Volume 40, No. 2 June, 1957
Wilson, John W.-A Review of the History of the Florida
Entomological Society at its Fortieth Anniversary............ 39
Porter, John E.-The Development of Public Health Service
Quarantine Entomology and Its Program in South Florida 45
Olinger, Lee D.-Observations on the Mosquito, Toxorhynch-
ites Rutilus Rutilus (Coquillett), in Alachua County,
Florida ....................... ................................................ .. 51
Wolfenbarger, D. O.-Observations of Insecticidal Control
by Surface Active Agents ..................................................... 53
Morse, Roger A.-A Note on the Biology of Synanthedon
Sapygaeformis Floridensis (Grote) (Lepidoptera:
A egeriidae) ...............................-.......................................... 61
Mead, Frank W.-Additions to the United States
List of Cicadellidae ......-- ....................................---..........- ..... 62
Emerson, K. C.-A New Species of Mallophaga from
the Pigeon ......-----... --...-................ ..... ...----- -.........--....-.... 63
Morse, Roger A., and Frank A. Robinson-Honey Bees and
the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Spray Program..--........-........ 65
Patton, Constance N.-Notes on the Biology of Sturmia
Incompta (Van Der Wulp) and Winthemia Citheroniae
Sabrosky (Diptera: Larvaevoridae) ..__ _...-------........ 69
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1956-1957
President ....--..................- .............. ............Milledge Murphey, Jr.
Vice-President ....---..................................... Irwin H. Gilbert
Secretary ..--...-.......................--- ............. .... Robert 0. Kirkland
Treasurer -...-........................................-------..Harold A. Denmark
William P. Hunter
Members of Executive Committee ....... W. B. Gresham, Jr.
) Herman Mayeux
LEWIS BERNER ----..............---- .---.--.-- ..--..-Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP ...--...-...--........ Associate Editor
HAROLD A. DENMARK. ---....--...--...Business Manager
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A REVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY AT ITS
JOHN W. WILSON
Central Florida Experiment Station
Forty years ago on January 5, 1916, eleven men gathered on the campus
of the University of Florida to organize the Florida Entomological Society.
The objectives, as set forth in the constitution, were to promote the study
of entomology, to distribute widely knowledge pertaining to insects, and
to publish an entomological journal. The annual dues were set at 50
cents per member. Although this membership fee appears very modest
at the present time, there was nothing modest about the vision and am-
bitions for the Society of those eleven charter members. They were aware
of the great need for more entomological knowledge and through the Florida
Entomological Society they proposed to stimulate a consciousness of this
need in the mind of the general public. They also proposed to encourage
the development of a body of amateur entomologists, as well as profession-
als, dedicated to the accumulation of more information about insects.
The list of charter members included Dr. E. W. Berger, President;
H. S. Davis, Vice President; K. E. Bragdon, Secretary and Treasurer; Prof.
J. R. Watson, Executive committee member; and C. J. Albrecht, H. B.
Barnett, W. R. Briggs, A. C. Brown, H. G. Carter, Jeff Chaffin, Virgil Clark,
R. H. F. Dade, L. A. Daniel, H. L. Dozier, H. D. Eikenberry, John Eiland,
B. O. Gaston, J. C. Goodwin, J. E. B. Hall, N. C. Hainlin, S. P. Harn, Fritz
Hatcher, F. E. Haywood, J. C. Holton, C. M. Hunt, K. F. Innecken, H. H.
Lawley, A. C. Mason, J. A. Miller, J. H. Montgomery, Wilmon Newell,
F. C. Nieland, F. M. O'Byrne, F. W. Poos, E. R. Potter, Mrs. N. M. G.
Prange, W. J. Rahn, P. H. Rolfs, H. E. Schumacher, Frank Stiriling, A. L.
Swanson, G. E. Tedder, T. Van Hyning, M. C. Vaughn, Shirley Walker,
C. E. Wilson, G. H. Wilson, R. N. Wilson, S. L. Woodruff, W. W. Others.
The members held monthly meetings in Gainesville. At the April, 1917,
meeting Dr. E. W. Berger proposed that the Society undertake to publish
a periodical to be known as the FLORIDA BUGGIST. Professor J. R. Watson
was selected to be editor and he continued to serve the Society in this
capacity until his death in 1946. Three volumes were published under the
name FLORIDA BUGGIST. With volume 4, number 1, the name of the pub-
lication was changed to THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. During the 30-year
period that Professor Watson served as editor, he often served also as
financial underwriter of the Society and its periodical. There were times,
particularly during the 1930's, that Professor Watson advanced money
from his personal funds to make publication of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
possible. There were other strong friends who came to the aid of THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST during these trying times. Among those who were
outstanding in this connection were the Pepper Printing Company and the
Tobacco By-Products and Chemical Corporation. The Pepper Printing Com-
SPresented at the 40th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological
The Florida Entomologist
pany extended credit for publication costs and was very patient over a
period of several years while these accumulated bills were being gradually
paid off. During this whole period the Tobacco By-Products and Chemical
Corporation carried a full page advertisement. Without the income from
this advertisement, continued publication would have been almost impos-
sible. Due to a shortage of funds and sometimes a scarcity of manu-
scripts, it was occasionally necessary to combine two numbers of the
journal. In spite of all these difficulties, Professor Watson skillfully
managed to maintain the publication of a creditable entomological journal.
At the time of Professor Watson's death George Merrill was associate
editor, and thus the full responsibility of continuing publication of THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST fell upon his shoulders. At the end of the term
of office Mr. Merrill was succeeded by H. K. Wallace who filled this im-
portant post for three years. At the thirty-third annual meeting Lewis
Berner was selected as editor. During the eight years of Dr. Berner's
editorship, THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST has grown steadily both in the
number and quality of the manuscripts published. The circulation has
also steadily increased. In addition to being received by the 251 members
of the Society, it is subscribed to at the present time by 51 libraries in the
United States and 25 libraries in foreign countries. In addition 28 over-
seas libraries receive THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST on an exchange basis.
Aside from the regular annual meetings, the publication of THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST is the only activity that the Society has engaged in during
the past. However, the Society can be proud of the fact that members
such as Professor Watson, Mr. Merrill, Doctors Wallace and Berner were
willing to spend the time and energy required to maintain the high
standards that THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST has attained. We can also feel
confident that under the competent leadership of Dr. Berner our publication
will continue to grow and to be recognized as a leader in its field. We
should recognize the fact that the publication of THE FLORIDA ETOMOLOGIST
is one of the most important activities that the Society can undertake and
that each of us should support this activity to the fullest extent.
The enthusiasm of the founders of the Society was contagious, as was
reflected in a very rapid growth in membership. During the first year it
more than quadrupled its membership and by the end of 1917 there were
nearly one hundred active members and twenty associate members.2 They
also inspired the organization in 1917 of the Lee County Entomological
Society at Fort Myers which had a membership of twelve. Early in 1918
the Lee County Society affiliated with the Florida Entomological Society
as a branch society.
Unfortunately the Society was unable to maintain a steady growth.
However, it did continue to hold several meetings a year at irregular in-
tervals. Meetings were frequently called when distinguished entomologists
such as Doctors Herbert Osborn, H. T. Fernald, O. A. Johansen, W. S.
Blatchley, and others visited the University of Florida Campus. The
minutes of the Society, as published in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, fre-
quently describe the papers presented at such called meetings during the
1920's and early 1930's.
2 Tissot, A. N. 1939. A brief history of the Florida Entomological
Society. Fla. Ent. 22 (1): 8-9.
Vol 40, No. 2
Wilson: History of Florida Entomological Society
A history of the Florida Entomological Society would not be com-
plete without some discussion of the outstanding entomological events that
occurred during the period of its existence. These events had their effect
upon the society and, therefore, demand recognition in its history. The
first of these was the outbreak of the spirea aphid on citrus which occurred
during the spring of 1923 and continued in outbreak proportions through
the spring of 1925. This outbreak of the spirea aphid resulted in the em-
ployment by the Experiment Station of the first entomologist to be as-
signed to a location off the University of Florida Campus.
For a period of several years instruction in entomology and plant
pathology was conducted in one department of the University of Florida
College of Agriculture. This was still true in 1929 when John T. Creighton
joined the University staff. Shortly after, instruction in these two branches
was elevated to two separate departments and Dr. Creighton became the
head of the Department of Entomology of the College of Agriculture.
Under the sponsorship of the students and faculty of the Department of
Entomology, the Newell Entomological Society was organized in 1935.
This student organization has promoted an annual Entomological Confer-
ence and in many other ways has helped to advance the cause of profes-
sional entomology. Many of the members of this organization have first
affiliated with the Florida Entomological Society as student members and
have later become active members of the Society. Under the very able
leadership of Dr. Creighton, the Department of Entomology has become
strong and well rounded.
Another event which eventually had a profound effect upon the Florida
Entomological Society was the phenomenal expansion experienced by the
Experiment Station during the decade of the 1920's. The Citrus Experiment
Station was authorized by the Legislature of 1917, provided donations of
lands, groves, moneys, or other things of value be made to the Board of
Control for this Station in the amount of not less than ten thousand dollars.
