Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00198
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1958
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00198
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

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Volume 41, No. 1 March, 1958

Wolfenbarger, D. O.-Pyriform Scale Control on Avocados... 1
Wilson, H. G., and G. C. Labrecque-Tests with Organo-
phosphorus Compounds as House Fly Larvicides in
Poultry Houses --------------------------- 5
Thew, Thomas B.-Studies on the Muting Flights of
the Ephemeroptera I..........................................------------------ 9
Burks, B. D.-A North American Colotrechnus (Zanonia)
(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) -..-..-......-.............................. 13
Harris, Emmett D., Jr.-Studies on Corn Earworm Control
in the Everglades .........................-.......- .....................-....... 17
Rohwer, G. G.-The Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Florida-
Past, Present, and Future -..--.........-.............---------------- 23
Beck, William M., Jr., and Elisabeth C. Beck-A new Species
of Xenochironomus from Florida (Diptera: Chironomi-
dae) ...... .............................-- -........................... ....... ........ 27
Patton, Constance Nicholas-A Catalogue of the Larvae-
voridae of Florida ...-- --......... ...............----------------.. 29
Porter, John E.-Further Notes on Public Health Service
Quarantine Entomology -..-...............-----------------....... 41
King, Wayne, and James V. Griffo, Jr.-A Box Turtle
Fatality Apparently Caused by Sarcophaga cistudinis
Larvae -..-..-........................ ------------------..... ....... 44

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


OFFICERS FOR 1957-1958

President -.....-.........-....-...- ....................-... .......... Irwin H. Gilbert
Vice-President ..-----...--..........--.......-....-.-- -- William P. Hunter
Secretary ....................................................... Robert 0. Kirkland
Treasurer ----... --................---...---....-- ....Harold A. Denmark
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
Other Members of Executive Committee Henry True
Milledge Murphey, Jr.

LEWIS BERNER ..--....-.........-........----------.... ...Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP --...---.....- .......Associate Editor
HAROLD A. DENMARK.-.......... Business Manager

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Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Homestead, Florida

Infestations of the pyriform scale, Protopulvinaria, pyriformis (Ckll.),
were reported by Wolfe, et al (1949), as, . marring the fruit appear-
ance due to the sooty-mold fungus which develops in the honeydew secreted
by this insect." Observations in recent years indicate continued increasing
amounts of sooty-mold, more than in former years. Fruit blemishes are cur-
rently of more importance than formerly owing to higher standards of
grading the fruit for market. Oil emulsion sprays occasionally used for
scale control are effective but "shock" the trees and are sometimes injurious
to new foliage, especially if the applications are followed by unusually high
or low temperatures. Parathion and malathion have been used successfully
for pyriform scale control but definitive data appear lacking on the effective-
ness of the treatments. Three different concentrations of malathion wet-
table powder, a malathion emulsion and a water-base parathion were used
as given in Table 1, and compared with an unsprayed check.

The 22-year-old trees of the Lula variety at the Sub-Tropical Experi-
ment Station in Block 5 were plotted to give one, two or three trees for
each treatment in each of four replications. Spray applications were made
at irregular intervals depending somewhat on the time at which the scale
infestations appeared abundant or to have approached equalization on trees
in the different treatments. Dates of spray applications were August 1,
1955, September 13, 1955, April 4, 1956, and July 26, 1956. These sprays
were applied with a regular grove sprayer and averaged from eight to ten
gallons per tree per application, depending on the size of the tree. Fifty
leaves, from various parts of a tree, from each treatment and from each
replication, were collected as samples to determine treatment effects. Living
pyriform scales, crawler and sedentary forms, were counted on the 50
leaves. Count days were August 20 and November 1, 1955, April 6, July
19, and August 27, 1956, March 27, and June 27, 1957.

The results are summarized in Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2. Treatment
materials and amounts used per 100 gallons of water are listed and the
results are tabled as mean number of scales per leaf on the day counted.
Separations by Duncan's multiple range test showed that the means from
the following treatments were significantly different from the others as
1. Unsprayed leaves possessed significantly more scale insects than
leaves from any other treatment.
2. Parathion was significantly more effective than malathion.
3. Malathion wettable powder treatments were similar, but six pounds
was more effective than four pounds and four pounds was more
effective than two pounds.

The Florida Entomologist

Statistical analyses by the analysis of variance showed significant mean
square values for certain factors; these are listed in order from higher
to lower values as follows:
1. Days on which counts were made,
2. Treatments,
3. Replications.
Significant interactions were found in which data on count days varied by
treatment and by replication; interaction between treatments and replica-
tions, however, was no greater than might have occurred by chance.


Insecticide formulation amount/100 gal. water

Date Parathion

Counted 4 Ibs./gal. 25% W.P.
water base 6 Ibs.
1/ pt.

Aug. 20
Nov. 1

April 5
'July 19
Aug. 29

March 27
June 27
Avg. %










Emul., 25% W.P.
1 lb. tech. 4 lbs.







Avg. No. scales
per leaf -

The variation of data among count days is

an expected occurrence since

counts were made at different days after spraying and in different seasons.
A study was made to determine any relationship of the effect of time after
treatment as based on percentage control. This is given in figure 1. Rapid
control is indicated in figure 1 to 34 days after a treatment when maximum
control was obtained. A slight reduction is indicated in the percentage
control trend between 34 and 205 days after which the reduction assumes
a more rapid trend. Control by parathion was very slightly higher in all
cases except that after 336 days it was seven per cent less.
It is generally found that if dosages are plotted graphically as logarithms
and if the percentages of control are plotted as probits straight line rela-


25% W.P.
2 lbs.




