Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1957
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 40, No. 3 September, 1957






CONTENTS
Page
Morse, R. A., and S. H. Kerr-A New Insect-Host
R relationship ---..-... .......................... .. .......... .... ..... 77

Hussey, Roland F.-Two Changes of Name in Hemiptera
(Aneuridae and Miridae) .-----..-.- -----.-..-... ......... 80

De Leon, Donald-The Genus Tenuipapus in Mexico
(Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) .......-------..-... ...-.-------. 81

Wilson, John W.-Abundance of Aphids and Caterpillars
in Commercial Cabbage Fields in the Vicinity of San-
ford, Florida .--...-- -----..... ----------------... ---............. 95

Beck, Elisabeth C.-Two New Species of Culicoides from
Florida (Diptera: Heleidae) .-----. ----------....----.. ........ 103

Porter, John E.-Entomology is Fun ..-...---....--..- ........-.--------- 107

De Leon, Donald-Two New Eotetranychus and a New
Oligonychus from Southern Florida (Acarina:
Tetranychidae) ..------------------------.---...--- 111





Published by The Florida Entomological Society















THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


OFFICERS FOR 1956-1957


President -...........---------------Milledge Murphey, Jr.
Vice-President ........._............--- -Irwin H. Gilbert
Secretary ...-..--..--..- .-----.- -------- --- Robert 0. Kirkland
Treasurer .....--....-.... ......- ------------Harold A. Denmark
William P. Hunter
Other Members of Executive Committee W. B. Gresham, Jr.
SHerman Mayeux

EDITORIAL BOARD

LEWIS BERNER .-....---...... -------------------......Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP-..-..--. ---------Associate Editor
HAROLD A. DENMARK -..--......-......Business Manager





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A NEW INSECT-HOST RELATIONSHIP 1

R. A. MORSE2 AND S. H. KERR 8

For many years, the tunneling of hymenopterous adults into the pith
of cut or damaged rose stems to construct cells in which to lay eggs has
been a serious problem in Florida. Insects often appear soon after roses
are pruned and may begin tunneling within a half-hour. They begin at
the cut end and tunnel rapidly into the pith of the stem. Rose stems which
have been hollowed out may outwardly appear healthy for weeks or even
months, but eventually they die back. Once micro-organisms have invaded
the canes, the healthy stem tissue may be attacked, too, unless the affected
area is pruned.
A complex of hymenopterous insects bores into the stems of roses, but
the most commonly noted borer in the Gainesville area is Ectennius (Hypo-
crabro) texanus ais Pate. This species was described from specimens taken
in Florida over ten years ago, but not until recently was it identified as
being prominent among the insects which tunnel into rose stems.
Records from the State Plant Board collection at Gainesville for Ectem-
nius (Hypocrabro) texanus ais Pate are as follows: Key West, Fla., Dec. 28,
1953, on flowers of Flaveria linearis Lag., H. V. Weems, Jr.; Haines City,
Fla., Sept. 17, 1954, on flowers of Bidens bipinnata L., H. V. Weems, Jr.;
Gainesville, Fla., October 1, 1956, working on rose stem, S. H. Kerr; Gaines-
ville, Fla., Oct. 15, 1956, in rose stem, S. H. Kerr and R. A. Morse. Collec-
tion records from the United States National Museum are as follows:
Grassy Key, Fla., Jan. 3, 1951, H. V. Weems, Jr.; Key Largo, Fla., March
26, 1954, K. V. Krombein; Ft. Pierce, Fla., April 2, 1954. Collection records
by the describer (Pate, 1946) are as follows: Indian River (type, no date
or collector given in Pate's description); Cocoa (allotype and nine para-
types), July, 1944, G. E. Bohart; and St. Augustine (no further information
given).
It would thus appear that the wasp is active the year around in Florida
and possibly has more than one generation per year although Ectemnius
species which have been studied farther north have but one. In correspond-
ence, Mr. K. V. Krombein of the United States National Museum stated
that he felt the range of E. texanus ais did not extend north of Florida,
while the typical species, E. texanus texanus (Cresson), was found as far
south as Gainesville, Florida, and had been recorded from New York to
Florida and west to Texas and Kansas.
The genus Ectemnius belongs to the family Sphecidae, subfamily Cra-
broninae, a group sometimes referred to as the wood wasps. Wasps in the
genus Ectemnius are distinguished by their large cubical head. E. texanus
ais is about one-half inch long and black with two transverse yellowish-
red stripes on the thorax and three on the abdomen. According to Pate
(1946), it is "distinguished from the nominate form of texanus by its deep
fuliginous wings, reddish livery, and more strongly punctured and sculp-
tured body."

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 600.
2Waltham Field Station, Waltham, Mass.
3 Assistant Entomologist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.











The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1.-Four rose stems infested by Ectemnius (Hypocrabro) texanus
ais Pate. The stems to the left and right show only the entrance hole made
by the adult wasps. The stem which is the second from the left had an
over-all length of 16.8 cm. The length of the bore is 9.3 cm. and this nest
contains three cells. The stem second from the right has an over-all length
of 20 cm., a bore length of 11.5 cm., and contained only one cell.


Vol. 40, No. 3










Morse and Kerr: A New Insect-Host Relationship 79

The accompanying photograph shows some rose stems collected in
Gainesville. It will be noted that the individual cells are not well differen-
tiated. The maximum number of three cells was found per stem in ten
which were closely examined. The length of completed tunnels was 9-15
centimeters; bore diameter was 0.4-0.45 centimeters.
The female wasp provisions the cells with small flies. About 20-30 flies
per cell appear to be the usual number. Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., of the Florida
State Plant Board, has identified the flies from four of cells of E. texanus
ais and found the following:

Cell 1. All Euxesta nitidinentris Lw. (Otididae)
Cell 2. Almost all Aciura insecta Lw. (Trypetidae)
One or two Paroxyna sorocula (Wd.) (Trypetidae)
One or two Chloropidae sp.
Cell 3. Almost all Paroxyna sorocula (Wd.)
A few Aciura insect Lw.
A few Chloropidae sp.
Cell 4. Half Aciura insect Lw.
Half Paroxyna sorocula (Wd.)
Rau and Rau (1918) and Peckham and Peckham (1898) list about 15
other species which they found in cells of E. stirpicola Packard. It seems
likely that Ectemnius species provision their nests with whatever small
fly species are available.
Other hymenopterous insects which bore into the pith of roses in Flor-
ida include leaf-cutter bees of the family Megachilidae. A cephid wasp,
Hartigia trimaculata (Say), is recorded as economically important on roses
in Florida by Muesebeck et al. (1951), and it is presumed this insect bur-
rows into the stems of roses after the fashion of H. cressoni (Kirby) in
California (Butterfield, 1950). H. trimaculata has not been taken in col-
lections made by Experiment Station or Florida State Plant Board per-
sonnel and it would appear to be relatively uncommon here. There are
a number of other insects recorded as rose stem borers in other states.
Several other species and subspecies of Ectemnius have been collected
in Gainesville by Mr. H. E. Bratley of the Agricultural Experiment Station.
They are similar in appearance to E. texanus ais, but their habits are not
known.
An account of the nest-building activities of Ectemnius (Crabro) stirpi-
cola Packard by Peckham and Peckham (1898) stated that the adult female
bites out pith pellets. The pellets are passed back between the legs and
when a quantity has accumulated above the abdomen, the female walks
backward up the burrow to push out the mass. After the cells are com-
pleted, Ectemnius females do not plug up the entrance to the burrow as
is usual with some Hymenoptera of more or less similar habits.
A satisfactory method of control is to treat the cut end of pruned canes
immediately with a tree wound paint. Homeowners who have only a few
canes to treat may resort to the use of a thumbtack to cover the wound.

LITERATURE CITED
Butterfield, H. M. 1950. Rose culture in California. Calif. Agr. Ext. Circ.
148: 1-41.











The Florida Entomologist


Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein and H. K. Townes. 1951. Hymenop-
tera of America north of Mexico. U. S. D. A. Agr. Monogr. No. 2,
p. 87.
Pate, V. S. L. 1946. New Phemphilidine wasps, with notes on previously
described forms. I. Ectemnius (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Notulae
Naturae 171 : 12.
Peckham, G. W., and E. G. Peckham. 1898. The toilers of the night. (In
Instincts and habits of the solitary wasps). Wise. Geol. and Nat.
Hist. Survey Bul. 2, p. 46-52.
Rau, P., and N. Rau. 1918. Some fly-catching wasps. Hypocrabro stirpic.-
olus Pack. (S. A. Rohwer). (In Wasp studies afield). p. 90-94.















