Volume 40, No. 4 December, 1957
Merkel, Edward P.-Forest Entomology in the South-
Past, Present, and Future ----.-----.... -----.....---..-------.. 119
Questel, D. D., and W. G. Genung-Establishment of the
Parasite Anagyrus Antoninae in Florida for Control
of Rhodesgrass Scale ..-----------.... .........------ ..------. ... 123
Friauf, James J.-Clarifieation of the Species in the Genus
Dendrotettix (Orthoptera: Acrididae, Cyrtacanthacrinae) 127
De Leon, Donald-Three New Typhlodromus from
Southern Florida (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) .......--------..--.. 141
Hetrick, L. A.-Some Observations on the Plaster Bagworm,
Tineola Walsinghami Busck (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) ..- 145
Emerson, K. C., and Robert E. Elbel-A New Genus of
Ischnocera (Mallophaga) ...........--------------....---------.. 147
Minutes of the 40th Annual Meeting of the
Florida Entomological Society --- ...-..----...-.-------------149
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1957-1958
President .............................. ..... ............... rwin H. Gilbert
Vice-President ...........-------.._ William P. Hunter
Secretary __.----- -------.---------- Robert 0. Kirkland
Treasurer .---...-...................................... Harold A. Denmark
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
Other Members of Executive Committee Henry True
I Milledge Murphey, Jr.
LEWIS BERNER -.......--....-......... ........Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP --...-- .... .. .--- Associate Editor
HAROLD A. DENMARK ----..--......-- Business Manager
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $3.00 per year in
advance; 75 cents per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post
office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and
orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 2425,
University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
One zinc etching, not to exceed one-half page in size, or the equivalent
thereof, will be allowed free. The actual cost of all additional illustrations
must be borne by contributors. In general, the cost of a full page zinc
etching is $7.50. Reprints of articles may be secured by authors if they
are ordered before, or at the time proofs are received for correcting; 25
copies furnished free to authors.
REPRINTS WITHOUT COVERS
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ..... ------------ $ 5.25 $ 6.25 $ .98
5-8 .......--.....-.. ... ........-- ... 8.75 10.75 2.10
9-16 ..-............ ..........-..... 13.00 17.10 3.00
17-20 ........................................ 19.25 23.50 4.00
More than 20 pages,
per page ............................ .98 .88 .19
Additional for covers with title and author's name,
First 50 .--...................-- $5.25 Additional, each............$ .02
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY IN THE SOUTH-
PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE1
EDWARD P. MERKEL, ENTOMOLOGIST
Southeastern Forest Experiment Station
Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Lake City, Florida
Throughout the South forest entomology is gaining recognition as an
important facet of forestry, and an essential part of the forest management
policies of the wood-using industries. The future of forest entomology
and its progress as an applied science will depend largely upon the im-
portance which the people of our nation place on the protection and wise
use of our forest resources.
The first significant contributions to forest entomology in the United
States were made in the South about 1890, shortly after the organization
of entomological research in the U. S. Department of Agriculture. It was
during the last decade of the 19th century that A. D. Hopkins, of the West
Virginia Experiment Station, determined that the southern pine beetle,
Dendroctonus frontalis, was responsible for the death of large volumes of
pine and spruce timber in the Appalachian Mountains.
From 1902 to 1906 special attention was given to the southern pine
beetle and the red and black turpentine beetles in the South Atlantic and
Gulf States by W. F. Fiske, assistant to Dr. Hopkins. About 1920, Dr.
M. W. Blackman, while stationed at the Mississippi Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, conducted intensive taxonomic studies of the southern bark
beetles, family Scolytidae.
At Falls Church, Virginia, from 1910 to 1924, F. C. Craighead, T. E.
Snyder, and R. A. St. George initiated studies of the biology and control of
various forest insects, particularly those attacking wood products, such
as subterranean termites and Lyctus powder-post beetles.
Rapid strides of progress were made during the first two decades of the
20th century. During this period Hopkins accumulated sufficient informa-
tion to formulate his well-known Bioclimatic Law. Through their intensive
research on the biology of cerambycid beetles at Falls Church, Craighead
and St. George demonstrated the validity of Hopkins' Host Selection Prin-
ciple. Craighead and Snyder made many contributions to our knowledge of
the role of insects associated with the spread of the chestnut blight disease,
and Craighead determined the effectiveness of solar heat for killing wood
borers in logs. Snyder conducted basic research on the efficacy of different
methods of application of wood preservatives and of the value of naturally
resistant woods in preventing subterranean termite attacks.
Federal forest insect research activities expanded with the transfer of
the field laboratory from Falls Church, Virginia to the Bent Creek Experi-
mental Forest, near Asheville, North Carolina, in 1925. Through the late
1920's and early 1930's such men as Craighead, Beal, St. George, Balch,
MacAndrews, Rumbold, and Nelson, studied various aspects of the southern
pine beetle problem. The life cycle of this bark beetle was determined.
1 This article is condensed from a talk given at the 39th Annual Meeting
of the Florida Entomological Society, August 30, 1956.
The Florida Entomologist
The physiological effects of drought and bark beetle attacks on trees were
investigated and valuable contributions were made to our knowledge of
the association of blue stain fungi and yeasts in the bark beetle-infested
During the late 1920's Beal studied the life history and control of the
turpentine borer, Buprestis, apricans, in the naval stores region of north-
In the early 1930's, Craighead and St. George found that green logs
could be protected from insect damage by introducing chemicals into the
sap stream of standing trees prior to felling. These initial studies on tree
injection at the Asheville laboratory were intensified during the mid- and
late 30's by Kowal, Eaton, Wilford, and Johnston. In addition to developing
several ingenious methods of tree injection, these men also conducted studies
of the control of white grubs in forest tree nurseries at Camden, North
Carolina, and Georgetown, South Carolina. During this period also, greater
knowledge was gained on the control of subterranean termites and the pres-
ervation of rustic structures from insect damage. W. L. Baker joined the
Asheville laboratory staff during the late 30's and studied the relationships
of wood moisture to Lyctus powder-post beetle infestation in seasoned
Meanwhile, in 1935, T. E. Snyder, world authority on termites and their
control, established a federal forest insect laboratory at New Orleans,
Louisiana. Following Snyder's pioneering research on forest product in-
sects, these specialized studies have been centered at the federal forest
insect laboratory at Gulfport, Mississippi, since 1940.
The most noteworthy progress in forest entomology education and re-
search in the southern institutions of higher learning came during the late
.1930's when J. A. Beal initiated a forest insect curriculum for graduate
students at the Duke University School of Forestry.
PRESENT FOREST ENTOMOLOGY IN THE SOUTH
During the past 50 years the vast forest reservoirs of the West have
attracted many forest industries. However, as we have harvested these
old-growth stands, the forest industries have begun to return to the East,
and particularly to the South, where 193 million acres, or 40 percent, of the
nation's commercial forest area occurs.
The intensification of forestry practices and the rapid expansion of the
pulp and paper industry is already well under way in the South. With this
progress has come the inevitable realization that trees from seed to harvest
must be protected from the ravages of insect damage. This protection is
of paramount importance if the forest industries of the South are to main-
tain a constant supply of raw material.
At no time up to 1950 were there more than a dozen forest entomologists
in the South. Within the past five years, however, there has been a notice-
able increase in the employment of forest entomologists by federal, state,
and private forestry organizations; so that today there are at least two
dozen professional men actively engaged in forest insect research and sur-
veys. In the Southeast, the states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee,
Georgia, and Florida have recently employed men for forest insect survey,
control, and extension work.
Vol. 40, No. 4
Merkel: Forest Entomology in the South
The major portion of forest insect research in the South is still being
carried on by the Division of Forest Insect Research which, since the re-
organization of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1954, has been
incorporated into the Branch of Research of the U. S. Forest Service.
However, very close working relationships are still maintained with the
Entomology Branch of the Agricultural Research Service. During the
past three years, federal appropriations and personnel for forest insect
research in the South have more than doubled.
One of the big weaknesses in the South today is the lack of well-devel-
oped programs of forest entomology education and research in forestry
colleges, universities, and agricultural experiment stations. The shortage
of well-trained professional men in this specialized but expanding field of
science is becoming more acute each year.
In recent years, the development of numerous synthetic organic insecti-
cides has paved the way for many advancements in the control of certain
forest insects in the South. DDT is still an effective insecticide for most
defoliating insects such as sawflies, the forest tent caterpillar, the fall
cankerworm, and others. Airplane application of this material at the rate
of one pound per gallon per acre has effectively controlled some of our most
serious defoliators at a cost of about one dollar per acre. Water suspen-
sions and emulsions of DDT and BHC have been found to effectively pre-
vent attacks of the Nantucket pine moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, when prop-
erly timed with moth emergence.
Benzene hexachloride has solved many of the forest insect control prob-
lems which heretofore were either unsolved or were carried on with less
effective chemicals. Oil solutions of BHC are used extensively for the
control and/or prevention of all the major bark beetles in the South. Water
emulsion and oil solutions of BHC are also used to protect green logs and
lumber from the attacks of wood borers and ambrosia beetles.
Pine reproduction weevils such as Hylobius pales and Pachylobius picivo-
rus are causing considerable damage in the tremendous pine planting pro-
gram of the South, particularly where trees are planted within one year
following pine timber harvests. Several forest entomologists are currently
investigating the biology and habits of these pests and are rapidly develop-
ing practical control measures which can be incorporated into the actual
planting operation, such as direct control by dipping seedlings into insecti-
cides prior to planting and indirect control by scheduling timber harvests
to minimize the weevil hazard.
Chlordane and other newer chlorinated hydrocarbons and fumigants have
helped solve most of the forest nursery soil-insects and nematode problems.
Intensive studies of the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans,
during the past five years at the Lake City, Florida, Research Center, U. S.
Forest Service, have yielded valuable information on the life cycle and
habits of the bark beetle. A successful preventive and control insecticide
was also developed, i.e., a one percent BHC fuel oil solution.
During the past decade, federal entomologists at the Gulfport, Mississip-
pi, Forest Insect Laboratory have made great strides in developing more
effective chemical control methods for subterranean termites, powder-post
beetles, and other wood-product insects.
The Florida Entomologist
THE FUTURE OF FOREST ENTOMOLOGY IN THE SOUTH
Any look into the future of forest entomology in the South naturally
involves considerable conjecture and speculation. However, I believe the
following predictions are within the realm of possibility and realization:
1. Before the passing of another decade, most states in the South will
have forest pest legislation and forest pest control personnel to en-
able detection and appraisal of incipient forest insect outbreaks and
to permit prompt and effective control. The present upward trend
in the employment of forest entomologists will continue.
2. There will be a stepped-up program of forest insect research at
forestry schools, university entomology departments, and state ex-
3. Large-scale cooperative aerial surveys will be made systematically
and periodically for more thorough detection of outbreaks and ap-
praisals of damage over large forested areas.
4. Emphasis will be given to basic research on all serious insect pests
of forests to develop silvicultural and biological methods of control.
Proper management of the stand may, for example, prevent epidemic
outbreaks of bark beetles; aerial application of insect virus diseases
may be used generally for control of some forest defoliators.
5. During the next ten years, considerable advancement will be made
in our knowledge of the'biology, ecology, and control of insects which
damage the flowers, cones, and seeds of southern pines. The fast-
expanding tree planting program already under way in the South,
the new Soil Bank Program of the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
and the establishment of superior-tree orchards mean that the need
for maximum viable seed production will become increasingly acute,
and the control of pine cone and seed insects will become more im-
6. Research on bark beetles will continue. However, greater emphasis
will be placed on investigations of the reason for population fluctu-
ations under various forest conditions.