Vol. 41, No. 1


Wolfenbarger: Pyriform Scale Control


o O




0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Fig. 1.-Percentage control at various times after spray application
(curve drawn free-hand).






n1.5 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0

Fig. 2.-Log-probit relationships of malathion dosages and percentages
of control (regression formula-expected probit = 5.56 + 0.57 (log of
dosage) ).

The Florida Entomologist

tionships are seen. Log-probit relationships of the three concentrations
of malathion and the percentage control results are shown in figure 2.
A regression line was determined by linear regression calculations and
shows a slight departure from perfect linearity. A comparison between
malathion wettable powder and an emulsion formulation shows a slightly
greater effectiveness in favor of the emulsion. By graphic determination
one pound of the technical toxicant in emulsion formulation is equivalent to
one pound and two ounces of toxicant in wettable powder form.

Parathion and malathion sprays were used over a period of two and one-
half years in experimental plots for control of the pyriform scale on avo-
cados. Leaf samples were collected from the experimental trees at irregular
intervals following the spray applications. Summarization of the data
showed that one pound of 15% wettable powder of parathion was more
effective than two, four or six pounds of 25% wettable powder of malathion
or of one pound of technical malathion in emulsion form. Scale infestations
were significantly reduced by all treatments.

Duncan, David B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics.
11 : 1-42.
Wolfe, H. S., L. R, Toy and A. 1. Stahl (Rev. G. D. Ruehle). 1949. Avo-
cado production in Florida. Fla. Agr. Ext. Bul. 141 : 1-124.

A !! i

Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA

Vol. 41, No. 1


Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A.,
Orlando, Florida

Although house flies showing a high resistance to malathion have been
found in some Florida poultry houses (Labrecque and Wilson, 1957), interest
in the use of the organophosphorus compounds as fly larvicides has con-
tinued. Fly control is especially difficult in poultry houses maintaining
caged layers, where the laying flock, as well as the younger chickens, are
confined in individual screen cages about three feet above the ground. It
is customary to allow the manure to collect for months at a time, and the
cones that are formed under each cage soon reach a height of two or more
feet. If the manure remains dry in the cones, there is little fly breeding,
but when it becomes moist both the house fly (Musca domestic L.) and a
soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) become established. In a short time the
larvae break down and liquefy the entire cone, creating an increasingly
serious fly problem.
Previous tests with organophosphorus larvicides as emulsion sprays or
dusts have met with varying success. It has been found that, under Florida
conditions, even a small quantity of water causes an almost immediate
liquefaction of the manure (-Wilson et al., 1957). Dusters cause panic among
the hens by the noise and billowing clouds of dust, which create a respiratory
hazard as well; scattering the dust by hand is tedious and does not entirely
eliminate the dust cloud. Tests were conducted to determine whether small
quantities of deodorized kerosene sprays would provide equally effective
control without the disadvantages of emulsions and dusts. The amounts of
kerosene used in these tests would not have any adverse effect if the manure
were later used as fertilizer.
Five organophosphorus compounds were tested as larvicides against
natural populations of house flies breeding in manure under caged poultry in
the Orlando area. Solutions in deodorized kerosene were made with com-
mercial emulsifiable concentrates containing 25 per cent of Diazinon, 24.4
per cent of technical Dow ET-57 (sampled as ET-14), or 43.7 per cent of
Trithion, and with technical Dipterex and malathion. Sufficient acetone was
added to the Trithion and Dipterex to produce stable solutions. Duplicate
tests were run at dosages of 150 gm. of insecticide in one and two gallons
of kerosene per 1,000 square feet, and with 300 gm. in two gallons.
All applications were made with a three-gallon compression sprayer
using a flat fan nozzle (Hudson No. 1540-5). Sufficient pressure was main-
tained to insure uniform coverage.
Larval density was evaluated by collecting a teaspoonful of manure from
ten different locations where the infestations appeared heaviest, spreading
them on a plywood board, and counting the larvae. The effectiveness of
the treatments was determined from the difference in total counts made
before and 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment. The results are shown in
table 1.

The Florida Entomologist


Dosage per 1,000
square feet

Grams of Gallons
insecticide of kerosene

150 1


Dow ET-57



kerosene (check)




- 1,000+

Percent control after-








* No control after 21 days.

Vol. 41, No. 1

Wilson and Labrecque: Tests with Organophosphorus 7

There was little over-all difference between treatments at one and two
gallons per 1,000 square feet, although at the higher rate a more nearly
uniform coverage was possible. Dosages of 300 gm. of insecticide per 1,000
square feet were not more consistently successful than 150 gm.
All the insecticides gave good control after two days in one or more
tests, and all failed after a week in some tests. Diazinon was the most
effective larvicide after one week, giving complete control in half the tests.
Deodorized kerosene alone was not effective.
The results in some of these tests with kerosene solutions were equal to
those obtained in previous tests with heavy applications of emulsions (Wil-
son et al., 1957), and there was no liquefaction of the manure. Less suc-
cessful results were obtained in some locations where resistance to phos-
phorus compounds was developing. Diazinon was less consistently effective
than in the previous tests with dusts.

Diazinon, Dipterex, Dow ET-57 (sampled as ET-14), Trithion, and mala-
thion were applied in small quantities of kerosene to poultry manure as fly
larvicides. At 150 and 300 grams per 1,000 square feet all gave good
control after two days in one or more tests, and all failed to give control
after a week in some tests. Diazinon was the most effective larvicide after
one week. There was no liquefaction of the manure.

