Volume 40, No. 1 March, 1957
Mayeux, Herman S.-Our First Objective .............----...----- ...- 1
Muma, Martin H.-Effects of Larval Nutrition on the Life
Cycle, Size, Coloration, and Longevity of Chrysopa
Lateralis Guer ........--........--------- --....... --..........-- 5
Griffiths, J. T.-Insecticide Dosage on Citrus............................ 11
Hunter, William P.-Carl F. Ladeburg, an Obituary.............. 13
James, Maurice T.-The Genus Eulalia in Florida and the
W est Indies .--.......-----........-.....-............... .... .. ...- 15
Westfall, Minter J., Jr.-A New Species of Telebasis from
Florida (Odonata: Zygoptera) ..-... ..-.........-....-.......-.. ....-..... 19
Wolfenbarger, D. O.-Notes and Comments on the Second
Mediterranean Fruit Fly Infestation-...........-...................... 29
Mockford, Edward L.-A New Species of Archipsocus
from Florida (Psocoptera: Archipsocidae) ....................---- 33
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1956-1957
President .-------.--.......................--------..Milledge Murphey, Jr.
Vice-President ......-......... --------.....---... Irwin H. Gilbert
Secretary ..---....----..................---...-...-.... ...... Robert O. Kirkland
Treasurer ......-- ......----.......--...........-----. Harold A. Denmark
William P. Hunter
Members of Executive Committee.......... W. B. Gresham, Jr.
LEWIS BERNER ..-....-....-........-......-................... Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP ...--..... ---....---..Associate Editor
HAROLD A. DENMARK------............Business Manager
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Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
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OUR FIRST OBJECTIVE
HERMAN S. MAYEUX1
The Florida Entomological Society is 40 years of age; has over 250
members; conducts an annual meeting and publishes four issues each year
of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
The Society has a glowing history beginning on January 5, 1916, with
eleven charter members. As with most children, the child-age society
passed its first years in the pleasant and ideal surroundings of its maternal
home at the state land grant college, The University of Florida. During
this early stage the young society was given little to do, other than to
grow and develop.
Then came the stormy adolescence of the depression years when our
youngster developed a slight twitch and threatened to become cross-eyed.
By that time he was scattered thinly across this great State, unruly, dis-
organized in his thinking, nervous and irresponsible.
As adulthood approached, our Society began taking its responsibilities
more seriously. It matured the constitution and the by-laws; greatly im-
proved the annual meetings; and developed the publication to a level that
it ranks as a truly creditable and worthwhile scientific journal.
There is no fountain of youth. There is no reliving a second childhood
or adolescence. These stages in development are past. It is my happy
privilege to proclaim that the Florida Entomological Society is a mature
organization. Furthermore, it is my considered opinion, and I have just
had twelve months to think on it, that this Society is now at the stage in
its existence when it can, and must start to fulfill more fully the purposes
for its existence as enumerated so simply yet forcefully in its constitution.
The constitution begins with these words: "The association' shall be
known as the Florida Entomological Society. The objectives of the Society
shall be: (1) to promote the study of entomology; (2) to encourage research
relative to insects and related arthropods in Florida; (3) to distribute
widely knowledge pertaining to insects; and (4) to publish THE FLORIDA
As stated in opening, the Florida Entomological Society holds an
annual meeting and publishes THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. This about
sums it up. We make no excuses for not having done more, and we are
proud of these accomplishments. Nevertheless, both of these actions are
largely of a selfish nature-entomologists holding meetings and publishing
for entomologists. It is time we begin work on the first objective given in
the Constitution, "to promote the study of entomology." In order to pro-
mote the study of entomology it is necessary to influence people outside
of our profession in various ways. First, inform them of what we are,
what we do, and promote a respect and appreciation of our contribution
to the general welfare. Second, sell entomology as a science of many
facets, a field of variety, a profession of intrigue and action, which offers
much to young men and women.
As C. R. Jordan (1956), immediate Past President of Georgia Entomo-
logical Society, expressed it, "The word 'entomology' does not exist in the
1Florida Agricultural Supply Company. Presidential Address, Thirty-
ninth Annual Meeting, Tallahassee, Florida, August 30, 1956.
The Florida Entomologist
vocabulary of the average person." He quoted R. H. Nelson, Executive
Secretary of The Entomological Society of America as writing, "I get a
little weary of people looking blank at the mention of the word en-
tomologist but reacting knowingly to the no less polysyllabic terms of
psychiatrist or pediatrician."
J. Wayne Reitz (1955), University of Florida President, recently ex-
pressed his concern for the future in these words, "In the South alone,
we shall need 35 thousand new college instructors and research workers in
the next ten years. At the present rate of graduate degree output it is
estimated that only 18 thousand Ph.D.s will be produced in that ten year
period, of which approximately half will go to industry."
As early as 1947 the speaker estimated that at the present rate of
production it would require the universities of the South ten years to supply
sufficient entomologists to fill the requirements of agriculture for one
phase alone, namely that of farmer-employed, consultant entomologists.
Work is waiting for literally hundreds in this capacity in the area from
South Texas, across the Cotton Belt and into Southern Florida. Yet, the
demand for men in other facets of the profession is so great that very few
private consultants are to be found at this time, nine years later.
In his presidential address at our thirty-fifth annual meeting John W.
Wilson (1953) had these words to say in closing, "Because it is alive and dy-
namic, more and more young people will be attracted to economic entomol-
ogy as a profession. Through the combined efforts of present and future
members of our profession, the science of economic entomology will move on
to greater developments and larger services to mankind."
Let me repeat! "Through the combined efforts of present and future
members of our profession, the science . will move on to greater de-
velopments. . Now, let me suggest to you that in Florida the best
mutual ground upon which entomologists can combine their efforts to
impress upon the general public the value of entomology and influence
young people to enter the field of entomology is through the Florida
Your Executive Committee has met on three different occasions during
the past twelve months. The situation, as has been presented before you
here, was agreed upon by the Committee as true and accurate. The Ex-
ecutive Committee authorized the President to take certain actions before
this thirty-ninth annual meeting. First, an amount not to exceed fifty
dollars was to be spent to publicize this meeting, in a manner as to
interest people in entomology. Charles E. Brian has handled this task
admirably, serving as the PUBLICITY COMMITTEE.
Second, the booklet entitled "Opportunities in Professional Entomology"
was to be mailed to every high school in the State of Florida. The Society
purchased, and the Secretary mailed, 500 copies to school libraries and
to vocational agricultural teachers.
Third, a committee was to be appointed to assemble a set of color slides
on the subject "Entomology In Action" covering the several facets of
entomology. Furthermore, this committee was instructed to write a sample
or model talk of a type suitable for use with the slides before groups of
young people of high school age. M. Lewis Wright and his committee have
performed this task and the talk will be given on this program with the
slides. Sets of the slides and copies of the talk will be available from the
Vol. 40, No. 1
Mayeux: Our First Objective
Secretary. Each and every member is hereby appointed to the "Com-
mittee to Recruit Entomologists". Our service on this committee will
consist of making at least one selling talk during the next 12 months.
Fourth, the plans were to be developed for a portable exhibit on the
subject "Entomology In Action" for display at various schools, fairs and
other functions that attract the general public, especially young people.
A selling piece, this exhibit to have the purpose of acquainting the public
with entomology and its value, and to present its various facets in such
a way that the individual can place himself mentally in the nitch that fits
him best, whether it be teaching, laboratory research, field research, ex-
tension education, manufacturing, consulting, selling, commercial appli-
cation, or bee culture. At least one such plan is to be presented at our
business meetings. The speaker and the entire Executive Committee urge
the Society to authorize the incoming Executive Committee to have this
exhibit built and in use by the time of the 40th annual meeting, one
year from now.
We, the Executive Committee, have taken these actions which we
believe are fully authorized by the Society constitution. During this same
year the Editor has expanded the publication. While we advance in one
phase we are not shrinking in another.
With these examples of actions which are being taken to accomplish
our first objective, which is to promote the study of entomology, we chal-
lenge your imagination as to the next step. We sincerely believe that you,
as the membership, will approve entry into this new phase of Society
activity; and we urge that you resolve that it be continued.
I now take much pleasure in dedicating this 39th Annual Meeting of
The Florida Entomological Society to the theme, entomology in action.
The Florida Entomological Society Constitution and By-Laws. 1955. Fla.
Ent. 38: 173-176.
Jordan, C. R. 1956. Shall we wait another hundred years? Bull. Ent.
Soc. of Amer. 2(2): 1.
Reitz, J. Wayne. 1955. The University of Florida and the state's economic
progress. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68: 6-11.
Wilson, John W. 1953. Development in economic entomology. Fla. Ent.
FOR ALL PURPOSES
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EFFECTS OF LARVAL NUTRITION ON THE LIFE CYCLE,
SIZE, COLORATION, AND LONGEVITY OF
CHRYSOPA LATERALIS GUER.'