7. Full-length tree spraying with ground equipment, and possibly aerial
spray methods, to prevent bark beetle attacks will be developed.
8. The large areas of pure pine plantations in the South will bring with
them many forest insect problems. The intensification of studies of
plantation insects is already being pursued and will continue.
Vol. 40, No. 4
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PARASITE ANAGYRUS
ANTONINAE IN FLORIDA FOR CONTROL OF
D. D. QUESTEL2 AND W. G. GENUNG
Rhodesgrass scale Antonina graminis (Mask.) was first reported in the
United States from southern Texas in 1942. By 1950 it had been reported
from 21 counties in Texas, one parish in Louisiana, and three counties in
Florida (Chada and Riherd, 1950) and it has now become widespread in
southern and central Florida. It attacks a number of grasses and is often
a serious pest of Para, Carib, St. Augustine, and other pasture grasses.
It also contributes to the unthriftiness of St. Augustine and Bermudagrass
lawns and turf. Merrill (1953) reported that the species has become of
economic importance on lawns and golf greens and Kelsheimer and Kerr
(1957) stated that it is the most widely damaging of the grass scales in
Florida. Some ranchers in the Everglades area have complained of consid-
erable loss from this scale.
Since Rhodesgrass scale could not be economically controlled in pastures
with insecticides, parasites were introduced in 1954. In July the senior
author released 800 parasites, Anagyrus antoninae Timberlake, near Clewis-
ton, Florida, for control of this scale. The wasps were reared by and re-
ceived from Herbert A. Dean of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
and the USDA Agricultural Rlesearch Service, Weslaco, Texas. The original
release was made on Paragrass heavily infested with this scale, after col-
lections had shown that this parasite was not already in the area.
The initial introduction at Clewiston was comprised of free-living
adults, but subsequent releases were made by placing stems of grasses
infested with parasitized scales about infested pastures. The parasites
then emerge into a suitable environment. Under this method parasite mor-
tality is probably much lighter than where previously reared and handled
adults are released. The parasitized material should be placed near fence
rows, ditches, or in other protected situations where excessive grazing has
To ascertain if the parasite introduction was successful, host grass from
the vicinity of the release point was collected. Samples were taken from
several spots to make a composite sample, which was placed in a cardboard
box and sealed tightly. Test tubes containing alcohol were inserted into
two or three holes that had been made in one side of each box, and slanted
slightly downward. A positive phototropic response caused the emerging
adult parasites to move toward the light, and they were thus trapped in
the tubes containing alcohol.
In the summer of 1956 a survey was made to determine the dispersal
and concentration of population at various distances from the releases made
in 1954. Less than one pound of scale-infested Paragrass was collected
SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 632.
2 Entomologist, Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research
Service, USDA, Belle Glade, Florida.
'Assistant Entomologist, University of Florida, Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle Glade, Florida.
The Florida Entomologist
from each location. The numbers of parasites recovered from the various
collections and dates of their emergences are shown below.
Collections on July 9 east of release points, and emergence dates
Miles July 16 July 19 July 23 July 26 July 30 Aug. 1 Aug. 10 Total
Collections on July 24 west of release points, and emergence dates
Miles July 26 July 30 Aug. 1
Aug. 10 Total
Collections on August 15 north of release points, and
Miles Aug. 20
No collections were made south of the points of liberation, as this area
was raw, unfarmed land mostly devoid of host grasses. In the area where
the first liberations were made it is now difficult to find Rhodesgrass scales.
Recently the authors have attempted to meet the requests of ranchers
in southern Florida for the wasps to control infestations of the scale. These
releases have been followed up to determine if the parasites became es-
On October 18, 1956, four paper cartons (each 11/2 cubic feet) were filled
with scale-infested Paragrass. This grass, collected near Clewiston, was)
infested with scale heavily parasitized by Anagyrus antoninae. Two of
the cartons were taken to the Veryl Ranch, 10 miles south of South Bay and
30 miles from any points where liberations had been made previously, and
two to a ranch 20 miles west of Stuart. The parasite-bearing grass was
scattered among heavily infested pastures. On December 11, 1956, two
boxes of scale-infested grass were collected for parasite recovery at the
Veryl Ranch. On December 12 a single Anagyrus emerged and by Decem-
ber 31, eighty-nine of these parasites had emerged. On February 7, 1957,
Vol. 40, No. 4
Questel and Genung: Anagyrus Antoninae
collections were made on the ranch west of Stuart where releases had been
made in October in the Paragrass pasture. Numerous parasites emerged
from this material.
On March 1, 1957, the junior author made releases of Anagyrus on scale-
infested Paragrass near Lake Worth. From a collection near the release
point made on June 6 a single parasite emerged after a few hours and
subsequently many wasps emerged.
On June 25, 1957, a small amount of infested grass was collected at
Pahokee for the purpose of recovering some other recently released para-
sites that attack the Rhodesgrass scale. None of these parasites were re-
covered, but more than 100 Anagyrus antoninae were recovered. These
grass samples were collected 20 miles from where Anagyrus antoninae had
These observations show that the parasite has spread over an area sev-
eral miles east, north, and west of the points of liberation. In addition,
introductions on ranches in widely separated areas have resulted in suc-
cessful establishment of the wasps. At the place of initial liberation it
is now difficult to find Rhodesgrass scale. No release has failed to result
in establishment of the parasites. The continued dissemination of Anagyrus
antoninae should help solve the Rhodesgrass scale problem in southern
Chada, Harvey L., and Paul T. Riherd. 1950. Distribution and host plants
of the Rhodes-grass scale in the United States in 1950. U.S.D.A., E.P.Q.
Insect Pest Survey, Special Suppl. No. 5, pp. 1-5.
Kelsheimer, E. G., and S. H. Kerr. 1957. Insects and other pests of lawns
and turf. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. S-96.
Merrill, G. B. 1953. A revision of scale insects of Florida. Fla. State
Plant Board Bul. 1.
FERTILIZERS AND INSECTICIDES THAT ARE SUPERIOR
Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company has been work-
ing hand in hand with Florida agriculture for 62 years.
Its pesticide division Florida Agricultural Supply
Company, has been helping Florida farmers and growers
lick their pest problems for 33 years.
They are developers and manufacturers of such famous
products as FLY FLAKES, simplest fly-killer in history,
and of GRO-TONE, a super plant food for lawns and
shrubs, plus hundreds of other agricultural items.
Experience and quality production are vitally im-
portant factors in the fertilizer and pesticide industries.
You can depend on Wilson & Toomer and its division
WILSON & TOOMER FLORioD
FERTILIZER COMPANY AGRICULTURAL
Plants in Jacksonville,Tampa, Cottondale, Port Everglades SUPPLY CO.
GENERAL OFFICES JACKSONVILLE., FLORIDA
I D E A L
CLARIFICATION OF THE SPECIES IN THE GENUS
DENDROTETTIX (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE,
JAMES J. FRIAUF
For half a century, the exact status of the species in the Orthopteran
genus Dendrotettix, other than the genotype, has been very confused. Cau-
dell (1915) has reviewed the history of this generic name, while Rehn and
Rehn (1936) have very clearly stated the nomenclatorial history of the
species in the genus. Although those interested are referred to these pub-
lications for details, a brief resume of this past record is given here for a
clearer understanding of the discussions which follow.
In 1861, Saussure, in France, described Pezotettix zimmermanni from a
single female specimen sent to him by a Dr. Christian Zimmermann who
spent considerable time in both North and South Carolina. One cannot at
all be sure from where this specimen came, since Saussure's locality de-
scription merely designates "Carolina". The label accompanying the type,
however, reads "Carol. S.". From what is now known of the habits and
distribution of this species, and if it was collected by Zimmermann, it cer:
tainly came from the mountainous regions of northwestern South Carolina.
The possibility also exists, of course, that Zimmermann received the speci-
men from some collector and, in turn, sent it to Saussure. This holotypic
female has been dried from alcohol with the result that it is discolored, the
tegmina are curled and the abdomen shriveled. It now resides in the
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Geneva, Switzerland, labelled as "Melanop-
lus zimmermanni, Carol. S., Type/Saussure." 2
A. P. Morse, during the time he was collecting Orthoptera in the south-
eastern region of the United States some fifty years ago, secured a single
female melanoploid from the summit of Cheaha Mountain, Alabama, which
he described (1906) as Podisma scudderi. He changed this name (1907) to
Podisma australis because of the earlier use of Podisma scudderi (Walker,
1870) for the species now known as Melanoplus scudderi.
Between the periods of these two descriptions, Packard (1890) described
a new genus Dendrotettix with D. quercus as the genotype. The subse-
quent examinations by various investigators of the types of both Saussure's.
Pezotettix zimmermanni and Morse's Podisma australis indicated their in-
clusion in Dendrotettix rather than their original placement.
Blatchley (1920), who correctly placed Morse's species in the genus
Dendrotettix, erroneously described as a male of that species a specimen
taken near White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. This has been shown
by Rehn and Rehn (1936) to be a specimen of Appalachia hebardi. How-
ever, as will be shown on the following pages, these authors, in the same
publication, made an error in concluding that Morse's species was a synonym
1Field work for this paper aided in part by a Margaret Cannon Howell
grant from the Highlands Biological Station, Highlands, North Carolina.
2According to Ch. Ferriere, Conservateur pour l'entomologie, Geneva
Museum, in litt.
The Florida Entomologist
Hebard (1936) described Dendrotettix hesperus as a new species from
the western ridges of the Cascade Mountains in central Oregon. Here
again, the species was founded upon a single female. Rehn and Rehn (1939)
reassigned this species to the genus Podisma.
T. H. Hubbell (1938, footnote 2) revealed the presence of two males of
what he called Dendrotettix zimmermanni in the collections of the Uni-
versity of Michigan Museum of Zoology which he had collected at Allardt,
Fentress County, Tennessee. These first recorded males of a Dendrotettix
(now known to be D. australis), other than those of D. quercus, were thought
by Rehn and Rehn (1939) to represent a distinct form not belonging to the
In 1939, then, the genus Dendrotettix contained the well-founded species
Dendrotettix quercus along with Dendrotettix zimmermanni which was
known from the record of the unique female type, a female from Pinnacle
Mountain, South Carolina collected by Franklin Sherman and recorded by
Rehn and Rehn (1936), and the supposed males of this species recorded by
Hubbell (1938). Dendrotettix australis, known only from the record of the
unique female type, was placed in synonomy with zimmermanni. Thus
has the matter remained until this date.
Since 1939, numerous trips have been made at various times to Cheaha
Mountain, Alabama by T. H. Hubbell, I. J. Cantrall, H. K. Wallace and the
author for the purpose of collecting Dendrotettix. Although a few females
were obtained on these excursions, it was not until M. J. D. White, formerly
of the University of Texas, while attempting to collect specimens of Den-
drotettix on Cheaha Mountain for cytological studies, made the discovery in
1952 that they live almost exclusively upon Pinus virginiana. Since then,
the search for these orthopterans has been more lucrative, and a series of
males and females has been obtained. It should be stated, however, that
their cryptic coloration makes them extremely difficult to find, and the rel-
atively small series now in my collection has been gained only by the ex-
amination of a very large number of pines. Besides the Cheaha specimens,
a single male of Dendrotettix, identical with those from Cheaha, was col-
lected from undergrowth near the Wilson Lick Ranger Station on Wayah
Mountain, Macon County, North Carolina.