Two CHANGES OF NAME IN HEMIPTERA (ANEURIDAE AND MIRIDAE).-
Aneurus tenuicornis Champion, 1898 (Biol. C.-Amer., Hem.-Het. 2: 116),
is a junior primary homonym of Aneurus tenuicornis Signoret, 1860 (Ann.
Soc. Ent. France (3) 8: 958), and I therefore propose ANEURUS LEPTOCERUS,
new name, to replace it.
In his Heteroptera of Eastern North America, published October 18,
1926, Blatchley described as new three species of the mirid genus Phytocoris
which were credited to "Knight MS." Descriptions of these three species
(P. albitylus, P. angustifrons, and P. rubellus) had already appeared, how-
ever, in a paper by Knight (1926, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 21: 158-168)
published about two weeks earlier than Blatchley's book (cf. Knight, 1927,
Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 22: 101).
Blatchley's descriptions of P. albitylus and P. rubellus were correctly
applied to the proper species. He misunderstood P. angustifrons, however,
redescribing it (page 713) as Phytocoris megalopsis, n. sp., and using the
name "angustifrons Knight M.S." (page 727) for a species which falls in
a different species group within the genus. Knight (1927 loc. cit.) placed
megalopsis Blatchley as a synonym of angustifrons Knight. Blatchley (1928,
Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 23: 15) tacitly acknowledged this synonymy and
admitted that he "had described what proved to be another species as
angustifrons." He failed, however, to identify this latter species by name,
nor can I find that anyone else has done so, though it is a common Phytocoris
in central and northern Florida. I therefore propose PHYTOCORIS PSEUDO-
NYMUS, new name, to replace Phytocoris angustifrons Blatchley, 1926, (Het.
E. N. Amer. p. 727), nec Phytocoris angustifrons Knight, 1926, (Bull. Brook-
lyn Ent. Soc. 21: 164).-Roland F. Hussey, Biology Department, University
of Florida.


Vol. 40, No. 3







A
4
'1'I
Ii


A


K-














THE GENUS TENUIPALPUS IN MEXICO
(ACARINA: TENUIPALPIDAE)

DONALD DE LEON
Coral Gables, Florida

The plant feeding mites of the genus Tenuipalpus are widely distributed
in Mexico and some species, such as T. bakeri McG. on coffee and T. tabe-
buiae n. sp. on roble blanco, cause severe injury.
At present eighteen species are known to occur in Mexico, thirteen of
which are described here as new. Four others are new records for Mexico.
In the following descriptions all measurements are in microns and
body lengths include the rostral shield.

KEY TO SPECIES (FEMALES)
1. Opisthosoma with five similar pairs of dorsolaterals..........meekeri
Opisthosoma with five pairs of dorsolaterals, the fourth
long and whip-like .----..-.--.........................---- -............. 2
2 (1). Podosoma with one pair of anterior and one pair of poste-
rior m edioventrals .----------... ..... .....-..........- ....... ......................--- 3
Podosoma with either two pairs of anterior and one pair
of posterior, or one pair of anterior and two pairs of pos-
terior mediovertrals ............ --.---...-- ..--.....-- .... 14
3 (2). Coxa III with a seta on anterior margin ................................ 4
Coxa III without seta on anterior margin .................................... 13
4 (3). All dorsocentral hysterosomals greatly enlarged and about
as long as or longer than transverse distance between bases 5
At least one pair of dorsocentral hysterosomals small and
much shorter than transverse distance between bases............ 6
5 (4). Patella III without seta; third dorsal propodosomal rather
broad and reaching about half way to hysterosomal
suture .......---.......----------------.......... ........--..--.dasples
Patella III with enlarged seta; third dorsal propodosomal
rather narrow and reaching nearly to hysterosomal
suture .---------.------------------........... coyacus
6 (4). Palpus one-segmented .......-.--------.....---............unimerus
Palpus more than one-segmented .....-...-- ---..-.................. 7
7 (6). Hysterosoma with large projection anterior to coxa III
and humeral seta not arising from it ---------.......---------- lucumae
Hysterosoma without, or at least with only a small or mod-
erate projection anterior to coxa III and humeral seta,
if body projection present, arising from it .............-...-._....--- 8
8 (7). Patellae I and II each with a seta on anterior margin
only --. --.-. -----.....---.........---- -..--- --...-- ..-.. ............... .....-tabebuiae
Patellae I and II each with a seta on anterior and poste-
rior margins .....------........ ----.. --.----.......-....... 9
9 (8). Patella III with seta (on anterior margin) -----.---------............-- ... 10
Patella III without seta .--------------- -----------------..-... 11












82 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 3

10 (9). Patella IV with seta on anterior margin; body more than
twice as long as wide; nymph without distinctive dorso-
central hysterosomals .........--........................................-----------tepicanus
Patella IV without seta; body less than twice as long as
wide; nymph with first pair of dorsocentrals nearly as
long as width of body .......... ............... ....................--crescentiae
11 (9). Third dorsal propodosomal enlarged; first three dorsolat-
eral opisthosomals enlarged and longer than distances be-
tween bases --........-.............---- ...-- ---- ------..... kapoki
Third dorsal propodosomal setiform or nearly so; first three
dorsolateral opisthosomals setiform, short, shorter than
or about as long as distances between bases ...-..........-------------- 12
12 (11). Dorsum with prominent longitudinal ridges; nymph with
coarse, spiculate dorsocentral hysterosomals....-... sanblasensis
Dorsum irregularly striate, not with pronounced ridges;
nymph with minute dorsocentrals .....-------........ ....-.....---- burserae
13 (3). Tarsi I and II each with a seta overlying rod-like seta;
nymph with coarse, spiculate dorsocentral hysterosomals
..-.---------------- ...-----.-----------. .--.-------- --- -....------ ------------------ cedrelae
Tarsi I and II each without a seta overlying rod-like seta;
nymph with minute dorsocentrals .-----..............---.....------..---anoplus
14 (2). Podosoma with two pairs of posterior and one pair of an-
terior medioventrals ...........-...-... --..............----annonae
Podosoma with one pair of posterior and two pairs of ante-
rior medioventrals .....................-------.... --------.. 15
15 (14). A seta on posterior margin only of patellae I and II; first
dorsal propodosomal enlarged ......---..--....................-----.chiclorm
A seta on anterior and posterior margins of patellae I and
II; first dorsal propodosomal small ..---............... ..-----.......... ----16
16 (15). Dorsocentral hysterosomals minute; third dorsal propodo-
somal reaching about one third the distance to hysteroso-
mal suture ...------.........--- ...........-----------.....coccolobicolus
Dorsocentrals greatly enlarged; third dorsal propodosomal
reaching about half way to hysterosomal suture ...........-- ...... -- 17
17 (16). Dorsum with strong striate pattern .........----....--------........rhyssus
Dorsum with a few transverse striae ..................-----.............-- baker

Tenuipalpus meekeri, n. sp.
(Figures la and Ib)

T. meekeri is readily distinguished from all other members of the genus
by having the fourth dorsolateral opisthosomal seta similar to the other
four which are broady expanded.
FEMALE: Red. Dorsum of propodosoma with a few faint striae extend-
ing posteromedially from third propodosomal. First and second dorsal
propodosomals elliptic, about 8 long and 3 wide; third elliptic, 93 long,
30-36 wide and arising from near base of a large lateral lobe; humeral
fan-shaped, 54 long, 47-55 wide; dorsolateral metapodosomal about 13












De Leon: Genus Tenuipalpus


long, 4 wide; dorsocentral hysterosomals obovate, 60, 58, and 45 long re-
spectively, all three about 27 wide, transverse distances between bases,
58, 34, and 21 respectively; dorsolateral opisthosomals elliptic, 58-90 long,
25-45 wide. One pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioventrals.
Palpus apparently four segmented, of shape shown in figure. Legs I-III
with both setiform and enlarged setae; coxa III with a setae on anterior
margin; patellae I and II each with two setae on anterior margin; the
upper one narrowly obovate, the lower one setiform and each with one
seta on posterior margin; patella III with a seta on anterior margin;
patella IV bare; tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal curved, rod-like
seta and an elliptic seta overlying it. Length 420, width 322.
MALE: Resembles female, but setae in general smaller and second and
third dorsocentrals setiform. Length 324, width 257.
NYMPH: Resembles female, but dorsocentrals not enlarged.
Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nayarit, March 31, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from fern in mangrove swamp. Paratypes: One male, four females, five
nymphs, same data as for holotype. The mite is named for Mr. Granville
Meeker of Tacoma, Washington, who was instrumental in the collecting
of this and several other interesting mites.

Tenuipalpus coyacus, n. sp.
-(Figure 2)

T. coyacus is closely related to T. dasples Baker and Pritchard (1953),
but differs from it by having among other characters a much longer third
dorsal propodosomal and a seta on patella III.
FEMALE: Red. Dorsum of body medially with numerous irregular,
mostly transverse ridges; lateral of those on opisthosoma small rounded
knobs. First dorsal propodosomal small, second 72 long, 17 wide; third
narrowly lanceolate, 78 long. Humeral seta 34 long, 14 wide; dorsolateral
metapodosomal elliptic, small. Dorsocentral hysterosomals broadly obovate,
45-55 long, about as long as transverse distances between respective bases.
Fourth dorsolateral opisthosomal long and whip-like, the others elliptic,
22-27 long, about 12 wide and distinctly longer than distances between
bases. One pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioventrals. Pal-
pus three-segmented. Legs with both enlarged and setiform types of setae;
coxa III with a seta on anterior margin; patellae I and II each with a seta
on anterior and posterior margins; patella III with seta on anterior mar-
gin; patella IV bare; tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-like seta
and an overlying seta. Length 362, width 188.
MALE: Resembles female, but body setae proportionally smaller. Length
322, width 154.
NYMPH: Second dorsal propodosomal small, slightly longer than wide,
third propodosomal shorter than in adult; dorsocentral hysterosomals short,
elliptic.
Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nayarit, March 28, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from coco de aceite. Paratypes: Three females, four males, two nymphs,
Aticama, Nayarit, April 8, 1957, same host.