Wilson, H. G., and J. B. Gahan. 1957. Control of house fly larvae in poultry
houses. Jour. Econ. Ent. 50 :613-14.
Labrecque, G. C., and H. G. Wilson. 1957. House fly resistance to organo-
phosphorus compounds. Agric. Chem. 12(9) :46-47, 147, 149.

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Davenport Public Museum
Davenport, Iowa

During the evenings of July 23 and 24, 1956, the author was fortunate
in being able to observe the mating flights of Ephoron album (Say) and
Stenonema canadense (Walker). They occurred at the same locality-a
highly commercial area of the waterfront along the Mississippi River in
Rock Island, Illinois. The exact area was a rocky bank approximately 100
feet in length. In both instances the sun had just begun to set. On July
23 the sky had scattered clouds, but the air was warm and still; while on
July 24, large thunderheads were beginning to appear and a gentle breeze
had commenced to blow. The time of the first observation on July 23 was
7:20 p.m.; on July 24 it was 7:15 p.m.
The first flight to be observed on both evenings was that of Ephoron
album; the males were seen to fly from the water to the rocky bank, where
they shed their subimagal pllicle. On July 24th some time was spent ob-
serving this phenomenon. The mayflies would fly from the water and
alight on the rocks or anything available (including people). A firm grasp
on the substrate was necessary before the process could begin. In some
cases a specimen was seen alighting in several places before it found a sub-
strate which suited it. Then followed a period of from ten to fifteen seconds
in which the specimen gently shook its wings, evidently to separate the
imagal wings from the subimagal pellicle. After this, the thorax was slowly
arched and the wings folded against the body, thereby commencing the
release of the forewings and forelegs. The long forelegs appeared to be
greatly compressed within the short subimagal ones. Soon the meso- and
metathoracic legs were free and the insect began to crawl forward. The
subimagal skin was not cast off the head, the pronotum, and mesoscutum,
although it was shed from the remaining parts of the body. The posterior
portion of the abdomen was freed at the same time as the posterior portion
of the wings. A few seconds were then taken to release the genitalia. The
time period from the first arching of the thorax to the freeing of the geni-
talia varied from forty to fifty seconds. The mayfly then flew off with the
cast pellicle of the abdomen and wings, which had remained in one piece,
still attached to the caudal filaments and trailing behind like a white ban-
ner. The time element from first alighting to the resumption of flight
was almost invariably one minute.
Soon after flight was resumed, the pellicle dropped off or, in many cases,
the mayfly and pellicle fell into the water. Likely this was due to the fact
that no time was spent in hardening the wings; the soft veins were unable
to support the weight of the body, and so the insect fell. However, the

The Florida Entomologist

insect, once fallen, did show a remarkable ability to break through the
surface tension of'the water and to regain flight. Possibly this was due
to the buoyancy of the cast skin. Others, of course, met immediate death.
It should be noted that these observations do not agree with those of
B. D. Burks (1953, 33) for E. leukon Williamson; for this species he states
that the moulting occurs while in flight as the subimagal legs are nonfunc-
tional. Perhaps this is a result of a difference in the ecology of the species
concerned or it may be that Burks was deceived by the fact that the sub-
imagal pellicle, once shed, often remains attached to the caudal filaments.
Having shed the subimagal pellicle, the males began their vigilant flight
above the water. There was no recognizable flight pattern, which is char-
acteristic of so many species. Instead, the males flew back and forth about
one to four feet above the water, usually staying in an area about twelve
feet in diameter. Their flight was not like that of other mayflies-unsteady
and jerky-but rather more like that of the dragonflies-strong and stead-
fast. They showed remarkable ability to make swift turns; there was very
little faltering. On many occasions a male was seen to grasp another speci-
men; in seven cases these couples were caught and found to consist of two
males. No couples of male and female were captured, although several
were seen. Other females were seen on the rocks on the bank, but they were
much less numerous than the males. These observations tend to confirm
the views of Spieth (1940, 385) that the method of recognition for this
species is tactile rather than visual.
At 8:00 p.m. on July 23, a few specimens were still flying, although most
of them had disappeared. Collecting at lights in the commercial areas of
Rock Island, Illinois, and Davenport, Iowa, was then commenced. Speci-
mens were seen there until 9:30 p.m. when collecting stopped. Even at
that time, many specimens were found that were dead. This is due to the
fact that, as the meso- and metathoracic legs of the males and all of the
legs of the females of this genus are aborted and vestigial, it is nearly
impossible for these insects to attach themselves to an object for a consider-
able length of time. Thus, they remain in flight throughout most of their
winged life and soon die of exhaustion. Accordingly the swarms of July
24th were not composed of the same insects as those of July 23rd. Also,
many females attracted to the lights were seen with the two egg rolls pro-
truding, doomed to die without ovipositing and possibly even without mating.
On July 24th the characteristic flights along the bank lasted much longer.
There were still many specimens flying at 8:00 p.m. However, toward the
latter part of the evening at about ten feet from shore several swarms were
seen rising and falling in rhythm; this never lasted more than a few sec-
onds, for then they would resume their characteristic swift and searching
flight. These swarms were flying under very adverse conditions of strong
winds and sprinkling rain, which may account for the somewhat different
actions. On both evenings birds, bats, and fish were seen consuming large
numbers of this species.
The second mating flight to be observed was that of Stenonema cana-
dense (Walker). On both nights this took place above the flight of Eph-
oron album. It is possible that the two successive swarms were composed
of the same general emergence of specimens, although this is not definitely