It was not until April 6, 1921, that donations in sufficient amount to meet
the legal requirements were received by the Board of Control. The Legis-
lature of 1921 established the Tobacco Experiment Station at Quincy and
the Everglades Experiment Station at Belle Glade. The tobacco experi-
ment Station later became known as the North Florida Experiment Sta-
tion. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1924, two laboratories were
established, one at Hastings for the study of diseases of potatoes, and one
at Cocoa for the study of diseases of citrus. The first of these has re-
cently become a Branch Station with an entomologist on the staff. The
laboratory at Cocoa was discontinued some years ago. In 1925 a laboratory
for the study of the diseases of strawberries was established near Plant
City. Laboratories were established at Bradenton and Homestead in 1926,
at Monticello and Sanford in 1927, and at Leesburg, Pierson, and West
Palm Beach in 1929. The latter two laboratories were later discontinued,
making a net total of ten new branch stations and laboratories established
in various parts of the state during this decade. Although entomologists
were not on the original staff of most of these new installations, there
are one or more entomologists on the staff of all but two of them at the
present time. Since 1929 five additional branch stations have been estab-
lished but no entomologists have yet been appointed to these staffs.
The Florida Entomologist
The Florida State Plant Board was established with the passage of the
Florida Plant Act by the Legislature of 1915. The first project of the
Plant Board was the study of citrus canker to determine what measures
should be taken for its control. As a result of these studies the citrus
canker eradication campaign was undertaken. This campaign was suc-
cessfully completed under Dr. Wilmon Newell's direction in 1929. Before
the citrus canker eradication campaign was brought to a close officially the
Mediterranean fruit fly was discovered in Orlando. Thus, from its be-
ginning the Plant Board has played a major role in the development of
the agriculture of the State. The many Plant Board staff members who
have been and are at present members of the Society have also contributed
greatly to the development of the Florida Entomological Society.
The Florida State Board of Health began its study of methods for con-
trol of mosquitoes soon after the yellow fever epidemic of 1877. How-
ever, it was not until after World War I that an organized effort was
made in this direction. In 1941 Mr. John Mulrenan was employed and set
up the Bureau of Malaria Control which was reorganized in 1946 and re-
named the Division of Entomology. Under the enthusiastic leadership of
Mr. Mulrenan the Division of Entomology, State Health Board, has recently
dedicated a new laboratory located at Fort Pierce where a number of en-
tomologists will be employed in the study of insects affecting man's health.
Some of these entomologists have been with the Division of Entomology
for several years and are well known for the active part they have taken
in the affairs of the Society.
Another group which has contributed to the growth and well being of
the Florida Entomological Society in recent years is the pest control indus-
Stry. These well-trained entomologists have come into being as a group
since World War II. The Florida Entomological Society recognizes the
contributions the pest control industry are making to the welfare of man-
kind and is glad to welcome these men for the contributions they will
make to the Society.
The Bureau of Entomology had established a laboratory at Orlando for
the study of insects attacking citrus several years prior to the organiza-
tion of the Florida Entomological Society. Mr. W. W. Others, who was
in charge of this laboratory at that time, became a charter member of
the Society and was elected to honorary membership in 1952, after having
served as president in 1927. During the years of World War II, the Divi-
sion of Insects Affecting Man and Animals established a large laboratory
at Orlando and many members of the staff of this laboratory are now active
members of our Society.
Early in the spring of 1923 an outbreak of the celery leaf tier occurred
in the Sanford area. In 1924 the damage caused by this insect was not
as great as in 1923, but the celery growers of that area suffered very heavy
losses during the spring of 1925. This threat to the celery industry led
to the establishment of a laboratory under the joint supervision of the
State Plant Board and the Division of Truck Crop Insects of the Bureau
of Entomology. A few years later this work was conducted entirely by the
Division of Truck Crop Insects. The several staff members of this labora-
tory became members of the Society. Among these C. B. Wisecup served
as Business Manager and Treasurer during the war years 1942 to 1946.
Vol 40, No. 2
Wilson: History of Florida Entomological Society
On April 6, 1929, specimens of the Mediterranean fruit fly were col-
lected in a citrus grove near Orlando. Further inspections showed that
this insect was widely established in the citrus producing area of the state.
The energy and organizational ability displayed by Dr. Wilmon Newell in
his attack of this problem resulted in one of the rare eradications of an
economic insect in the remarkably short period of less than two years.
Although this accomplishment was of tremendous importance to the citrus
industry of Florida, it also produced developments that have influenced the
whole profession of entomology. First there is the pride all entomologists
can have in such an accomplishment. More tangible developments were
the first extensive use of bait sprays and the first use of the vapor-heat
treatment method for treating large quantities of fruit for shipment. Both
of these methods have been adapted for use against other insects and to
other plant products.
On April 13, 1956, the second infestation of the Mediterranean fruit fly
was discovered when larval specimens were taken from Miami to Dr. D. O.
Wolfenbarger for identification. As we will learn from papers on the pro-
gram for this meeting the U. S. D. A. Plant Pest Control Branch and the
State Plant Board are now actively engaged in the second Mediterranean
fruit fly eradication campaign.
Another insect eradication campaign was undertaken by the State Plant
Board in August, 1934, after the citrus blackfly was discovered in Key West
on August 10, 1934. From the experience gained in the Mediterranean fruit
fly campaign the Plant Board made every effort to win the whole-hearted
support of the Key West citizenry. In spite of all efforts, the Plant Board
was seriously hampered in its work by strenuous resistance on the part
of many of the citizens. Only after a legal battle that was carried all
the way to the Supreme Court was the Plant Board able to conduct the
campaign properly. The delays caused by the resistance of the local citi-
zens and legal proceedings increased the cost of the campaign considerably
and postponed its eventual successful conclusion. The last evidence of the
infestation was found on February 26, 1937, two and a half years after
it was first observed.
During the early summer of 1947 an outbreak of the green peach aphid
occurred on shade tobacco in Gadsden County. Although this aphid had
been observed on tobacco at various times before 1947 it had not been con-
sidered an economic pest of tobacco. The infestation became so severe
that two student entomologists were sent to the area. A little later three
Experiment-Station entomologists were taken from their regular duties and
temporarily assigned to this problem. The first field tests of parathion
were conducted in this area in 1947. The first commercial formulations of
this insecticide were used in this area during the spring of 1948. This out-
break resulted in the placing of an entomologist on the staff of the North
Florida Experiment Station.
Most individuals and organizations experience periods of vigorous health
and growth alternating with periods of poor health and depressed activity.
The Florida Entomological Society was no exception to this generality.
It was during the early 1930's, coincident with the depth of the financial
depression, that the Society was in the poorest condition. Perhaps en-
tomologists' preoccupation with the struggle for existence had its adverse
The Florida Entomologist
effect upon the health of the Florida Entomological Society. In spite of
the phenomenal expansion of the Experiment Station which has been de-
scribed, membership in the Society dwindled, meetings were held at irreg-
ular and infrequent intervals, and the financial condition was deteriorating.
Credit for the reversal of these trends should go to W. L. Thompson who
realized that the Society could not survive if this state of affairs was per-
mitted to continue. As a result of his efforts to improve conditions, Thomp-
son was elected president of the Society in 1936. He and the slate of
officers elected with him were successful in injecting new life into the
Society. These officers who ably assisted Mr. Thompson in this undertak-
ing included R. L. Miller, Vice-President; A. N. Tissot, Secretary; J. R.
Watson, Editor; E. W. Berger, Associate Editor; and J. W. Wilson, Business
Manager. At this time the custom of holding a single annual meeting, was
initiated. A renewed spirit was apparent at the 1937 annual meeting, with
an excellent program arranged by the secretary and an attendance of 37
Since this twenty-second annual meeting held in 1937, the Society has
grown steadily to its present size and recognized position in the profession.
The twenty-fifth annual meeting was held in Gainesville, December 13 and
14, 1940. The Silver Anniversary dinner, with Dr. H. Harold Hume as
toastmaster, honored Professor Watson, the first president and editor of
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST from its first number. Of the eleven men
present at the first meeting, four, Doctors Wilmon Newell and E. W. Berger,
Mr. J. C. Goodwin and Professor Watson were present for this celebration
of the twenty-fifth anniversary.
As has been indicated in previous paragraphs the Florida Entomological
Society is composed of several groups of entomologists. All of these
groups are engaged in the common cause of serving the general public in
its continuing battle with the insects that are public enemies. At this point
this common interest of these various groups is emphasized. The Florida
Entomological Society provides a common meeting ground for all entomolo-
gists, the teacher, the systematist, the pure scientist and the economic en-
tomologist. In an effort to promote the common interests of all entomolo-
gists the Society has established the policy, through practice, of rotating the
office of president among the various groups.