During the late summer of 1948, while collecting on the tops of the
mountains around Highlands, North Carolina, I secured two males which
were recognized immediately to belong to the genus Dendrotettix. Close
examination showed them to be very different from the males taken at
Cheaha Mountain, Alabama and the male from Wayah Mountain, North
Carolina. More recently, we have discovered that this Dendrotettix lives
on the oak, Quercus rubra, variety borealis on the higher mountains of the
southern Appalachians, and a small series of both males and females of
this species has been collected.
A comparative examination was completed during 1954 of all the avail-
able specimens of Dendrotettix. In addition to specimens in my own col-
lection, these included those in the collection of the University of Michigan
Museum of Zoology, those at the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, Morse's
type of Podisma (= Dendrotettix) australis in the Museum of Comparative
Zoology, Harvard University, and the female taken by Franklin Sherman
on Pinnacle Mountain, South Carolina and now in the collections of the
Vol. 40, No. 4
Friauf: Species in the Genus Dendrotettix
United States National Museum. This examination clearly revealed the fact
that there were at least two valid species in the genus in addition to the
genotype, Dendrotettix quercus. Two alternatives suggested themselves.
Either Morse's australis was a valid species and not a synonym of zimmer-
manni, or a new species of Dendrotettix was at hand. The possibility that
Saussure's type differed from the two species in the collections seemed less
likely. To check the first alternative, female specimens from Cheaha
Mountain, Alabama, and Highlands, North Carolina were sent to Dr. Ch.
Ferriere at the Geneva Museum along with a description of characters which
had been found to separate the two. Dr. Ferriere has been very gracious
in carefully comparing these specimens with Saussure's type of simmer-
manni. A letter from him states (parenthetical statements my own), "The
specimen (Saussure's type) is light brown, with the abdomen somewhat
shrivelled, owing probably to its conservation in alcohol when being sent to
Saussure. Otherwise it agrees well with your specimen from North Caro-
lina. The ventral ovipositor is a little broader than in your specimen and
more curved below, but is without a sharp angle. I am of the opinion that
Saussure's type and the specimen you have called Dendrotettix zimmermanni
(the specimen from Highlands, North Carolia) are the same species, which
differ distinctly, by the characters you indicated, from the specimen of
Dendrotettix australis (the specimen from Cheaha Mountain, Alabama)".
Upon the basis of Ferriere's observations, along with certain sketches of
Saussure's type which he sent to me and which appear to substantiate his
statements, it seems certain that the Dendrotettix from the Highlands re-
gion, and certain other specimens indicated later, is Dendrotettix zimmer-
manni. Further, it is now perfectly clear that australis differs considerably
from D. zimmermanni and is truly a valid species. The possession of males
of both species and their very definite distinctions establishes this fact be-
yond any doubt. Critical examination of the females also has revealed good
characters separating these species.
KEYS TO THE SPECIES OF DENDROTETTIX
1. Tegmina abbreviate or fully developed; when abbreviate, with
very distinct humeral and discoidal veins which curve dorsally at
the distal extremity (fig. 2). Head and pronotum more inflated,
with greatest width of head across genae 3.8-4.5 mm; interocular
distance averaging greater (0.95 mm); pronotum with distinct
lateral angles on metazona between disk and lateral lobes (fig. 9).
Furculae relatively short, trigonal, pointed to narrowly rounded
at the tip (fig. 1). Cerci bulbous at the base but flattened in a
horizontal plane distally (fig. 1). Concealed genitalia distinctive,
as shown in fig. 3 --------......- ............ ........... -quercus Packard
Tegmina abbreviate only; humeral and discoidal veins not so dis-
tinct, nearly straight, and not curved dorsally near the apex (fig.
7). Head and pronotum less inflated, greatest head width across
genae usually less than 3.8 mm; interocular distance averaging
less than 0.95 mm; pronotum with disk rounding into lateral lobes
with less distinct angles on the metazona (figs. 12 and 15). Fur-
culae longer, broader, trigonal or more broadly rounded at tip
(figs. 4 and 6). Cerci resembling those of quercus for the greater
part of their length, but compressed at the tip in a vertical plane
beyond the horizontal flattening (figs. 4 and 6). Concealed geni-
talia as shown in figs. 5 and 8 ... -----...................--................ 2
The Florida. Entomologist
2. Averaging larger in all characters (Table 1); total body length
greater than 20 mm; pronotum more than 4 mm long. General col-
oration darker; hind femora with cherry red on inner and outer
faces. Supra-anal plate nearly or quite as broad as long, the lateral
margins generally evenly arcuate; furculae longer, trigonal, and
very broad at the base (fig. 6). Concealed genitalia as shown
in fig. 8 ....-- ..--- ... ....------.... ... ...... ................. australisis (Morse)
Averaging smaller in all characters (Table 1); total body length
less than 20 mm; pronotum less than 4 mm long. General colora-
tion lighter; hind femora without cherry red on inner and outer
faces. Supra-anal plate longer than broad, the lateral margins
more sinuate; furculae shorter, trigonal to rounded at the tips
and very much narrower at the base than in australis (fig. 4).
Concealed genitalia as in fig. 5 ..............-- .......immermanni (Saussure)
1. Tegmina abbreviate or fully developed; when abbreviate, with very
distinct humeral and discoidal veins which curve dorsally at the
distal extremity (fig. 2). Head and pronotum more inflated, with
greatest head width across genae nearly or greater than 5 mm;
interocular distance averaging 1.4 mm; pronotum with distinct
lateral angles on metazona between disk and lateral lobes; meta-
zonal disk more coarsely cribrose-punctate (fig. 9). Dorsal ovi-
positor valves shorter and wider, not at all compressed, and ulti-
mate sternite rectangulate to obtuse angulate caudally (fig.
11) ......................- .... ....---...------------ --- ..-.....-----.............quercus Packard
Tegmina abbreviate only; humeral and discoidal veins not so
distinct, nearly straight, and not curved dorsally near the apex
(fig. 7). Head and pronotum narrower, less inflated, with greatest
head width across genae less than 4.5 mm; interocular distance
averaging less than 1.4 mm; pronotum with disk rounding into
lateral lobes without distinct angles on the metazona; metazonal
disk finely impressed cribroso-punctulate (fig. 15). Dorsal ovi-
positor valves longer and narrower, subcompressed, and ultimate
sternite acute angulate to rectangulate or else truncate to broadly
rounded caudally (figs. 14 and 17) ...-.......---........- ...-- .-------------... 2
2. Larger and more robust (Table 1). General coloration darker; hind
femora with cherry red on inner and outer faces. Pronotum with
prozona more inflated dorsally; only the principal transverse sul-
cus impressed across the mid-dorsal line, the other two sulci
usually represented only by shallow impressions laterally on the
disk of the prozona and not crossing the mid-dorsal line (fig. 15).
Ventral ovipositor valves shorter, heavier, and with a sharp angle
ventrally, when seen in lateral view, where the tip of the oviposi-
tor joins the shaft as shown at point b in fig. 16. Ultimate sternite
caudally truncate to broadly rounded (fig. 17) .....--. australis (Morse)
Somewhat smaller and more slender (Table 1). General color-
ation lighter; hind femora without cherry red on inner and outer
faces. Pronotum with prozona less inflated dorsally; all three
transverse sulci deeply impressed across the mid-dorsal line (fig.
12). Ventral ovipositor valves more attenuate, rounding ventrally,
when seen in lateral view, where the tip joins the shaft as shown
at point a in fig. 13. Ultimate sternite acute angled to rectangu-
late caudally (fig. 14) ..................................... zimmermanni (Saussure)
Dendrotettix quercus Packard
This species has been adequately described by Scudder (1897) and Blatch-
ley (1920), and other important remarks concerning diagnosis, nomencla-
torial history, distribution, bionomics, and micropterism are to be found
Vol. 40, No. 4
THE RANGE AND AVERAGE COMPARATIVE MEASUREMENTS, IN MILLIMETERS, FOR ALL MALE AND FEMALE Dendrotettix EXAMINED.
Greatest width head.................--------------------........... 3.82- 4.54
Interocular distance--................. ..-----......... 0.86- 1.01
Length of eye---- -----------.................... ---............-- 1.90- 2.16
Width of eye........---------------........--.................. 1.62- 1,87
Length of pronotum.................-----------.--.--- 4.39- 5.40
Length prozona--- ------..................--------- 2.52- 3.02
Length metazona- ....-- ...-....----------------. 1.73- 2.38
Length front femur -.......-..........------------ --.. 3.82- 4.82
Length middle femur.................-------------------. 3.82- 4.83
Length hind femur...... ........------.. ------------.... 10.66 13.46
Width hind femur................----------...-----.......... 1.98- 2.88
Length supra-anal plate-------------................... --...............---. 1.80- 1.94
Width supra-anal plate......-.... ---------------............ 1.51- 1.87
Greatest width head --.................--.................. 4.97- 5.37
Interocular distance----------------................ ........... 1.30- 1.58
Length of eye-----------------..................------ 2.09- 2.30
Width of eye.. .....................-------........ 1.73- 1.94
Length of pronotum ---------------.............--... ---- 5.54- 7.13
Length prozona..-..................----------....... 3.02- 3.96
Length metazona......................------ ...----- ... 2.52 3.31
Length front femur_.....----.......-..... ..- ........ ...... 4.07- 5.26
Length middle femur...............-.......-.....- ...-----.. 4.21- 5.40
Length hind femur........-----......-..- ----------------. 12.71 16.13
Width hind femur -------................. --- .---..---. 2.52- 3.35
132 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 4
in the publications of Rehn and Rehn (1936, 1938, 1939) and J. A. G. Rehn
Individuals of the macropterous phase of D. quercus are, of course, easily
separated from individuals of D. australis and D. zimmermanni which
always have the wings and tegmina abbreviate. Brachypterous forms of
D. quercus are almost as easily distinguished by the other characters given
in the keys. These include the much more inflated head and pronotum, the
distinct lateral angles on the metazonal shoulders and the course puncta-
tions of the metazonal disk, the distinct humeral and discoidal veins which
curve dorsally at the distal end of the tegmina, the relatively short furculae,
and the male cerci which are flattened in a horizontal plane distally and
/ ~.j ,'I r,' 4
--_.. -rrr' r;- ,;
~~"" -'*- r- r-
"'" 4~ --r... r~. (
(-. ~.~. . .~ 1 -F- ~i-
Friauf: Species in the Genus Dendrotettix
never compressed in a vertical plane beyond the horizontal flattening as in
D. australis and D. zimmermanni. The concealed male genitalia of D.
quercus also are very distinct from those of the other two species.
DISTRIBUTION: Rehn and Rehn (1936) indicate the distribution of this
species to be "From east-central Texas (Travis and Washington Counties)
eastward across southeastern Kansas, Missouri, southern Iowa to as far
as northeastern Illinois (Crete). Also occurring, possibly as an accidental
introduction in southern and south-central New Jersey and central Long
Island, New York". Specimens from the following additional localities have
been examined and, to my knowledge, have not been recorded previously.
MICHIGAN: 7 miles north Detroit, Wayne County, near shore of Lake
St. Clair, Aug. 7, 1938, 1 male, 1 female (both brachypterous), G. W. Raw-
son (Univ. Mich., Mus. Zool.). CANADA: Turkey Point, Ontario, Aug. 25,
1940, 1 female, F. A. Urquhart (Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). TENNESSEE:
Allardt, Fentress County, Aug. 7, 1924, 1 female; Aug. 11, 1924, 2 males;
Sept. 6, 1924, 2 females; T. H. Hubbell (Univ. Mich., Mus. Zool.).