Vol. 41, No. 1

Thew: Mating Flights of the Ephemeroptera

known. Because the flights on the two nights were quite different, they
will be described separately.
The swarm of July 23rd was first observed at 7:30 p.m. These mayflies
were flying from three to twenty feet above the surface of the water in a
more or less compact swarm, which was about thirty-five feet in length and
twenty feet wide. The males flew with a fluttering flight in almost one
spot, usually staying in an area about six inches in diameter; the abdomen
drooped downward, the body thereby forming an arch. At times they would
suddenly break away from their steadfast flight, fly back and forth for a
few seconds, and once again resume their steady fluttering. This they
always did facing into the wind.
On many occasions females were seen flying into the swarm at a very
rapid rate; they were grasped by the males from below and the two would
sometimes fly about in the swarm for a few seconds; they would then fly
out over the river, where, most likely, the female began oviposition. In
several instances unmated males were seen trying to capture a female in
copulation, even giving the pair a chase; other times the two specimens
would suddenly break away after only a few seconds in copulation. At
7:50 p.m. the swarms suddenly dispersed, leaving not a single specimen
On the evening of July 24th, the strong wind hampered the flight of these
medium-sized mayflies. I believe the mating flight of the previous night
to be the characteristic one and the latter to be aberrant due to the wind.
The steady, fluttering flight-was still present and all specimens again faced
into the wind; however, in their flight they were consistently forced back-
wards upstream by the strong breeze. They would often form a loop while
in flight, suddenly going down, forward a bit, then rise and continue back-
wards-all the time facing downstream. Many variations of this were seen,
even with successive loops. In many instances, the males would abandon
their steady flight, fly forward in successive rises and falls (which would
vary in length from one to three feet even in the same flight) and then
resume their regular fluttering. Sometimes a specimen would rise, grasp-
ing another male or female. The entire swarm never acted as an organized
unit; the flights were a mixture of individual preferences. In three in-
stances, Stenonema males were seen to grasp Ephoron males, all of which
still had their subimagal pellicles dangling from their caudal filaments.
In each instance, they soon left the larger insect to itself.
At 7:50 p.m. the wind grew suddenly stronger (Beaufort scale No. 4).
This greatly disturbed the swarm. Waves from passing boats seemed to
have no visible effect, however. At 7:55 p.m. the combined action of wind
and sprinkling rain stopped all activity; otherwise it would probably have
continued for quite some time.

The mating flights of Ephoron album (Say) and Stenonema canadense
(Walker) have been recorded in detail. Both flights were found to be typi-
cal for the genera considered, but varied on occasions according to the
ecological conditions present at the time of flight. Also, the moulting of
the subimagal pellicle in E. album has been described.

12 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 1

The author would like to express his appreciation to the following peo-
ple:- Mr. Gene R. Forret, Davenport Public Museum, for his assistance in
the field work; Mr. Robert V. Kennedy, University of Illinois, and Dr. Lewis
Berner, University of Florida, for their helpful criticism of the manuscript.

Burks, B. D. 1953. The mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. Bul. Ill.
Nat. Hist. Surv. 26 : Art. 1 : 1-216.
Spieth, Herman T. 1940. Studies on the biology of the Ephemeroptera. II.
The nuptial flight. J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 48 :379-390.


Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A.,
Washington, D. C.

During the last 25 years specimens of a curious chalcidoid have been
received in the U. S. National Museum for identification. Most of the speci-
mens were from Florida. This species could not be placed with certainty in
any of the families of the Chalcidoidea, although it had the habitus of a
torymid. It therefore has been identified as ? unknown genus of Tory-
midae [or Callimomidae]" by several taxonomists who have worked in the
U. S. National Museum.
This form, however, lacks two of the most salient characters of the
family Torymidae. It does not have an exserted ovipositor, and the cerci
are not exserted and located at the apex of the ninth abdominal tergite (see
Burks, 1940, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 88 : 333, fig. 14h), but are reduced to a
pair of flat discs which have migrated anteriorly well into the ninth ab-
dominal tergite.
This so-called torymid has two apical spurs on the hind tibia, the femora
are stout, the parapsidal grooves are virtually absent, the scutellum has a
pair of sublateral, longitudinal grooves, the axillae are produced far forward
of the anterior margin of the scutellum, the marginal vein of the forewing
is long and somewhat thickened, the stigmal vein is enlarged and nearly
sessile, and the setae on the forewing are arranged in rows along the paths
of the obsolete veins, much as in the eulophid genus Euderus. The antenna
has two ring segments, six funicle segments which are broader than long,
and a three-segmented club which is only slightly separated from the funicle.
The gaster is narrow and acuminate, with the ninth tergite considerably ex-
tended, enclosing the elongate ovipositor. This form would logically be
placed in the Cleonymini of the Pteromalidae, following the classification
used in the Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico (Peck in Muesebeck
et al., 1951, U. S. Dept. Agr. Monog. 2, pp. 534-568).
As it seemed unlikely that a chalcid having such an array of distinctive
generic characters would still be undescribed, a search was made through
the literature for a described genus having these characters. This search
finally led to the genus Zanonia Masi (1921, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat.
Genova, ser. 3, 9 :184), described for Z. viridis Masi, from Bengazi, Libya.
Our North American form agrees in all generic particulars with Zanonia.
I have not seen a specimen of Z. viridis, but Masi's excellent description and
figures make the identity of Zanonia quite clear.
Once the genus Zanonia had been located, it was possible to trace its
subsequent history. The year following the description of Zanonia, Masi
had the opportunity to study specimens of Colotrechnus subcoeruleus Thom-
son, the type species of the European genus Colotrechnus Thomson, and
concluded that Zanonia and Colotrechnus were very closely related (1922,
Bol. Soc. Ent. Ital. 54 : 111). Recently Delucchi (1956, Zeit. f. Agnew. Ent.
39 :233) has gone one step farther and has synonymized Zanonia under
Colotrechnus. I am not sure that this is justified, principally because I ex-