MARTIN H. MUMA
Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida
Life cycles of predators of the genus Chrysopa have been determined
by several workers. The earliest and most thorough studies were con-
ducted by Smith (1921, 1922) who investigated not only the life cycles
but many other facets of the biology of several species. Later studies in-
clude those of Smith (1931), Putnam (1932, 1937) and Frazer (1945).
None of these workers, however, investigated the life cycle of C. lateralis
Guer.2 Studies reported here were initiated when wide variation in larval
food acceptance and trash packets of lateralis were observed. It was felt
that adequate evaluation of the importance of lateralis in the biological
control of citrus insects and mites would have to be based on a knowledge
of the life cycle and food range of the species.
All the data presented here were accumulated in the laboratory under
artificial conditions. Life "cycles were determined in constant tempera-
ture cabinets at 800 F. under regulated light conditions. Humidity was
not controlled but maintained at the highest level obtainable with water
Deep petri dishes were utilized as rearing cages except when larvae
were in the first instar and escaped readily. First instar larvae were
held in cotton-stoppered test tubes.
All life cycles were initiated with eggs laid by grove-collected, gravid
females. When citrus leaves heavily infested with selected hosts were
obtainable, larvae were presented with them and permitted to search for
and feed on the selected food as naturally as the cages permitted. Un-
infested citrus leaves provided with a comparable density of eggs of
lateralis were utilized when larvae were fed cannibalistically. Food was
changed as needed-in most instances daily.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
As large populations of lateralis are frequently associated with heavy
infestations of Florida red scale, this insect was first utilized as a probable
preferred food in the early summer of 1953. A life cycle of 4, 4, 4, 5 and 12
mean days was obtained respectively for egg, first instar larva, second
instar larva, third instar larva and pupa. When these data were com-
pared with the range for the genus published by Smith (1921), no striking
1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 511.
2 W. E. Bickley, in recent correspondence, states that the name Chrysopa
cubana Hagen should be applied to this species.
The Florida Entomologist
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Muma: Effects of Larval Nutrition
discrepancies were noted and life cycle studies on the species were ter-
In the winter and spring of 1954-55, however, larvae were noted feeding
on, and building packets with, several different hosts. Life cycle studies
were renewed at that time as an adjunct to determination of the preferred
host for the species. Six-spotted mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus
(Riley), Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), purple scale,
Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.), cloudy-winged whitefly, Dialeurodes citrifolii
(Morg.), citrus red mite, Metatetranychus citri (McG.) and eggs of lateralis
were all used as food for lateralis larvae during this later study. Although
the larvae accepted and fed on each of the hosts provided, rather striking
differences in length of life cycle were soon noted (Table 1). Such a strong
reaction to a variation in larval food was not expected, as the species is
known to feed on a wide variety of hosts.
When adults requiring long developmental periods emerged, they were
much smaller and paler than adults undergoing short developmental
periods. In order to check this observation, ten adults were selected at
random from the specimens reared on each host. Several anatomical
structures, those least affected by desiccation, were measured with an
ocular micrometer and means computed. Anatomical measurements of
these specimens and those from a series of ten grove-collected specimens
proved a decided variation in size (Table 2). Less than ten specimens
were reared on citrus red mite and cannibalistically so the effect of these
foods could not be adequately determined.
Unfortunately, the coloration of pinned specimens of the genus Chrysopa
fades quickly. No record of the color variation is available. Adults with
short developmental periods were darker green than those with long periods,
but not so dark as specimens collected from groves.
Another variation noted was that of adult longevity (Table 1). Emerg-
ing adults were provided with citrus honey as food and held in the cages
until they died. Longevity, although variable, was not consistent with the
variation obtained for either life cycle or adult size. Therefore, no con-
clusion can be drawn concerning the relationship of larval food to adult
The results of these studies indicate that variation of the larval food
of lateralis produces variation in the life cycle of the species and variation
in the size, coloration, and longevity of adults of the same generation. It
is believed that the variations so obtained are the result of nutritional
differences rather than of mechanical starvation caused by difficulties in
feeding. An analysis of the data accumulated for the various hosts defi-
nitely indicates this. Use of six-spotted mite as food resulted in the
shortest cycle and largest adults despite the small size and relative in-
accessibility of the mites beneath their webbing. Conversely, use of cloudy-
winged whitefly as food resulted in the longest cycle but intermediate-
sized adults, even though eggs and nymphs of the whitefly are readily
accessible and the nymphs are reasonably large. If these variations had
been due to feeding difficulties, the smallest, least available food should
have produced the smallest adults after a long developmental period with
the reverse being true for the largest, most available food.
A comparison of the several lengths of life cycle obtained for lateralis
with published life cycles of other species is given in Table 3. Variation
The Florida Entomologist
in the life cycle of lateralis approaches the range for the genus published
by Smith in 1921 and is similar on certain foods to the long and short
cycles of various species studied by Smith (1931), Putnam (1937) and
Frazer (1945). It would seem from these data that nutrition, a factor not
usually considered in studies on the life cycles of species of the genus
Chrysopa, could be as important as temperature, a long-recognized factor.
TABLE 3.-COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLES PUBLISHED FOR OTHER SPECIES
WITH THOSE OBTAINED FOR C. lateralis GUER. IN THE PRESENT STUDY.
Number of days to complete
1st 2nd 3rd
Species and Authority Egg Larva Larva Larva Pupa Total
Range for genus
Six-spotted mite host
Fla. red scale host
Citrus red mite host
Purple scale host
4 to 12 3 to 11 2 to 7
4 to 10 15-up 28 to 50
12 15 33
13 12 32
5 18 34
12 12 28
10 11 25
-> 19 38
The results reported in the present study also support the contention
of Thompson (1951) that many predators are more host specific than pub-
lished literature indicates. Although all possible hosts have not been
utilized it would seem that the large, dark green adults of lateralis that
are observed in citrus groves do not develop on hosts such as purple scale
or cloudy-winged whitefly alone. Hosts probably include six-spotted mite,
Florida red scale and possibly some other insect or mite not included in
this study but perhaps equally capable of producing large, dark colored
adults in a short period of time. The effect of nutrition or host specificity
Vol. 40, No. 1
Muma: Effects of Larval Nutrition
on longevity is not clearly indicated from the present study but may
prove on investigation to be equally pertinent.
Variations in length of life cycle, adult size and coloration, and adult
longevity induced by variation of larval nutrition as reported here are
complementary to the findings of Meyer and Meyer (1946). These two
workers, experimenting with Chrysopa vulgaris Schr., reported divergence
of the species in response to larval food changes after four generations.
They further believed that this divergence was due to natural selection
and possibly represented the beginnings of divergence of biological forms
within a species. Although the findings reported here are similar in con-
notation to those of Meyer and Meyer, the present studies were not
continued beyond the first filial generation as would be necessary before
definite conclusions could be reached on the impact of source of food on
divergence of biological forms within a species. This study was not con-
tinued beyond F, because lateralis could not be induced to mate in the
The length of the life cycle of Chrysopa lateralis Guer. was determined
in the laboratory at 800 F. wherein the larvae were fed six-spotted mite,
Florida red scale, purple scale, cloudy-winged whitefly, citrus red mite,
or cannibalistically. The variation thus obtained was found to approximate
the previously published range for the genus. Variation in adult size, col-
oration and longevity accompanied variation in life cycle. These variations
are believed to be due to nutritional inadequacies rather than mechanical
starvation and to be a reflection of the host specificity of the species.
Fraser, F. C. 1945. Biological notes on Chrysopa dorsalis Burm. (Neu-
roptera). Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, Ser. A 20, 10 (12): 116-121.
Meyer, N. F. and Z. A. Meyer. 1946. Obobrazovanii biologicheskikh form
u Chrysopa vulgaris Schr. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Zoologicheskii
Zhurnal, 25 (2): 115-120.
Putnam, W. L. 1932. Chrysopids as a factor in the natural control of the
oriental fruit moth. Can. Ent., 64 (6): 121-126.
1937. Biological notes on the Chrysopidae. Can. Jour. Res. Sect. D.,
Zool. Sci., 15: 29-37.
Smith, R. C. 1921. A study of the biology of the Chrysopidae Ann. Ent.
Soc. Amer., 14 (1): 27-35.
1922. The biology of Chrysopidae. Mem. N. Y. (Cornell) Exp. Sta., 58:
1931. The Neuroptera of Haiti, West Indies. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 24:
Thompson, W. R. 1951. The specificity of host relations in predacious in-
sects. Can. Ent., 83 (10): 262-269.
CONTROL THESE INSECTS
CHLORDANE: Ants, Armyworms, Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug, Brown Dog Tick,
Cabbage Maggot, Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice, Chiggers, Cockroaches, Crickets,
Cutworms, Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers,
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths, Lygus Bugs, Mole
Crickets, Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic
Mange, Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils, Sweet
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs,
Wireworms... and many, others.
HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army-
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Rootworms, Cotton Boll Weevil,
Cotton Fleahopper, Cotton Thrips, Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil,
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles, Garden Web-
worm, Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Rapid
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle-
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag-
got, Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Tuber Flea Beetle, Western
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms
...and many others.
EN D R I N : .Budworms, Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil, Cotton Bollworm, Cot-
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid
Plant Bug, Spiny Bollworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips.
WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS
General Offices and Laboratories Foreign Division
330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois 350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y.
SE P R E S E N T A T I V E ES I N P R I N C I P A L C I T I E S
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I VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATE
INSECTICIDE DOSAGE ON CITRUS
J. T. GRIFFITHS 2
In 1953, I delivered a presidential address entitled, "Where Do We Go
From Here?" Since that time, I have continued to ponder the end result
of citrus spray programs. Today I want to present some thoughts which
I hope may change our approach to this grove operation. Although I am
feeling my way at this time, I hope this may serve as a starting place for
reconsideration of spray methods.
A spray program for citrus is supposed to produce the best quality fruit
possible at the lowest practicable cost. This means that proper insecticides
must be used, they must be sprayed at the proper time, and they must be
efficiently applied. However, there is no justification for applying more
than enough material to produce control, and it need be applied only thor-
oughly enough to attain that control. It is therefore essential that there
be a good criterion of dosage. Today growers apply from 250 to 2500
gallons per acre depending upon the material and who is running the
operation. Five hundred gallons per acre is the amount most commonly
More and more growers are using concentrated sprays in some form.
This method of spraying needs some refinement, but it offers a major
means of reducing spray costs. The advent of concentrated sprays offers
an excellent opportunity to think in terms of pounds of insecticide per
acre rather than pounds per 100 gallons and gallons per tree. I would
like to see insecticide recommendations expressed as pounds per acre and
based upon average tree height. This is an easy figure to find, and it is
not subject to the variation that arises when a production figure (i.e.: a
6 box orange tree) is used.
Problems associated with the use of sulphur may be somewhat different
from those presented by other insecticidal materials, but sulphur offers an
excellent example of the problems faced by the production manager today.
Although the use of sulphur increases other insect problems, many growers
are using more sulphur today than ever before.
In the operation under my control, sprayers are usually set to spray
four rows across a 40 acre block. Thus, where rows are thirty feet apart,
each row represents a trifle more than one acre. The setting of the nozzles,
the speed of the spray machine and the gallons per acre are constant,
whether the machine is in young trees or in an old grove. The amount
of material is changed from block to block and represents the only variable
in the entire application. Nozzles may be adjusted up or down to accom-
modate to tree height, but the foreman is primarily concerned with one
variable, the number of bags per tank.
There are three questions concerning sulphur sprays for which we
need answers: (1) What size rust mite infestation should be treated;
(2) How much sulphur is required; (3) How thorough an application should
1Presented at the Thirty-ninth annual meeting of the Florida Ento-
mological Society, August 30-31, 1956.
2Eloise Groves Association, Winter Haven, Florida.
The Florida Entomologist
be made? These three questions should be considered in the light of how
the use of sulphur may be minimized.
Rust mite infestations do not behave in the same manner at all times
of the year. During the summer, increases are extremely rapid and
injury can result almost over night. During the fall and winter, popu-
lations increase slowly and injury is much less apt to occur. This means
that control is less urgent in the fall and winter than in the summer. In
the fall, a moderate infestation may be allowed to drift for a month or
longer with no danger involved; whereas, such a situation in June would
result in severe injury. Complications with dry weather and/or mesophyll
collapse sometimes occur in the fall, but these instances may be considered
The grower needs some more definite means of determining when an
application for rust mite control should be made. In my own operation,
I am inclined to apply sulphur within ten days to two weeks after finding
twenty to thirty per cent of the fruit infested in the summertime, whereas
such populations in the fall would be checked again within two weeks and
a reappraisal made of the situation.
It has been my experience, that an actual sulphur application can often
be saved in the fall of the year by careful checking and by delaying sulphur
until the population has increased to a relatively high level (50 to 60% of
the fruit infested).
After it has been decided to apply sulphur, the next question is how
much to use. I am coming to.one of two conclusions; either sulphur need
not be varied a great deal in porportion to tree size, or we are using more
than is needed in most applications. Thus, during the past two years, in
the groves under my care about 50 pounds per acre has been a fairly
standard dosage on orange trees and 75 pounds per acre on mature grape-
fruit. However, when amounts were reduced to as little as 40 pounds per
acre on both oranges and grapefruit, no differences were found. I know
of growers who go as low as 25 pounds per acre in mature groves with
apparent success. How much sulphur is really needed?
The methods for applying sulphur must also be considered. In my own
experience, coverage is not a major consideration so far as sulphur is con-
cerned. Within certain wide limits, the thoroughness of application is
probably of little or no consequence, although it may be that if minimum
amounts were used, coverage would become more important. For the past
three years, we have been using a double-head speed sprayer and driving
at 2 miles per hour. This has been most satisfactory. We have used
sulphur dust on numerous occasions and it has been applied at speeds in
excess of 3 miles per hour, but at about the same rate of sulphur per acre
as with sprayers. For practical purposes, results with dust have been
as good as with spray applications.
These experiences lead me to suggest that our sulphur application may
be considerably reduced in cost by having definite answers on the minimum
dosage and minimum coverage required. Sulphur reduction will yield grat-
ifying results in other insect and mite problems. We are a long way from
knowing how much to use and how well it should be applied.
Other insecticides, fungicides, nutritional and physiological sprays pre-
sent individual problems and these are as complex as those for sulphur.
The grower who is trying to reduce spray program costs must do so either
Vol. 40, No. I
Griffiths: Insecticide Dosage on Citrus
by reducing the number of applications, by reducing the amount of ma-
terial, or by finding cheaper means of application. The use of concentrated
sprays and the knowledge of effective minimum dosage and coverage offer
excellent opportunities for improvement in the cost picture.
We must get a clear picture of minimum dosage and minimum cov-
erage. The slogan, "More Insecticides, Better Applied", has no merit
if the extra material and the better coverage are unnecessary.
CARL F. LADEBURG
Entomology lost a true friend and scientist in the death of Carl F. Lade-
burg October 16, 1956 at Veteran's Hospital, Coral Gables, Florida.
Not only was he responsible for many developments in the pesticide field
within his own firm, but this interest, knowledge, and thoroughness ex-
tended to many related problems of technical and practical nature in a
wide range of crops and enterprises.
Carl Ladeburg was an outstanding industry representative in system-
atizing and enumerating pesticide developments, particularly since and dur-
ing World War II, including valuable contributions to such endeavors as
the first "Handbook on Pesticides and their Uses in Florida".
At the time of his death, he worked closely with many agencies on such
factors as pesticide residue, tolerances, laws and usages. All of his efforts
were marked by carefully detailed work in the interest of the industry which
he so ably represented.
Carl Ladeburg was born November 26, 1897, in Magdeburg, Germany
and attended schools in that country. On coming to. the United States he
did post graduate work at the University of California at Los Angeles.
He was then employed by the firm of McLaughlin, Gormely & King, Inc.,
Minneapolis, Minnesota. Later in March, 1940, he came to Florida on the
staff of the Kilgore Seed Company as an entomologist, and subsequently be-
came manager of the Insecticide Division of that firm.
His service record includes the U. S. Army from July 18, 1942, to March
6, 1943, at which time he returned to his position with the Kilgore Seed
Company. He served in the Coast Guard Reserve and was honorably dis-
Carl Ladeburg was an enthusiastic fisherman, accomplished amateur
astronomer, and an actve member of the following organizations and pro-
fessional societies: American Legion, American Cancer Society, The Soil
Science Society of Florida, The Manufacturing Chemists Association, Inc.,
Association of Food & Drug Officials of the United States, The Florida
Entomological Society, The American Chemical Society, The Entomological
Society of America, The National Agricultural Chemicals Association, The
Florida Agricultural Research Institute, The Florida State Horticultural
Society, and The Florida Turf Association.
WILLIAM P. HUNTER
In 1956, new uses for malathion will undoubtedly be
added to the already impressive list of over 80 uses on
45 crops. Research work across the country shows highly
promising results for malathion in new uses on fruits and
vegetables . also in the control of
parasites on cattle, sheep, hogs,
poultry and pets
stored grain pests
For complete, up-to-date information write to
AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS DIVISION
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N. Y.