The Michigan and southern Ontario records and the southeastern exten-
sion of the known range into Tennessee would seem to corroborate the
opinion of Rehn and Rehn (1936, footnote 33, page 21) that the New Jersey
and New York colonies of this species are not due to accidental introduction.
It is probable that in the eastern United States D. quercus will eventually be
found in suitable areas in Indiana and Ohio, the Allegheny regions of Penn-
sylvania and West Virginia, and southwestward throughout the Cumberland
Plateau regions of Kentucky, Tennessee, and northeastern Alabama.
Dendrotettix australis (Morse)
DESCRIPTION OF PLESIALLOTYPE MALE: Alabama, Cleburne Co., Mt.
Cheaha, July 10-11, 1953 (J. J. Friauf).
Head with width across eyes, in front view, greater than across genae;
appreciably swollen laterally and dorsally beyond anterior margins of prono-
Fig. 1. Dendrotettix quercus. Male. Mt. Misery, Burlington Co., New
Jersey. Dorsal view of supra-anal plate, furculae, and cerci. (Greatly en-
Fig. 2. Dendrotettix quercus. Male. Mt. Misery, Burlington Co., New
Jersey. Left tegmen. (Greatly enlarged).
Fig. 3. Dendrotettix quercus. Male. Mt. Misery, Burlington Co., New
Jersey. Caudal view of penis. (Greatly enlarged).
Fig. 4. Dendrotettix zimmermanni. Plesiallotype male. Satulah Moun-
tain south of Highlands, Macon Co., North Carolina. Dorsal view of supra-
anal plate, furculae, and cerci. (Same scale as fig. 1).
Fig. 5. Dendrotettix zimmermanni. Plesiallotype male. Satulah Moun-
tain south of Highlands, Macon Co., North Carolina. Caudal view of penis.
(Same scale as fig. 3).
Fig. 6. Dendrotettix australis. Plesiallotype male. Mt; Cheaha, Cle-
burne Co., Alabama. Dorsal view of supra-anal plate, furculae, and cerci.
(Same scale as figs. 1 and 4).
Fig. 7. Dendrotettix zimmermanni. Male. Yellow Mountain north of
Highlands, Macon Co., North Carolina. Left tegmen. (Same scale as
Fig. 8. Dendrotettix australis. Plesiallotype male. Mt. Cheaha, Cle-
burne Co., Alabama. Caudal view of penis. (Same scale as figs. 3 and 5).
134 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 4
tur; fastigium declivent, extending in front of the eyes for a distance
approximately two-thirds the least interocular distance; disk of fastigium
wholly but shallowly concave, with margins raised to a greater extent im-
mediately in front of eyes; juncture with frontal costa transversely truncate
and in width approximately one-half that of the interocular distance; frontal
costa widest between the antennal bases, slightly convergent above and
below this region and subparallel below the median ocellus; moderately sul-
cate for the entire length, the sulcation being greatest above the median
Friauf: Specise in the Genus Dendrotettix
ocellus. Eyes prominent, broadly ovate and slightly flattened dorsally,
posterior border much more convex than anterior border. Antenae 12
millimeters in length, composed of 25 segments.
Pronotum, in lateral aspect, feebly and broadly convex on prozona, some-
what more convex on metazona (nearly straight to slightly convex through-
out entire length of pronotum in other specimens examined); cephalic mar-
gin flaring slightly to receive the swollen head; dorsum of prozona evenly
arched and rounding laterad into the vertical lateral lobes; metazona weakly
tectate with lateral shoulders clearly evident but not prominent; cephalic
margin of pronotal disk, in dorsal aspect, broadly arcuate with only a trace
of a median emargination; caudal margin of disk somewhat more arcuate
than cephalic margin and with no median emargination (showing a shallow
and broader emargination in some specimens); median carina more prominent
on metazona than on prozona; prozona 2.88 mm and metazona 1.94 mm in
length; transverse sulci of prozona shallower than principal sulcus, the
posterior prozonal sulcus incomplete on lateral portions of disk (this latter
sulcus complete but less distinct than anterior prozonal sulcus in some
specimens); depth of pronotum from carina to ventralmost margin, in
lateral aspect, 3.46 mm; cephalic margin of lateral lobes weakly sinuate,
ventro-cephalic angle obtusely rounding into the broadly concave cephalic
emargination of the ventral margin, median portion of ventral margin
evenly rounded obtuse, and caudal portion of ventral margin weakly sinu-
ate; caudal margin of lateral lobes straight, ascending obliquely, passing
evenly into caudal margin of disk.
Tegmina elongate-ovate, "with dorsal (posterior) border much less convex
than ventral (anterior) border; tegminal length 4.18 mm, surpassing the
Fig. 9. Dendrotettix quercus. Female. Allardt, Fentress Co., Tennes-
see. Dorsal view of head and pronotum. (Greatly enlarged).
Fig. 10. Dendrotettix quercus. Female. Allardt, Fentress Co., Tennes-
see. Lateral view of apex of abdomen, showing dorsal and ventral oviposi-
tor valves. (Greatly enlarged).
Fig. 11. Dendrotettix quercus. Female. Allardt, Fentress Co., Tennes-
see. Ventral view of ultimate sternite and ventral ovipositor valves. (Not
to same scale as Fig. 10).
Fig. 12. Dendrotettix zinmmermanni. Female. Yellow Mountain north
of Highlands, Macon Co., North Carolina. Dorsal view of head and prono-
tum. (Same scale as fig. 9).
Fig. 13. Dendrotettix zimonermanni. Female. Yellow Mountain north
of Highlands, Macon Co., North Carolina. Lateral view of apex of abdo-
men, showing dorsal and ventral ovipositor valves. (Same scale as fig. 10).
Fig. 14. Dendrotettix zimmermanni. Female. Yellow Mountain north
of Highlands, Macon Co., North Carolina. Ventral view of ultimate sternite
and ventral ovipositor valves. (Same scale as fig. 11).
Fig. 15. Dendrotettix australis. Female. Mt. Cheaha, Cleburne Co.,
Alabama. Dorsal view of head and pronotum. (Same scale as figs. 9 and
Fig. 16. Dendrotettix australis. Female. Mt. Cheaha, Cleburne Co.,
Alabama. Lateral view of apex of abdomen, showing dorsal and ventral
ovipositor valves. (Same scale as figs. 10 and 13).
Fig. 17. Dendrotettix australis. Female. Mt. Cheaha, Cleburne Co.,
Alabama. Ventral view of ultimate sternite and ventral ovipositor valves.
(Same scale as figs. 11 and 14).
The Florida Entomologist
caudal margin of the first abdominal tergite by approximately one-third
the length of that segment; width of tegmina 2.09 mm; humeral trunk veins
not forming a distinct parallel grouping as in Dendrotettix quercus (com-
pare figs. 2 and 7); tegmina separated dorsally by a distance of 1.58 mm.
Cephalic and middle femora equally stout; cephalic femora 4.07 mm,
middle femora 4.32 mm, and caudal femora 11.08 mm in length; caudal
tibiae with 9-10 external, 11 internal spines.
Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) approximately as broad as long
(length 1.83 mm, width at base 1.73 mm), the lateral margins evenly arcuate
to near the tip; furculae trigonal and very broad at their bases; cerci re-
sembling those of D. quercus for the basal three-fourths of their length but
with the distal end compressed in a vertical plane beyond the horizontal
flattening (fig. 6).
Concealed genital structures distinctive in caudal aspect as indicated
in fig. 8.
COLORATION OF MVALE: Front of head, sides of head below postocular
stripe, lower margin of pronotum and ventral side of abdominal tergites
pale buff to olive gray, mottled variously with a deeper olive. Area be-
tween eyes and disk of vertex fuscous, margins of vertex a darker brown;
occipital region with a median triangular area of similar dark brown bor-
dered laterally by paler stripes; eyes cinnamon brown, irregularly mottled
with darker brown; basal 4-5 segments of antennae of same general color
as frons, distally becoming increasingly more reddish brown; postocular
bar dark mummy brown, its dorsal edge running antero-dorsally above the
postero-mesial border of the eye.
Pronotum with disk of prozona buff to olive gray; metazonal disk much
darker because the base color of the prozona is suffused with brown; median
carina dark brown and of about the same color as dark stripe on lateral
lobes; continuation of postocular stripe on upper margin of lateral lobes
chocolate brown dorsally and darker along ventral half of stripe; area of
lateral lobes below postocular band ivory to buff.
Tegmina of approximately the same color as metazonal disk, veins
lighter in color than cells.
Dorsal median stripe of abdomen olive to olive gray mottled with brown-
ish spots; lateral dark stripes extend caudad to base of seventh tergite, then
are not so clearly evident on the seventh and eighth tergites, and again
present on the ninth; color of lateral stripes blackish brown, interrupted
along the distal margin of each abdominal segment by a dorsal extension
of the buff color of the ventral portions of the tergites. Supra-anal plate
pale medially, with wide marginal bands of blackish brown from the base
almost to the tip; furculae of same color as marginal bands; cerci olive
gray, darkening to brown or black at their apices. Venter of thorax and
abdomen light greenish yellow, and last three abdominal segments ventrally
with a pinkish suffusion.
Cephalic and middle legs bright yellow green in life; inner and outer
faces of caudal femora, except at base and distally, cherry red; dorsal sur-
face and lateral face of hind femora crossed by four brownish bands, one
proximal, one premedian, one postmedian, and one distal; ventral sulcus
of hind femora greenish yellow with reddish suffusion. Caudal tibiae glau-
cous, tibial spines black-tipped.
Vol. 40, No. 4
Friauf: Species in the Genus Dendrotettix
FEMALE: Although Morse's original description of the female type of
this species is fairly adequate, it is supplemented below by additional ob-
servations based upon topotypic material collected on Cheaha Mountain,
Cleburne Co., Alabama.
Similar to the male except as indicated in the following remarks. Size
larger and more robust. Head with genae and dorsum more tumid; fastig-
ium somewhat more declivent; frontal costa (three-fourths of specimens
examined) with much less sulcation near dorsal end where frontal costa
joins fastigium. Eyes less prominent and averaging proportionately longer
in comparison with the width than in the male. Antennae 11.5 mm long
on the average and composed of 25 segments.
Pronotum more tumid on prozona and more flaring laterally on the
metazona than in the male; caudal margin less arcuate. Transverse sulci
of prozona represented only by shallow impressions laterally on the disk
and not crossing the median carina (although there is considerable vari-
ation in the extent and depth of the prozonal sulcations, in no specimen
examined are they as prominent as these sulcations in females of D. zim-
mermanni); disk of metazona rounding into lateral lobes with little or no
indication of lateral shoulders.
Cephalic femora somewhat stouter than middle femora.
Abdominal segments tectate and median dorsal carina much more con-
spicuous than in the male, especially on the posterior segments.
COLORATION OF FEMALE: Dorsum darker and more mottled olivaceous
gray and brown, without the contrasting lighter markings of the male.
Front of head darker grayish green mottled with brown; occipital region
usually without as distinct a median triangular area bordered laterally by
Pronotum with entire disk dark brown, with only faint indications lat-
erally of the olive gray color so conspicuous on the prozonal disk of the
Tegmina and legs as in the male.