The Florida Entomologist

amined a specimen of Colotrechnus subcoeruleus [det. Ruschka] when I was
attempting to identify our so-called torymid, and I had decided they were not
congeneric because of the different wings and antennae. In Colotrechnus
the marginal vein of the forewing is only one-third as long as the submar-
ginal, and the wing disc bears a large, rounded shaded area; in Zanonia
the marginal vein is one-half as long as the submarginal, and the wing is
hyaline. In Colotrechnus the funicle segments are slender and elongate,
all longer than wide, while the funicle segments in Zanonia are short and
compact, all wider than long.
The classification of the Pteromalidae is at present in such a chaotic state,
however, that an attempt to resurrect the genus Zanonia would only con-
tribute to the confusion. Consequently, I propose to treat Zanonia as a
subgenus of Colotrechnus, so that its distinctive characters will not be lost
sight of. The North American species to be described below is much more
closely related to Zanonia viridis Masi, from Africa, than it is to Colotrech-
nus subcoeruleus Thomson, from Europe.

Colotrechnus (Zanonia) ignotus, new species
Agrees with viridis, Masi in that the scutellum bears one pair each of
lateral and apical bristles, the gaster is almost or quite twice as long as
the thorax, the posterior margin of the basal two gastral tergites each has
a small, rounded, posterior projection at the meson, and the width of the
malar space is one-third as great as the height of the compound eye; viridis
and ignotus differ in that the propodeum and basal gastral tergite of viridis
are a metallic golden color, while these areas are dark metallic blue-green
in ignotus; in viridis the wing veins are yellow, while they are white in
.ignotus; and in viridis the antennal scape is slightly produced at the middle
of the inner anterior margin, while this margin is entire in ignotus.
FEMALE.-Length 2.0-2.6 mm. Head (except for malar space), pronotum,
and mesoscutum very dark metallic green; scutellum, propodeum, and dor-
sum of gaster dark metallic blue-green; malar space of head, pleura and
sternum of body, coxae, femora, and tibiae very dark metallic blue; palpi
black; antennae very dark brown to black, scape and pedicel usually with
metallic green sheen; wings hyaline, venation white; basal three segments
of each tarsus white, fourth segment usually tan, apical segment black.

Colotrechnus (Zanonia) ignotus, n. sp., Fig. 1, antenna of female;
Fig. 2, mandible of female.

Vol. 41, No. 1

Burks: A North American Colotrechnus

Antennae inserted slightly below center of face, dorsal to level of ventral
margins of compound eyes; scape short, not reaching level of anterior ocel-
lus; medical and flagellum (figure 1), short and compact, all segments of
funicle wider than long; length of malar space one-third as great as height
of compound eye; length of ocellocular line twice as great as diameter of
lateral ocellus, and one-half as great as length of postocellar line; surface
of scrobe cavity and supraclypeal area between and below antennal bases
smooth and shining, rest of head minutely shagreened and with sparse, very
short and fine pubescence; eyes with extremely minute, silvery pubescence;
mandible (figure 2) with two acute and one broad, shouldered tooth.
Head broader than pronotum and as broad as thorax just anterior to
tegulae; thoracic notum with minute alveolate sculpture, this sculpture finer
on scutellum than on praescutum; mesoscutum with sparse, short, ap-
pressed pubescence; scutellum with one pair of lateral and one pair of
apical bristles, otherwise bare; ventral side of costal cell of forewing with
a row of short bristles extending entire length of cell near its anterior mar-
gin and a row of longer bristles posterior to this row in apical half of cell;
submarginal vein with 10 to 14 dorsal bristles; marginal vein one-half as
long as submarginal and three and one-third times as long as stigmal;
postmarginal vein one-fifth as long as submarginal; legs stout, hind coxa
enlarged and lengthened and approximately triangular in cross-section;
femora enlarged, subflattened, with margins noncarinate; hind femur with a
single, longitudinal row of bristles on outer side; tibiae subflattened, slightly
broadened apically.
Propodeum smooth, very short on meson and lacking paraspiracular
carinae; spiracles large, ovate, touching anterior propodeal margin; area
just lateral to propodeal spiracles with dense, long setae; gaster elongate-
acuminate, twice as long as thorax; first gastral tergite (abdominal tergite
III) basally smooth, becoming slightly reticulate at posterior margin; fol-
lowing tergites with minute, alveolar reticulation; posterior margins of
first and second gastral tergites each with a rounded, posterior production
at meson, posterior margins of tergites 3-6 straight; tergite 4 with a single
cross-row of bristles located near base, posterior half of tergite 5 setose,
entire exposed surface of tergite 6 setose; tergite 7 with denser but shorter
setae; cercus bearing 3 long bristles.
MALE.-[Available specimens in very poor condition.] Length 1.3 mm.
Head and body almost black, with less intense metallic coloration than in
female. Length of malar space one-fourth as great as height of compound
eye; length of ocellocular line and maximum diameter of lateral ocellus
equal; gaster ovate, shorter than thorax.
Type locality.-Marion Co., Florida.
Types.-U.S.N.M. No. 63913.
The type, allotype, and 34 9 and 1 S paratypes are deposited in the
U. S. National Museum collection; 10 9 and 1 & paratypes are deposited in
the collection of the Florida State Plant Board, Gainesville, Fla.
Described from 45 9 and 3 & specimens, as follows: Type 9, allotype
S, and 23 9 and 1 & paratypes, Marion Co., Fla., Apr. 8-17, 1956, some
specimens taken sweeping Erigeron quercifolius, R. A. Morse; 1 & para-
type, Waco, Tex., Oct. 10, 1956, in airplane trap at 200' alt., P. A. Glick;
1 9 paratype, Glades Co., Fla., Dec. 6, 1955, sweeping weeds, R. A. Morse;