At the close of World War II the release of D D T for civilian use
stimulated a great demand for insecticides and the services of entomolo-
gists. The rapid release of the sythetic hydrocarbon and phosphatic in-
secticides has promoted a tremendous demand for men with entomological
training. The large number of young men entering the profession of
entomology in the employ of the insecticide industry has stimulated a
rapid growth of the Society. This rapid increase in numbers, with the
vigor and enthusiasm these young entomologists are bringing into the
Society, is providing a new impetus to greater accomplishments. Now at
this fortieth anniversary of the founding of the Florida Entomological
Society, we can look forward with confidence to a bright future of broadened
activity for the Society.
Vol 40, No. 2
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
QUARANTINE ENTOMOLOGY AND ITS PROGRAM
IN SOUTH FLORIDA
JOHN E. PORTER'
Guarding against the introduction of diseases from other countries is
a responsibility of the Division of Foreign Quarantine of the U. S. Public
Health Service. The Service has been charged with this duty since 1798.
Control measures against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes became an accepted
Public Health procedure on ships with the discovery in 1900 of the relation-
ship of this mosquito with the yellow fever virus. However, it was not
until the early days of international air travel that Public Health quaran-
tine entomology as such, had its inception. Even in these early days epi-
demiologists of the Service foresaw an era in which there would be in-
creased dangers to our country through the possible importation of insects
from foreign countries by airplane.
Their realization of this potential threat to our country led to the first
reported studies of insects on aircraft. Griffitts (1931) inspected 102 air-
craft arriving at Miami, Florida, from Central and South America and
the Caribbean area during 1931 and reported the occurrence of 29 mos-
quitoes on 21 planes. This observation posed a logical question. Can in-
sects survive at the high altitudes and cold temperatures in which planes
fly? Subsequent tests by Griffitts (1933) demonstrated the ability of mos-
quitoes to survive for approximately 80 hours of flying time and at 14,000
feet altitude in these prototypes of the modern plane. Carnahan (1938)
reported on insects recovered from aircraft at Miami, Florida, while Welch
(1939) was the only worker up to that time to pay any attention to insects
other than those of medical importance. Denning et al. (1947) and Hughes
(1949) have admirably summarized the findings made by Public Health
Service inspectors. Since those days much has been said of the accidental
transport of insects in aircraft. Observations made today indicate that
live insects, including mosquitoes, are frequently found on the modern
planes which fly at higher altitudes and often for greater lengths of time
than the early planes.
The knowledge that mosquitoes were able to survive at the altitudes
these early planes sometimes reached in their international flights was
cause for deep concern. It could have been pigeon-holed as just another
observation in the gathering of scientific information, but, remembering
the not too far removed outbreak of yellow fever in New Orleans, our
officials were not anxious to allow foreign mosquitoes access to our shores.
The development of heated and pressurized cabins further increased the
possibilities of transporting live mosquitoes.
Consequently, studies were commenced to find the best way to prevent
these insects from establishing themselves in this country.
The earliest control measures made use of hydrocyanic acid gas fumi-
gations, rotenone dusts and formaldehyde sprays, but none of these were
1Entomologist, U. S. Quarantine Station, Miami Beach, Florida, Division
of Foreign Quarantine, Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare.
The Florida Entomologist
satisfactory or safe. Williams and Dreessen (1935) developed a non-
flammable pyrethrum spray for use on aircraft which was the first material
applied extensively for the control of insects aboard aircraft.
Control measures devised since the introduction of this spray have
pretty well run the ambit of insecticidal knowledge. Early applications
of insecticide made use of the plunger-type hand sprayer, followed by the
use of a compressed air sprayer. In 1942 Goodhue and Sullivan opened a
new approach to insect control with their introduction of a method for dis-
persing pyrethrum in dichlorodifluoremethane, using this liquified gas as
the propellent. This use of an aerosol has greatly simplified the problem
of in-flight disinsection of aircraft.
Insect control procedures were incorporated in the Public Health Service
Foreign Quarantine Regulations in 1941 requiring the disinsection of air-
craft arriving in the United States "from any place in South America or
tropical Africa, or from any other region where yellow fever may appear."
Entomologists and trained inspectors were employed to carry out inspec-
tions on aircraft and ships and surveillance around airports and seaports.
The introduction of DDT revolutionized the field of economic entomology
and this insecticide was soon made a part of the aerosols used on aircraft.
Since its incorporation with pyrethrum in these aerosols little change has
Many hours of experimentation have gone into efforts to improve the
existing formulations to make them more effective toxicants and less irri-
tating to passengers and crew.. Unfortunately, to date, there is no ideal
Until recently two high pressure aerosol formulations, G-382 and G-
651, were the only ones acceptable to the Public Health Service for aircraft
disinsection. However, in July, 1955, two medium pressure aerosols,
G-1029 and G-1152, were approved for this use. The following table in-
dicates the percentage composition by weight of these formulations.
AEROSOL FORMULATIONS AUTHORIZED BY THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE FOR
USE IN AIRCRAFT.
Percent by weight composition
Ingredients G-382 G-651 G-1029 G-1152
Pyrethrum extract, purified
(20% pyrethrins) ...... ---.-.......--- ...-......... 5.0 6.0 6.0 5.0
DDT (aerosol grade) ..............----.............. 3.0 2.0 2.0 3.0
Cyclohexanone ................... ...........----........ 5.0 5.0
Lubricating oil (SAE 30) .-.....................---..... 2.0 2.0
(Freon 12 or Genetron 12) ..............--.....-.... 85.0 84.0 58.8 59.5
Aromatic petroleum derivative solvent:
(Velsicol AR60 or Socony-Vacuum 544G) 8.0 6.0 -
(Velsicol AR50 or Socony-Vacuum 544C) 2.0 -
(Freon -11 or Genetron -11) ... -------- 25.2 25.5
Another method of spraying planes, automatic disinsection, was de-
veloped because of the frequent failure of crew members to properly dis-
Vol 40, No. 2
Porter: Public Health Service Entomology
charge their spray duties while their planes are airborne. Dr. C. S.
White, then of the U. S. Navy, and Mr. D. L. Snow, Public Health Service,
in 1945 experimented with the idea of piping an aerosol into all parts of
a plane, this material to be released by simply pressing a control button
or switch. In 1946, Snow and White conducted tests with the first auto-
matic system at Patuxent River, Maryland. Cdr. John M. Hirst, U. S.
Navy, devoted several years to improving this system (U. S. Navy, 1950)
and was instrumental in the installation of the system in some Military
Air Transport Service planes used during the Korean War. The method
is not yet refined enough for use on civilian aircraft.
In the past few years efforts have been directed by the Communicable
Disease Center laboratories in Savannah, Georgia, and the Division of
Foreign Quarantine, Public Health Service, to the application of residual
insecticides and the utilization of insecticidal vapors for insect control on
aircraft. Lindane residues of 200 mg. per square foot have given satis-
factory insect control of baggage compartments for up to 5 weeks, while
lesser deposits in passenger compartments have given control up to 3
weeks. DDT and dieldrin as residuals have not shown much effectiveness.
Lindane and DDVP (dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate) as vapors
have been applied in some experiments. These vapors originate from in-
secticidally treated glass-wool filters installed in the ventilator systems
of planes. Such use of insecticides as these shows promise of being the
easiest and most effective method of disinsecting aircraft. Details of the
toxic hazards to passengers and crew must be determined before this method
may be generally used.
A search is still being made for a formula, as well as dispersing ap-
paratus, which possesses all of the following characteristics:
1. It should be economical.
2. It should be non-irritating and non-toxic to passengers and
3. It should be harmless to aircraft interiors.
4. It should be rapidly effective in its paralyzing and toxic
powers on insects.
5. It should be applied automatically.
6. It should be light weight and free of maintenance prob-
Modern concepts of insect control are, however, varied and flexible. We
do not depend upon the disinsection of planes and ships as our only ex-
pedient. It does not present the perfect barrier to insect introduction as
might be supposed. Theoretically, only complete cessation of travel would
give us a reasonably perfect barrier. Frequent entomological survey of
those areas surrounding airports and seaports, is another method used by
our station for the early detection and prompt eradication of any insects
which may have unknowingly been introduced into this area. Mosquito
light traps prove a useful adjunct to this surveillance program.
Routine inspection is made of airports and seaports and their surround-
ing areas for removal of conditions attractive to the breeding of Aedes
aegypti. Our staff institutes control measures when actual breeding of
mosquitoes is observed. Education of the public is an accepted principle
in most types of control programs. Since airline crews are held responsi-
ble for the proper disinsection of planes, it is a practice of this station to
48 The Florida Entomologist Vol 40, No. 2
participate in their training programs. Instruction is given on the proper
methods and procedures for spraying aircraft. Emphasis is given to two
facts. First, it is usually easier to keep an insect out of the country than
it is to eradicate it; and second, great dangers to the public are present
if cases of yellow fever, plague, typhus, encephalitis or relapsing fever
should be introduced. Not only do we stress our concern with insects of
medical importance but those of agricultural significance as well. In fact,
publicity concerning the recent introduction of the Mediterranian fruit fly,
Ceratitis capitata Wied., in this area has impressed airline personnel of
the necessity for thorough disinsection of all arriving aircraft. The receipt
by all Public Health Service quarantine stations of intelligence reports
dealing with epidemiological conditions throughout the world enable us
to ascertain the degree of danger involved by air or marine traffic from
these areas. Often routine insect control measures are intensified as a
result of such information.