Abdomen lacking the contrasted lighter median stripe and lateral dark
stripes of the male; dorsum darker, with brown mottling of the olive gray
base. Venter of thorax and abdomen generally buffy brown.
DISTRIBUTION: All of the known specimens of Dendrotettix australis
have been examined from the following localities: NORTH CAROLINA:
Macon Co., Wayah Mountain west of Franklin, Nantahala National Forest,
Aug. 16, 1947 (J. J. Friauf), 1 male. TENNESSEE: Allardt, Fentress
Co., Aug. 18-Sept. 6, 1924 (T. H. Hubbell), 1 male, 2 females. This male,
along with another which was not seen, was recorded by Hubbell (1938,
footnote 2) as Dendrotettix zimmermanni. ALABAMA: all Alabama speci-
mens are from Mt. Cheaha, Cleburne Co., as follows: July 5, 1939, (J. J.
Friauf), 1 female; Sept. 9, 1946 (T. H. Hubbell, I. J. Cantrall, H. K. Wal-
lace), 1 male, 3 females; Aug. 19, 1951 (I. J. Cantrall), 1 female (all of the
above Alabama specimens in the Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool.); June 30-July 1,
1952 (M. J. D. White and J. C. White), 2 males, 2 females (Acad. Nat. Sci.
Phila.); July 10-11, 1953 (J. J. Friauf), 6 males, 10 females; July 15, 1955
(J. J. Friauf), 4 males, 5 females.
As stated previously, this species is found almost exclusively upon
Pinus virginiana, although scattered individuals may be found on lower
The Florida Entomologist
shrubbery. When more thorough collecting has been done, this species will
probably be found to occur on this pine throughout the Cumberland Plateau
region of Kentucky, Tennessee, and northeastern Alabama and eastward
in the southern Appalachians at lower elevations wherever large stands of
Pinus virginiana occur. The male obtained on Wayah Mountain, North
Carolina was found beneath such pines at approximately 3,000 feet eleva-
tion around the Wilson Lick Ranger Station.
Dendrotettix zimmermanni (Saussure)
Both sexes of this species are readily distinguished from those of the
closely allied D. australis by their over-all lighter coloration and by the
coloration of the caudal femora, which ventrally and internally are yellow-
ish green and lack the cherry red coloration found in australis. This species
also is distinguished by its smaller and much less robust size, especially in
the males. As indicated in the keys to the species, males are separated from
those of australis by the shape of the supra-anal plate and furculae and the
form of the concealed genitalia; females are separated by the sulcation of
the pronotum, the shape of the ventral ovipositor valves, and the caudal
shape of the ultimate sternite.
DESCRIPTION OF PLESIALLOTYPE MALE: North Carolina, Macon Co., Sa-
tulah Mountain south of Highlands, Aug. 30, 1948 (J. J. Friauf).
Averaging smaller in all measurements than D. australis (Table 1).
Head and pronotum as in australis, except for the following differences:
frontal costa widest slightly above antennal bases and more sharply con-
vergent into the fastigium; sulcation of frontal costa greater about and
below than above the median ocellus; eyes more globose; prozona less tumid,
.median carina nearly as prominent on prozona as on metazona; transverse
sulci of prozona as deep as the principal sulcus, the posterior prozonal sul-
cus complete and as distinct as the anterior prozonal sulcus; ventro-caudal
angle of lateral pronotal lobes sharper and not evenly rounding into caudal
margin of lobes.
Tegmina variable, but more regularly ovate than in australis, with the
dorsal (posterior) border as convex as the ventral (anterior) border.
Femora smaller, but of the same relative proportions as in australis;
cephalic femora 3.60 mm, middle femora 3.82 mm, and caudal femora 9.58
mm in length; caudal tibiae with 8-9 external, 11 internal spines (8-10
external and 10-11 internal spines in series of males examined).
Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) somewhat longer than broad, the
lateral margins sinuate and not evenly rounded as in australis, and the
furculae shorter and very much narrower at the base; cerci similar to those
Concealed genitalia distinctive in caudal aspect as indicated in fig. 5.
COLORATION OF MALE: Except for the differences in coloration already
noted, the general color pattern of D. zimmermanni agrees very well with
that of D. australis.
FEMALES: Rehn and Rehn (1936) have given a detailed and accurate
description of the morphological characters and coloration of the female of
this species based on the specimen collected by Franklin Sherman on Pin-
nacle Mt., South Carolina.
Vol. 40, No. 4
Friauf: Species in the Genus Dendrotettix
DISTRIBUTION: All of the known specimens of this species in United
States collections are as follows: NORTH CAROLINA: Haywood Co.,
Crestmont, July 29, 1922 (T. H. Hubbell), 1 female (Univ. Mich., Mus. Zool.);
Macon Co., Satulah Mountain south of Highlands, Aug. 30, 1948 (J. J.
Friauf), 1 male; Macon Co., Yellow Mountain north of Highlands, Sept. 8,
1948 (J. J. Friauf), 1 male; Yellow Mountain, north of Highlands, Aug. 1-2,
1953 (J. J. Friauf), 4 males, 6 females. SOUTH CAROLINA: Pickens
County, Pinnacle Mountain, Aug. 3, 1926 (F. Sherman), 1 female (previously
recorded in Rehn and Rehn, 1936, and deposited in the U. S. National Mu-
seum). It is probable that this species can be found in the dwarfed oaks
near the tops of all the higher mountains in the southern Appalachians.
Blatchley, W..S. 1920. Orthoptera of northeastern America. Nature Pub.
Co., pp. 337-340.
Caudell, A. N. 1915. Dendrotettix quercus Packard. Psyche, 22 : 53-54.
Hebard, M. 1936. New genera and species of Melanopli found within the
United States and Canada, Part VIII. Trans. Amer. Entom. Soc.,
62 : 186-188.
Hubbell, T. H., and I. J. Cantrall. 1938. A new species of Appalackia from
Michigan. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., No. 389.
Morse, A. P. 1906. New Acridiidae from the southern states. Psyche, 13 :
Morse, A. P. 1907. Podisma australis, nom. nov. Psyche, 14 : 57.
Packard, A. S. 1890. Dendrotettix quercus. Fifth Report, U. S. Entomo-
logical Commission, p. 214.
Rehn, J. A. G. 1946. The post-oak locust (Dendrotettix quercus) at Mount
Misery, New Jersey in 1944. Entom. News, 57 : 147-148.
Rehn, J. A. G., and J. W. H. Rehn. 1936. On new or redefined genera of
nearctic Melanopli. Trans. Amer. Entom. Soc., 62 : 1-30.
Rehn, J. A. G., and J. W. H. Rehn. 1938. The post-oak locust (Dendrotettix
quercus) in the eastern United States, with notes on macropterism
in the species. Trans. Amer. Entom. Soc., 64 : 79-95.
Rehn, J. A. G., and J. W. H. Rehn. 1939. Studies on certain Cyrtacanthacri-
doid genera, Part I. The Podisma complex. Trans. Amer. Entom.
Soc., 65 : 61-96.
Saussure, H. de. 1861. Orthoptera nova Americana (diagnoses praelimin-
ares). Revue et Mag. de Zool., 2e series, 13 : 156-164.
Scudder, S. H. 1897. Revision of the Orthopteran group Melanopli, with
special reference to North American forms. Proc. U. S. Nat'l. Mus.,
20 : 92-94.
CONTROL THESE INSECTS
CHLORDANE: Ants, Armyworms, Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug, Brown Dog Tick,
Cabbage Maggot, Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice, Chiggers, Cockroaches, Crickets,
Cutworms, Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers,
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths, Lygus Bugs, Mole
Crickets, Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic
Mange, Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils, Sweet
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs,
Wireworms...and many others.
HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army-
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Rootworms, Cotton Boll Weevil,
Cotton Fleahopper, Cotton Thrips, Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil,
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles, Garden Web-
worm, Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Rapid
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle-
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag-
got, Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Tuber Flea Beetle, Western
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms
...and many others.
E N D R I N : Budworms, Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil, Cotton Bollworm, Cot-
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid
Plant Bug, Spiny Bollworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips.
WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS
General Offices and Laboratories Foreign Division V
330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago II, Illinois 350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y.
R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S I N P R IN C I P A L C I T I E S
WA JLI" L-L-IM,
I VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATIOrd I
THREE NEW TYPHLODROMUS FROM SOUTHERN
FLORIDA (ACARINA: PHYTOSEIIDAE)
DONALD DE LEON
Coral Gables, Florida
The phytoseiids appear to be mostly predaceous mites preying on plant-
feeding mites and on scale insects. In spite of the importance of many of
them as biological control agents, the species in Florida are poorly known.
Until the publication of Dr. Muma's paper (1955)1 on the phytoseiids found
on Florida citrus only five species had been recorded from the state from
all hosts. In his paper Dr. Muma lists eleven species, nine of which were
new records for the state-six of these new species.
All measurements are in microns, and are averages unless variation
from the average is more than ten percent, in that case the range is given.
Typhlodromus alveolaris, n. sp.
T. alveolaris belongs to the group of mites in this genus with eight
lateral setae on the dorsal shield and L6 about in line with D5; it differs
from the other two species (aberrans Oud. and irregularis Evans) with
these characters in having four pairs of preanals.
FEMALE: Body broadly oval; dorsal shield irregularly imbricate, the
anterolateral and lateral parts as far as M2 areolate, 290 long, 156 wide
at about S1. In the following measurements setal length is given above
the line, distance between setal bases below the line; for lateral setae this
is the distance to the setal base behind, for the others it is the transverse
distance between bases: L1 17, L2 16, L3 19, L4 20, L5 26, L6 28, L7 13,
21 26 25 30 35 100 4
L8 83; M1 13, M2 62; D1 15, D2 12, D3 11, D4 13, D5 12, D6 10; Sl 15; VL1
53 78 3 15 8 17 17 21
14; three pairs of pores as indicated in figure. Anterior end of peritreme
reaching to about midway between coxae II and III, peritremal plate ending
behind coxa IV in a blunt hook. Sternal plate indistinct, posterior margin
not determinable; genital plate 80 wide at caudal end; ventrianal plate 104
long, 78 wide with four pairs of preanals and a pair of large pores 14 apart.
Fixed digit with a small tooth near end and a larger one just proximal of
it, moveable digit with one tooth proximal of curve. Legs slender without
macrochaetae, but dorsal setae of patellae, tibiae and basitarsi rather stout
and patella I with a stout setae 19 long on anterior margin near base at
about right angle to margin; tarsus IV 112 long, not including pretarsus.
MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, October 20, 1955 (D. De Leon)
from Cassia sp.; taken from leaves infested with Brevipalpus phoenicis and
large numbers of an apparently undescribed species of Tarsonemus.
SMuma, M. H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in
Florida. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 48(4) : 262-272.
The Florida Entomologist
Typhlodromus alveolaris, n. sp.: Fig. 1, dorsal shield; Fig. 2, ventrianal
plate; Fig. 3, teeth of fixed digit.
Typhlodromus cornus, n. sp.: Fig. 4, dorsal shield; Fig. 5, ventrianal
plate; Fig. 6, teeth of fixed digit; Fig. 7, spermatophore.
Typhlodromus paspalivorus, n. sp.: Fig. 8, dorsal shield; Fig. 9, ventri-
anal plate; Fig. 10, spermatophore.
Typhlodromus comus, n. sp.