16 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 1

2 9 paratypes, Lake Co., Fla., Apr. 8, 1956, R. A. Morse; 1 9 paratype,
Gainesville, Fla., May 24, 1956, on Melilotus alba, R. A. Morse; 1 9 para-
type, Highlands Co., Fla., Oct. 3, 1956, on Bidens pilosa, R. A. Morse; 4 9
paratypes, Homestead, Fla., Mar. 1, 1956, H. V. Weems, Jr.; 3 9 paratypes,
Key Vaca, Fla., Dec. 28, 1955, on Bidens pilosa, H. V. Weems, Jr.; 3 9 para-
types, Stock Isl., Dec. 27, 1954, on Flaveria linearis, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
1 9 paratype, Florida City, Fla., Dec. 31, 1951, H. V. Weems, Jr.; 1 9 para-
type, Key West, Fla., Dec. 29, 1954, on Flaveria linearis, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
1 9 paratype, Key Largo, Fla., Dec. 6, 1954, H. V. Weems, Jr.; 1 9 para-
type, Key Largo, Fla., Dec. 6, 1954, H. V. Weems, Jr.; 1 9 paratype, Ukiah,
Calif., Mar. 31, 1931, sweeping grass, C. C. Wilson; 1 9 paratype, Oracle,
Ariz., Aug. 26, 1934, 4500' elev., Ian Moore; 1 9 paratype, Wayne Co., N. C.,
June 15, 1955, H. V. Weems, Jr.
The host of Colotrechnus (Zanonia) ignotus is unknown.


Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida
The corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), is the most damaging insect
that attacks sweet corn in Florida. This is especially true as most of the
corn is sold as fresh corn under the grade of U. S. Fancy. Among other
requirements, a U. S. Fancy ear must show no evidence whatever of corn
earworm attack to the ear itself or even within the silk channel. No veg-
etable pest requires a more intensive spray program than that necessary
to control this pest. Everglades growers spray or dust at least every other
day from the time the first silks appear within a planting, until all the silks
are dry. Where large acreages of corn are involved, the same sprayer or
duster may be operated 24 hours a day. The author's primary objective in
corn earworm control studies on sweet corn is to find ways to reduce the
number of necessary insecticide applications, and, at the same time, main-
tain a high degree of corn earworm control. To date the fulfillment of this
objective has not been accomplished.
Spray applications were made with a high-clearance, self-propelled
sprayer built at the Everglades Experiment Station2. A Myers jumbo
nozzle fitted with a No. 3 disc was used on each side of the sweet corn row.
The nozzles were at approximately the same height as the silks, and at a
right angle to the stalks. The spraying pressure was 200 pounds per square
inch. For all trials, Golden -Security variety of sweet corn was planted in
rows that were three feet apart and thinned to give a 12-inch spacing with-
in the row. Budworm and disease control was accomplished with DDT-
parzate sprays until the time of silking. Experimental insecticide appli-
cations were begun the day after the first silks appeared and continued until
all silks were dry. In each experiment a randomized complete block design
employing four replications was used. A 100-ear sample was examined in
each plot to determine the percentage of ears that were free of earworm
injury. Before analysis of variance was conducted, these percentages were
transformed to angles (arc sin V % ).
Comparison of control programs that either are recommended or are in
common use in the Everglades: This test is probably the first in which all of
the corn earworm control programs in common use in the Everglades have
been compared in one experiment. With the exception of the DDT wettable
powder spray each of the programs in the trial are recommended in Ever-
glades Experiment Station Mimeo 55-11 8. According to station recommen-
dations the DDT-mineral oil emulsion should contain 2.5 gallons of a white
mineral oil to each 50 gallons of spray but due to error the mineral oil was
used at the rate of 1.25 gallon to each 50 gallons of emulsion. Dusts were
applied with Niagara Cyclo Junior hand dusters at approximately 30 pounds
per acre.
1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Journal Series No. 639.
SHarrison, D. S., and C. S. Yager. 1957. A hi lo all-purpose sprayer.
Agricultural Engineering (In Press).
3 Hayslip, Norman C., and W. H. Thames, Jr. 1955. Protecting the ears
of sweet corn from insect damage in the Everglades area. Everglades Sta-
tion Mimeo Report 55-11.

The Florida Entomologist


Intervals Pounds of Worm-free Ears
Between Active
Applications Ingredient
Treatments (Hours) per Acre Angle* ** Percent

5% DDT + 1%
Parathion dust ...--...---.. 48 1.5 + 0.3 70.51 89
2% parathion dust ............ 48 0.6 72.54 91
10% DDT dust ................. -48 3.0 73.97 92
DDT EC (2 lbs./gal.) ...... 48 2.0 76.64 95
5% DDT + 1%
parathion dust .............- 24 1.5 + 0.3 78.36 96
DDT EC + mineral oil .... 48 2.0 + 1.5 gal. 78.48 96
DDT 50% WP .................. 48 2.0 80.81 98
DDT 50% WP ....----................ 24 2.0 83.02 99
10% DDT dust ...--............... 24 3.0 84.04 99
2% parathion dust ............ 24 0.6 84.73 99

Untreated check .----........-- 49

Percentages were transformed to angles (angle = arc sin V % ) before conducting
analysis of variance.
** Means joined by the same line are not significantly different; Means not joined by
the same line are significantly different.
t Untreated check plots were not included in the analysis.