Thus, to be effective, quarantine control depends upon cooperation among
governments and from several different agencies; cooperation of passengers
and crew (in accepting in good faith and without complaint the disinsec-
tion of aircraft and ships); cooperation of airline and ship personnel and
the federal agencies interested in the control procedures indicated by re-
ceipt of epidemiological reports; and cooperation among the federal regu-
latory agencies and state and county control authorities to detect and
eliminate the breeding and breeding conditions conducive to the establish-
ment of undesirable insects in .this country.
The World Health Organization has exempted certain airports and sea-
ports from the yellow fever endemic zone. They are like islands of safety
surrounded by a sea of endemicity because breeding of Aedes aegypti is
Kept below hazardous levels. Some thought it being given to the possi-
bility of making all ports of entry and departure free from insects of
public health importance-i.e. sanitary ports. If such a dream could come
true-and there is definitely more promise of it now with the great array
of scientific and technical knowledge available-our quarantine problems
would be greatly reduced.
Annand, P. N. 1947. Preventive entomology. J. Econ. Ent. 40(4): 461-468.
Carnahan, C. T. 1938. Activities of the U. S. Public Health Service in
mosquito control for airplanes. Fla. Anti-Mosquito Assn. Rep. 12:
Denning, D. G., J. J. Pratt, Jr., A. E. Staebler and W. W. Wirth. 1947.
A tabulation of insects recovered from aircraft entering the United
States at Miami, Florida, during the period July 1943 through De-
cember 1944. U. S. Dept. Agric., Foreign Plant Quarantine Memo.
Goodhue, L. D., and W. N. Sullivan. 1942. The preparation of insecticidal
aerosols by the use of liquified gases. E. T. 190. U. S. Dept. Agric.
Bur. P1. Quar 3pp (Processed).
Griffitts, T. H. D., and J. J. Griffitts. 1931. Mosquitoes transported by air-
planes; staining method used in determining their importation. Pub-
lic Health Rep. 46(47): 2775-2782.
Griffitts, T. H. D. 1933. Air traffic in relation to public health. Amer.
J. Trop. Med. 13: 283-290.
Porter: Public Health Service Entomology
Hughes, John H. 1949. Aircraft and public health service foreign quaran-
tine entomology. Pub. Health Rep. Suppl. 210.
Magath, T. B., and P. T. Knies. 1945. Modern concepts of international
quarantine with special reference to military traffic. Mil. Surg.
Pimental, D., and J. W. Klock. 1954. Disinsectization of aircraft by resid-
ual deposits of insecticides. Amer. J. Trop. Med. and Hyg. 3(1):
Quarterman, K. D., and W. N. Sullivan. 1953. Disinsectization of aircraft
by lindane vapors from filters in the ventilating system. J. Econ.
Ent. 46(4): 715-716.
Snow, D. L. 1945. A preliminary report of the development of equipment
for the automatic disinsectization of airplanes. Pan American Sani-
tary Bureau and U. S. Public Health Service.
U. S. Public Health Service. Title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, Sec-
tion 11.513(d). (Nov. 1, 1941)
U. S. Public Health Service. Division of Foreign Quarantine, Circular
No. 12, July 20, 1955.
U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1953. Techniques
and materials for the disinsectization of aircraft. Bull. World Hlth.
Org. 8: 527-533.
U. S. Navy. 1950. Development of equipment for automatic disinsection
of aircraft. Rep. Proj. No. TED UNL AR 633001. April 21, 1950.
Welch, E. V. 1939. Insects found on aircraft at Miami, Florida, in 1938.
Pub. Health Rep. 54(14): 561-566.
White, C. S. 1947. Development of apparatus for disinsectization of air-
craft. U. S. Naval Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland.
Williams, C. L. 1940. Disinsectization of aircraft. Pub. Health Rep.
Williams, C. L., and W. C. Dreessen. 1935a. The destruction of mosquitoes
in airplanes. Pub. Health Rep. 50(20): 663-671.
1935b. A non-flammable pyrethrum spray for use
in airplanes. Pub. Health Rep. 50(41): 1401-1404.
FERTILIZERS AND INSECTICIDES THAT ARE SUPERIOR /
Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA
In 1956, new uses for malathion will undoubtedly be
added to the already impressive list of over 80 uses on
45 crops. Research work across the country shows highly
promising results for malathion in new uses on fruits and
vegetables . also in the control of
parasites on cattle, sheep, hogs,
poultry and pets
stored grain pests
For complete, up-to-date information write to
AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS DIVISION
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N. Y.
DEVELOPERS AND PRODUCERS OF MALATHION AND PARATHION TECHNICAL
OBSERVATIONS ON THE MOSQUITO, TOXORHYNCHITES
RUTILUS RUTILUS (COQUILLETT), IN
ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA
LEE D. LINGER
Department of Entomology, University of Florida
Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett) is a brilliantly ornamented,
diurnal mosquito occurring in the southeastern part of the United States.
It was recorded from Florida and Georgia by Howard et. al. (1912-17) and
later from South Carolina by Carpenter and Jenkins (1945).
In Florida, larvae of T. rutilus have been taken in association with
Wyeomyia mitchellii (Theobald) and W. vanduzeei Dyar and Knab from
one of the bromeliads, Tillandsia utriculata Linn., by Seabrook and Duffey
(1946). Basham et. al. (1947) collected larvae and pupae of this mos-
quito from rot cavities in water oak, live oak, orange, pecan, and pine
trees, and in assorted containers under, or near trees.
Larvae of T. rutilus were reported to be cannibalistic and predatorial on
larvae of Aedes triseriatus, (Say) and Orthopodomyia signifera (Coq.) by
Jenkins and Carpenter (1946). Basham et. al. (1947) reared three speci-
mens, feeding them larvae of A. triseriatus, 0. signifera, and Culex quin-
From 1954 to 1956 the writer routinely observed 19 rot cavities in trees
at Gainesville, Florida. T. rutilus was commonly found in three large
sweetgum cavities, and occasionally in a small cavity in water oak.
An aerial oviposition of a female mosquito, believed to be T. rutilus, was
observed at 5:30 p.m., on August 10, 1954. While depositing, the female
flew up and down about four to five inches above the orifice of a large,
basal, sweetgum cavity, located on the western edge of a densely wooded
area. In general, the flight was directed counterclockwise. Frequently the
course of the flight veered, allowing eggs to drop on dry areas of the
trunk, and on the ground. The female flew into the wooded area, following
After the oviposition flight 136 eggs were counted; however, some may
have been deposited by other females, and the observed female may have
deposited in other cavities. The number, therefore, should not be regarded
as an indication of the egg potential.
Some of the deposited eggs were collected from the ground and the
periphery of the orifice, and placed in an aquarium containing water from
,the cavity. Many A. triseriatus and 0. signifera larvae were in the
water. The eggs hatched, and eventually three females and two males
emerged. The males were identified as T. rutilus.
The random arrangement of deposited eggs of T. rutilus was observed
about the same cavity twice during the summer of 1955. Between 11:00
a.m. and 2:00 p.m. on March 16, 1956, eight eggs of the species were neatly
stacked in a cluster on the surface of water in a small cavity, eight feet
above the ground, in water oak. The cavity contained about 500 ml. of
water, which had a copper tint. Thirty-two A. triseriatus and thirteen O.
signifera larvae, all in the first instar, were present. It was evident that
the eggs had been deposited while the female was in a stationary position.
The Florida Entomologist
Because the basal part of the orifice projected a maximum of four inches
from the trunk, the limited space may not have permitted an aerial deposi-
The time required for the development of immature stages of T. rutilus
is often long. Jenkins and Carpenter (1946) reported the larval stage to
last as long as six months, and the pupal stage to require from four to
five days under natural conditions. Basham et. al. (1947) reared a male
in 20 days from a larva collected in the first instar. They also observed
that the pupal stage required from four to five days. Under observation
by the writer, eight eggs deposited in a small cavity in a water oak con-
taining A. triseriatus and 0. signifera larvae hatched in 24 to 48 hours.
With the orifice covered by a layer of cheesecloth the larval stage was com-
pleted in 22 days, and the pupal stage in six days by a male. The develop-
ment period from deposition to emergence required 30 days.
From 1954 to 1955 the writer examined routinely 19 tree holes in the
area of Gainesville, Florida. Larvae of T. rutilus were found in three cavi-
ties in sweetgum trees, and in a cavity in water oak.
T. rutilus was observed in the act of depositing eggs while in flight,
and this has been described. It was evident that the species also deposits
eggs while in a resting position.
Under natural conditions the time required for a male to develop from
the egg stage to an adult was 30 days.
Basham, E. H., J. A. Mulrennan, and A. J. Obermuller. 1947. The biology
and distribution of Megarhinus Robineau-Desvoidy in Florida. Mos-
quito News 7(2): 64-66.
Carpenter, S. J., and D. W. Jenkins. 1945. A new state record of Megar-
hinus rutilus Coquillett in South Carolina. Mosquito News 5(3): 88.