T. cornus belongs to the group of mites in this genus with eight lateral
setae on the dorsal shield of the female and L6 about in line with D4; it
differs from the other three species (confusus (Garman), pini Chant, and
citri Garman & McGregor) in this group by having among other characters
L8 and M2 more than three times as long as L7.
FEMALE: Body oval, light tan; dorsal shield 285 long, 155 wide, mildly
imbricate with 16 pairs of setae. In the following measurements the same
system is used to record setal length and distances between bases as in T.
alveolaris: L1 20-29, L2 14-20, L3 24, L4 22-28, L5 31, L6 34, L7 11-14,
10-14 13 20 25 30 134 15
L8 65; M1 16-20, M2 47; D1 20, D2 16, D3 15, D4 20, D5 20-26, D6 9;
55 91 2 19 17 19 20 16
Vol. 40, No. 4
De Leon: Three New Typhlodromus
S1 20, S2 31, VL1 39; seven pairs of pores as indicated in figure (some
specimens have fewer, and a pore may be present on one side and not the
other); in some specimens S2 sometimes on shield; of ten specimens, it is
on the shield on both sides, in one specimen, and on the shield on one side only
in four specimens. Anterior end of peritreme reaching to D1. Sternal
plate indistinct posteriorly, with apparently two pairs of setaej genital
plate 64 wide at caudal end; ventrianal plate 82 long, 65 wide with four
pairs of preanals and a pair of large pores 16 apart. Fixed digit with
teeth as shown in figure; moveable digit with a very small tooth at base
of curve. Legs relatively short; tarsus IV with a tapering macroseta on
basitarsus 23 long, length of tarsus excluding pretarsus 89.
MALE: Resembles female, but S2 always on shield; dorsal shield 217
long, 138 wide. Spermatophore of shape shown in figure, the foot 7 long,
the shaft 12 long.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, June 4, 1956 (D. De Leon)
from Callicarpa americana. Allotype: Coral Gables, September 15, 1956
from Coccolobis laurifolia; other paratypes: two females, same data as
for holotype; three females and one male, same data as for allotype; one
male and one female, Coral Gables, November 2, 1956, from Citrus mitis,
and one female from orange, Coral Gables, November 3, 1956. Additional
specimens have been collected from Sida sp. and from Eugenia sp., Delray
Beach; two specimens in bad condition collected from guava in 1954 prob-
ably belong here.
Typhlddromus paspalivorus, n. sp.
T. paspalivorus belongs to the group of mites in this genus with nine
pairs of lateral setae and M2 not paired with L7 or L8. It is distinguished
from other members of this group by having most of the setae of the dorsal
shield short (9-12 microns) and the scale-like markings of the dorsal shield
between D4 and D5 very much longer than wide.
FEMALE: Body whitish, dorsal shield nearly rectangular, 344 long, 146
wide at S1, 139 wide at L6, mildly but distinctly imbricate, scale-like mark-
ings (hereafter called scales) between D4 and D5 and extending from a
point about even with M1 to a point about in line with L7 very much longer
than wide (about 3.5 wide, 25-35 long), forward of these narrow scales and
lateral of them to margin of shield scales less regular in shape and not as
elongate, a few being nearly circular in outline; scales in area bounded
approximately by L7 and M2 faint and somewhat wider than long, behind
this area scales distinct, larger and mostly longer than wide; all dorsal
shield setae smooth, except L9. The same system is used here to record
setal lengths and distances between setae as that used for T. alveolaris:
L1 11, L2 11, L3 11, L4 12, L5 11, L6 14, L7 15, L8 19, L9 52; M1 9,
25 36 38-47 58 45 40 30 23 65
M2 17; D1 11, D2 9, D3 10, D4 11, D5 11, D6 9; S1 11, S2 10; VL1 25
77 14 30 14-19 35 32 28
(smooth); pores distributed as shown in figure. Anterior end of peritreme
extending almost to D1. Sternal plate with faint elongate scales and three
pairs of setae; metapodal plate tapering caudad 35 long, 4 wide; ventrianal
The Florida Entomologist
plate 111 long, 82 wide, about as wide at anterior end as posterior end of
genital plate which it almost touches, with three pairs of preanal setae and
with a pair of small nearly circular pores 33 apart. Fixed digit 21 long with
three to five teeth behind terminal hook and a lateral tooth between terminal
hook and first tooth; moveable digit 21 long with one tooth just proximal of
curve. Legs without macrochaetae.
MALE: Resembles female, but imbrications of dorsal shield less dis-
tinct; dorsal shield 260 long, 120 wide; spermatophore of shape shown in
figure; fixed digit with two teeth close behind terminal hook; moveable
digit with one tooth.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, May 29, 1956 (D. De Leon)
under leaf sheath of Paspalum sp. in association with colony of Steneotar-
sonemus paspali DeL. and S. furcatus DeL. on the former or on both of
which this species almost certainly feeds. Allotype: same data as for
holotype; other paratypes: five females, two collected October 10, 1955
and three May 29, 1956, other data same as for holotype.
Paratypes of the latter two species will be deposited in the University
of Florida Collections, Gainesville.
For CITRUS VEGETABLES LIVESTOCK
Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
California Spray-Chemical Corp.
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
_ 1 3 E
Vol. 40, No. 4
P. O. Box 7067
SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE PLASTER BAGWORM,
TINEOLA WALSINGHAMI BUSCK (LEPIDOPTERA:
L. A. HETRICK
College of Agriculture, University of Florida
Although there is some doubt about the validity of the specific name
for the plaster bagworm, the name given in the title has been in common
usage for more than twenty years. The very short description of the insect
by Busck (1933) is accompanied by a statement that the larvae are not
cloth feeders but eat remains of insects caught in spider webs. In the same
year Kea (1933) stated that larvae of Tineola uterella Walsingham [=wal-
singhami Busck(?)] refused insect remains but were in reality feeders on
woolens and furs like other familiar members of the family. Watson (1939,
1946) has repeated the observations of Busck so far as feeding on dead
insects is concerned but recognizes the species as an important household
pest. Mallis (1954) repeats Watson's statements about the larvae feeding
on insect remains in spider webs and adds that this is a precarious way for
an insect to make a living.
Within infested buildings the cases of the plaster bagworm are quite
noticeable on light-colored plastered walls. Grains of sand are commonly
attached to the exterior of the silken cases and it is only logical for the
layman to assume that the little creatures within the cases are feeding on
the plaster. If such infested buildings are carefully examined, additional
cases will be found under furniture and attached to woodwork where they
are much less obvious than on the walls.
Over a period of more than 20 years the writer has observed the plaster
bagworm in the Gulf Coast region. In addition to the infestations within
buildings, the insect occurs under buildings where the cases hang from sub-
flooring, joists, sills, and foundations. Cases may be found attached to the
exterior of buildings in shaded locations, under farm sheds, under lawn
furniture, attached to stored farm machinery, and even on tree trunks.
The question of the food of these larvae in these unusual -situations has
been of interest to the writer for many years. It was not until recently
that some detailed studies of the insect were made to determine its food
habits under out-of-doors conditions. Busck (1933) was on the right track
but did not carry his observations far enough. Although fragments of dead
insects are occasionally attached to the exterior of the cases (as are sand,
bits of paint, shreds of paper, etc.), the most common and abundant food
of the species is old spider webs which are consumed in large quantities.
Under caged conditions the larvae are also fond of webs of Corrodentia
and Embiidina from the trunks of trees. Larvae do not hesitate to chew
holes in old abandoned cases of their species and it is assumed that this
silk is utilized as food. Perhaps other types of webs also serve as food
under conditions in nature.
The structure of the case of the plaster bagworm is interesting. It has
been described as having the shape, size, and flatness of a cantaloupe seed.
Unlike the cases of most case-bearing Lepidoptera, the case of the plaster
bagworm is the same on both ends. Slit-like openings occur at each end
The Florida Entomologist
of the case and it is not possible to say that one end is anterior and the
other posterior. A larva within a case can quickly reverse its direction
and feeding is done from either end.
The plaster bagworm requires a high humidity which is probably the
most important limiting factor in its distribution in North America. The
author has observed the insect in many parts of Florida and Louisiana.
Files of the Plant Pest Control Division of U. S. D. A. Agricultural Re-
search Service contain additional records from Mississippi and North Caro-
lina. It is reasonable to assume that the plaster bagworm may also occur
in coastal areas of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina with possible
distribution extending into parts of Texas and Virginia.
A braconid wasp, Apanteles carpatus (Say) (det. Muesebeck), and an
Ichneumon wasp, Lymeon orbum (Say) (det. Luella M. Walkley), have been
reared from the plaster bagworm. The plaster bagworm is a new host
record for both of these parasites although the Braconid is a common para-
site of other species of clothes moths.
The plaster bagworm, Tineola walsinghami Busck, is found in many
unusual situations in nature. Infestations in buildings, like other species
of clothes moths, are injurious to articles made of wool and fur. Under
conditions out-of-doors, the food of the larvae consists mostly of spider
webs. Webs of Corrodentia and.Embiidina from tree trunks are acceptable
as food by the larvae. Larvae also chew holes in abandoned cases of their
species and it is assumed that this silk is utilized as food.
Busck, August. 1933. Microlepidoptera of Cuba. Ent. Amer. 13(4) :
Kea, J. W. 1933. Food habits of Tineola uterella Walsingham. Fla. Ent.
17 : 66.
Mallis, A. 1954. Handbook of Pest Control. MacNair-Dorland Co. New
York. pp. 419-421.
Watson, J. R. 1939. Control of four household pests. Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Press Bul. 536.
Watson, J. R. 1946. Control of three household pests. Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Press Bul. 619.
Vol. 40, No. 4
A NEW GENUS OF ISCHNOCERA (MALLOPHAGA)1
K. C. EMERSON 2 AND ROBERT E. ELBEL 3
While identifying a collection of Mallophaga from Thailand, it was
found that one of the forms could not be included in any of the described
genera. It is herewith described, illustrated, and made the type of a new
Galliphilopterus, n. gen.
Medium-sized Ischnocera. Head large with expanded temples. Wide
hyaline margin which originates at the distal end of marginal carinae.
Dorsal anterior plate of forehead with rounded posterior margin, and pro-
longed into a thickened posterior point. Ventral carina fused to distal end
of marginal carina on each side. Pulvinus wide and attached to edges of
ventral carinae. Ventral anterior plate and gular plate absent or indis-
tinct. Anterior dorsal setae, preantennal setae, and post nodal setae
elongated. Antennae similar in the two sexes. Tergal plates of abdominal
segments separated medianly. Median chaetotaxy of tergal plates with
thick flattened setae. Abdominal sternal plates indistinct. Terminal ab-
dominal segment of male with rounded posterior margin. Posterior margin
of female vulva with a row of small setae. Male genitalia simple, with
inward curved parameres.
TYPE SPECIES: Galliphilopterus brunneopectus n. sp.
Normally in Ischnocera,-the nearest affinities of a genus are other genera
parasitic on the same host order. At present, no related genera have been
found on the Galliformes. Elongated preantennal setae have heretofore
been found only on species of the genus Mulcticola. The members of this
genus are slender, and are known only from the host order Caprimulgi-
formes. In addition, shape of the dorsal anterior plate of the forehead,
chaetotaxy of the abdominal segments, and the male genitalia are distinc-
Galliphilopterus brunneopectus, n. sp.