84 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 3

Tenuipalpus unimerus, n. sp.
(Figure 3)
T. unimerus is somewhat similar to T. metopii De L. (1956) differing
from this species in having the propodosoma medially with a pronounced
pattern of ridges, the dorsolateral hysterosomals elliptic, and the terminal
seta of the palpus smooth.
FEMALE: Red. Dorsum of propodosoma with a ridge (sometimes brok-
en) extending posterially from each of the first propodosomals, these ridges
usually connected by two to four irregularly, somewhat transverse ridges,
with other shorter, smaller ridges between them and lateral of them; dor-
sum of hysterosoma with irregular ridges mostly extending posteromedi-
ally. First and second dorsal propodosomals minute, elliptic; third seti-
form to very narrow elliptic, 36-45 long; humeral seta elliptic, spiculate,
about 8 long; dorsolateral metapodosomal and dorsocentral hysterosomals
minute; dorsolateral opisthosomals, except the fourth, elliptic, 10-14 long
and about 4 wide. One pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioven-
trals. Palpus one-segmented with a long smooth terminal seta. Legs
I-III with setiform, very narrow elliptic and elliptic setae; coxa III with
a coarse, setiform seta on anterior margin; patellae I and II each with a
seta on anterior margin; patellae III and IV bare; tarsi I and II each with
a posterodistal rod-like seta and an elliptic overlying seta. Length 286,
width 190.
MALE: Not known.
NYMPH: Resembles adult in general chaetotaxy.
.Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nayarit, March 31, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from guamacate. Paratypes: Six females and two nymphs, same collection
data as for holotype.

Tenuipalpus lucumae, n. sp.
(Figure 4)

T. lucumae has one pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioven-
trals and the dorsocentrals minute. It appears to be most closely related
to T. hastaligni De L. (1956), but differs from this species by the enlarged
setae of the legs and body being proportionally much larger, the humeral
seta arising from the body proper and not the body projection, and by other
characters.
FEMALE: Greenish. Dorsum of propodosoma with a few faint ridges
extending diagonally in from second propodosomal to about over the
anterior medioventrals. First and second dorsal propodosomals narrow-
elliptic, about 5 long; third propodosomal lanceolate, 70 long, 21 wide;
humeral seta broadly lanceolate 45 long, 25 wide and arising just anterior
of a large bluntly pointed body projection; dorsolateral metapodosomal about
the size of dorsocentral hysterosomals; dorsocentrals setiform, 6-10 long;
dorsolaterals, except the fourth, elliptic the first three about 56 long, 20
wide, the fifth about 32 long, 19 wide. One pair of anterior and one pair
of posterior medioventrals. Palpus three-segmented. Legs I-III with both
enlarged and setiform types of setae; coxa III with an elliptic seta on an-
terior margin; patellae I and II each with an elliptic seta on anterior and
posterior margins and a setiform seta below the elliptic seta of the anterior











De Leon: Genus Tenuipalpus


margin; patella III with an elliptic seta on anterior margin reaching to
beyond base of tarsus; patella IV bare; tarsi I and II each with a posterodis-
tal rod-like seta and a lanceolate overlying seta. Length 328, width 258.
MALE: Resembles female, but first dorsolateral opisthosomal somewhat
smaller than second and third; body projection anterior to coxa III nar-
rower and more finger-like. Length 257, width 177.
DEUTONYMPH: Propodosoma with pronounced anterolateral lobe as in
female.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 18, 1957, (D.
DeLeon) from Lucuma salicifolia. Paratypes: Eight females, two males,
three nymphs; same data as for holotype.

Tenuipalpus tabebuiae, n. sp.
(Figure 6)
T. tabebuiae has one pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medio-
ventrals and the dorsocentral hysterosomals minute. It appears to be most
closely related to bucidae DeL. (1956), but differs from that species by
having a three-segmented palpus and shorter dorsolateral opisthosomals.
FEMALE: Ranging in color from greenish to reddish. Dorsum of body
with faint more or less longitudinal striae in mid-lateral area; a small
rounded body projection just anterior of coxa III. First dorsal propodoso-
mal setiform, second very narrow elliptic, both about 7 long; third coarsely
setiform to very narrow elliptic, 30-37 long; humeral narrow-elliptic 16
long; dorsolateral metapodosomal and dorsocentral hysterosomals seti-
form, about 7 long; dorsolateral opisthosomals, except the fourth, narrow-
elliptic, first three about 18 long and distinctly longer than distance be-
tween bases, fifth about 12 long. One pair of anterior and one pair of
posterior medioventrals. Palpus three-segmented. Legs with setiform
and very narrow elliptic, spiculate setae; coxa III with a seta on anterior
margin; patellae I and II each with a seta on anterior margin, patellae III
and IV bare; tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-like seta and an
overlying setiform seta. Length 266, width 160.
MALE: Not known.
NYMPH: Resembles female.
Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nayarit, March 28, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from Tabebuia pentaphylla. Paratypes: Two females, three nymphs, Tam-
azunchale, San Luis Potosi, December 21, 1956; two females, one nymph,
Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 11, 1957; six females, one nymph, San
Blas, Nay., March 28, 1957, all from Tabebuia.

Tenuipalpus t'epicanus, n. sp.
(Figure 5)
T. tepicanus has one pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medio-
ventrals. It differs from all others having this character in that the an-
terior pair is barbulate; the transversely striate pattern of the propodosoma
is also distinctive.
FEMALE: Most of body chocolate coloured with margins of hysterosoma
dirty white. Propodosoma with a pair of median longitudinal ridges and










The Florida Entomologist


lb


Vol. 40, No. 3f












De Leon: Genus Tenuipalpus


THE GENUS TENUIPALPUS IN MEXICO

Females and nymphs of new species of Tenuipalpus.


Plate 1


meekeri
meekeri (palpus)
coyacus
unimerus
lucumae
tepicanus


Fig. 10. burserae
Fig. lla. cedrelae
Fig. 11b. cedrelae (nymph)


Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.


tabebuiae
crescentiae
crescentiae (nymph)
kapoki
sanblasensis


Plate 2
Fig. 12. annonae
Fig. 13. chiclorum


Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.










The Florida Entomologist


with five to seven transverse ridges with smaller irregularly transverse
ridges between them; area of hysterosomal suture longitudinally striate;
hysterosoma with mostly transverse ridges. First and second propodoso-
mals elliptic, about 23 and 10 long respectively; third coarsely setiform
and spiculate, 28 to 38 long; humeral about 10 long, spiculate; dorsolateral
metapodosomal elliptic, spiculate, about 13 long; first dorsocentral hystero-
somal elliptic, about 15 long, distance to opposite member 38; second and
third minute. Dorsolaterals, except fourth, elliptic, spiculate, about 10
long. One pair of anterior medioventrals (barbulate) and one pair of pos-
terior medioventrals (bare); the anterior ventrolateral, the two ventro-
lateral metapodosomals, and the anal setae barbulate. Palpus three-seg-
mented. Legs with setiform and very coarsely setiform, spiculate setae;
coxa III with a coarse seta on anterior margin; patellae I and II each with
a seta on anterior and posterior margins, patellae III and IV each with a
seta on anterior margin; tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-like seta
and a setiform overlying seta. Length 317, width 147.
MALE: Resembles female; length 265, width 117.
DEUTONYMPH: Similar to female.
Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nayarit, March 28, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from capulincillo. Paratypes: Two males, four females, two nymphs; same
data as for holotype; two females, Aticama, Nay., April 13, 1957, same host.

Tenuipalpus crescentiae, n. sp.
(Figures 7a and 7b)
T. crescentiae has one pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medio-
ventrals, minute dorsocentrals and enlarged dorsolaterals. It appears to
be most closely related to T. podocarpi Lawrence, but differs from the de-
scription and drawing (after Lawrence) given for that species by Baker
and Pritchard in the general shape of the body, the broader body projec-
tion, the smaller leg and body setae and the presence of only two setae
on patella I.
FEMALE: Reddish to greenish yellow in colour. Propodosoma faintly,
longitudinally striate in middle third; hysterosoma without distinctive
markings. First and second dorsal propodosomals minute, third very nar-
row elliptic, 40 long; humeral elliptic, 12-18 long; dorsolateral metapodo-
somal and dorsocentral hysterosomals minute; dorsolateral opisthosomals,
except the fourth, narrow-elliptic, about 22 long and appreciably longer
than distances between bases. One pair of anterior and one pair of pos-
terior medioventrals. Palpus three-segmented, second segment long and
narrow with sides nearly parallel. Coxa III with a narrow-elliptic seta on
anterior margin; patellae I and II each with a seta on anterior and pos-
terior margins; patella III with seta on anterior margin; patella IV bare;
tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-like seta about 12 long, and an
overlying setiform seta. Length 275, width 161.
MALE: Not known.
DEUTONYMPH: First pair of dorsocentral hysterosomals about as long
as width of body, in other characters resembles female; protonymph with-
out long first pair of dorsocentrals.