The plants were silking during the latter half of April and examinations
for earworm injury were made on May 2. Dusts containing 10 percent
DDT or two percent parathion gave a significantly higher percentage of
worm-free ears when applied at 24-hour intervals than when applied at 48-
hour intervals (Table 1). The difference between the 24 and 48-hour in-
tervals was not significant for a dust containing five percent DDT plus one
percent parathion. No significant differences occurred among the percent-
ages of worm-free ears given by DDT wettable powder sprays at 24 and
48-hour intervals. A DDT wettable powder spray applied at 24-hour inter-
vals gave a significantly higher percentage of worm-free ears than any 48-
hour interval dust application. Otherwise there were no significant differ-
ences between dusts and sprays as to degree of earworm control obtained.
There were no significant differences among the results given by the different
DDT sprays.
Toxaphene-DDT and toxaphene-parathion mixtures: Table 2 shows the
results of a comparison of parathion, toxaphene, DDT, a toxaphene-DDT
mixture, and a toxaphene-parathion mixture for earworm control on corn
that was in silk during late April and was harvested on May 2. When
used at the same rate per acre as an emulsion, toxaphene was inferior to
DDT for earworm control. The addition of 0.5 pound of DDT to two pounds
of toxaphene per acre did not increase control. The addition of two pounds
of toxaphene to 0.25 pound of parathion per acre did not increase the effec-
tiveness of parathion. DDT and parathion were about equally effective.

Vol. 41, No. I

Harris: Studies on Corn Earworm Control 19


. Worm-free Ears
Insecticide and pounds of active Worm e
ingredient per acre Angle* ** Percent

Toxaphene (2.0) + DDT (0.5) ------.....---.......-............... 61.82 78
Toxaphene (2.0) ......--------------........--- .....--- -......... 62.03 78
Parathion (0.25) .........--.. ---....... --..-- ...... .--- .-- 72.57 91
Toxaphene (2.0) + Parathion (0.25) .-.....-..-.....-..........-- 73.68 92
D DT (2.0) ................................................... .. ............. 76.64 95

Untreated check ...---..-- -----------...---......-----..... -49

Percentages were transformed to angles (angle = arc sin V % ) before conducting
analysis of variance.
** Means joined by the same line are not significantly different; Means not joined by the
same line are significantly different.
t Untreated check plots were not included in the analysis.

DDT, toxaphene, and DDT-toxaphene emulsions were applied at 4-day
intervals to silking sweet corn during late May and early June for earworm
control. At one or two pounds per acre, toxaphene failed to increase the
effectiveness of DDT (Table 3). Two pounds of DDT without toxaphene
gave significantly better control than one pound of DDT plus toxaphene.
Two pounds of DDT plus toxaphene was not significantly better than one
pound of DDT plus toxaphene. Alone at two pounds per acre, toxaphene
gave significantly le3s earworm control than any DDT or DDT-toxaphene


Pounds of
Ingredient Worm-free Ears
Insecticide per Acre Angle ** Percent

Toxaphene ..---.....-..----.. --.....--...- ..- 2 37.66 37
Toxaphene + DDT .................................. 2 -1 49.30 57
Toxaphene + DDT ...............-................-- 1 -1 50.18 59
Toxaphene + DDT -......----..-......---..------ 1- 2 50.62 60
Toxaphene + DDT ................................... 2-2 53.57 65
DDT ...... -------- -----.................------... 2 57.69 71

Untreated check ................................... 6

Percentages were transformed to angles (angle = arc sin V % ) before conducting
analysis of variance.
** Means joined by the same line are not significantly different; Means not joined by the
same line are significantly different.
t Untreated check plots were neither randomized within this experiment nor included
in the analysis. Value taken from check plots in an adjacent experiment.

The Florida, Entomologist

DDT, DDT-oil, endrin, sevin, thiodan, and guthion emulsions: Emul-
sions were applied at 4-day intervals during May to compare three dosages
of endrin, sevin, thiodan, and guthion with DDT (2 pounds), and DDT-oil
(2 pounds + 2.5 gallons) emulsions. All emulsions were applied at the
rate of 50 gallons per acre.
Endrin at 1.6 pounds per acre gave a degree of control that was not
significantly different from that given by either DDT or DDT-oil. Endrin
at 0.8 pound per acre gave a percentage of worm-free ears that was sig-
nificantly less than that obtained with DDT-oil but not DDT. The 1.6 pound
dosage of endrin was significantly more effective than the 0.8 and 0.4 pound
levels. The 0.8 and 0.4 pound dosages were not significantly different
(Table 4).


Pounds of

per Acre


Worm-free Ears
Angle *** Percent

Endrin EC (1.6 lbs./gal.) .............. 0.4 57.89 72
Endrin EC ........................................ 0.8 62.30 78
DDT EC (2 lbs./gal.) ...................... 2.0 67.16 85
Endrin EC .................... .............-.. 1.6 69.00 87
DDT EC + mineral oil ............ 2.0 + 2.5 gals. 74.36 93

.Untreated check t ...................... 40

Percentages were transformed to angles (angle = arc sin V % ) before conducting
analysis of variance.
** Means joined by the same line are not significantly different; Means not joined by the
same line are significantly different.
t Untreated check plots were not included in the analysis.