MALE: General shape and size as indicated in figure 2. All setae of
forehead elongated. Temples with two long, one medium-length, and three
short marginal setae. Antennae filiform. Prothorax with one seta in each
posterior lateral angle. Posterior margin of pterothorax with ten long
setae. Tergites divided medianly. Elongated post spiracle setae. One
row of thick flattened setae on posterior margin of abdominal tergites
II-VII; number on each is: 1-10, III-16, IV-12, VI-6, and VII-6. All other
setae of normal shape. Chaetotaxy of abdominal sternites is: 11-4, III-8,
IV-8, V-8, VI-2, and VII-2. Genital region as shown in figure 2. Genitalia
as shown in figure 3.
FEMALE: General shape and size as indicated in figure 1. Chaetotaxy
of thick flattened setae on abdominal tergites is: II-10, III-20, IV-20, V-20,
'This investigation was supported by research grant E-1722 from the
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Insti-
tutes of Health, Public Health Service.
2 Stillwater, Oklahoma.
SDepartment of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
The Florida Entomologist
VI-14, VII-12, and VIII-6. Chaetotaxy of abdominal sternites is: II-4, III-8,
IV-10, V-10, VI-8, and VII-8. Genital region as shown in figure 1.
Type host: Arborophila brunneopectus brunneopectus (Blyth).
1 3 2
Galliphilopterus brunneopectus, n. sp.
Fig. 1. Dorsal-ventral view of female.
Fig. 2. Dorsal-ventral view of male.
Fig. 3. Male genitalia.
Figures 1 and 2 are drawn to the same scale.
Type materials: Holotype male, allotype female, and three paratypes
collected on Phu Lom Lo Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei, Thailand
by Robert E. Elbel and Boonsong Lekagul on April 1, 1954. Three para-
types from the same location were collected on March 4, 1955, by the same
individuals. The holotype and allotype have been deposited in the U. S.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance given by Dr. Theresa
Clay, British Museum (Natural History) and Mr. H. G. Deignan, U. S.
National Museum, during the preparation of this paper.
Vol. 40, No. 4
MINUTES OF THE 40TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The 40th Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society was held
in the San Juan Hotel, Orlando, Florida, on September 12th and 13th, 1957.
Registration was from 5:00 to 10:00 P.M. on Wednesday, September 11th,
and 8:00 to 9:00 A.M. Thursday, September 12th, with 145 registered.
On Wednesday evening two color films were shown, "The Rival World",
courtesy of Shell Chemical Corporation, "The 1956/57 Medfly Campaign in
Florida", courtesy of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The opening session began at 9:00 A.M. Thursday, September 12th, with
Dr. Milledge Murphey, Jr., presiding.
Thirty-nine papers, including three invitational papers and invitational
panel discussions were presented to the Society. The invitational papers
"Plant Pest Surveys and Their Importance", by Kelvin Dorward,
Head, Plant Pest Survey Section, USDA, Washington, D. C.
"A Review of the Population Theory", by Francis R. Lawson, En-
tomology Research Division, USDA, Oxford, N. C.
"The Medfly in Florida-Past, Present and Future", by G. G. Rohwer,
Area Supervisor, Southeastern Regional Plant Pest Control Branch,
Mediterranean Fruit Fly Laboratory, Lake Alfred, Florida.
Panel Discussion: "Aspects of Screwworm Research and the Pro-
posed Screwworm Eradication", W. G. Bruce, Moderator; C. L. Smith,
Research; A. J. Graham, Larval Rearing; A. H. Baumhover, Irradiation;
Dr. R. S. Sharman, Eradication, Agricultural Research Service, USDA.
On Thursday at 3:15 P.M., a tour of the U. S. Department of Agriculture
Laboratory at Orlando was made, followed by a most enjoyable Social Hour
in the ball room of the San Juan Hotel, which was provided by Industry.
The first business meeting was called to order by President Murphey at
11:40 A.M. on Thursday, September 12th. President Murphey asked for a
report of the Secretary. The Secretary gave the following report on the
Executive Committee meeting held Wednesday at 9:00 P.M.
1. The Executive Committee voted to approve the recommendation made
by the committee appointed to study the possibility of raising dues
of the Society. The committee composed of L. A. Hetrick, Chairman,
H. A. Denmark and W. P. Hunter, recommended the annual dues
of the Society be increased to $5.00.
2. The Executive Committee voted to recommend the Society consider
having the incoming president appoint a committee to study and
make recommendations as to the use of Society funds in fulfilling the
first objective of the Society, which is to promote the study of en-
tomology and the fourth objective, of publishing the Florida Ento-
3. The Executive Committee voted to recommend the constitution
amendment to provide for branches to the Society be adopted with
the exception of Section 3, because it is in conflict with other sections
of the constitution.
4. The Committee voted to propose to the Society that the Society con-
sider appointing a committee to study the advisability of amending
the constitution to include a public relations committee, which would
be appointed each year by the President.
The Secretary also reported that we now have 252 members, five of
which are honorary, and 36 new members. Library subscriptions to the
Florida Entomologist in the United States now totals 55, foreign subscrip-
tions 29, exchange subscriptions in the United States 26, and foreign 14.
The Secretary reported that of the present membership 22 are behind two
The Florida Entomologist
years in their dues and 41 are behind one year and will be dropped unless
dues are put in order.
The President asked for a report of progress on the use of the "En-
tomology in Action" talk and slides. Lewis M. Wright reviewed what had
been done with the talk and slides and informed the group of their avail-
ability. The talk and slides can be obtained by contacting Lewis M. Wright.
The "Entomology in Action" committee consists of Mr. James E. Brag-
don, Chairman, Dr. Milledge Murphey and Mr. Frank W. Mead, this year.
Last year, Mr. Lewis M. Wright did a fine job of assembling a series of 35
mm color slides depicting entomology in action. From this series of slides
and other sources we have assembled thirty 8 x 10 color prints of eye-
catching photos to make the exhibit in the lobby. When assembled, the
exhibit is 11 feet long. It can be separated into five plywood panels which
can be pushed into a crate capable of fitting into most automobiles. The
cost of preparing this exhibit has been $140.40. For the most part we
expect this exhibit to be used by Mr. Bragdon in his extension course with
In choosing our pictures we have tried to use those pictures which we
believe will most likely catch the eye of the student and possibly cause him
to consider entomology as a career. The committee will welcome any sug-
gestions or slides which will improve the exhibit.
President Murphey asked for a report of the Insecticide Committee.
Lewis M. Wright asked that this report be given by Mr. J. A. Mulrennan
of the Florida State Health Department. Mr. Mulrennan stated that since
the meeting in Tallahassee last year and after discussions with members
of industry, it had been determined that existing regulations were sufficient
to control the problem of pest control operators using highly toxic organic
phosphate insecticides carelessly around homes.
Dr. Wolfenbarger made a proposal that an effort be made to secure
copies of National Agricultural Chemical Association News, Volume 15,
No. 5, which gives several articles on career opportunities in agricultural
chemicals, to supply to high school libraries throughout the State. In the
discussion following it was generally agreed that this would do much to
promote entomology in Florida. President Murphey requested the Secre-
tary to obtain these publications and make the mailing when they were
President Murphey called for the Treasurer's Report. Mr. Denmark
pointed up the financial condition of the Society and the need for increasing
dues to obtain additional moneys. Dr. Weems moved the Treasurer's Re-
port be accepted, seconded by Dr. Rhoades, unanimously carried.
Dr. Pratt moved for adjournment, Mr. Denmark seconded, and the meet-
ing was adjourned.
The second and final business meeting was called to order by President
Murphey at 4:30 P.M. Friday, September 13th.
President Murphey called for a report of the Auditing Committee, which
was given and unanimously accepted.
President Murphey called for a report of the committee on constitutional
revision to provide for branches of the Florida Entomological Society. Dr.
Wilson, Chairman, read the proposed amendment which follows:
Report of the Committee on Constitutional Revision to Provide for
Branches of the Florida Entomological Society
At the last annual business meeting the Sub-Tropical Branch of the
Florida Entomological Society was established. The creation of this branch
and the possibility that it may be desirable to organize other branches in
the future makes it necessary to amend the Constitution of the Society.
President Murphey has appointed F. Gray Butcher and John W. Wilson to
a committee on Constitutional Revision.
Vol. 40, No. 4
Minutes of the 40th Annual Meeting
Your committee recommends that the Constitution of the Florida En-
tomological Society be amended by adding another article to be known as
Article VIII and that Article VIII read as follows:
Section 1.-Branches are established on a geographical basis, for the pur-
pose of holding meetings, presenting papers, conducting conferences
and stimulating interest in entomology.
Section 2.-Membership in a Branch shall be restricted to members of
the Society residing or stationed in the area covered by the Branch.
Section 3.-Officers of Branches. The officers of each Branch shall be
a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman, a Secretary-Treasurer, and a Repre-
sentative of the Executive Committee. Election to these offices shall
be restricted to voting members of the parent Society. They shall be
elected at the annual meeting of the Branch by procedures to be
adopted by the Branch.
Section 4.-Activities of Branches. Branches may hold meetings or con-
ferences at appropriate times and places. Branches shall not charge
dues, but they may charge registration fees for those in attendance
at meetings in an amount to be determined by the Branch. A charge
may also be made for the proceedings, minutes or records of Branch
Section 5.-Establishment of Branches. To become established, pro-
posed Branches must formally petition the Society, be endorsed by
the Executive Committee and be approved by the Society. The peti-
tion must set forth the territorial limits of the proposed Branch and
indicate clearly the particular purpose for which the Branch is to
be formed; that an organized group of society members desiring to
form a Branch already exists; and that the establishment of the
proposed Branch will be useful to the Society and to entomology.
The currently existing Branch which has been established by the
Society is the Sub-Tropical branch.
The committee also recommends that Article II last sentence which now
reads, "Branches or affiliated societies shall function under such agreements
and understandings as may be entered into at the time of their organization
or their becoming affiliated with the Society subject thereafter to such sub-
sequent modifications as may be mutually satisfactory" be amended to read,
"Branches of the Society shall be established and function under the pro-
visions of Article VIII.
F. Gray Butcher John W. Wilson
The Committee recommended the amendment be adopted. Dr. Wilson
moved that the report of the Committee be accepted. Considerable discus-
sion followed by Mr. Gilbert and others concerning Section 3 of the amend-
ment which had to do with a representative on the Executive Committee.
It was pointed out that this part of Section 3 was in conflict with other
sections of the constitution. Dr. Rhoades proposed that Section 3 be
amended. Dr. Butcher proposed that the first sentence of Section 3 be
amended to read, "The officers of each Branch shall be a Chairman, a
Vice-Chairman, a Secretary-Treasurer and a representative on the execu-
The amendment was adopted by vote.
Dr. Wilson moved that a committee be appointed by the incoming presi-
dent to study the possibility of a constitutional amendment to increase size
of the executive committee to include a member from each branch of the
Society. It was unanimously carried.
Dr. Butcher gave the following report on the establishment and growth
of the Sub-Tropical Branch:
"In September, 1955, a group of 13 persons interested in the field of
Entomology held an informal meeting at the University of Miami to discuss
152 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 40, No. 4
the desirability of forming an Entomological Society in the Miami area.
Dr. John E. Porter, U. S. Public Health Service Entomologist, had been in-
strumental in calling the group together; he was elected temporary Chair-
man and requested to designate an Executive Committee to plan for the
continuation of the group with regular monthly meetings. This original
Executive Committee was composed of Dr. Porter, Dr. F. G. Butcher, Mr.