Howard, L. 0., H. G. Dyar, and F. Knab. 1912-1917. The mosquitoes of
North and Central America and the West Indies. Carnegie Inst.
Wash. Pub., 4 vols., 159: 1,064 pp.
Jenkins, D. W., and S. J. Carpenter. 1946. Ecology of the tree hole breed-
ing mosquitoes of Nearctic North America. Ecol. Monog. 16(1):
Seabrook, E. L., and T. E. Duffey. 1946. The occurrence of Megarhinus
rutilus Coq. in S. E. Florida. Mosquito News 6(4): 193-194.
Vol 40, No. 2
OBSERVATIONS OF INSECTICIDAL CONTROL BY
SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS
D. O. WOLFENBARGER
University of Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Soaps were early and widely used for insect control. A quotation from
Sanderson and Pearls (1931) gives a very brief resume pertaining to soap:
"Insecticidal soaps are the oldest of recognized insect destroyers. Almost
any form of soap, if used in a strong enough mixture, will kill soft-bodied
insects." With the advent of DDT and the later developed insecticides,
however, emphasis has been placed on control with the newest and most
powerful toxicants. These chemicals, however, have certain hazards and
disadvantages which present some problems of usage. Human toxicity
from application and from harmful residues are two prominent problems.
Soaps and emulsifiers are accepted as safe materials for use by man. If
these could be used for the removal or destruction of insects, especially of
leafy vegetables such as turnip greens, celery and cabbage, it would be
Soaps and many other materials exhibit surface action which lowers
or reduces surface tension. "Emulsifiers, detergents, wetting agents, pen-
etrants and dispersants, are All specialized forms of surface active agents,"
according to Haller (1953). Modes of action or methods of kill of insects
by soaps and other surface active agents is not understood. There may be
a similarity of action of surface active agents with that of emulsifiable oils.
Emulsifiers were shown by earlier workers to give insect control and
to assist toxicants to give control. New wetting agents for old insecticides
were tested by Ginsburg (1935) whose objective was the improvement of
wetting and spreading of contact insecticides. Aphids, Macrosiphum solan-
ifolii (Ashm.) and Myzus persicae Sulz. were eradicated by Dozier (1937)
on sweet potatoes by a single application of a sulphated fatted alcohol
(Orvus WA Paste) by sprays of 1:64 by volume. He reported that it gave
remarkable control of greenhouse red spider and effective control of
flower thrips, mosquitoes, citrus white fly and greenhouse ants. Some re-
view of the literature and reports of studies was given by Turner, et al
(1951). They reported synergism with nicotine and low degrees of mor-
tality with the polyethyleneglycol compounds tested. In studies on control
of the tomato fruitworm in South Carolina, Chamberlain and Cochran
(1955) recently reported, "The addition of sticking agents to the insecti-
cide formulations increased the control about 80 percent but the excellent
control obtained without their use would not justify recommending their
use in a commercial program."
A formulation made by a local manufacturer which contained much
emulsifier and small amounts of toxicants was tested for insect control.
Tests with this material prompted further work with this and other
emulsifiers. Results obtained appear worthy of publication. Although
some interesting possibilities for the use of emulsifiers in insect control
are evident, no recommendation is given. Although one product is named
The Florida Entomologist
repeatedly, other materials might have performed equally as well or pos-
sibly more effectively.
All tests reported herein were made under field conditions except one,
a laboratory test as is indicated. There were four or more replications
in each test although small numbers of plants were often employed owing
to the possibility of plant injury. These tests may be termed "exploratory"
Several emulsifiers or surface active agents were tested. One material,
Triton X-160, was early observed to be fully as safe to plants as any other
tried and as effective as any other in reducing insect abundance. It is
named in each table. Other emulsifiers were listed as "Test emulsifiers 1,
2, . n" since with many materials the exact chemical was not known.
Reports by the manufacturer, Rohm & Haas Company, on Triton X-160
state that it is a mixture of alkyl aryl polyether alcohols plus organic
Pressure type hand-pumped sprayers were used for applying most
spray treatments. Power sprayers were used for some tests as is indi-
The first test conducted was made on turnips, variety Purple Top, in
January, 1954. Cabbage aphids, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), were counted
2, 5, and 11 days after the spray applications. The results are summarized
in Table 1.
TABLE 1.-COMPARATIVE NUMBERS OF CABBAGE APHIDS PER PLANT ON
TURNIPS SPRAYED WITH TEST MATERIALS.
Dilution of material Days after treatment
Material with water, by volume 2 5 11
Test emulsifier 1 .................. 1:100 7.6 96.5 54.1
do. ................. 1:50 42.0 45.8 36.8
Test emulsifier 2 .....---....... 1:100 27.7 60.5 99.8
do. ................ 1:50 0.4 15.5 44.5
Test material of unknown
contents No. 1 .................... 1:1 23.1 139.5 161.8
Parathion, 4 lbs/gal. .-.......... Y- pt./100 gals. 0.0 2.8 38.3
Test emulsifier 3 ..............-.. 8 lbs./100 gals. 16.7 66.5 157.7
Triton X-160 ......................... 1:100 0.0 11.8 26.8
Demeton, 2 lbs/gal. ......-...... 1 pt./100 gals. 0.0 0.0 8.6
Check ................- ~~~----.. 41.6 133.8 168.9
"F" value for significance,
Found -. .... .................. 1.9 3.5 2.2
Required, 5% .................. 2.3 2.3 2.3
Another planting of turnips was made for test purposes, January, 1954,
and the results are summarized in Table 2.
Vol 40, No. 2
Wolfenbarger: Insecticidal Control
TABLE 2.-COMPARATIVE NUMBERS OF CABBAGE APHIDS PER PLANT ON
TURNIPS SPRAYED WITH TEST MATERIALS.
Dilution of material Days after Treatment
Material with water, by volume 3 11 18
Triton X-160 ..-........... .. .------- 1:100 4.4 11.3 36.4
do. .-........-----.....- 1:200 14.3 9.8 40.8
do. .----...........-....... 1:400 9.0 17.5 57.4
do. .......................... 1:800 15.0 36.4 75.4
Test emulsifier 4 .........-- ..---. 1:400 15.0 48.1 134.9
Demeton, 2 lbs/gal. ..-........-... 1 pt./100 gals. 1.0 8.8 27.2
Parathion, 4 lbs/gal.
Brand A ...........- 1/ pt./100 gals. 0.3 4.5 19.8
do. Brand B ............ / pt./100 gals. 7.1 14.2 30.6
Test emulsifier 5 .......-- --- 1:200 10.8 92.0 250.0
Check ...---~.......-....-..... .. 11.8 133.3 219.2
"F" value for significance,
Found .-----.... ...... ... 2.2 2.8 2.9
Required, 5% --.....--...... 2.3 2.3 2.3
TABLE 3.-COMPARATIVE NUMBERS OF THE AVOCADO RED MITE PER LEAF
DIPPED IN TEST MIXTURES.
Dilution of material Days after dipping
Material with water, by volume 1 4
Triton X-160 ...---------............. ......... 1:100 2.8 0.0
do. -...... ............-- -- ..... 1:200 5.0 1.4
do. ........... ....-------......... 1:400 5.2 1.0
do. -.......... .........---------- 1:800 3.8 0.0
Kelthane, 2 Ibs/gal. .--....- .......-..-.... 1 qt./100 gals. 0.8 0.0
Sulfur, wett. .------....---........--..---- 8 lbs/100 gals. 8.2 0.8
Demeton, 2 Ibs/gal. ........................ 1 pt./100 gals. 0.0 0.8
Aramite, 15% w.p. ......................... 2 lbs/100 gals. 0.6 0.0
Ovex, 50% w.p. ................................ 11 lbs/100 gals. 16.4 0.4
Oil, emulsifiable .............-.......----- -- 1:100 0.0 0.0
Genite, #923, 25% w.p.,.................. 2 lbs/100 gals. 2.4 0.2
Chlorobenzilate, 2 lbs/gal ......---.... 1 pt./100 gals. 0.2 0.0
Parathion, 4 lbs/gal. Brand A..... 1/ pt./100 gal. 1.0 2.8
do. Brand B...- /. pt./100 gal. 7.6 4.6
Test emulsifier 6 ................----......... 1:400 1.0 0.4
do. 7 .............................. 1:200 1.6 5.4
Check .-............---- ---.............. 22.8 5.2
"F" value for significance,
Found --...-.... ........-----. .. 1.02 1.58
Required, 5% .......---- 1.80 1.80
The Florida Entomologist
A statistical analysis of averages for all days gave a statistical "F"
value of 3.0. Percentages of control for Triton X-160 were 86, 82, 77 and
65, respectively, for dilutions of 1:100, 1:200, 1:400 and 1:800. These
assume a linear relationship by logarithmic-probit graphing.
The one laboratory study was conducted in January, 1954. Avocado
leaves were taken from a tree of the Pollock variety. These leaves were
infested with the avocado red mite, Oligonychus yothersi (McG.). The
leaves were immersed singly in the material, then placed in vials of water
to await results. A summary of the results is given in Table 3.