DEVELOPERS AND PRODUCERS OF MALATHION AND PARATHION TECHNICAL
THE GENUS EULALIA IN FLORIDA AND THE
MAURICE T. JAMES
State College of Washington
The discoveries of a new Eulalia, and of an apparent case of anomalous
distribution which helps to throw light on a problem of systematics within
that genus, have pointed out the desirability of reviewing the genus as it
occurs in this area. Eulalia is here used as it was defined by James and
Steyskal (1952); the species referred to the related Hedriodiscus are, con-
1. Thorax almost entirely black, except apex and sometimes lateral mar-
gins of scutellum; vein R4 absent (present in some related extra-
lim ital species) ......... ----------.. ...............---...--- -------.............. 2
Thorax with at least postalar callus and some pleural areas reddish to
yellow, these areas always distinct in the females, sometimes obscure
in the males; vein R, present; antennal style acute; abdomen dorsally
with ground color basically yellow, and with black transverse mark-
ings or with a black longitudinal stripe which may, however, cover
most of the dorsal surface (subgenus Eulalia) .----------....-.. -..---.....-.... 4
2. First antennal segment 1.5 length of second; vein M1 distinct only at
base, represented otherwise by an impressed line or fold; abdomen
black dorsally, with narrow broadly interrupted yellowish apical
margins on segments two to four; antennal style blunt, the last
(sixth flagellar) segment but little longer than wide (subgenus
A chlyom yia) --..................-------- ----------...-. .... .. ................. interrupt
First antennal segment no longer than second; vein M1 distinct through-
out or more distinct on its apical than on its basal half; abdomen
greenish-yellow dorsally, usually with a longitudinal black stripe
which may, however, be almost the width of the abdomen on seg-
ments three and four of the female (subgenus Odontomyiina)...... 3
3. Antennal style acute, the last (sixth flagellar) segment at least twice
as long as wide; the pile beneath the front basitarsus as long as the
width of the segment or nearly so; front of female usually with a
pair of yellow spots below the ocelli..-----.---.. -the pilimana complex
Antennal style blunt, the last segment but little longer than broad;
the pile beneath the front basitarsus of ordinary length; front almost
wholly black ....------.............--- ......................virgo
4. Style elongated, its terminal segment (sixth flagellar) longer than the
fourth flagellar; abdomen of female dorsally black, with narrow
lateral margins which are not sharply defined; abdomen of male
with a longitudinal black stripe, narrowest on the third tergum, and
covering approximately the median third of the abdomen........evansi
Style short or of moderate length, its terminal segment not more than
two-thirds the length of the fourth flagellar; abdominal patterns
varied, but well-defined, in both sexes-----......-......--.......... --.. 5
The Florida Entomologist
5. Abdomen yellow to greenish-yellow, with a dorsal longitudinal stripe
confined to the median third or fourth; pile of mesonotum deep yellow
to brassy; face of male and face and front of female yellow, without
distinct black spots --... --.. -------..................bahamensis
Abdomen basically yellow, but with black markings either in the form
of cross-bands or of a median stripe which is expanded beyond the
median third at the anterior margins of the terga; mesonotal pile
white or silvery; frons of female with distinct black markings .... 6
6. Black markings of abdominal terga broad, trapezoidal, covering a large
part of the respective tergum but broadly separated from the spots
on the adjacent segments; face of male reddish-yellow medially and
black laterally ......----......-----..........--.....bermudensis
Black markings of abdominal terga not trapezoidal, at least on segments
two and three, and more restricted in area, but at least narrowly
connected to those of adjacent segments, sometimes in the form of
a dorsal stripe -----...... ...-----------..............- -.. ................. 7
7. Black markings of abdominal terga broadly connected with those of the
adjacent segments and also broadly expanded anteriorly to the lateral
margins so as to take in the anterior fourth of tergum 3 and the
anterior half of tergum 4; the surrounded pale areas on terga 3
and 4 almost oval; male with black face and wholly black meso-
notum ---..........- -. ..................... .... ........................ rufipes
Black markings of abdominal terga but narrowly connected with those
of adjacent segments in the female, broadly so in the male, the an-
terior expansion of the black very narrow in the female and lacking
in the male, the pale areas consequently either not enclosed or not
oval; face and sides of mesonotum of male yellow to green......cincta
Eulolia (Eulalia) evansi, n. sp.
MALE: Head predominantly black; face yellow, except on sides, par-
ticularly above, and in depression above, oral margin; oral margin and
lower facial orbits yellow; labella brownish; palpi pale yellow. Face at
oral margin (37 micrometer units; 30 1 mm.) distinctly wider than its
height (30); face gradually broadening downward, the sides, from front
view, distinctly bowed. Eyes bare. Pile of head white to silvery; that of
face bushy, abundant; narrow facial orbits silvery tomentose. Antennae
brownish-yellow to blackish, variable, but characteristically the first two
segments blackish with yellow apices, the flagellum brownish-yellow or
reddish-yellow basally, becoming darker toward apex, but the terminal
segment also reddish to brownish-yellow. Ratio: first segment 7, second
7, flagellum 27; flagellar segments typically 6:5:4:5:1:6.
Thorax mainly black, the following areas yellow: humeri; narrow
lateral margins of mesonotal suture; postalar calli and area immediately
preceding each; scutellum except broad basal area; scutellar spines except
extreme apices; sclerites at wing base and adjacent mesopleural and
pteropleural areas; and some indistinctly outlined pleural areas, especially
around the anterior spiracle and along the upper margins of the sterno-
pleura. Mesonotal tomentum silvery, scattered; mesonotum and pleura
with conspicuous silvery pile. Legs yellow; the coxae mainly blackish, the
Vol. 40, No. 1
James: Genus Eulalia in Florida
femora at most somewhat discolored toward apices. Wings hyaline; veins
yellow; Ri present, r-m and m-cu short. Halteres ivory.
Abdomen yellow; a median stripe extending from the base of the
abdomen to the middle of the fifth tergite; this stripe occupying about the
median third of the third segment and almost half of the fourth; from
the third forward it widens gradually, so that most of the first segment is
black; pile white, much less conspicuous than on the thorax, but the pile
and pollen of the venter giving it somewhat of a silvery sheen. Genitalia
yellow. Length, 10-11 mm.
FEMALES: Head predominant yellow, the following black: a transverse
band on the vertex, crossing and including the ocellar triangle but not
reaching the eyes; a pair of oval spots on the middle of the frons (or a
broadly interrupted, arcuate transverse band in this area); a round spot
adjacent to each eye just below the plane of the insertion of the antennae;
and the proboscis, excluding the labellae. Width of vertex 33, gradually
increasing to 40 at base of antennae; face almost parallel-sided. Frons
strongly convex, both in lateral and transverse profile. Antennae, in
color and structure, as in the male. Pile of head as in the male, but less
conspicuous. Mesonotum colored as in male but may be more extensively
yellow laterally behind the suture; scutellum wholly yellow or black only
at the base. Pectus, a connected spot on each mesopleuron, and the pos-
terior margins of the metapleura black; pleural regions otherwise yellow.
Prosterum discolored; mesosternum black. Pile of pleura and sides of
mesonotum as in the male, but less conspicuous; mesonotum in addition
with yellow tomentum which appears to be interrupted in a pair of illy-
defined median stripes. Abdomen black or blackish dorsally, with a poorly
defined yellow margin; the black may grade strongly into discoloration.
Venter extensively brownish-yellow to discolored. Otherwise, except
sexually, as described for the male.
Holotype: male, Cape Sable, Monroe Co., Florida, April 22-25, 1955.
Biol. note 1027; James collection. Allotype: same data, Biol. note 1026.
Paratypes: 6 9, 12 $, same data, Biol. notes 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024, 1025A,
1026, 1027; 4 9, 3 8, same data but March 24, 1954, Biol. notes 723, 732,
733B, 735, 740, 741; 1 $, Everglades, Florida, April 9, 1912; 1 3, Cape
Flamingo, Florida. All the Cape Sable, specimens were collected by Dr.
Howard E. Evans, but they are not so indicated on the label.
The relationship of this species to E. microstoma (Loew) is close. The
antennal style is long in both species; it is slightly the longer in microstoma.
In that species, also, the pile of the head and thorax is distinctly yellowish;
vein R& is wanting; the female is paler in coloration, the dark spots being
usually light brown and those below the plane of the antennal insertion
being absent; and the face of the male is predominantly black, the median
area sometimes castaneous and the lower orbits yellow. It is possible that
evansi is a southern subspecies of microstoma; the distributional pattern,
so far as known, is discontinuous.
THE EULALIA PILIMANA COMPLEX
There are three nominal nearctic species of Eulalia, subgenus Odonto-
myiina, which are characterized by the long pile (longer in the male than
18 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 1
in the female) on the ventral side of the front basitarsus. E. pilimana
(Loew), which has a patterned abdomen and a strong facial tubercle,
occurs widely in Southern Canada and the northern half of the United
States, from coast to coast; E. borealis (James), which has a patterned
abdomen but only a weak facial tubercle or none at all, occurs east of the
one-hundredth meridian, from Southern Canada to Florida; E. aldrichi
(Johnson), which has an entirely green abdomen, occurs from Nebraska
and Iowa (Ames) southward to Texas (Fort Davis), and also in Florida.