Robert Curran, Mr. James Heidt, and Mr. A. S. Mills.
"Thus a local entomological society was initiated and has continued with
monthly meetings for the two years since that date. At the first regular
meeting the following month, the 29 persons present received an inspiring
impetus for continuation of the society from an outstanding talk by Dr.
Maurice W. Provost from the Florida State Board of Health. In January,
1956, after an average attendance of 22 persons at meetings the 3 previous
months, the group voted to organize more definitely as the Sub-Tropical
Entomologists of Florida, and elected Dr. Porter as President, Dr. D. 0.
Wolfenbarger, Vice-President, and A. S. Mills, Secretary-Treasurer. At
that time the group also voted to request that they be designated as the
first Branch of the Florida Entomological Society. You will recall that this
request received favorable action at the last annual meeting of this Society,
with certain requirements designated for becoming a Branch. Those re-
quirements were officially approved by the Miami group in November, 1956.
"The Branch functions under the direction of an Executive Committee
consisting of the officers (Branch Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Sec.-Treas.),
a Program Chairman, and one other member selected by the officers. This
committee of 5 members assists in arranging for a monthly program, gets
notices of meetings to all members and affiliates, and meets each month
before the regular meeting of the Branch to discuss and develop recom-
mendations to the group on needs and activities of the Branch.
"The objectives of the Sub-Tropical Branch of Florida Entomological
Society are those of the Society, especially to promote the interests of the
profession. Our meetings, held on the 2nd Wednesday evening of each
month, feature a designated speaker on some phase of entomological sub-
ject matter, and numerous reports from members on insect occurrence or
activity observed during the month. We have completed one Society proj-
ect, namely a window display on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Burdine's
Department Store in Miami, thus attempting to meet the Society objective
No. 3, 'to distribute widely knowledge pertaining to insects'.
"We believe our Branch is firmly established. Many phases in the field
of Entomology have been the basis for the 22 programs since our first meet-
ing, including Insects and Public Health, Crop Pests, Insect Ecology and
Development, Insecticides and Toxicology, and miscellaneous items. Our
attendance figures indicate a present strong organization; we have had an
average attendance of 18 persons for the 22 meetings since we started, and
this average has been over 20 persons for the last 6 meetings.
"We believe that we can contribute to the well-being of the Florida En-
tomological Society. Local publicity on our monthly meetings tends to
keep the general public advised of entomological work. The monthly reports
from members on their entomological observations will soon develop some
interesting and valuable local insect records. Additional distinct projects
sponsored by the Branch will aid in the development of our profession in
southern Florida, and can be an important item in attracting students into
the field of professional entomology. We have secured several new mem-
bers for the Society.
"All members of the Florida Entomological Society are most cordially
invited to meet with us at the University of Miami on the 2nd Wednesday
evening of each month whenever they are in the South Florida area at that
time. In the meantime, we solicit the suggestions and recommendations of
the Society's officers and members for the activities and operations of the
Dr. Kerr reported on an entomological group that has been formed at
Gainesville. This group consists of 30 or more entomologists in the Gaines-
ville area. Dr. Morse and Dr. Berner are their co-chairmen and Dr. Kerr is
Minutes of the 40th Annual Meeting
program chairman. The group meets once each month at a luncheon and
at present is not especially interested in becoming a branch of this Society.
The group is restricted to professional entomologists.
President Murphey asked for new business.
Gregg Rohwer, Chairman of the Cotton States Branch Public Relations
Committee, review work his committee is doing to inform our Society
things our Public Relations Committee can do to benefit the Society. Roh-
wer explained the use of a talk aimed at furthering a study of entomology,
which can be used on a cross state basis. The Cotton States Branch is pre-
paring portable exhibits to further public relations. Rohwer cited the need
for state societies "carrying the ball" on public relations.
Mr. Bragdon explained to the group what could be done to formulate
interest in the field of entomology by working with 4-H Club boys and girls.
He explained the 4-H Club entomology project. He encouraged membership
to pledge their help to county and home demonstration agents, to attend
as local advisors to boys and girls in 4-H Club entomology work.
Dr. Tissot made the following motion:
"It is moved that the incoming President appoint a committee of
three members for the purpose of preparing, for presentation to the
members at the 41st Annual Meeting, a revision to the constitution set-
ting up a permanent Public Relations Committee whose duties will be to
handle such matters as publicity, education, and general public relations
under the first objective given in the constitution, which is 'To promote
the study of entomology'. It is further moved that the proposed re-
vision take into account the problem of allocation of Society funds
among the various activities, such as publishing the Florida Entomol-
ogist, public relations and general Society expenses."
The motion was seconded by Mr. Mayeux and unanimously carried.
Mr. Butcher moved that. the incoming President appoint a Public Re-
lations Committee to function during this year. Motion was seconded by
Mr. Rhoades,-unanimously carried.
Herman Mayeux moved:
"That the Society recommend to the New Public Relations Committee
that the Committee consult Mr. James E. Bragdon concerning his re-
quest to serve as local 4-H Club leaders to assist in the 4-H Club insect
project, that the Committee take on this assistance as a regular society
project and work between Mr. Bragdon and the membership to further
the entomology project in all ways possible."
Dr. Whipp rose to ask the feeling of the group on whether nematologists
are considered entomologists or pathologists, and whether we should make
a special effort to get them to join our Society. Mr. Gilbert stated that the
National Society recognizes nematologists as entomologists.
Dr. Wolfenbarger made a motion that the membership committee study
whether nematologists should become members of the Society. Considerable
discussion followed as to whether we should have a separate membership
other than the executive committee. Dr. Jim Griffiths moved that a mem-
bership committee be appointed by the incoming President. Carried unani-
President Murphey called for a report of the Resolutions Committee,
which was given by Herman Mayeux:
I. Whereas the membership of this Society is cognizant of the objectives
of this society, as given in the constitution; and, whereas, a program of
activity was initiated following our Thirty-Eighth Annual Meeting, its pri-
mary purpose being "to promote the study of entomology", which is the
first objective given in the constitution; and, whereas several activities are
now under way, be it resolved that this program be continued with full par-
ticipation of the membership and that additional activities be added to this
The Florida Entomologist
program during the coming year. Be it further resolved that the work of
this program be done through the Public Relations Committee under the
direction of the Executive Committee.
II. Whereas, there is increasing emphasis on the part of the entomo-
logical profession to obtain better public relations, and in consideration of
the fact that the Public Relations Committee of the Cotton States Branch
of the Entomological Society of America has proposed that the Branch sub-
committee for each state be the same persons who are already assigned
public relations duties by the state organizations, be it resolved that the
services of the Public Relations Committee of the Florida Entomological
Society be offered by the President to the Chairman of the Public Relations
Committee of the Cotton States Branch, to act as the Florida sub-committee
for the Branch simultaneously to acting as committee for this Society.
Be it further resolved:
III. That the "Entomology in Action Exhibit" Committee, consisting of
James Brogdon, Frank Mead, and Milledge Murphey, Jr., be commended for
preparing the beautiful and educational exhibit, which they present at
this fortieth annual meeting, and which is for use by the membership to
promote interest in entomology.
IV. That a note of thanks be extended to the officers, individuals and
committees of our Society, invitational speakers, to the management and
employees of San Juan Hotel and to the Orlando Convention Bureau, all of
whom contributed to the success of this Fortieth Annual Meeting.
V. That especial appreciation be expressed to the local arrangements
Arthur A. Whipp
William E. Feistner, Jr.
Kenneth H. Holden
William Zimmerman and Mrs. Bea Zimmerman
and to the Program Committee:
H. V. Weems, Jr.
VI. That a vote of thanks be extended to Industry for a most enjoyable
VII. That appreciation be expressed to Carroll N. Smith and other
personnel of the U.S.D.A., E.R.B., Section of Insects Affecting Man and
Animals, for the tour of their laboratories.
The report of the Resolutions Committee was adopted unanimously.
President Murphey extended his thanks to the officers 'and members of
the Society for their cooperation during his term as President of the Society.
President Murphey called for a report of the Nominating Committee,
"It is the pleasure of the Nominating Committee to submit the fol-
lowing slate of names as nominees for the various offices as indicated,
to serve the Society during the year 1958:
President .... .....-------------------......................Irwin H. Gilbert
Vice-President---....................... -----------------William P. Hunter
Secretary ....------.........------------...------------...... Robert Kirkland
Executive Committee ... ---...............---------------Henry True
Editor of Florida Entomologist ...............-------------Lewis Berner
Associate Editor Florida Entomologist....................-----Norman N. Hayslip"
Dr. Butcher moved the slate be accepted unanimously.
President Murphey informed the membership that Mr. George B. Merrill
had been elected to honorary membership of the Society. Most of the mem-
bership returned their ballots, all of which were in the affirmative. Mr.
Merrill's election to the honorary membership makes a total of 6 in our
Vol. 40, No. 4
Minutes of the 40th Annual Meeting 155
Incoming President, I. H. Gilbert, was escorted to the speaker's stand.
Mr. Gilbert expressed his thanks for the honor bestowed upon him and
appointed the following committees:
Lewis Wright-Entomology in Action Talks.
Jim Brogdon-Entomology in Action Display.
Dr. Butcher moved we adjourn, Dr. Wolfenbarger seconded the motion
and the'meeting was adjourned.
R. O. KIRKLAND,
REPORT OF TREASURER-BUSINESS MANAGER FOR THE YEAR ENDING
AUGUST 31, 1957
H hospitality H our Funds ........................................ ...................... 300.00
Registration Fees .................................................. .............. 69.00
Banquet F ee .......................................................-----............. ..... 183.00
From 56 Convention unaccounted for ......-....................--........ ...... --10.00
Dues ----......--...--.......--- --.--. ...-... ---- --------.---- 584.75
Subscriptions --......~.-......... ----------..---.. 318.25
Reprints .--....... .....--.. -------. ..-------.....-- ..-- .. 39.38
Advertising ............ ...........-....- .......-...--.. -......- -----. 936.95
Back Num bers ....................... ...... ................................. 215.00
Cost Plates .....................--... ---.. ---------- -------. ... 3.80
Cash on hand 8/15/56 ................ ......---------- --.------ .. .....-- 467.54
Parker Printing Company -......----..........--...-...--------$ 6.40
Ronnie Reed (Hospitality) -------~...... ---------............ 55.34
Floridan Hotel .......................-......- ....... -------- ...- .......... 200.84
A. M Phillips ...........................-......... ---. ---....- ... .... 11.27
Newman Lynde Associates ---..................... .... .................... 40.28
W B. Tappan ..................------............... -- -------- .. --....... 15.48
City Transit ........-----...............--------------------. 12.00
Herman Mayeux ................... --. ---...... .- --------- .............. -- 13.83
W ilson Toomer ........... ..........- -- ----- ....----...- .. ...-.... 24.23
Pepper Printing Company ...................................................... 1,862.75
Eastm an Kodak ...........------........................ ............. .............. 3.95
Lewis Wright ..........-...-........------------------.... ... 8.02
G adsen Office ........................................................----.............. 17.00
Postage "Entomology in Action" ... --..........-------- ......-.... 23.25
Milledge Murphey (mat exhibit) ...------....................-- ....... 128.04
Postage ....................................... ......--------...... 71.33
Service charge (Florida National Bank) ..-........--- -..........--.....-- ..... 1.79
Misc. (box rent, telephone calls, etc.) ............................-............... 13.78
Cash on hand 8/31/57 ................................... .................... 818.09
H. A. DENMARK,