Vol. 40, No. 3











De Leon: Genus Tenuipalpus


Holotype: Female, San Bias, Nayarit, April 8, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
cuasticomate. Paratypes: Five females, eight nymphs; same data as for
holotype.
Tenuipalpus kapoki, n. sp.
(Figure 8)
T. kapoki has one pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioven-
trals, and minute dorsocentrals. It appears to be most closely related to
crescentiae DeL., but it differs among other characters from this species
in that the setae are more enlarged, patella III is bare, and the body with-
out a projection anterior to coxa III.
FEMALE: Pale yellowish green. Dorsum without distinctive markings.
First and second dorsal propodosomals minute, third lanceolate, 34-43 long,
about 8 wide; humeral broadly elliptic, about 18 long, 14 wide; dorsolateral
metapodosomal and dorsocentral hysterosomals minute; dorsolateral opis-
thosomals, except the fourth, elliptic, about 27 long. One pair of anterior
and one pair of posterior medioventrals. Palpus three-segmented. Legs
I-III with setiform and enlarged setae; coxa III with a seta on anterior
margin; femora I and II each with only three setae; patella I and II each
with a seta on anterior and posterior margins, patellae III and IV bare;
tibia IV without a seta on anterior margin; tarsi I and II each with a
minute (3 microns), club-shaped posterodistal seta (in place of the usual
rod-like seta) and an overlying setiform seta. Length 285, width 195.
MALE: Not known.
NYMPH: Resembles female.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 18, 1957 (D.
DeLeon), from Ceiba pentandra. Paratypes: One female, two nymphs;
same data as for holotype.

Tenuipalpus sanblasensis, n. sp.
(Figure 9)
T. sanblasensis has one pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medio-
ventrals, the dorsocentrals minute, and the dorsolaterals short and seti-
form. It appears to be most closely related to T. anoplus Baker and Pritch-
ard (1953), but the dorsal ridges of the adult and the large dorsocentrals
of the nymph are distinctive.
FEMALE: Red. Propodosoma with pair of L-shaped ridges back to
back along midline, both Ls sometimes broken at foot, the rest of the dor-
sum broken up by innumerable small ridges; hysterosoma with an oval
area of small, more or less longitudinal ridges bounded anteriorly and pos-
teriorly by stronger ridges and laterally by the pores, the rest of the dor-
sum broken up by small ridges. Dorsal propodosomals, humeral, dorso-
centrals, and dorsolaterals, setiform, about 10 or less long, except the
fourth. One pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioventrals. Pal-
pus three-segmented. Leg setae setiform and small; coxa III with a seta
on anterior margin; patellae I and II each with a seta on anterior and pos-
terior margins; patellae III and IV bare; tarsi I and II each with a postero-
distal club-shaped seta and an overlying seta.
MALE: Not known.











The Florida Entomologist


NYMPH: Both nymphal stages with rather coarse, spiculate second pro-
podosomal, humeral and dorsocentrals; in the deutonymph these about 17,
15, 15, 16 and 7 long respectively.
Holytype: Female. San Blas, Nayarit, April 6, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
naranjilla. Paratypes: 20 females, 11 nymphs; same data as for holotype.

Tenuipalpus burserae, n. sp.
(Figure 10)
T. burserae has one pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioven-
trals, the dorsal body setae short and setiform, and all leg setae setiform.
The species appears to be most closely related to anoplus Baker and Pritch-
ard (1953), but differs from that species by its setiform setae, by coxa III
with a seta on the anterior margin and by other characters.
FEMALE: Yellowish, a few with an orange tinge. Propodosoma with
weak, irregular striae extending posteromedially, toward middle third be-
coming nearly transverse; hysterosoma with weak, irregular striae extend-
ing mostly posterolaterally, in some specimens three or four larger, more
or less transverse striae cut across the smaller ones. All dorsal body setae
setiform, short (less than 20 long except fourth dorsolateral opisthosomal).
One pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioventrals. Palpus three-
segmented. Leg setae setiform, the ventral setae of coxae and femora
apparently smooth; coxa III with a seta on anterior margin; patellae I and
II each with a seta on anterior and posterior margins; patellae III and IV
bare; tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-like seta and a slender
overlying seta. Length 276, width 143.
MALE: Not known.
NYMPH: Resembles female.
Holytype: Female. Ocozocoatla, Chiapas, January 28, 1957; (D. De
Leon) from Bursera sp. Paratypes: Five females, four nymphs; same data
as for holotype.
Tenuipalppus cedrelae, n. sp.
(Figures lla and lib)
T. cedrelae has one pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medioven-
trals and all dorsal setae, except the fourth dorsolateral opisthosomal, short.
It appears to be most closely related to T. anoplus Baker and Pritchard,
but is readily distinguished from that species by having a seta overlying
the rod-like seta of tarsi I and II; the larva and nymphs are also distinctive
in having coarse, spiculate dorsocentrals.
FEMALE: Reddish. Propodosoma with many weak striae mostly di-
rected irregularly posteromedially; opisthosoma mostly with irregular
longitudinal striae. Third propodosomal spiculate, about 20 long, fourth
opisthosomal long and whip-like, all other dorsal body setae less than 10
long, and spiculate. One pair of anterior and one pair of posterior medio-
ventrals. Legs with only setiform setae; coxa III without a seta on anterior
margin; patellae I and II each with a seta on anterior margin; patellae III
and IV bare; tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-like seta and a
setiform overlying seta. Length 272, width 155.
MALE: Resembles female, but second dorsal propodosomal and dorso-
centrals somewhat longer and coarser. Length 217, width 128.


Vol. 40, No. 3










De Leon: Genus Tenuipalpus


NYMPH AND LARVA: Resemble female, but second dorsal propodosomal,
humeral, and first and second dorsocentrals coarse and spiculate; for the
deutonymph they are about 20, 18, 20-28, and 20 long respectively.
Holotype: Female, San Bias, Nayarit, April 19, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from Cedrela sp. Paratypes: One male, 16 females, 17 nymphs, San Bias,
March 28 and April 19, 1957.

Tenuipalpus annonae, n. sp.
(Figure 12)
T. annonae has one pair of anterior and two pairs of posterior medio-
ventrals and two pairs of dorsocentrals. No other species possesses this
combination of characters.
FEMALE: Pale apricot to pale salmon in color. Propodosoma with mid-
dle three-fourths covered by narrow, closely convoluted areolae and with
a U-shaped depression; laterad areolae usually more or less straight and
directed posteromedially; hysterosoma covered with narrow closely con-
voluted areolae. First and second propodosomals setiform, 10-15 long,
third 23-30 long, setiform; humeral and lateral metapodosomal both about
12 long, setiform; dorsocentral hysterosomals both about 11 long, the
second pair missing; dorsolateral opisthosomals, except the fourth, 9-15
long, setiform. One pair of anterior and two pairs of posterior medioven-
trals. Palpus three-segmented. Legs with setiform setae only; coxa III
with a coarse seta on anterior margin; patellae I and II each with a seta
on anterior and posterior margins; patellae III and IV bare; tarsi I and II
each with a posterodistal rod-like seta and a slender overlying seta. Length
238 to 289, width 153.
MALE: Resembles female; length 241, width 138.
NYMPH: Similar to female.
Holotype: Female, Matias Romero, Oaxaca, January 30, 1957, (D. De
Leon) from Annona sp. Paratypes: Three females, two nymphs; same
data as for holotype; one male, two females, two nymphs, Tuxtla Gutierrez,
Chiapas, January 28, 1957; five females, three nymphs, San Blas, Nayarit,
March 28, 1957, all from Annona spp.

Tenuipalpus chiclorum, n. sp.
(Figure 13)
T. chiclorum has two pairs of anterior and one pair of posterior medio-
ventrals and the dorsal propodosomals and hysterosomals are all enlarged.
It appears to be most closely related to T. argus Baker and Pritchard
(1953), but differs from that species in having the first propodosomal en-
larged, a one-segmented palpus, and in other characters.
FEMALE: Pale brownish red. Center of propodosoma with net-like pat-
tern of large ridges superimposed on small longitudinal ridges; hysterosoma
with many small ridges more or less converging towards third pair of
dorsocentrals. First propodosomal 28 long, 15 wide; second 23 long, 11
wide; third 33 long. Humeral 18 long; dorsolateral metapodosomal 14 long,
9 wide. Dorsocentrals 26, 21, and 21 long respectively, dorsolateral opistho-
somals, except the fourth, 16, 23, 21 and 18 long respectively. Two pairs
of anterior and one pair of posterior medioventrals. Palpus one-segmented,











The Florida Entomologist


with a long, apparently smooth, seta at end. Legs I-III with setiform and
very narrow elliptic, spiculate setae; coxa III without a seta on anterior
margin; patellae I and II each with a seta on posterior margin only, patellae
III and IV bare; tarsi I and II each with a curved posterodistal rod-like
seta and an elliptic overlying seta. Length 284, width 178.
MALE: Resembles female, but setae proportionally smaller. Length 230,
width 130.
NYMPH: Essentially similar to female.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 21, 1957, (D.
De Leon) from Achras zapota. Paratypes: One male, two females, two
nymphs; same data as for holotype.
Paratypes of the above species will be deposited in the University of
Florida Collections, Gniaesville.
The following species with the exception of Tenuipalpus rhyssus Baker
and Pritchard (1953) have not previously been recorded from Mexico:

Tenuipalpus dasples Baker and Pritchard (1953)
T. dasples was collected from Sabal sp. near Veracruz, Ver., December
29, 1956.
Tenuipalpus anoplus Bajker and Pritchard (1953)
Specimens having for the most part shorter and more slender dorsal
body setae than T. anoplus from Florida were collected January, 1957, from
Swietenia macrophylla and S. humilis, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, and
from S. macrophylla, Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. These specimens also differed
in dorsal markings from the Florida specimens, but these and other small
differences do not seem sufficient at this time to regard the Mexican speci-
mens as other than variants of anoplus.