The status of this species complex needs clarification. Except for Florida,
records for the states south of Virginia and east of the Mississippi are
lacking, but E. borealis, so named because at the time it was supposed to
be more northern than E. pilimana, actually appears to overlap the dis-
tribution of pilimana completely in the East and to extend much farther
southward. If it were not for this broad overlapping, this complex might
assume the pattern of a superspecies.
The collection of the State Plant Board of Florida contains one male
and one female, Nassau Co., May 28, 1955 (H. V. Weems), at Cyrilla
racemiflora, one male, Alachua Co., April 27, 1955 (Weems), at Melilotus
alba, and one female, Gainesville, May 6, 1922 (G. B. Merrill), which fit
the definition of E. borealis; also, there are two females, Levy Co., Sept.
10, 1955 (R. A. Morse), Polygonum hydropiperoides, which compare very
favorably with Kansas and Nebraska specimens of E. aldrichi. Whether
these latter form an independent development or a genetic continuum with
the more western populations is, on present evidence, a matter of specu-
lation. The late seasonal date of the Florida specimens may be of some
DISTRIBUTION IN FLORIDA OF THE OTHER SPECIES
Eulalia interrupta (Latreille). Jacksonville, April 14 (Mrs. A. T.
Slosson; Fla. Plant Board). Sanford, "3-5-26" (Ohio State Mus.)
Eulalia virgo (Wiedemann). Gainesville, Alachua Co., May 12, 1927
(Alexander Walker; U. Mich.).
Eulalia rufipes (Loew). Common in the South; I have numerous records
from Pinecrest and Naples in Collier Co.; Paradise Key, Key Largo, No
Name Key, Sugarloaf Key, Tamiami Trail, and "40 mi. E. of Everglades"
in Dade Co.; and Cape Sable Road, 5 miles west of the Dade Co. line, in
Monroe Co. My northernmost records are Hudson, Pasco Co., July 9, 1948
(R. H. Beamer, U. Kansas), and Lake Alfred, Polk Co., May 27, 1955
(R. P. Esser, Fla. Plant Board). This species also occurs in Cuba.
Eulalia cincta (Latreille). This widespread nearctic species apparently
occurs throughout most of the State. I have records from the following
counties: Alachua (Gainesville, etc.), Levy, Seminole (Sanford), Brevard,
Broward (Hallandale), and Dade (Miami).
James, Maurice T., and George Steyskal. 1952. A review of the nearctic
Stratiomyini. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 45: 385-412.
A NEW SPECIES OF TELEBASIS FROM FLORIDA
MINTER J. WESTFALL, JR.
Department of Biology, University of Florida
E. B. and J. H. Williamson (1930) describe Telebasis incolumis from
Baja California, comparing it with its nearest known relative, T. salva
(Hagen). They state that their few specimens of Telebasis from Palm-
dale, Florida, closely resemble salva, and if they represent an undescribed
third species, it is "closer to salva than it is to incolumis and closer than
incolumis is to salva." They add that "a larger series from Florida . .
should be in hand before a definite decision in the matter is attempted."
C. Francis Byers (1934) adds T. salva to the list of Odonata known
from Florida. He records specimens collected on the University of Florida
campus and at Micanopy. He also states that R. P. Trogdon has reared,
the species from Lake Wauberg in Alachua County. No mention is made
of the 1930 paper to which I have just referred. Davis and Fluno (1938)
tell of collecting salva in Central Florida during 1934 and 1935. Over a
period of years I have taken many Florida specimens which have been
labeled T. salva without critical study, and a number have been sent to
The nymph of T. salva was first described by J. G. Needham (1904,
p. 716) from specimens reared by F. B. Schaupp from Shovel Mount,
Texas. In the brief description no mention is made of the number of
lateral and mental setae. -The only illustration is that of a median lamella
(gill). Elsie B. Klots (1932, p. 83) repeats most of this description,
adding the number of lateral setae as four to five, and mental setae three.
These numbers given by Klots are repeated for T. salva in a table by D. C.
Geijskes (1943) when he describes the nymph of T. sanguinalis Calvert, a
South American species. As Geijskes points out, the nymph described by
Klots (1932, p. 86) as T. dominicanum (Selys) is in reality Enallagma
In May, 1955, Telebasis nymphs from Green Sink on the University of
Florida campus at Gainesville were reared. While working with our artist
in making illustrations of the nymph of this genus for a forthcoming
manual of the damselflies of North America, I noticed that my Florida
nymphs consistently had only one mental seta, rather than three as re-
ported by Klots for salva, and six lateral setae rather than four or five.
I compared the adult males of salva from western states with the Florida
specimens and noted some differences in the abdominal appendages. All
Telebasis specimens, both adults and nymphs, from the Cornell University
Collection were kindly loaned to me by Henry Dietrich. Two paratypes,
male and female, of T. incolumis and all adults of T. salva from the
Williamson Collection, including a large series from Madison County,
Florida, were sent to me by Edward J. Kormondy.
During the summer of 1956 while at the Southwestern Research Station
of the American Museum of Natural History near Portal, Arizona I
i The very productive summer's work in the Southwest was made pos-
sible, in part, by a grant from the Penrose Fund of the American Philo-
sophical Society, as well as aid from the Southwestern Research Station
and the Florida State Museum.
The Florida Entomologist
collected many adults, and reared nymphs of T. salva. Adults were also
taken in Texas.
With reared specimens of salva from Arizona and California before
me, I saw the great difference in the shape of the front edge of the mentum
as compared with that of the Florida specimens, in addition to a difference
in the numbers of mental and lateral setae. Also a striking contrast was
found between the adult females, and I am convinced the Florida specimens
represent a distinct species which is here described.
Telebasis byersi, n. sp.2
DESCRIPTION OF HOLOTYPE MALE. Head: Face red, or reddish, from
labrum almost to level of median ocellus; sutures between labrum and
clypeus, and between clypeus and frons, with a small black dot at each
end; anterior surface of mandible with diffuse brown spot near edge bor-
dering labrum; trochantin of mandible lighter in color than labrum; an-
tenna with two basal segments same color as face, the second segment
becoming darker toward its tip, remaining segments brown; frons above
level of median ocellus black; each lateral ocellus with a trianguar light
spot adjacent to its anterolateral corner, and anterior side of each spot
is concave; vertex same color as lower face; back of eyes, as well as labium,
pale. Pronotum: Reddish or yellowish brown, with following dark mark-
ings: front lobe with a median spot extended laterally each side along the
pale anterior border; middorsal impression and diffuse area each side of
middle lobe; all of hind lobe- except the posterior and lateral borders.
Synthorax: Mesostigmal plates pale, with median dark spot, frame be-
tween them black; middorsal carina reddish, with black stripe each side
about half as wide as mesepisternum and spreading along front border
of this sclerite adjacent to mesostigmal plate; the black stripe is also
abruptly widened above at two-thirds its length to become about three-
fourths as wide as mesepisternum; elongate dark spot over impressed area
above on humeral suture; mesepimeron with elongate dark stripe near
humeral suture from near anterior border of sclerite to level of abrupt
widening of dorsal black stripe; first lateral suture with dark line above;
two small black spots along upper edge of lateroalar ridge, one each above
the mes- and metepimeron; poststernum tipped with black; legs pale,
spines except for comb of first tibia and three small basal spines of first
femur which are the leg color, and tips of tarsal claws black. Abdomen:
Red, brighter above, with numerous black teeth along posterior borders
of segments 7-9; segment 7 darkened below, supposedly due to decompo-
sition of contents in alimentary canal at this point. Superior appendage
darkened above, and in profile view almost as wide at apex as at base,
the upper margin convex throughout most of length; apical black tooth
as in figs. 1 and 7, mesal view showing upper part bilobed. Inferiors
slightly longer than superiors, with black apices.
DESCRIPTION OF ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Red or reddish of male replaced
by light brown or yellowish brown; as in male, sides are paler; light spots
beside the lateral ocelli are narrowly connected with light area of face;
hind lobe of prothorax mostly pale, a very strong ridge extending inward
SNamed for C. Francis Byers, whose Contribution to the Knowledge of
Florida Odonata published in 1930 is well known to students of these insects.
Vol. 40, No. 1
Westfall: New Species of Telebasis
4 5 6
Figs. 1-3 and 7, Telebasis byersi, n. sp. Figs. 4-6 and 8-9, T. salva.
Figs. 1 and 4, lateral views, figs. 2 and 5, dorsal views of male abdominal'
appendages. Figs. 3 and 6, dorsal views of middle and posterior lobes of
prothorax and mesostigmal plates. Fig. 7, mesal view of male superior
appendage. Fig. 8, left lateral lamella (gill) of nymph. Fig. 9, labium
of nymph. (All illustrations by Miss Esther Coogle)
The Florida Entomologist
from each side to about a third of the distance across its surface; just
anterior to inner end of this ridge there is a very faint suggestion of a
raised area. The abrupt widened area of black antehumeral stripe is
hooked forward; abdominal appendages only very faintly black on in-
wardly directed tips; abdominal segments 2-8 each with a more or less
distinct narrow dark ring near apex; joined to each ring in middle is an
obscure darkened area.