TABLE 4.-AVERAGE NUMBERS PER SPROUT OF THE CABBAGE LOOPER AND
THE CABBAGE APHIDS ON BRUSSELS SPROUTS, FIVE DAYS AFTER TREATMENT.
Average numbers of
Dilution of material Cabbage Cabbage
Material with water, by volume looper aphid
Triton X-160 .....--...-.--.. ---. 1.500:100 8.8 27.3
do. ......---............... 0.750:100 5.2 37.0
do. .......................... 0.375:100 10.7 21.7
DDT, 2 lbs/gal. emul ........ 1 qt./100 gals. 8.3 12.9
Endrin 50% w.p. .................-.. / lb./100 gals. 0.5 23.1
Parathion + toxaphene
4 lbs./gal. 8 Ibs./gal. ...... 6 floz. + '/2 pt./100 gals. 3.3 71.4
Thimet, 2 Ibs./gal. .-.... .......- 1 pt. 5.5 12.0
Check --...---- --........................ 7.0 220.1
-'F" value for significance,
Found ......---- ....................--. 4.1 2.1
Required, 5% ---.....---...... 2.3 2.3
TABLE 5.-COMPARATIVE NUMBERS OF CABBAGE LOOPERS PER PLANT ON
CABBAGE PLANTS FIVE. DAYS AFTER TREATMENTS.
Dilution of material Average number of
Material with water, by volume cabbage loopers/plant
DDT, 50% w.p ..........
Endrin, 50% w.p. -.......
Triton X-160 ................
Methoxychlor 50% w.p.
Ryania .. .............. ..........
Check .... ..........
"F" value for signifi-
cance, Found ............
Required, 5% .....----.
2 lbs./100 gals.
1/ lb./per 100 gals.
2 lbs./100 gals.
Vol 40, No. 2
Wolfenbarger: Insecticidal Control
TABLE 6.-COMPARATIVE NUMBERS OF FLORIDA RED SCALES ON LIME LEAVES.
Dilution of material
with water, by volume
Avg. No. scales
Parathion, 4 lbs/gal. + % pt. +
TEPP 20% ....................... pt.
Parathion, 15% w.p. +
oil 85% .--..........-....-- ..... 11/2 lbs. + 3 qts.
Parathion 4 lbs/gal. +
Triton X-160 --..-..--..-........- /2 pt. + 1 gal.
do. -...-............ ~~. pt. + /2 gal.
do. ...................... pt. + 14 gal.
Parathion 4 Ibs/gal. ............ 1 pt.
Parathion 15% w.p ............. 2 Ibs.
Parathion 4 Ibs/gal. +
Test emulsifier 8 -.-----.--...... % pt. + 2 qts.
Malathion 25% w.p. ............ 6 Ibs.
"F" value for significance,
Required, 5% .--.. ....
TABLE 7.-COMPARATIVE NUMBERS OF Macalla thyrsisalis ON
Dilution of material Avg. No. larvae
Material with water, by volume per 20 twig terminals
Lead arsenate .................... 3 lbs/100 gals.
Triton X-160 .......................... 1 pt./100 gals.
do. .......................... % pt./ gals.
do. .......................... 1/ pt./100 gals.
Calcium arsenate ....-..........-- 3 lbs.
Test emulsifier 9 .................. 1 pt.
Test material of unknown
contents, No. 2 .................. 1/ pt.
Endrin, 1 lbs/gal. emul.... pt.
Check .... .......... .
"F" value for significance,
Found ............... .......
Required, 5% ...-.
The Florida Entomologist
A planting of Brussels sprouts became infested with the cabbage looper,
Trichoplusic ni (Hbn.) and the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassica (L.),
and was used in a test. Records obtained are summarized in Table 4.
A planting of cabbage was made in December, 1955, for determining
control of the cabbage looper. The data are summarized in Table 5.
An experiment was conducted on lime trees with various materials for
control of the Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidium L. A power
spray machine was used for applying the materials. A summary of the
results is given in Table 6.
Mahogany, Swietenia mahogani Jacq., trees infested with larvae of a
lepidopteran, Macalla thyrsisalis Wlk., were used in a test to determine
control measures. This insect feeds on the leaves produced by the new
spring growth and produces much webbing. Twenty twig terminals from
each tree were examined two days after the spray treatments to deter-
mine any reduction in numbers of larvae. A summary of the results is
given in Table 7.
Data on control of a red mite, probably Oligonychus coiti (McG.), on
mango leaves by different spray materials were determined. Power spray
equipment was used to apply the spray to seedling trees used in the test.
Ten leaves from each tree were examined to measure control as summarized
in Table 8.
TABLE 8.-COMPARATIVE NUMBERS OF RED MITES ON MANGO LEAVES.
Avg. No. mites/leaf,
Dilution of material days after treatment
Material with water, by volume 7 66
Chlorobenzilate, 25% w.p..... 2 lbs./100 gals. 0.3 0.1
Genite, EM-923, 50% .......... 1 pt./100 gals. 9.2 2.0
D-N, No. 1 40% .....-...-..... 11 oz./100 gals. 49.6 5.1
Aramite 15% w.p. .....-.....- 2 lbs/100 gals. 3.8 10.1
AC-528, 25% w.p. .....-.......... 1 lb/100 gals. 0.0 0.0
Triton X-160 ........................ gal./100 gals. 1.1 3.2
Oil, emulsifiable 87% .......... 3 qts./100 gals. 12.4 2.3
Ovex, 50% w.p. .-...-..-----..... 2 lbs/100 gals. 1.7 0.0
Sulfur, wettable ..-...--..-- ...-- 8 lbs/100 gals. 4.8 0.7
Check ...................................... 21.5 0.9
"F" value for significance,
Found .................. .... .. 2.9 2.0
Required, 5% .......--.. 2.2 2.2
DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
Reductions in numbers of insects and mites were found on plants treated
by generally recognized toxicants and by certain emulsifying agents. Tri-
ton X-160, reported in each table, gave reduction in numbers of the cab-
Vol 40, No. 2
Wolfenbarger: Insecticidal Control
bage aphid, red mites, larvae of Macalla thyrsisalis and in combination
with parathion it increased reductions in the Florida red scale. There was
no indication of any reduction of the cabbage looper. Varying dilutions
of Triton X-160 usually varied the degree of reduction. More dilute sprays
of the emulsifier induced less reduction than less dilute applications. Di-
lution rates and percentage control data transformed to logarithms and
probits, respectively, showed linear relationships by graphic studies. Triton
X-160 at 1:99 was phytotoxic to turnip and cabbage but other plants sprayed
with it appeared uninjured.
Although the emulsifier Triton X-160 was tested more extensively than
other surface active agents, others may be found that are equal or superior
to it in effectiveness and in safety to plants. Some insects may succumb to
emulsifier applications more readily than others. Tests will be necessary
on many groups of insects in order to determine general effectiveness.
Chamberlain, W. F., and J. H. Cochran. 1955. Control of the tomato fruit
worm in South Carolina. Jour. Econ. Ent. 48: 518-521.
Dozier, Herbert L. 1937. Sodium lauryl sulphate as a contact spray. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 30: 968.
Ginsburg, Joseph M. 1935. New wetting agents for old insecticides. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 28: 224-228.
Haller, H. L. 1953. Emulsifiable concentrates, wettable powders and sur-
face active agents. Pest Control 21(11):11.
Sanderson, E. Dwight, and Leonard Marion Peairs!. 1931. Insect pests of
farm, garden and orchard, p. 47, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2nd
Ed., 568 p.
Turner, Neeley, D. H. Saunders and J. J. Williams. 1951. The effect of
some polyethyleneglycol derivatives on the toxicity of nicotine to in-
sects. Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bul. 543: 1-35.
CORRECTION OF MINUTES, 39TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Dr. Wilson's motion proposing the Sub-Tropical Entomologists of Florida
become the Sub-Tropical Branch of The Florida Entomological Society was
carried by unanimous vote.
RORERT O. KIRKLAND
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A NOTE ON THE BIOLOGY OF SYNANTHEDON SAPYGAE-
FORMIS FLORIDENSIS (GROTE)
ROGER A. MORSE
Entomologist, State Plant Board of Florida, Gainesville
During March, 1956, Mr. L. J. Daigle, State Plant Board Inspector, sent
in several galls taken from oak (Quercus sp.) in Miami. No insects had
emerged from these galls and they were set aside under a bell jar. Shortly
thereafter gall wasps, Callirhytis batatoides (Ashm.), emerged and were
sent to the United States National Museum where they were identified by
Dr. L. H. Weld. Gall wasps continued to emerge for about a week and
after a lapse of about another week a moth, Synanthedon sapygaeformis
floridensis (Grote), emerged from one of the galls. The moth was identi-
fied by Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke. The moth pupal case had been pulled part
way out of the gall by the emerging moth, as shown in the photo. This
note concerns the known life history of the moth.
Galls formed by Callirhytis batatoides (Ashm.). Both the gall wasps
and the moth, Synanthedon sapygaeformis floridensis (Grote) emerged from
these galls. Note the moth pupal case which was pulled part way out by
the emerging moth. Photo by F. W. Mead.