Tenuipalpus coccolobicolus De L. (1956)
T. coccolobicolus was collected from Coccolobis sp., Alvarado, Ver., Jan-
uary 7, 1957.

Tenuipalpus rhyssus Baker and Pritchard (1953)
I have not seen T. rhyssus, specimens of which were taken in 1950 at a
U. S. A. port from camellia sent from Veracruz; however, specimens I
collected at Cordoba, Veracruz, and other places and list below under
T. bakeri McG. have both rhyssus and baker characters in varying degrees.
In addition, mites taken from Yucca sp. at the edge of a coffee plantation
infested with bakeri have argus Baker and Pritchard (1953) characters
as well as rhyssus and baker characters. T. rhyssus and T. argus are
species based in part by Baker and Pritchard on specimens identified by
McGregor as T. bakeri. I am inclined to believe that the first two names
have been applied to variants of bakeri.

Tenuipalpus bakeri McGregor (1949)

Collections of specimens which vary considerably, but all of which I
have identified tentatively as T. bakeri are listed below:


Vol. 40, No. 3











De Leon: Genus Tenuipalpus 93

Tamazunchale, S.L.P., December 21, 1956, two unknown hosts.
San Cristobal, Chiapas, January 22, 1957, Arbutus glandulosa.
Cordoba, Ver., February 3 and 4, 1957, Coffee, Yucca, unknown host,
Tillandsia.
San Bias, Nay., March 29, 1957, unknown host.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I wish to thank Mr. Miguel Angel Palacios Rinc6n, of the Instituto de
Historia Natural de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, who most graciously identi-
fied the host plants I collected while in Chiapas.

LITERATURE CITED
Baker, E. W., and A. E. Pritchard. 1953. A review of the false spider mite
genus Tenuipalpus Donnadieu (Acarina: Phytoptipalpidae). Ent.
Soc. Amer., Annals 46 (3) : 317-336.
,De Leon, D. 1956. Six new false spider mites from southern Florida
(Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Fla. Ent. 39 (2) : 55-60.
McGregor, E. A. 1949. Nearctic mites of the family Pseudoleptidae. S.
Calif. Acad. Sci. Mem. 3 (2) : 1-45.












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ABUNDANCE OF APHIDS AND CATERPILLARS IN
COMMERCIAL CABBAGE FIELDS IN THE
VICINITY OF SANFORD, FLORIDA

JOHN W. WILSON
Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford

During a study of host preference of insects that attack cole crops, Har-
rison and Brubaker (1943) found that in the vicinity of Baton Rouge,
Louisiana, the imported cabbage worm, Pieris rapae (L.), the cabbage
looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hbn.), and the larvae of the diamondback moth,
Plutella maculipennis (Curt.), in the order named, were the more important
caterpillars on cole crops. From the Charleston, South Carolina area, Reid
and Bare (1952) reported that on the fall crop the cabbage looper, several
species of agrotinae, and the cabbage webworm, Hellula rogatalis (Hulst)
were the most abundant. On the spring crop the diamondback moth, the
cabbage looper, and the imported cabbage worm were the most numerous.
In eastern Ontario, Harcourt et. al. (1955) found that the imported cabbage
worm, the diamondback moth, and the cabbage looper were the most abun-
dant on the early crop, while the diamondback moth, the imported cabbage
worm, and the cabbage looper were the most abundant on the late crop.
The cabbage looper at no time formed a significant portion of the species
complex in eastern Ontario, although this species had been generally be-
lieved to be the most abundant of the three.
Since the use of the hydrocarbon and phosphatic insecticides has become
widespread, cabbage growers in the vicinity of Sanford, Florida, have prac-
ticed what they call "preventive insect control." In many cases this means
that an application of toxaphene or toxaphene combined with parathion is
applied once or twice a week regardless of the presence of insect pests.
In some instances the toxaphene is applied alone during the early part of
the week, to be followed by an application of TEPP dust later in the same
week. During the past two years many growers in this area have com-
plained that toxaphene is no longer as effective as when it was first used.
Observations in the untreated plots in experimental plantings at the Experi-
ment Station and in commercial fields gave the author the impression that
growers in the Sanford area were wasting tremendous amounts of insecti-
cides and encouraging the development of insecticide-resistant crop pests.
The need to confirm these observations led to a survey of insects attacking
commercial cabbage fields. This survey has been conducted during the past
four growing seasons in the vicinity of Sanford, Florida.
The acreage planted to cabbage in the Sanford area varied from 1,850
during the 1954-55 season to 2,750 in the 1952-53 season (Scarborough,
1955). Plants for the early fall crop are transplanted to the field during
the latter part of September. Successive plantings are made through Octo-
ber, November, December, and January. The harvesting of cabbage usually
begins during the latter part of November and is completed during the latter
part of March, but the season extended into the second week of May at the
end of the 1955-56 season.

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series, No. 591.











96 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 3

METHODS

At the beginning of each growing season, five to ten commercial fields
were selected at widely scattered locations in the vicinity of Sanford. Each
of these fields was visited almost every week beginning two to three weeks
after the plants were set and continuing to the time of the first harvest.
At two locations in each field, 25 successive plants in each of four adjoin-
ing rows were examined. The two locations were on a diagonal across the
fields. No effort was made to return to exactly the same location every
week, but the counts were made in the same general area each week.
During the first two seasons the numbers of cabbage loopers, imported
cabbage worms, diamondback moth larvae, and cabbage webworm larvae
were recorded. During the last two seasons the numbers of plants infested
by the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.), and the cabbage aphid,
Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), were recorded in addition to the numbers of
the four worm species. When the plants in a field had reached maturity,
and at the last visit to the field, the number of plants sufficiently injured
by worms and aphids to cause them to be placed in a grade lower than
U. S. 1 Green was recorded during the 1955-56 season. When fields were
dropped because they had reached maturity, new fields were added to keep
the number of fields surveyed at or near ten.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

During each of the four growing seasons, 1952-53 through 1955-56, the
diamondback moth, the imported cabbage worm, and the cabbage webworm
were found only during the early fall months in very small numbers, there-
fore, the data for these insects are not presented. Figures 1 and 2 show
the weekly populations for the cabbage looper, and weekly average temp-
eratures for the 1952-53 and 1953-54 growing seasons. Figures 3 and 4
represent populations for both the cabbage looper and the cabbage aphid
with weekly average temperatures for the 1954-55 and 1955-56 growing
seasons. Data for the cabbage aphid are available for these latter two
growing seasons only.

TABLE 1.-CORRELATION OF CABBAGE LOOPER POPULATIONS
WITH TEMPERATURES.

Growing Correlation
Season Coefficient

1952-53 +0.45
1953-54 +0.55
1954-55 +0.54
1955-56 +0.53



It is evident from the data presented that there were two peaks of cab-
bage looper populations, one occurring during the early fall and the other
during the late spring. From the latter part of November to early March,
the populations of cabbage loopers were insignificant. It is also evident that











Wilson: Aphids and Caterpillars 97

fluctuations in looper populations are correlated with the seasonal tempera-
tures. Although the correlation coefficient values given in Table 1 are low,
each of these values is significant at the five per cent level. The application
of control chemicals in the survey fields was probably the principal factor
causing the correlation coefficient values to be low.
For the two seasons that data are available, cabbage aphid populations
were low during the early fall and gradually increased, as the growing sea-
son advanced, to a high peak near the end of the growing season. This
increase in cabbage aphid populations started during late November and
early December when the temperatures were lowest; thus there was no
correlation between the abundance of cabbage aphids and temperature. The

TEMPERATURE 17

80 ------ CABBAGE LOOPER
80_ 16

15

70- 14

13 z




I-
60' -I lO


9a
SI 0
iO
50_ I0






03

z
30_ 1 6"

S5


OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR.












1952-53 growing season.
SI \ _
II I I





3 4 I 2 3 4 I 2 3 4 I 2 3 4 I. 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 I 2 3
OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR.
WEEKS

Fig. 1.-Mean temperatures and cabbage looper populations for the
1952-53 growing season.











The Florida Entomologist


fluctuations in cabbage aphid populations were probably due, in large part,
to the application of aphicides. The green peach aphid was observed on
young cabbage plants throughout both growing seasons in such small num-
bers that the records for this insect are not presented.
During the four-year period that this survey was conducted, cabbage
insect populations in untreated plots at the Experiment Station Farm were
so low that the effectiveness of experimental insecticides and experiments
to determine the number of applications required could not be evaluated.

TEMPERATURE


80.



70.



60.



50.



40.


------CABBAGE LOOPER


ca


8 -
0
70
oa
6w
Q,.

5


2
3

2


34 I 234 234 5 1 234 1 2 3 4 2
OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR.
WEEKS
Fig. 2.-Mean temperatures and cabbage looper populations for the
1953-54 growing season.


Vol. 40, No. 3










Wilson: Aphids and Caterpillars


TABLE 2.-SUMMARY OF THE DATA ON INJURY CAUSED BY CABBAGE LOOPERS
AND CABBAGE APHIDS DURING THE 1955-56 GROWING SEASON.

Number Number of plants injured by
Initiation date of Total number Cabbage Cabbage
of survey fields plants examined looper aphid


October 6 1200 39 0
November 5 1000 1 15
December 5 1000 11 20
January 7 1400 185 21


I't (0
13 z
i2
(L
o
0
II




10
9 a







2
8 X
Z
7 M
0
6 i
z
w
5 o
4 _

3

2


1234 1234 1
OCT. NOV.