VARIATIONS: Dark markings of both sexes quite variable; light areas
beside lateral ocelli may be inclosed with black or narrowly connected with
light color of face anteriorly; shape and length of metepimeral dark
stripe variable, but it is present in all paratypes; degree of forking of
antehumeral dark stripe variable; in some females dark area of hind
lobe of prothorax more extensive than in allotype; many specimens, es-
pecially younger ones, have venter of abdomen darkened throughout much
of its length; a weak place seems to be between segments 6 and 7, so
that many specimens are broken there; shape of superior appendages varies
slightly, and inferior may vary in length, but fig. 1 shows specimen with
about maximum length; in most specimens inferiors are only slightly
longer than superiors.
MEASUREMENTS: Holotype 8, total length including appendages 28.5
mm., abdomen 22 mm., and hind wing 13.5 mm. Allotype 9, total length
30 mm., abdomen 23 mm., and hind wing 15 mm. Paratype &$ total
length 25-31 mm., abdomen 19.5-24 mm., and hind wing 13-15.5 mm.
Paratype 9 9, total length 25-30 mm., abdomen 19-23.5 mm., hind wing
13.5-15.5 mm. In general, specimens from Madison County in Northwest
Florida are smaller than those from Central Florida.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: In the following notes the locations of the
types are indicated in parentheses as follows: (U. of F.) University of
Florida Collections; (M.J.W.) collection of M. J. Westfall; (U. of M.)
Williamson Collection at Ann Arbor, Michigan; (C.U.) Cornell University
Collection; (C.F.B.) collection of C. F. Byers. All specimens are from
Holotype $ and allotype 9.-Bivin's Arm, near Gainesville, Alachua
County, August 22, 1950, M. J. W. (U. of F.).
Paratypes (151 &$ 24 9 9).-Alachua County: 6 &$ Bivin's Arm,
August 22, 1950, M. J. W. (M.J.W.); Univ. of Fla. campus, Gainesville,
6 & 3, May 13, 1922, J. S. Alexander (C.F.B.), 1 $, May 3, 1948, Lewis
Berner (M.J.W.), 1 9, May 1950, M. J. W. (M.J.W.); Green Sink, Univ.
of Fla. campus, 1 & (emerged May 22), 1 9 (emerged May 26) reared
from nymphs collected May 14, 1955, 2 $& September 9, 1956, 1 9,
September 18, 1956, all by M. J. W. (U. of F.); Lake Wauberg, 2 S $,
reared April 12 and 20, 1934, R. P. Trogdon, 2 8$, 1 9, April 1934
(C.F.B.); 33 $& 10 9 2, Cross Creek, August 19, 1950, M. J. W.
(M.J.W.); 1 8, 2 9 9, reared from stream on Cross Creek road, sum-
mer of 1951, M. J. W. (M.J.W.). Glades County: Palmdale, 2 S $, April
6, 1921, 2 & S, April 7, 1921, 1 9, April 8, 1921, all J. H. Williamson
(U. of M.); 1 S, Moore Haven, April 2, 1921, J. H. Williamson (U. of M.).
Lake County: 2 S& March 12, 1922, T. P. Winter (C.F.B.). Madison
County: 62 $& 6 9, Cypress Swamp, Greenville, August 30, 1932,
E. B. Williamson, et. al. (U. of M.); 2 S& Aucilla River, one at, the
other near, Pettis Spring, August 31 and September 7, 1932, E. B. Wil-
liamson, et. al. (U. of M.). Marion County: 4 & $, Micanopy, May 1,
1930 (C.F.B.). Orange County: Wekiva River, 5 $& November 3,
Vol. 40, No. 1
Westfall: New Species of Telebasis
1934, E. M. Davis, 7 &$ April 19, 1935, E. M. Davis, 1 $, May 20, 1939,
M. J. W. (all M.J.W.), 1 3, March 7, 1939 (C.U.), 1 8, 1 9, April 19,
1935, E. M. Davis (U. of M.), 2 S 8, September 20, 1939, M. J. W. (U.
of M.). Volusia County: 4 $ $, April 21, 1935 (M.J.W.); 1 S, Blue
Springs, April 24, 1938, E. M. Davis (M.J.W.).
NYMPH. A rather short, stocky nymph with broad head, in life gen-
really green or brown with few definite markings; older nymphs ready
to emerge show red of abdomen through nymphal skin, and other markings
of adult become evident; two basal segments of antennae darker than re-
maining five segments; in living and recently killed specimens there are
apparent vertical bands in
compound eyes as shown in
illustration; legs without
dark bands; intersegmental
membranes of abdomen show
number of light longitudinal
streaks; lamellae (gills)
with irregularly pigmented '
tracheae, and spotting of
membrane variable; gener- '.
ally there are several dark -
spots around margin of la- ;
mella, but they may be lack-
ing, or in one specimen from
Polk County pigment is -so '
extensive as to produce
rather well-defined bands
across lamella, and mem-
brane near base is browner.
Greatest width of median
lobe mentumm) of labium is i
near lateral lobes and is
about equal to length; front / '
border almost straight and
finely denticulated; two to '/
three small setae at base of \ /
each lateral lobe, and about \. "''
a dozen on each lateral mar-
gin; only one mental seta
(one side of a single speci- Nymph of Telebasis byersi, n. sp., with
men from a total of 30 has figures of labium and left lateral lamella
two, and only rarely is there (gill) removed.
a single minute colorless
spine below the seta on one side). Lateral lobe with six setae (of 27
full-grown nymphs, two have five on one side, one of them with a double
space between two setae but no darkened base evident, while one has
seven on one side, and another deformed one has only four); movable hook
well-developed; terminal border finely denticulated and pointed, but
broader than end hook from which it is separated by a deep cleft. Wing
pads at maturity reaching almost to end of segment 4. Abdominal seg-
ments without spines on lateral keels; segments 7 or 8-10 with row of
The Florida Entomologist
short spines on posterior margins, continuing on to ventral surface in
8-10; few scattered spines may or may not be present on sides of 8-10;
segments 2-4, and to a lesser extent segment 1, with numerous (100 or
more) short stiff setae dorsally and laterally near base. Gonapophyses
of female not reaching end of segment 10. Lamellae about as long as
last five or six abdominal segments. Greatest width of lateral lamella
at about two-thirds its length and equal to almost half the length of
lamella; in terminal third lamella tapers quickly to a pointed tip; ventral
margin setose for about four-ninths length of lamella, about 20 setae
present; dorsal margin with only about six or seven setae for length of
one-fourth the lamella; lateral keel with irregular cluster of about eight
setae near base, followed by a single line of some 16 setae, extending
slightly beyond the last seta of the ventral margin. Median lamella with
about 12-14 dorsal setae, for about two-sevenths length of lamella; ventral
margin with about six setae for one-fifth length of lamella; lateral keel
with about 10-13 setae ending a little beyond last seta of dorsal margin.
Tracheal elements more crowded and much branched in distal part of
Total length, including lamellae, 13-16 mm., abdomen, 5.5-7 mm.,
caudal lamellae 3.5 mm. Only those nymphs with normal degree of ex-
tension of abdominal segments were measured, and details of structure,
except for labial characters, were taken from only well-preserved speci-
mens from Green Sink. Nymphs and exuviae include 5 &$ 8 9 9 (1 &,
1 9, reared) from Green Sink, Univ. of Fla. campus, May 14, 1955; 2 9 9
reared at Gainesville in summer of 1951; 1 &, 2 9 9 (1 small, wing pads
to end of segment 2) Santa Fe River, Alachua County, March 21, 1933;
2 & $ (reared) Lake Wauberg, Alachua County, April 20, 1934; 4 $ &,
3 9 9, Alachua County, April 11, 1930; 1 $, 2 9 9 (a small, wing pads
to end of segment 2) Peace Creek, Polk County, 2.5 mi. N. E. of Bartow,
April 2, 1952. These 30 nymphs or exuviae are all in the collections of
the University of Florida, C. F. Byers, and my own.
The nymphs collected in Green Sink were found living among the mass
of floating duckweed which gives the sink its name. Very few other
species live here. Erythemis simprlicicollis, Pachydiplax longipennis, and
Ischnura posita have also been collected at the sink.
NYMPH OF Telebasis salva.-Twenty-nine nymphs or exuviae from
Arizona and California were studied. Eleven are from the Cornell Col-
lection, the others from the University of Florida Collections.
