fla.
John E. Porter, U. S. Quarantine Station, P. O. Box 1246, Miami Beach 39,
A. T. Pospichal, Stauffer Chemical Co., Apopka, Fla.
Dr. R. M. Pratt, Citrus Exp. Station, Lake Alfred, Fla.
M. W. Provost, Ent. Res. Center, Fla. Sta. Bd. Health, P. O. Box 308,
Vero Beach, Fla.
R. R. Reed, Gulf Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Fla.
M. E. Register, care of The Kilgore Seed Co., West Palm Beach, Fla.
C. V. Reichart, O. P., Biology Dept., Providence College, Providence 8, R. I.
Charles L. Remington, P. O. Box 653, Orlando, Fla.
W. C. Rhoades, P. O. Box 470, N. Fla. Exp. Sta., Quincy, Fla.
1 Deceased January, 1956.
Vol. 39, No. 2
R. B. Rebstock, R-l, Box 130, Gainesville, Fla.
E. G. Richardson, 25 S. Main St., Orlando, Fla.
Paul T. Riherd, P. 0. Box 851, Mercedes, Texas
James D. Ringdahl, 2121 E. Central, Orlando, Fla.
Frank A. Robinson, 710 N.W. 9th Ave., Gainesville, Fla.
Dr. A. J. Rogers, Box 2011, Vero Beach, Fla.
George G. Rohwer, 1290 Wesleyan Dr., Macon, Ga.
Jack Russell, Soil Fumigants Co., 1035 N. Orange Ave., Orlando, Fla.
Dempsey R. Sapp, Fla. Pest Control & Chemicals, 20 & 24 N.W. 16th Ave.,
L. C. Scaramuzza, Central Mercedes, Matanzas Province, Cuba
Charles E. Seller 208 Ave. A, N.W., Belle Glade, Fla.
Allen G. Selhime, 612 W. Concord Ave., Orlando, Fla.
William A. Simaton, Citrus Exp. Sta., Lake Alfred, Fla.
Theron W. Sistrunk, 701 N.E. 1st St., Pompano Beach, Fla.
Clinton C. Skipper, P. O. Box 755, Avon Park, Fla.
G. D. Sloan, P. 0. Box 1021, Tampa 1, Fla.
Charles L. Smith, Box 3391, Orlando, Fla.
Grady A. Smith, 308 N. Perkins, Leesburg, Fla.
Herbert Spencer, Fruit Insects Lab., U.S.D.A., 2120 Camden Road, Orlando,
Walter B. Stahl,* 1714 62 St., Brooklyn 4, N. Y.
C. R. Stearns, Box 1134, Lake Alfred, Fla.
Louis M. Steflik,* R-2, Box 30-B, Bunnell, Fla.
Earl L. Stripling, Jr., Calif. Spray Chem. Corp., Goldsboro, N. C.
E. B. Steuben, Dept. of Bioblgy, Southwestern La. Inst., Lafayette, La.
Cliff L. Sutton, P. 0. Box 7067, Orlando, Fla.
George R. Swank, Rt. 4, Box 564, Savannah, Ga.
William B. Tappan, No. Fla. Exp. Sta., P. O. Box 470, Quincy, Fla.
Martin Taylor, Rt. 2, Box 239, Sanford, Fla.
Walter H. Thames, Jr.,* 360-A Flavet No. 2, Gainesville, Fla.
Thomas B. Thew, 451 16th Ave., E. Moline, Ill.
W. L. Thompson, Citrus Exp. Sta., Lake Alfred, Fla.
Dr. Raymond L. Thornton, 1645 Central Ave., East Point, Ga.
Howard A. Thullberry, P. 0. Box 95, Lake Wales, Fla.
J. Douglas Thulberry, U. S. Phosphoric Co., Tampa, Fla.
Ernestine B. Thurman, 5617 Sonama Rd., Bethesda, Md.
A. N. Tissot, Fla. Agr. Exp. Station, Gainesville, Fla.
James P. Toffaleti, P. O. Box 1164, Shreveport, La.
R. P. Tomasello, Box 6156, West Palm Beach, Fla.
H. H. True, 438 N.E. 8th Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.
R. B. Truman, Truman Fertilizer Co., Box 1175, Jacksonville, Fla.
Federico G. M. Valcarcel, Simon Bolivar 163, La Habana, Cuba
M. C. Van Horn, 4517 Peachtree Circle East, Jacksonville, Fla.
Sam H. Vaughn, 8889 N.E. 8th Ave., Miami, Fla.
Jaime Villegas, Rt. No. 3, Greensboro, Ga.
R. K. Voorhees, Box 3751, Orlando, Fla.
William E. Wagner, 1955 37th Ave., Vero Beach, Fla.