23451 2341 234 1 23451 23
DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR.
WEEKS


Fig. 3.-Mean temperature, cabbage looper and cabbage aphid populations
for the 1954-55 growing season.










100 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 3

The imported cabbage worm, the diamondback moth, and the cabbage web-
worm were not found from the first week in December to the second week
in April in the commercial fields surveyed. As has been pointed out, popu-
lations of the cabbage looper were very low during this period. These
observations and the data presented indicate that the number of applica-
tions of insecticides for caterpillar control could be reduced provided care-
ful inspections are made to determine the proper timing of the applica-
tions.
22


20

S19
I 18
TEMPERATURE 17
CABBAGE I
80 LOOPER 16 v
APHID 1z
-J
I o5 <
70- \ I 14 o

S12 Wa



U. 50_ | I iO\1
UJ i \ -
SI r11
S40 I 2 8




V E A I I7
V0 ; I -6

0- A1V 2
// '

20 40-










WEEKS
Fig. 4.-Mean temperatures, cabbage looper and cabbage aphid populations
for the 1955-56 growing season.







Wilson: Aphids and Caterpillars


Because of the low populations of both cabbage loopers and cabbage
aphids during all four seasons, it was considered desirable to gather data
on the actual damage caused by these two insects. The figures given in
Table 2 represent the numbers of looper or aphid injured plants in 200
plants examined in each field at the time the first heads were harvested.
These figures confirm the conclusion that the populations were very low
and indicate that the economic losses suffered by the growers due to the
activities of these two insects were not great.

SUMMARY

During the four growing seasons, 1952-53 through 1955-56, populations
of the imported cabbage worm, diamondback moth, cabbage webworm, and
green peach aphid were very low in commercial fields in the vicinity of
Sanford, Florida. Graphs are presented showing the average temperatures
and populations at weekly intervals of the cabbage looper for the four
growing seasons and the cabbage aphid for the last two growing seasons.

LITERATURE CITED

Bare, C. 0. 1940. Commercial control of cabbage caterpillars near Charles-
ton, S. C. Jour. Econ. Ent. 33 (33) : 463-67.
Harcourt, D. G., R. H. Banks and L. M. Cass. 1955. Abundance and rela-
tive importance of caterpillars attacking cabbage in eastern Ontario.
Can. Ent. 87 (9) : 400-06.
Harrison, P. K., and R. W. Brubaker. 1943. The relative abundance of
cabbage caterpillars on cole crops grown under similar conditions.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 36 (4) : 589-92.
Reid, W. J., Jr., and C. O. Bare. 1952. Seasonal populations of cabbage
caterpillars in the Charleston, S. C. area. Jour. Econ. Ent. 45
(4) : 695-99.
Scarborough, Elmo F. 1955. Annual fruit and vegetable report, 1954-55
season. Fla. State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville.













A Cyanamid Report


Resistance


Resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon type
insecticides has been proven or suspected in:


cockroaches
mosquitoes
Colorado potato beetle
dog and cat fleas
bed bugs
codling moth
leafhoppers


house flies
flea beetles
cotton boll weevil
body lice
lygus bugs
cotton leaf worm
dog ticks


Many researchers have found malathion to be
a capable replacement for the chlorinated
hydrocarbons and have made recommendations
for its use. If you have a "resistance" problem
in your area, you might well consider malathion
for your 1957 research schedule.







Developers and producers of malathion and parathion


Write for
particular
technical
information


AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
Agricultural Chemicals Division
Insecticide Research
30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20, N. Y.













TWO NEW SPECIES OF CULICOIDES FROM FLORIDA
(DIPTERA: HELEIDAE)

ELISABETH 0. BECK
Florida State Board of Health, Bureau of Entomology

Two undescribed species of Culicoides were collected from the area
around Marianna, Florida, during the course of a mosquito-trapping experi-
ment conducted during May and June, 1955, by the Bureau of Entomology,
Florida State Board of Health. These two new species are described below.
Holotypes and allotypes have been deposited in the United States National
Museum and paratypes have been placed in the collections of the University
of Florida collections, Gainesville, and the Entomological Research Center
of the Florida State Board of Health at Vero Beach.

Culicoides mulrennani n. sp.
FEMALE: Length about 1.1 mm., wing .77 x .375 mm.
Head dark brown; eyes very narrowly separated, bare. Antennae with
flagellar segments in proportion of 21:18:18:18:18:18:18:18:27:27:27:30:45,
antennal ratio thus 0.94; distal sensory tufts on segments III, XI-XV.
Palpal segments in proportion of 8:18:18:9:8, third segment moderately
swollen with a broad shallow subapical sensory pit with spoon-shaped
sensillae. Mandibles with 12-13 teeth.
Mesonotum yellowish brown with faint suggestion of three darker longi-
tudinal stripes. Scutellum lighter, the postscutellum dark. Legs pale
brown, the fore and medium knees dark brown with narrow white bands
above and below; hind femur dark at apex, hind tibia with narrow light
basal band, and broadly lighter at apex. Tibial comb with four long yel-
lowish setae, the second longest.
Wing light gray, darker over radial cells; costa to 0.6 wing length;
radial cells short with adjacent radial veins thickened, 2nd radial cell
almost obliterated. Macrotrichia sparse, confined chiefly to tip and pos-
terior margin of wing, with a few in middle of cells M, and M2. Light spots
lie over the r-m crossvein, at the end of the costa, and indistinct light spots
at base of cell M1, in Cu, and base and tip of anal cell.
Abdomen very light brown, spermatheca two, equal, spherical, the duct
chitinized for a short distance. Rudimentary spermatheca present, but
no apparent ring.
MALE GENITALIA (Fig. 1): Ninth sternum with broad, deep notch, the
membrane not spiculate; the ninth tergum broad, without cleft at apex,
the apicolateral processes long, slender, finger-like, and widely divergent.
Basistyles stout, ventral root rather short and triangular, the dorsal root
longer and slenderer; dististyles slender and slightly curved, tapering to
bluntly rounded apices. Aedeagus with basal arch rounded, extending to
two-thirds the total length, a schlerotized membrane joining the sides of
the distal part of the arch, the footed base recurved, the short distal por-
tion fairly broad, narrowing toward the tip. Parameres with heavy tri-
angular footed bases, the stem slightly sinuous, tapering to very fine tips.











The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1.-Culicoides mulrennani n. sp.
a. Male genitalia, parameres omitted.
b. Parameres.
Fig. 2.-Culicoides khalafi n. sp.
a. Male genitalia, parameres omitted.
b. Parameres.

Holotype female, allotype male: Marianna, Florida, 15 June, 1955, light
trap. Paratype: 1 male, 14 females, same data.
This species occurred more frequently in light traps run early in the
morning than in traps operated during the night. C. mulrennani appears
to be closely related to C. spinosus Root and Hoffman, with male genitalia
and female spermathecal systems similar in the two species.
I am indebted to Dr. W. W. Wirth, USNM, and Dr. R. H. Jones, USDA,
Kerrville, Texas, for aid in determining the taxonomic status of this species.
I take pleasure in naming this species in honor of John A. Mulrennan,
Director of the Bureau of Entomology, Florida State Board of Health,
who has kindly encouraged my study of this genus.

Culicoides khalafi n. sp.

FEMALE: Length about 1.1 mm., wing .77 x .43 mm.
Head brown; eyes separated with hair socket between, bare. Antennae
with flagellar segments in proportion of 18:18:21:24:24:24:24:24:24:24:27:


104


Vol. 40, No. 3









Beck: New Species of Culicoides


27:45, antenna ratio thus 0.83; distal sensory tufts on segments III, VII-X.
Palpal segments in proportion of 6:20:20:8:10, third segment moderately
swollen with a large deep cylindrical pit, the pit opening large. Mandibles
with 14 teeth.
Mesonotum dark with rather indistinct pattern of grayish markings
consisting of two submedian lateral stripes widening posteriorly to enclose
the prescutellar depressions, and two more or less confluent spots on each
side. Scutellum and postscutellum dark. Legs dark, knees blacker with
light bands above and below, except hind femur is dark at apex; hind tibia
with light apical band; tarsi lighter. Tibial comb with 4 spines.
Wing background gray with dark spot over 2nd radial cell and apical
half of 1st radial cell; costa to 0.57 wing length; 2nd radial cell wider than
1st, adjacent veins swollen but both radial cells open. Distinct white spots
over r-m crossvein from costa to vein M, at apex of 2nd radial cell under
it, a squarish spot in the middle of cell R5, not touching wing margins, near
tip of M1, M2, and Cui, in anal cell below fork of Cu; the spots in M' and
Cu' are sometimes open to wing margins. A less definite light spot lies
at the base of cell M', in M2 over fork of Cu, and a lighter confluent area
over the base of wing, and anal cell. Macrotrichia are confined mainly
to cell R5 and apex of wing. Halteres dark.
Abdomen dark brown; spermatheca two, small, spherical, well-chitin-
ized; duct chitinized for a short distance; rudimentary spermatheca and
ring present.
MALE HYPOPYGIUM: (Fig. 2): Ninth sternum with a broad shallow
notch; the ninth tergum broad, without cleft at apex, the apicolateral proc-
esses very small and widely separated. Basistyles broad, ventral root
roughly boat-hook shaped, dorsal roots broad and almost as long as ventral
roots; Aedeagus short and broadly arched with serrated broadly truncate
tip; Parameres with bases knobbed, stems slender and curved, with a ventral
pouch, tips broader, with a fringe of 4 narrow subapical spines and a slightly
wider distal spine.
Holotype female, Marianna, Florida, 28 April, 1956; Allotype males,
Marianna, Florida, May, 1955. Paratypes: 1 male, Jacksonville, Florida,
June, 1955; 4 males, 2 females, Marianna, Florida, May and June, 1955;
9 females, Marianna, Florida, 15 July, 1956. All specimens were taken in
light traps.
This species has been taken in light traps at Marianna, Florida, and
Jacksonville, Florida. It is apparently of the debilipalpis group; the wing
pattern is quite similar to that of C. grahambelli Forattini, described from
Panama. C. khalafi, however, has the eyes well separated, and distal sen-
sory tufts on flagellar segments III and VIII-X of the antennae. C. gra-
hambelli has the eyes contiguous and has sensory tufts of all of the first
eight flagellar segments.
I take pleasure in naming this species for Dr. Kamel Khalf in recogni-
tion of his excellent studies of this genus.