Points in which these nymphs differ from those of byersi are the fol-
lowing: antennae completely devoid of pubescence except for an oc-
casional very fine hair on second segment; hind angles of head with two
to three dozen setae; lateral setae of labium seven (of 26 full-grown
nymphs or exuviae, five specimens had six each side, and six others had
six on one side, while the three young nymphs had six each side); mental
setae two (of 29 nymphs or exuviae, only one young nymph had one each
side, and one other with a deformed lateral lobe had one on one side plus
a second very small one); movable hook shorter, about three-fourths as
long as portion of lateral lobe basal to movable hook; end hook not so
strongly developed; median lobe with width equal to about nine-tenths its
length, front border strongly convex and angulated in middle; lateral
Vol. 40, No. 1
Westfall: New Species of Telebasis
keels of segments 6-8 with several setae; segments 5-10 with a row of
setae on posterior margin, continuing on to ventral surface in 7-10; setae
more numerous on ventral side of abdomen. Greatest width of lateral
lamella equal to about two-fifths its length; from here it tapers more
gradually and to a longer point than in byersi; swollen sockets of its
setae dark, but setae lighter and smaller than in byersi, making it difficult
often to see them; on its lateral keel there is a marked tendency for the
basal setae to be placed in a single straight line instead of irregularly
clustered as is generally true in byersi. First antennal segment pale, as
are segments 3-7; ventral surface of compound eyes much paler than
dorsal surface; femora with a distinct, more or less complete, dark ring
REMARKS. Among the nymphs and adults of T. salva sent me from
the Cornell University collection I am unable to find any specimens from
Texas reared by Schaupp upon which the original description by Needham
was based. I do not know where Elsie B. Klots obtained the labial counts
of T. salva inserted in her description referred to above. If she obtained
them from the specimens reported by Dr. Needham in 1904, there would
be a question as to whether the nymphs described were really Telebasis
salva, though I doubt this, and no other species of this genus has been
reported from Texas. The characters given in the original description
fit salva, though they might also fit nymphs of another species. The figure
of a median gill does not match those of my specimens perfectly. Cer-
tainly if these reared nymphs were T. salva and possessed three mental
setae and four to five lateral setae, they are unusual when compared with
the good series I have from Arizona and Californa.
The key to nymphs of Coenagrioninae in A Handbook of the Dragonflies
of North America (1929, pp. 282-283) by Needham and Heywood gives
the number of lateral setae for Telebasis as 6-7. There seems to be a
transposition of the numbers 7 and 8 in the couplets at the bottom of
page 282; corrected, this would indicate two mental setae for Telebasis,
and the numbers would then be correct for T. salva. In A Guide to the
Study of Fresh-Water Biology (1938, p. 20) by J. G. and Paul R. Needham
there is also confusion of numbers in couplets where Telebasis is involved.
According to this key Telebasis would have to fit the statement "mental
setae 3-7", though in the explanation with plate 7, Telebasis is listed as
having 6-7 lateral and 2 mental setae. Whether this information is
based on the original Texas material or specimens of salva which I have
seen from the Cornell collection reared near Laguna Beach, Californa, in
1922 by Dr. Needham is not known.
I have noted that the black markings of adults of T. byersi, incolumis,
and salva are almost identical, whereas' other species show a very-different
pattern. Without the nymphs of byersi and salva one could be inclined
to wonder if the differences in male appendages and female prothorax
might not be variable and show intergradations. Such a difference as
exists in the shape of the front border of the mentum of these two is not
found as a variable character among nymphs of any other single species
known to me. In the genus Argia the degree of convexity of this border
is a very good specific character. Other differences pointed out also in-
dicate that byersi is a very different species from salva. The dorsal mar-
The Florida Entomologist
gin of the male superior appendage of the adult salva tends to be straighter,
that of byersi more convex. The superior in lateral view is narrower at
the tip in salva than in either byersi or incolumis. The mesal view of
byersi shows the black apical tooth to be larger and bilobed in the upper
part, this upper part not being separated into a second tooth as in salva
It would be interesting to have nymphs of incolumis to see how
different they are. After my study I question the statement referred to
above by E. B. and J. H. Williamson with regard to the relationship of
these three species. In a number of characters byersi does not seem to be
nearer to salva than incolumis is, though I have studied only one pair
of the latter, along with the description and illustrations. The male in-
ferior appendages of byersi are characteristically shorter than in salva
or incolumis. The females of salva and incolumis have similar prothoracic
spines; byersi lacks them or has only the slightest indication of any.
I have not made a careful comparison of venation of the three, and some
good differences might be found there.
RANGES. Since 1930, specimens of T. salva have been taken which
extend its known range to Kansas and Nevada. In the Williamson Col-
lection there are 10 $ $ and 6 9 9 collected by Eldon Kile at Hunters Mill
Pond, Sumner Co., Kansas, September 1 and 11, 1936. In the same col-
lection is a single male collected by C. L. Hubbs and family, 1.5 mi. S.
Springdale, Nye Co., Nevada, elevation 3675 ft., July 24, 1942. We now
know salva from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Arizona, California, and
Nevada, as well as Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama.
T. incolumis is known only from Baja California and was taken on
the same stream with salva. T. byersi is known only from Florida, but
its presence in Madison County near the Florida-Georgia border indicates
that it may be expected at least in Southern Georgia. Its known range
is separated by great distances from that of salva or incolumis.
After this paper was in galley several additional specimens of T. byersi
came to hand which extend considerably the known range of this species.
Through the kindness of Septima C. Smith and Robert S. Hodges of the
University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, and George H. Beatty of Pennsyl-
vania State University, I have studied and determined the following speci-
mens from their collections:
ALABAMA.-Houston County: Chattahoochee State Park, 1 $, Septem-
ber 1, 1938, collected by Martin.
NORTH CAROLINA.-Gates County: pond at Merchants Mill, 4 & &, July
19, 1946, collected by G. H. Beatty, 2 9 9, June 27, 1951, 13 $ $, June 28,
1951, collected by G. H. Beatty, et al.
Byers, C. Francis. 1930. A contribution to the knowledge of Florida
Odonata. Univ. of Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser., I. 327 pp., 11 pls.
1934. Records of Florida dragonflies-I. Ent. News, 45: 214-
Vol. 40, No. 1
Westfall: New Species of Telebasis
Davis, E. M., and J. A. Pluno. 1938. Odonata at Winter Park, Florida.
Ent. News, 49: 44-47.
Geijskes, D. C. 1943. Notes on Odonata of Surinam. IV. Nine new or
little known zygopterous nymphs from the inland waters. Ann.
Ent. Soc. Amer., 36: 165-184, 7 pis.
Klots, Elsie Broughton. 1932. Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands,
Odonata or dragonflies. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the
Virgin Islands, XIV. 107 pp., 7 pls. New York, N. Y. Acad. Sci.
Needham, James G. 1904. New dragon-fly nymphs in the United States
National Museum. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27(No. 1371): 685-720,
Needham, James G., and Hortense Butler Heywood. 1929. A handbook of
the dragonflies of North America. 378 pp., illus. Springfield, Ill.,
C. C. Thomas.
Needham, James G., and Paul R. Needham. 1938. A guide to the study
of fresh-water biology, 4th ed. 88 pp., illus. Ithaca, N. Y. Con-
stock Publishing Co., Inc.
Williamson, E. B., and J. H. Williamson. 1930. Five new Mexican dragon-
flies (Odonata). Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 216: 1-34, 3 pls.
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NOTES AND COMMENTS ON THE SECOND
MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY INFESTATION
D. O. WOLFENBARGER
University of Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
A brief history of the second infestation in Florida of the Mediterranean
fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), was given by Denmark (1956). No
information nor speculation, however, was given as to the time, place,
method, manner or source of the infestation. Definite information on the
matter is lacking, leaving only speculation.
Detection of larvae in grapefruit from his backyard trees aroused the
interest and the suspicions of Mr. O. L. Prior and led to the discovery of
the Mediterranean fruit fly in Florida, as pointed out by Denmark (1956).
Mr. Prior, a winter-time resident of Miami Shores observed and became
suspicious of "worms" in grapefruit as something "new". Factors which
led to his inquiry and to detection of the Mediterranean fruit fly were (1)
curiosity or interest, (2) high standard of living or aversion toward eating
"wormy" food, (3) sufficient leisure time to satisfy his curiosity. A large
segment of American citizens is in this category and performs services
for others that are aside from selfish interests.
FLY INTRODUCTION.-Various entomologists have guessed at the time
the fly was introduced into Florida. These guesses have ranged from less
than one to perhaps three years previous to April, 1956. If but three to
six flies were the original stock, 200-300 flies might have emerged as first
generation flies after four to six weeks. After the second month, the fly
population might have reached several hundred. Four to six months after
the introduction, the numbers of flies could have reached hundreds of
thousands. Astronomically large figures could be expected after eight to
twelve months, provided conditions in South Florida were favorable for
rapid multiplication. The writer estimates the fly was introduced in
Florida about 18 to 24 months previous to its discovery.
At the time eradication measures were initiated, many fruit, even of
apparently favored species, were uninfested. Although no data were taken
and the examinations were not extensive, it was often necessary to cut
two dozen or more fruit in order to locate any larvae. Many fruit ap-
peared likely or possible hosts and yet were not infested. This is explained
as an incomplete or an unsaturated infestation owing to lack of flies.