Beutenmuller (1897) in discussing the family Sesiidae (now Aegeriidae)
stated: "Larvae of the family are internal feeders, living on roots, stems
or pith of plants, or under bark, solid wood or roots of trees." Some, it
1Now Horticulturist, Waltham Field Station, University of Massachu-
62 The Florida Entomologist Vol 40, No. 2
was stated, were inquilinous in the galleries or wounded places made by
other insects. The moth had been taken several times by 1897 on oak trees,
but its relationship with the gall wasp was not known at the time. Engel-
hart (1946) remarked that long series of this moth had been reared from
cynipid galls, but no species of gall wasp were mentioned nor references
cited. Furthermore, it was not mentioned whether moths and wasps had
emerged from the same gall. Engelhart felt that there was only one moth
brood a year. Observations (probably by Engelhart) indicated that moths
emerged only from well-developed galls and developed only in galls with
live tissue. He also stated that co-habitants of the gall frequently were
ants and that no problems arose in the development of the moth as long
as the pupal case remained intact.
Moth, gall wasps, and the galls have been placed in the collection of
the State Plant Board of Florida at Gainesville.
Beutenmuller, William. 1897. Food habits of North American Sesiidae.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 9:220.
Engelhart, George P. 1946. The North American clear-wing moths of the
family Aegeriidae. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 190: 89-90.
ADDITIONS TO THE UNITED STATES LIST OF CICADELLIDAE: TWO leaf-
hopper species, new to the United States, were collected recently by State
Plant Board of Florida inspectors in Miami, Florida. Individuals of both
species have been placed in the collections of the U. S. National Museum
and the State Plant Board of Florida.
Idona sexmaculata (DeLong). Six specimens were collected by L. J.
Daigle, March 20, 1956, on Hibiscus sp. These were identified by Dr. David
A. Young, Jr. of the United States National Museum. In 1923, this species
was described from specimens in Puerto Rico, and placed in the genus
Empoasca. In 1952, Caldwell and Martorell placed it in the genus Hybla.
The same year Young reclassified it to Idona.
Rabela tabebuiae (Dozier). Four specimens were collected by C. F.
Dowling, Jr., April 3, 1956, on African tuilp tree, Spathodea campanulata
Beauv. Identification by D. A. Young, Jr. On March 18, 1957, L. J. Daigle
collected R. tabebuiaa on African tulip tree in North Miami Beach, report-
ing the abundance to be 4 per leaf. Identification by F. W. Mead. This
species was described in the genus Protalebra, and has been reported from
Cuba. Subsequently the insect has been recorded from the plant Tabebuia
sp. and it now appears to be well established in the Miami area.
FRANK W. MEAD,
State Plant Board of Florida
A NEW SPECIES OF MALLOPHAGA FROM THE PIGEON
K. C. EMERSON
The Amblyceran genus Bonomiella Conci, 1942, contains two species
found on doves and pigeons. The type host of B. insolitunguicolata Conci,
1942, is still unknown. The type host of B. concii Eichler, 1947, is Strep-
topelia decaocto decaocto (Frivaldszky). Specimens of this genus are rarely
collected, there being fewer than ten known to be in collections. Males of
the previously described species have still not been collected. From a
careful examination of twenty-six domestic pigeons, the author was able
to collect nine specimens representing a new species in the genus.
Bonomiella columbae, n. sp. fig. 1, dorsal-ventral view of female; fig. 2,
dorsal-ventral view of male; fig. 3, male genitalia.
Bonomiella columbae, n. sp.
MALE:-General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 2. Male geni-
talia as shown in figure 3. The genital sac, not shown in figure 3, is armed
with prominent teeth. The male is similar in general shape to the female,
but much smaller. Chaetotaxy, especially of the abdomen, differers from
that on the female.
FEMALE:-General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 1. The
head is more elongated than in B. insolitunguicolata, and the preantennal
margins more expanded than in B. concii. The anal corona is more definite
and not so sparse as that found in B. concii. A small patch of short setae
The Florida Entomologist
in the posterior lateral angles of abdominal sternite I, is not present in
B. concii or B. insolitunguicolata.
Type host: domestic pigeon.
Type material: Holotype male and allotype female collected December
1, 1956, at Leavenworth, Kansas, by K. C. Emerson are in the U. S. National
Museum. Paratypes from the same series; and two females collected No-
vember 3, 1945, at Vancouver, British Columbia by G. J. Spencer.
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF MALLOPHAGA OCCURRING ON THE DOMESTIC PIGEON.
1. Maxillary palpi present .--.....-..-.---------------....... 2
Maxillary palpi wanting ........................... ------------------- 4
2. Forehead armed ventrally with a pair of prominent spine-like
Processes------.............................................Hohorstiella lata (Piaget), 1880
Forehead without ventral spine-like processes ............-......-................--- 3
3. Venter of third femora with a comb of fine setae................................
------.... ----....-..--..Colpocephalum turbinatum Denny, 1842
Venter of third femora without a comb of fine setate.............................
........................................------------. ------- -..Bonomiella columbae, n. sp.
4. Head longer than wide................Columbicola columbae (Linnaeus), 1758
Head wider than long ............ ...---------- ----------------- 5
5. Forehead armed ventrally with a pair of spine-like processes........
-......-.----------....- Phsconelloides zenaidurae (McGregor), 1917
Forehead without ventral spine-like processes.......------..------.. ------- 6
6. Antennae filiform and similar in both sexes ..............-----------
..........................Campanulotes bidentatus compare (Burmeister), 1838
Antennae sexually dimorphic; in the male, first segments enlarged,
second and third segments elongated, and fourth and fifth segments
greatly reduced-.................Coloceras damicorne fahrenholzi Eichler, 1950
Conci, C. 1942. Un nuovo genere di Somaphantidae, ascrivibile ad una
nuova sottofamiglia (Mallophaga-Liotheida). Riv. Soc. Stud. Ve-
nezia Tridentina, 23: 1, 5 figs.
Eichler, W. 1947. tiber einen seltenen Tauben-Federling, Bonomiella
concii nov. spec. Tierirztliche Umschau, 2: 264, 5 figs.
Vol 40, No. 2
HONEY BEES AND THE MEDITERRANEAN
FRUIT FLY SPRAY PROGRAM
ROGER A. MORSE 2 AND FRANK A. ROBINSON 3
Since the start of the Mediterranean fruit fly spray program, we have
received several inquiries from beekeepers and entomologists concerning
the hazards of the bait sprays to honey bees in the sprayed areas. In this
paper we are attempting to present all the information we have gathered
during the eight months the spraying operations have been under way.
The first question confronting us was whether or not the baits being
used in the sprays would attract honey bees. Five pounds of the N.B.C.
yeast hydrolysate, and five pints of Staley's Sauce Base No. 2 were ob-
tained from the Florida State Plant Board and tests made to determine
whether they were attractive to honey bees. The yeast bait was mixed
with a 50 percent sugar solution at the rate of 2 pints per gallon of syrup
and the mixture was sprayed on rows of cantaloupe plants. Other rows
were sprayed with a 50 percent sugar solution, without the bait. Observa-
tions and counts were made of the number of honey bees visiting the
treated plants. No difference in numbers of bees was observed, and it was
concluded that the yeast bait did not attract honey bees to any significant
extent. Staley's Sauce Base No. 2 was mixed with sugar syrup at the rate
of two pints per gallon of syrup. Two feeders, one containing plain sugar
syrup and one containing syrup with the sauce bait added, were placed in
each of several colonies of bees. In all cases, the feeder containing the
plain sugar syrup was emptied in a shorter time than the one containing
syrup plus sauce bait. Tests also were made with open pans of sugar syrup
and sugar syrup plus sauce bait placed fifty yards away from a hive of
bees. Here again there was no significant difference in the time it took
the bees to find the pans or in the number of bees attracted to them. From
these tests it was concluded that the sauce bait does not have any attraction
for honey bees.
After it was determined that these baits did not attract honey bees, the
information was passed on to beekeepers with the prediction that any
damage which might occur to honey bees would not be serious and probably
would be confined to those bees which happened to fly through the spray
as it was being applied. With possibly one exception, this was correct, only
seven or eight complaints having been received from beekeepers claiming
damage from the aerial sprays. Of these reports, only four have been
definitely confirmed as spray injury, and in only one case was the loss great
enough to be considered important.
The first reported injury came from a beekeeper who had three colonies
located within the city limits of Miami. The area in which the bees were
located was sprayed four times with the malathion bait spray (1 qt. sauce
bait, 2 pounds of 25% malathion wettable powder per 1 gallon of water
applied at the rate of one gallon per acre). All bee loss occurred from
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 601.
2Roger A. Morse, Entomologist, Florida State Plant Board.
SFrank A. Robinson, Assistant Apiculturist, Florida Agricultural Ex-
The Florida Entomologist
the third spraying. The beekeeper stated that on this application the plane
passed over the apiary site twice, at about 10:00 o'clock in the morning,
and that the bees were in flight at the time. Two of the three hives had
200-300 dead bees in front of the entrance, and even though the third hive
showed no signs of injury, we have little doubt that this loss resulted from
the aerial spray. All three colonies were thoroughly examined and no losses
or injury other than those mentioned were noted. A sample consisting of
about 200 bees was sent to the Beekeeping and Insect Pathology Section
of the United States Department of Agriculture in Beltsville, Maryland.