105

















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ENTOMOLOGY IS FUN1

JOHN E. PORTER

In contemplating the preparation of a paper for this occasion your
chairman faced the prospect of alienating all semblance of tolerance which
you have kindly shown during the past sixteen months. I had several
alternatives: To be dull and put you to sleep immediately or have you walk
out, or, to face up to the occasion and lock everyone inside.
Seriously though, I take great pride in the development our organiza-
tion has made. We started from "scratch" and have now achieved branch
status in the Florida Entomological Society, thus engendering state and
nation-wide recognition as an "up-and-coming" group of entomologists.
We have performed two outstanding public functions and in these meas-
ures alone have justified all our activities. The enlightenment of the public
with respect to the Mediterranean Fruit Fly was a service much needed and
well received. It should be, perhaps, a continuing program, for as matters
now stand public sentiment and apathy towards the eradication program
can play long-standing harm to this or any other insect control program
which may be necessary in the future.
Secondly, the attention we gave to local demands for parathion use-
restrictions has solidified the requests of interested people for legisla-
tion which will be beneficial to the majority of the residents of the state.
The results of this service were immediately felt through action of the
State Board of Health and their Bureau of Entomology, in calling for first
a conference of all interested parties and then developing their plans to
formulate the legislative requirements needed.
In analysis, our branch in its entirety can and should act as a committee
of public relations to encourage a wider distribution of entomological infor-
mation to the public in all the ways possible.
It has been fun helping to conceive our society and slowly watch it
develop into a bouncing, healthy child. Conception was planned or inten-
tional-this was no unwanted child! I have used this term advisedly. An
infant according to Webster, refers to anyone up to the age of 21. Sir
'Francis Bacon in an essay Of Youth and Age states, that "A man that
is young in years may be old in hours, if he have lost no time". We have
not let much grass grow under our feet, but I shall leave the determination
of our development up to you.
Needless to say, all parents know that in one way or another they tend
to train their children in certain ways, and encounter times when their
children need advice and assistance. Thus let us digress for a few moments
to the days when our own children were younger:
Our child is just out of its diapering stage (we hope)-a bit wobbly on
its feet but equipped with good sound limbs and organs (especially lungs).
We like the feel of the tiny hand clutching on to our big fingers, a feeling
of reassurance for the child and of love and care on our part. We frequently

1An address presented to the Subtropical Branch of the Florida En-
tomological Society, Miami, Florida on January 9, 1957, by the Chairman
of the Branch.
SEntomologist, U. S. Quarantine Station, Miami Beach, Florida, Divi-
sion of Foreign Quarantine, Public Health Service, U. S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare.











The Florida Entomologist


have to feed him, being careful that the bites of food are not too large (he
might gag on them). Frequently, the child gets so excited with his food
that he is practically head to toes in it-but he enjoys it! Our organization
is young-perhaps not too sturdy yet-but in any case a helping hand is
wanted, as is nourishment. Give the organization the benefit of your assist-
ance-feed it with ideas! If they are well received, expect your officers
to get head over heels into it. Remember that the thoughts expressed by
all of you will be well digested and utilized to advantage. Remember too,
that as with a child, force-feeding is sometimes necessary. It wouldn't be
right if at sometime in the future, as in the past, you do not demand a
"force-feeding" of this group.
Recollections of our last January meeting are still fresh in my mind.
I appreciate the honor you did in asking me to serve you this past year.
Our original committee which served from September 1955, to January
1956, was broken with the establishment of the offices of president, vice-
president and secretary-treasurer. I want at this time to thank again these
men who served originally with me in forming our group. They are:
Dr. F. Gray Butcher and Messrs. Robert F. Curran, James H. Heidt and
Alfred S. Mills. My thanks also go to our present very fine help from
Drs. Butcher and D. O. Wolfenbarger and Mr. Alfred S. Mills, who have
served on this year's committee.
Tyler's Restaurant, near South Miami, proved to be an acceptable meet-
ing place for your committees both before and after our elections in Jan-
uary, 1956. I remember the sessions we held this past year. They were
pleasant associations for me. I hope the feeling has been mutual, and trust
the functioning of the committee has met with your approval. Considering
our attendance and response, I am sure we have encountered few objectors.
We always had interesting discussions at our luncheons. One question
was: "What should be the requirements for membership in the Subtropical
Entomologists of Florida?" Should they be based on professional interest?
Age? Sex? I am sure we were all actually agreed that we wanted to
encourage everyone who was at all interested in entomology to attend.
This is, more or less, in conformity with the requirements for membership
in most entomological societies. We did not, therefore, set forth any hard-
and-fast rules on membership.
This interest in entomology then is also the prime goal for our organiza-
tion. We must strive always to encourage our members to participate in
discussions, presentations, and reports. We must sell others on our en-
thusiasm in the professional or avocational interests of the field. We must
recognize the diverse branches of the field and the associated sciences with
which these branches of entomology must play a companion role. Com-
pliance with these aims will go a long way towards maintaining ours as a
healthy and prosperous organization.
To help promote this thesis of Interest in Entomology I would like to
discuss one phase in particular-Entomology is Fun. Basically fun may
be expressed as anything which gives or provides pleasure to an individual.
It may be in the form of entertainment implying thought and mental occu-
pation in an agreeable and refreshing way. It may be in the form of
recreation in which mental and physical occupation are involved, or in
enjoyment-an aesthetic quality but one which, to many, provides pleasure.


108


Vol. 40, No. 3











Porter: Entomology is Fun


The fun derived from laboring as an entomologist is great and varied.
The devotion with which one delves into the science and the enthusiasm
one exerts, obviously accentuate these pleasures as active participation
increases the rewards in any venture or endeavor.
It is with a degree of nostalgia that I'm sure we all recall associations
of earlier days when we were still studying the fundamentals of insect life
in college or in the great out-of-doors. Our teachers, our course work, and
our classmates all left an imprint on our future. In retrospect those days
spent in high school were "just a picnic" when we were in college, and to
many of us, each succeeding year is always harder than the preceding one.
Yet, in all these memories a little sun shines-an unusual specimen found
here, a new observation made there, friendships cemented. We have profited
from the years of experience and teaching our patient leaders have given
us. Ours is the reaping of the heritage of Fitch, Harris, The Comstocks,
Fernald, Howard, Metcalf, of Herms and numerous other illustrious teach-
ers. Certainly we have enjoyed knowing these men or knowing of them.
But, it is in the realm of daily living that we must seek satisfaction,
or fun, in our work. We have rightly or wrongly at one time or another
enjoyed "ribbing" a friend who found himself in an unusual situation. En-
tomologists are no exception. They, too, are often ridiculed and laughed
at in cartoon and comedy. A classmate of mine once collected these car-
toons as a hobby and had quite a few. How many events have you col-
lected in your own career that you can look back on as being humorous?
I have on my list: being threatened with arrest for trespassing; eyed as
an escapee from a nearby mental institution because officers thought my
insect collecting activities rather peculiar; embarrassed by an unexpected
ending to an experiment in which gray kittens became greenish when
dusted with a test material; and run ragged when attempting to evade a
large swarm of angry hornets.
I assume that we all enjoy eating. Yet to include this pleasant occasion
in a discussion of the enjoyment of certain qualities of insects is anything
but pleasant or enjoyable to most of us. If we, however, were to study the
staples of some of the so-called underprivileged or backward peoples of
the world we would find that caterpillars, grasshoppers, and the like please
them perhaps as much as a well-cooked steak would please us, making it
fun to eat.
There is an inane tendency in some people to develop odd utilizations of
insects to occupy their idle hours. I was interested to note that in the
Orient some people gamble on crickets trained to fight. (Miami is "missing
a bet".) I'm sure we have all heard of, or perhaps seen, flea circuses.
Flies and other insects are sometimes used to activate various grotesque
novelties, and who of us has not at one time or another attached a thread
to an insect for other than a purely scientific observation?
Some of our more popular motion picture productions have capitalized
on the interestingly entertaining value presented by photographic biogra-
phies of insects and other forms of wild life.
There are a number of games in which a knowledge of insects is im-
parted to a certain degree. These have provided fun to children and to
some adults by the hour.
Our piscatorial friends and associates put considerable thought and study
into making and casting flies into mountain trout streams or other likely