In connection with speculation as to the time of introduction of the
fly consideration may be given to a trapping program conducted by the
State Plant Board of Florida. In-1955 traps were placed on the Florida
Keys and in several counties of Southern Florida. Although fermenting
baits were used in McPhail glass traps the care and thoroughness of trap
operation by the late Mr. O. D. Link gives much significance to this work.
Several months were spent on the program during which no Mediterranean
or other introduced fruit flies were found. If the fly had been abundant
it would probably have been discovered at this time.
The Florida Entomologist
DISPERSION.-Whether the fly remained localized within a mile or two
of the introduction site for several months, or whether early generation
flies immediately began widespread distribution is not known. If the flies
found favorable breeding sites near their point of origin, more localized
distribution might have occurred. A favorable locale could conceivably
absorb a much larger population than could be supported by an unfavorable
one. An unfavorable locale might, on the other hand, give rise to more
widespread dispersion than a favorable one. There is lack of entomological
evidence to provide a guiding principle concerning this factor in the dis-
persion process. Although the housefly is considered a "wanderer" and
disperses in terms of miles, without much regard for favorable stopping
places, the fruit flies may or may not have different habits.
Unusual and infrequent movements of but few individuals to distant
locations undoubtedly occurs with the Mediterranean fruit fly as with
other organisms. Some individuals of a large population disperse to more
distant locations than from a sparse population. Such occurrences some-
times suggest spot infestations instead of contiguous infestation.1 This is
especially true where insects are discovered in an area not previously rec-
ognized as infested. Movement of the fly as aided by man would be more
frequent and more distant along highways connecting human habitations
than between uninhabited areas. Movement of the fly without aid by man
also would be discovered in the vicinities of human habitations more fre-
quently than in intervening areas uninhabited by man, since more fly hosts
grow and are in greater abundance in the vicinities of human habitations.
Although the amount of man-given aid to the fly dispersion to distant
areas in the present infestation is unknown, the writer feels that fly flights
have been the more important. Competition of the fly against man for
the same fruit has forced an association of man, the fly and fruit pro-
duction; hence, the problem of co-existence.
Speculation as to the place of introduction is associated to some extent
with the location and mode or manner of introduction. It appears most
likely that the original fly stock became free somewhere in greater Miami.
The initial find was in Miami Shores, where the abundance and frequency
of infested fruit and properties in this area have suggested to the writer
that this was the site of the introduction.
There seems little doubt that transportation by man was responsible
for introduction of the fly. Infested fruit undoubtedly were brought from
some country possessing the fly. There is no known evidence, however,
to indicate which country provided the original stock. Transportation of
infested fruit by airplane is suspected. Whether passenger or crew mem-
ber was responsible is unknown; either is a possibility. Since Miami
Shores may have been the site of introduction, there is also a possibility
that "wormy" fruit were discarded from a yacht or other water craft.
There is insufficient evidence to suspect commercial fruit shipments as
being responsible for the introduction although the possibility of such
an entry cannot be denied.
1Spot infestations refer to transportation of the fly as made by man
and where contiguous infestations refer to insect movements unaided by
Vol. 40, No. 1
Wolfenbarger: Second Fruit Fly Infestation
ERADICATION EFFORTS.-Following discovery of the species, State and
Federal forces initiated eradication measures against the fly. Methods
and procedures of the attacks are given in more detail elsewhere by others.
These attacks, however, are predicated on the efficiency and use of attrac-
tant and poison materials having greater potency than have ever been
used on such a large scale. It is paralleled, however, by "bait spraying,"
with "brown sugar or molasses, or both, water and arsenate of lead," which
was reported effective by Hume (1929) in the previous successful eradi-
cation of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Florida.
ROLE OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.-Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station workers are conducting tests on citrus, orna-
mental, subtropical and vegetable crop plants. These tests have included
phytotoxicity studies in which applications of dieldrin, heptachlor, mal-
athion, parathion, and ethylene dibromide were made. Residue studies of
ethylene dibromide, malathion and parathion on avocado, pineapple, citrus,
papaya, mango, tomato are being made. Fumigation studies are in progress
on avocado, citrus, papaya, and other fruits to determine treatment effects
on keeping, shipping, taste and other factors. Observations are being
made to determine any secondary effects of the eradication program.
Research programs were developed with the understanding that none would
include living forms of the Mediterranean fruit fly itself, acquiescing to
the active, operating, eradication program. Practically all Stations are
contributing, in one form or another, to the immediate problems arising
from the production and marketing of ornamental, fruit and vegetable
Observations on secondary effects of wide-spread use of spray appli-
cations have been favorable to the eradication program. Mosquito popu-
lations generally have dropped abruptly following spray applications in
an area and have increased slowly at first, then more rapidly, until the
next spray application. Weight changes of honeybee colonies at the Sub-
Tropical Experiment Station usually have declined through the summer
season. It might be expected that any deleterious effects of spray appli-
cations would show decreases in weight. Only the usual zero slight plus
and minus weight changes appear to have occurred to the two colonies
weighed daily through this summer, although five aerial spray applications
have been made. Reports of increases in number of insect species have
been received, but these are not attributed to the spray applications.
Denmark, H. A. 1956. The Mediterranean fruit fly infests Florida again:
an early chronology. Fla. Ent. 39: 85-87.
Hume, H. Harold. 1929. The Mediterranean fruit fly situation. Mo. Bul.
St. P1. Bd. Fla. 14 (2) : 29-42.
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A NEW SPECIES OF ARCHIPSOCUS FROM FLORIDA
EDWARD L. MOCKFORD
Department of Entomology
University of Illinois
The new species described below was discovered late in a study of the
taxonomy and comparative life histories of Archipsocus in the region of
Gainesville, Florida; therefore, it was not included in an earlier paper on
the genus (Mockford, 1953). It is a member of Badonnel's (1948) group
II (designated subgenus Archipsocopsis Badonnel in my paper of 1953), in
which females lack gonapophyses and are viviparous.
Archipsocus frater, n. sp.
DIAGNOSIS: similar to A. parvulus Mockford in color of the female and
in shape of the phallic frame of the male. Differing in larger size, pos-
session of tiny winglets on the male, and orange color of the male.
- - _- ---~ C
A. frater n. sp. 9,
A. frater n. sp. 9,
A. frater n. sp. ,
A. frater n. sp. 9,
A. frater n. sp. 9,
n. sp 9, forewing.
epiproct (e), paraproct (p).
34 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 1
HOLOTYPE FEMALE: MACROPTEROUS
Measurements: total body length 1.572 mm.; forewing length 1.236
mm.; antennal length 0.706 mm.; hind leg: femur + trochanter 0.363 mm.;
tibia 0.438 mm.
Morphology (from paratypes and holotype): antenna: discoid sensilla
at about midpoint on fi, one subapical on fi, one apical on fe, fs, and flo.
Antennal segments in the ratio 1.00: 1.48: 1.92: 1.46: 1.36: 1.40: 0.97:
1.30: 0.89: 1.26: 0.87: 1.05:'1.68. Lacinia tip (fig. 3) with a long lateral
prong and two median denticles. Venation of forewing (fig. 1) faint, but
areola postica and M4+5 complete; radial stem distinct in basal fifth of
wing, and An distinct throughout its length. Forewing membrane uniformly
ciliated except for bare areas below radial stem where the vein is distinct,
and bordering An. Ciliation of hindwing membrane confined to apical
half. Hindwing venation (fig. 2) normal for the genus. Pigmented area
of subgenital plate (fig. 6) with very shallow median impression. Par-
aprocts ciliated as in fig. 5, lacking trichobothria. Epiproct ciliated as in
Color (in alcohol): eyes black. Head and thorax dull brown. Ab-
domen paler brown. Forewings tan with darker band around margin from
stigma sack to M4+5. Hindwings clear.
ALLOTYPE MALE: MICROPTEROUS
Measurements: total body length 1.124 mm.; forewing length 0.117
mm.; antennal length 0.585 mm.; hind leg: femur + trochanter 0.286 mm.;
tibia 0.312 mm. Differs from holotype in smaller size, microptery and
related lack of ocelli and simple thoracic tergal lobes. Phallic frame
(fig. 4) with aedeagal arch protruding medially as in A. parvulus. Color
more orange than in female.
Type Locality: Florida: Alachua County: Lake Alice. Holotype and
allotype collected October 24, 1953. Paratypes: 1 $ and 6 9 collected at
the type locality and nearby Gainesville from August 19 to November 5
(1952 and 1953).
Types remain for the present in my collection.
Badonnel, A. 1948. Psocopteres du Congo Belge (2e note). Rev. Zool.
Bot. Afr. 40(4) : 267-322, 126 figs.
Mockford, E. L. 1953. Three new species of Archipsocus from Florida
(Psocoptera: Archipsocidae). Fla. Ent. 36(3): 113-124, 30 figs.