These bees were collected three days after the actual loss had occurred.
A. S. Michael of the above laboratory made this and subsequent examina-
tions and reported that no evidence of toxic materials could be found.
The second report of injury came from Haines City and was made by a
staff member of the Citrus Experiment Station. The loss came at a time
when bees were working off-season orange bloom. In this case, too, the
loss occurred from only one spraying. This loss was not investigated by
us since we did not receive the report until several weeks after it actually
The third report of damage came from a beekeeper at Kissimmee. In
this instance an apiary of about 20 colonies was involved. This case was
investigated by Mr. John Haynie, extension apiculturist, who reported find-
ing about 500 dead bees in front of each colony. The beekeeper sent a sam-
ple of the dead bees to the Beltsville Laboratory immediately after a spray
application in the area. The-shipment was delayed in transit and was
received in Beltsville five days after it was taken. Residue determinations
in this case also were negative.
Early in December, 1956, the extension apiculturist informed us that a
beekeeper in the Tampa area had reported serious damage to his bees due
to the aerial sprays. On December 10, we visited Mr. Alec White, Hills-
borough County Agent, who told us that at the last meeting of the Tampa
Bay Beekeepers' Association, several beekeepers had reported that their
bees were being injured by the Mediterranean fruit fly sprays. Mr. White
also told us that before the spray program started in this area he offered
to give the beekeepers advance notice of the spraying schedule so colonies
could be moved, but so far no beekeeper has asked for this information.
With the assistance of Mr. Charlie Griffin, Apiary Inspector for the
area, we inspected 76 colonies owned by one beekeeper in Tampa. All of
these colonies seemed to be in good condition. Each colony contained from
two to five frames of brood, well covered with bees, and from 30 to 60 pounds
of honey. Though these colonies appeared to be in very good condition, the
owner said they had produced only about half as much honey, and had only
half as many bees, as they normally do in that location. We found from
200-500 dead bees scattered several feet in front of each hive, and while
we feel certain that the majority of these were killed by the aerial sprays,
20-25 percent were drones which are normally driven from the hives at
that time of year.
We also talked with a hobbyist beekeeper in Tampa who had seven col-
onies in one location. He reported that all the bees in five colonies were
killed within 24 hours after one aerial spray application. As this incident
had occurred several weeks earlier, we were unable to verify this claim;
Vol 40, No. 2
Morse and Robinson: Honey Bees and Med Fly Spray 67
however, since two colonies in the group reportedly were not injured at
all, we remain unconvinced that the damage was due to the spray.
It is interesting to note that two colonies of bees operated by Dr. E. G.
Kelsheimer at the Gulf Coast Experiment Station in Bradenton have not
been noticeably affected by the aerial sprays. Nineteen spray applications
were made over this location during the period from June 28, 1956 through
December 6, 1956. The first eight applications were made by single engine
planes, using the formula noted above, on a ten-day schedule. The remain-
ing applications were made by multi-engined planes using 1.2 pounds of
25 percent malathion wettable powder and one pint of sauce base in one
gallon of water. This was applied at the rate of one gallon per acre on
a seven-day schedule. In spite of these repeated sprayings, the colonies
have continued to gain weight. When we examined them on December 10,
they were very populous and in excellent condition.
During July and August, the State Plant Board had in their employ a
beekeeper in South Florida who had 200 colonies in areas being sprayed at
ten-day intervals. Periodic examination of these bees showed no loss.
During this same period, six of the eight State Plant Board Apiary Inspec-
tors were working in or near areas being sprayed. Each man inspects
about 2,000 colonies per month. No abnormal bee losses have been reported
by these men since the beginning of the program.
After considering how few reports of injury to bees have been made
and the fact that repeated aerial spraying has caused no visible damage,
we feel that the Mediterranean fruit fly spray program has not caused any
serious damage to the beekeeping industry at this time. However, it
should be pointed out that some of the losses which have occurred in the
Tampa area would have been more serious if they had occurred just before
or during a major honey flow, since the bees killed by the spray are the
field bees which are gathering nectar or pollen.
At this time, no one knows just how intensive the aerial spraying oper-
ations will be at the time of the citrus nectar flow. It is believed that
areas requiring treatment during the citrus bloom will be relatively small
and few in number. If this proves to be true, it should be possible for the
beekeepers to move from these areas and thus avoid the risk of having
their bees destroyed.
CONTROL THESE INSECTS
CHLORDANE: Ants, Armyworme, Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug, Brown Dog Tick,
Cabbage Maggot, Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice, Chiggers, Cockroaches, Crickets,
Cutworms, Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers,
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths, Lygus Bugs, Mole
Crickets, Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic
Mange, Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils, Sweet
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs,
Wireworms... and many others.
HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army-
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Rootworms, Cotton Boll Weevil,
Cotton Fleahopper, Cotton Thrips, Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil,
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles, Garden Web-
worm, Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Rapid
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle-
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag-
got, Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Tuber Flea Beetle, Western
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms
...and many others.
EN DR I N : Budworms, Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil, Cotton Bollworm, Cot-
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid
Plant Bug, Spiny Bollworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips.
WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS
General Offices and Laboratories Foreign Division V
330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois 350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y.
R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S I N P R IN C I P A L C I T I E S
I VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATION I
NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY OF STURMIA INCOMPTA
(VAN DER WULP) AND WINTHEMIA CITHERONIAE
CONSTANCE NICHOLAS PATTON1
At eleven o'clock on the morning of October 10, 1955, I watched a fe-
male Sturmia incompta (Wulp) deposit eggs on a fourth instar larva of
Pholus fasciatus Sulzer. The host was smaller and brighter than average
and probably was newly molted. The eggs apparently were of the mem-
branous type, with fully developed larvae, and were easily seen when first
deposited. Later that same afternoon, after eclosion of the larvae, the
choria shrivelled considerably and were easily detached from the host
Presumably the parasites immediately began burrowing through the
floor of their choria into the host, for the caterpillar thrashed about in an
attempt to crush the maggots with its mandibles. The fly also had ap-
peared to annoy the larva, and only her agility enabled her to avoid the
On October 16, the host larva went into the soil. Four days later the
host, in moribund condition, had developed a putrid odor, and several holes
were apparent in its integument. It had not transformed to the pupal stage.
The soil was sieved on October 31, and the parasite pupae, grouped to-
gether, were brushed lightly with a camel's hair brush to remove dirt before
storage. Immediately, the flies began emerging, and expanded normally.
The stimulus to emergence may have been provided by the cleaning process,
although this had not been the case in numerous other hearings.
An interesting variation in this instance was the parasites' emergence
from the larval host rather than from the pupal stage. This might be
attributed to the eggs having been laid on a young host, or to variations
caused by laboratory hearings.
Eleven adults were reared, the life cycle from egg to adult requiring
Normally, the parasites overwinter as small larvae, probably second
instar, associated with the tracheae near a spiracle in the host pupa.
In October, 1954, numerous Pholus fasciatus larvae were collected on
evening primrose (Jussiaea sp.). They pupated shortly thereafter and
appeared normal throughout the winter.
On March 1, 1955, one of the pupae which had wriggled normally ten
days before was examined again. It had split at the junction of the thorax
with the abdomen and was devoid of body contents. The parasite puparia,
20 in number, were found grouped near the escape aperture, with their
spiracles pointing into the air space surrounding the host pupal case. On
March 16, fifteen flies emerged. The remaining puparia were examined
several days later and found to contain fully formed dead imagoes.
'Garden City, Michigan.
The Florida Entomologist
A mature Eacle ismperialis larva was collected on November 7, 1955,
from pine. It had 25 oblong, macrotype eggs glued to segments 2, 7 and 8.
The larva fed sparingly and went into the ground on November 10. Five
days later, it had transformed into a perfect, vigorous pupa.
The cast larval skin was examined, and most of the eggs had hatched,
eclosion being accomplished through a split at one end on a horizontal plane.
On the morning of November 18, the pupa was dead, and two splits were
observed between abdominal segments. Parasite larvae were seen through
the splits, all of them pointing toward the posterior end of the pupa. They
were immersed in decomposing body contents of the host. Their spiracles
were in contact with the air space near the aperture.
Most larvae were still feeding on November 20, but several were dis-
turbed by my probing and crawled down into the soil immediately. By
noon of the following day, all parasites had entered the soil.
The host pupal case contained remains of at least three larvae and
single and "community" funnels. These community funnels were formed
by the junction at their origin of several individual funnels. They are
unique in this respect among those I have observed.
Fly puparia were scattered throughout the soil, mostly in the area
directly below the host pupa.
On December 5, six male Winthemia citheroniae Sabrosky emerged.
The following day, three additional males and four females emerged. Since
only 13 of the parasites completed pupation and emergence, approximately
50 per cent must have perished-from such causes as failure to hatch before
the host transformed, starvation, over-crowding, or perhaps from contact
with the molting fluid of the host.
Vol 40, No. 2