The Florida Entomologist


waters. Many boys receive unlimited pleasures in carefully baiting their
hooks with choice entomological specimens. One of our outstanding en-
tomologists has recently written a book on the subject.
Our daily life is made conscious of the presence of insects - the
cicada's song, the katydid and the cricket's break of the evening silence.
The limitless variety of forms and colors in insects brighten our existence.
Indeed, some are considered sufficiently attractive that they are used as
models for artists, milliners, and decorators. Highly colored and striking
specimens are used in toto as adornments in trays, rings, pins, necklaces,
and other types of jewelry.
We inhale the beauties of nature in our search for insect specimens. An
occasional field trip is fun. Moths and butterflies are admired by all, while
those who have access to lens and microscope find much to enjoy in the
colors, patterns, and unusual forms of smaller insects.
I am sure that we all have a feeling of gratification when we help others.
To some, this sense comes best with the imparting of knowledge or with
the help needed to uncover the secrets of nature. To others, the feeling
that they are helping to better a person's physical or economic condition is
the answer. What can be more fun then than doing the things which en-
courage this sensation?
Fabr6 opened the world of insects to many. Lutz, Swain, and other
enthusiastic teachers have been responsible for bringing the field closer
to more people. Yet, how many untold thousands of boys and girls, and
even adults, without knowing of these men or their works will look in
awe at the structure of an insect's body, the color of a butterfly's wing or
marvel at the mysteries of metamorphosis? Each observation they make
sends a pulsing sensation of joy throughout their body. It is this wonder
over what God has made which makes life so enjoyable for most of us
who are associated in entomology. The ability of our teachers to explain
these wonders clearly only points up the joy and fun we have in our daily
observations of insects whether by hobby or vocation.


{r UERIOR



FERTILIZERS AND INSECTICIDES THAT ARE SUPERIOR
Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA


110


Vol. 40, No. 3












TWO NEW EOTETRANYCHUS AND A NEW
OLIGONYCHUS FROM SOUTHERN FLORIDA
(ACARINA: TETRANYCHIDAE)

DONALD DE LEON
Coral Gables, Florida

The mites described below are all fairly common species in this area.

Eotetranychus tremae, n. sp.
(Figs. 1-4)
In the key to the species by Pritchard and Baker1 E. tremae runs to
hicoriae (McG.) but the female differs from McGregor's drawings and de-
scription2 of hicoriae in that the peritreme ends in a shorter hook, and the
male in that the distal part of the aedeagus is long, tapering, nearly straight,
and forms about a right angle with the proximal part.
FEMALE: Grayish white with two pairs of blackish spots at sides of
hysterosoma-one pair at humeral angle, the other about half way to end
of body; dorsal body setae slender, tapering to apex and each longer than
distance to seta next behind; peritreme ending in short hook. Terminal
palpal sensilla large and about twice as long as wide, subterminal sensilla
much smaller. Tibia I with one sensory and nine tactile setae, tarsus
I with one sensory and five (sometimes four) tactile setae proximal to
duplexes; tibia II with eight tactile setae, tarsus II with one sensory and
three (sometimes two) tactile setae proximal to duplexes; tibia III with
six tactile setae. Genital flap with transverse striae, area just anterior to
it with longitudinal striae. Length of body including gnathosoma 350, width
183 microns.
MALE: Similar to female in colour, shape of peritreme, and body setae.
Terminal sensilla of palpus almost conical, slightly more than twice as long
as wide at base, subterminal sensilla somewhat longer than terminal. Tibia
I with nine tactile and three (sometimes four) sensory setae, tarsus I with
four (sometimes three) tactile and three sensory setae proximal to du-
plexes; tibia II with eight tactile setae, tarsus II with one sensory and
three tactile setae proximal to duplexes. Aedeagus with distal part di-
rected ventrad, long and tapering and forming about a right angle with
basal part. Length of body including gnathosoma 261, width 120 microns.
Holatype: Male, Coral Gables, Florida, 22 May, 1956, (D. De Leon)
on Trema floridana. Paratypes: 15 males, 25 females, 12 nymphs, and 2
larvae, 22 November, 1955, to 22 May, 1956; other collection data same
as for holotype.
Eotetranychus mastiohi, n. sp.
(Figs. 5-8)
E. mastichi runs to perplexus (McGregor) from the Pacific Coast in
the key by Pritchard and Baker, but the male differs from McGregor's

1 Pritchard, A. E. and E. W. Baker. 1955. A revision of the spider mite
family Tetranychidae. Pac. Coast Ent. Soc. Memoir 2, 472p.
2 McGregor, E. A. 1950. Mites of the family Tetranychidae. Amer.
Midl. Nat. 44 (2): 257-420.









112 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 3

drawings of perplexus (op. cit.) in that the outline of the distal end of the
aedeagus is concave and its general shape is different, and the female differs
from McGregor's description in that tarsus I bears four tactile setae
proximal of the duplexes.















S7 8





9 10 11 12


Explanation of Figures.

Figs. 1 to 4. Eotetranychus tremae, n. sp. Terminal palpal segment of
female, distal end of peritreme of female, terminal palpal
segment of male, aedeagus.
Figs. 5 to 8. E. mastichi, n. sp. Parts in same order as for tremae.
Figs. 9 to 12. Oligonychus plicarum, n. sp. Parts in same order as for
E. tremae.

FEMALE: Pearly white to grayish in colour with two pairs of blackish
spots at sides of hysterosoma and with a blackish band connecting anterior
pair; dorsal body setae slender, tapering to apex, each longer than distance
to seta next behind; peritreme terminating distad in a short right-angled
to J-shaped hook. Terminal palpal sensilla of moderate size and about
three-fifths as wide as long, subterminal sensilla much smaller. Tibia I
with one sensory and nine tactile setae, tarsus I with four (rarely five)
factile setae (and rarely one sensory seta) proximal of duplexes; tibia
II with eight tactile setae, tarsus II with one tactile and one sensory seta
proximal of duplexes, tibia III with six tactile setae. Genital flap and
area just anterior to it with transverse striae. Length of body including
gnathosoma 363, width 208 microns.
MALE: Cream to pale orange in colour; dorsal body setae similar to
those of female's. Terminal sensilla of palpus rudimentary, subterminal
sensilla about three times as long as wide. Peritreme terminating distad









DeLeon: Two New Eotetranychus


as a short right-angled to J-shaped hook. Tibia I with one sensory and
nine tactile setae, tarsus I with four tactile and two (sometimes one) sen-
sory setae proximal of duplexes; tibia II with eight tactile setae, tarsus
II with one tactile and one sensory seta (sometimes no tactile and two sen-
sory setae) proximal of duplexes. Aedeagus ending in a knob with dorsal
and ventral angles, the outline of end concave. Length of body including
gnathosoma 300 microns, width 152.
Holotype: Male, Coral Gables, Florida, 29 November, 1955, (D. De Leon),
on Sideroxylon foetidissimum. Paratypes: 28 males, 32 females, 21 nymphs,
and 12 larvae, 8 November, 1955, to 8 May, 1956; other collection data
same as for holotype.

Oligonychus plicarum, n. sp.
(Figs. 9-12)
The male of 0. plicarum runs to indicus in the key to the species by
Pritchard and Baker (op. cit.) but the peritremes are retrorse distad; the
male is also distinctive in the shape of the aedeagus and in several other
characters.
FEMALE: Yellowish orange, often with darker orange markings at sides
of hysterosoma; dorsal body setae slender, tapering to apex, each longer
than distance to seta next behind; peritremes retrorse distad. Terminal
palpal sensilla about once and a half as long as wide, subterminal sensilla
about four times as long as wide, slightly longer than terminal sensilla.
Tibia I with one sensory and nine tactile setae, tarsus I with four tactile
setae (a sensory seta usually in line with proximal duplexes, but sometimes
slightly proximal of them) proximal of proximal set of duplexes; tibia II
with seven tactile setae, tarsus II with one sensory and two tactile setae,
tibia III with six tactile setae. Hysterosomal striae in mid-dorsal area
more or less transverse, except between anterior pair of sacrals where they
are usually longitudinal. Length of body including gnathosoma 465, width
216 microns.
MALE: Similar to female, but usually rather hyaline. Terminal sensilla
of palpus not quite twice as long as wide, subterminal sensilla smaller than
terminal sensilla. Tibia I with two sensory and nine tactile setae, tarsus
I with two sensory and four tactile setae proximal of duplexes, two ventral
tactile setae distal of duplexes, proximoventral setae of empodium form-
ing a broad, sharply pointed spur considerably larger than distal part of
empodium; tibia II with seven tactile setae, tarsus II with one sensory and
two tactile setae proximal of duplexes, tibia III with six tactile setae.
Aedeagus with caudal part bent dorsad at about a right angle to shaft;
distal part without a knob, tapering rapidly to a point and directed caudo-
dorsad. Length of body including gnathosoma 416, width 177 microns.
Holotype: Male, Coral Gables, Florida, 23 July, 1956, (D. De Leon)
from Serenoa repens. Paratypes: 14 females, 2 males, 1 nymph, 2 larvae,
20 April, 1955, from Sabal palmetto and 7 males, 16 females, 2 nymphs,
2 larvae, 23 July, 1956, from Serenoa repens.
Paratypes of these three species will be deposited in the University of
Florida Collections, Gainesville.


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