Robert E. Waites, 805 N.E. 8th Ave., Gainesville, Fla.
H. K. Wallace, Biology Dept., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
G. Stuart Walley, Division of Entomology, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa,
The Florida Entomologist
William W. Warner, 2213 Fogarty Ave., Key West, Fla.
Stanley D. Webb, Apt. 16, 1300 N. 15th St., McAllen, Texas
Dr. H. V. Weems, State Plant Board, Seagle Bldg., Gainesville, Fla.
George P. Wene, Texas Exp. Station, S. S. No. 15, Weslaco, Texas
Minter J. Westfall, Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Alvin L. Wigger, 972 Peachtree St., Atlanta, Ga.
Frank L. Wilson,* Hillcrest Trailer Park, Gainesville, Fla.
Harold G. Wilson, Box 3391, Orlando, Fla.
Dr. J. W. Wilson, Central Fla. Exp. Sta., Sanford, Fla.
Arthur A. Whipp, P. O. Box 7067, Orlando, Fla.
Mark A. Witham, Stuart, Fla.
Walter G. Whittaker, Pi Kappa Alpha House, Gainesville, Fla.
Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Rt. 2, Box 508, Homestead, Fla.
J. D. Wright, 1109 Pine Hills Road, Orlando, Fla.
M. Lewis Wright, Jr., 5703 Heston Rd., Jacksonville 7, Fla.
W. W. Otherss,* 457 Boone St., Orlando, Fla.
H. C. Young, U.S.D.A., Florala, Ala.
Frank N. Young, Dept. of Zoology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind.
James Zetek, Drawer C, Balboa, Canal Zone
Prof. L. W. Ziegler, 205 Floyd Hall, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
W. E. Zimmerman, Box 129, Orlando, Fla.
LIST OF PAST PRESIDENTS
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
J. R. Watson
E. W. Berger
H. S. Davis
F. M. O'Byrne
G. B. Merrill
J. R. Watson
G. B. Merrill
G. B. Merrill
J. S. Rogers
W. W. Others
E. F. Grossman
C. F. Byers
A. N. Tissot
* Available records do not
1936 W. L. Thompson
1937 R. L. Miller
1938 W. V. King
1939 J. H. Montgomery
1940 Herbert Spencer
1941 Homer Hixon
1942 K. E. Bragdon
1943 T. H. Hubbell
1944 A. H. Madden
1945 A. C. Brown
1946 H. K. Wallace
1947 M. R. Osburn
1948 E. G. Kelsheimer
1949 M. C. Van Horn
1950 J. A. Mulrennan
1951 W. G. Bruce
1952 J. W. Wilson
1953 J. T. Griffith
1954 D. O. Wolfenbarger
1955 F. G. Butcher
115give. the name of the president for this year.
give the name of the president for this year.
I,97 ti. tture0het
S 1. |.H r.,b trf
Vol. 39, No. 2
Patton: Mating Behavior of the Green June Beetle
OBSERVATIONS ON THE MATING BEHAVIOR OF THE GREEN JUNE BEETLE,
COTINUS NITIDA (LINN.) : On the hot, sunny morning of August 12, 1955,
my attention was directed to a young cabbage palm. Advancing toward a
sound similar to many tiny airplane motors, I saw the source of the noise
-insects, not airplanes.
There were about a dozen green June beetles (Cotinus nitida) circling
the palm and alighting now-and-then to rest. Occasionally one would dart
off and describe a wide arc, about a foot above the ground. Numerous
individuals were flying slowly about 3 or 4 inches above the freshly mowed
lawn. Following a zig-zag course, a beetle would circle back and suddenly
drop to the turf and disappear.
Upon investigation of the spot where a beetle had disappeared, I found
not one, but two insects. They were mating, the male clasping the female
by means of the front tarsi, which were hooked around the anterior edge of
the pronotum. A mating pair could be handled without disturbing it, which
is unusual for so wary an insect.
The females burrowed just under the turf, not into the soil, where the
males located them, probably through an olfactory stimulus. Apparently,
sight, sound or motion were not factors, as males were attracted to rem-
nants of females killed by the mower. A few beetles dropped to examine
a burrow no longer occupied.
The turf expanse was bordered on one side by a small wooded area which
was heavily overgrown by muscadine grape vines, but no beetles were feed-
ing either on this or on other grapes. A dense vine of Ampelopsis arborea
had overgrown a small oak tree, and formed a center around which more
than a hundred of these insects gravitated. Many of the beetles were
resting or crawling excitedly over one another, but no mating was observed.
A similar "swarming" activity was noted the previous week, centered
around a small pecan tree, and in the late summer of 1954 I watched this
peculiar rotation around some persimmon trees.
CONSTANCE NICHOLAS PATTON
Department of Entomology
University of Florida