Pounds of
ediet Worm-free Ears
Insecticide per Acre Angle ** Percent

Sevin EC (1 lb./gal.) --........-... ................. 0.5 57.93 72
Sevin EC ..................... ................. 1.0 63.30 80
Sevin EC .......................... .. ........... 2.0 66.94 85
DDT EC (2 lbs./gal.) .............................. 2.0 67.30 85
DDT EC + mineral oil .............................. 2.0 75.63 94

Percentages were transformed to angles (angle = are sin V % ) before conducting
analysis of variance.
** Means joined by the same line are not significantly different; Means not joined by the
same line are significantly different.

Vol. 41, No. 1

Harris: Studies on Corn Earworm Control 21

Sevin at one and two pounds per acre, and DDT, were not significantly
different in corn earworm control (Table 5). The DDT-oil emulsion gave
significantly better control than the other treatments. Both DDT and the
two pound dosage of sevin were significantly better than the 0.5 pound
dosage of sevin.


Pounds of
Ingredient Worm-free Ears
Insecticide per Acre Angle ** Percent

Thiodan EC (2 lbs./gal.) ........... 0.5 51.24 61
Thiodan EC ........................................ 2.0 64.88 82
Thiodan EC .......................-.......--....... 1.0 64.94 82
DDT EC (2 lbs./gal.) ...................... 2.0 66.72 84
DDT EC + mineral oil ................... 2.0 + 2.5 gals. 73.56 92

Percentages were transformed to angles (angle = are sin V % ) before conducting
analysis of variance.
** Means joined by the same line are not significantly different; Means not joined by the
same line are significantly different.

The percentages of worm-free ears given by thiodan at one and two
pounds per acre and DDT-were not significantly different, but were signifi-
cantly higher than that for thiodan at 0.5 pound (Table 6). DDT-oil emul-
sion was significantly the most effective treatment.
The DDT-oil emulsion was significantly better than guthion at 0.75 or
0.38 pound per acre (Table 7). DDT was significantly better than guthion
at the 0.38 pound level. The 1.5 pound dosage of guthion was significantly
better than the 0.38 pound dosage.


Pounds of
Ingredient Worm-free Ears
Insecticide per Acre Angle ** Percent

Guthion EC (1.5 lbs./gal.) ...........-............ 0.375 60.41 76
Guthion EC -----..-..... ............... .......... ... 0.75 68.14 86
Guthion EC ......-....-.........-- ...-- .....-- .. 1.5 70.97 89
DDT EC (2 lbs./gal.) ................................ 2.0 72.77 91
DDT EC + mineral oil ............................ 2.0 77.42 95

Untreated check t ..----.......................------ ... 49

Percentages were transformed to angles (angle = arc sin V % ) before conducting
analysis of variance.
** Means joined by the same line are not significantly different; Means not joined by the
same line are significantly different.
t Untreated check plots were not included in the analysis.

The Florida Entomologist


Although experiments reported in this paper have not indicated a better
corn earworm control program, they have shown some interesting side
lights. When care was taken to apply as many gallons of wettable powder
spray as DDT emulsion, the wettable powder spray gave a degree of control
about equal to that given by the emulsion. DDT wettable powder sprays
have never been recommended for corn earworm control in Florida, but
most of the sweet corn growers in the Everglades who spray are using
wettable powders in preference to DDT emulsifiable concentrates. This is
apparently because emulsifiable concentrates are more expensive, and also
because some growers have experienced spray burn with emulsions. The
author observed spray injury to sweet corn ears from DDT-oil emulsions
but not from DDT emulsion when used alone.
The addition of toxaphene to parathion or DDT emulsions did not increase
corn earworm control. In fact, it appeared that admixture with toxaphene
slightly decreased the degree of control given by DDT in emulsions.
Considering both the degree of control obtained and the cost of the in-
secticides, neither endrin, sevin, thiodan, nor guthion show promise for corn
earworm control. At the higher dosages each gave a degree of control
comparable to that given by DDT but as these are comparatively new in-
secticides, the cost per pound of actual toxicant will probably be much
greater than that for DDT.

Vol. 41, No. I


Plant Pest Control Division, U.S.D.A.,
Lake Alfred, Florida

The Mediterranean fruit fly, a serious pest of peaches, citrus, and other
tropical fruits, and a limited number of vegetables, has tuice invaded the
State of Florida. So far as is known the only area in the world from which
this pest has been eradicated has been Florida. The present program can
not be considered completed at this time insofar as eradication is concerned;
however, there is every reason to believe that eradication will be accom-
plished. No specimens have been found in Florida since the recovery of a
single adult fly on August 7, 1957, in Hillsborough County, 37 days after
the last previous capture. This is the longest fly-free period since the pro-
gram began last year.
The insect assuredly was eradicated in its first invasion in 1929, with
specimens being found for a period of a little over 15 months and eradica-
tion declared complete in the 18th month.
There are some similarities between the 1929-30 campaign and the
1956-57 campaign. The first invasion was noted when maggots were dis-
covered in grapefruit in April, 1929. Likewise, the second invasion came to
light with the discovery of I'Medflies", again in grapefruit, and also in April,
but in 1956. One big difference between the two invasions was that the
first was found in Orlando and throughout predominately rural sections of
central Florida; whereas, the second infestation was found in Miami and in
other heavily populated metropolitan areas, such as St. Petersburg and
Tampa, as well as in rural citrus-growing areas. It is believed that the
Medfly, regardless of the means of control used, would be more difficult to
eradicate from urban than from rural areas due to the many problems en-
countered in eradication treatments in heavily populated sections.
Federal and State appropriations in the first campaign amounted to ap-
proximately $7,000,000; whereas, approximately $10,000,000 had been ex-
pended by the end of June, 1957, on the second eradication attempt. At the
peak of the eradication campaign, there were approximately 6,000 employees
engaged in the first fight as compared with less than 800 on the state and
federal payrolls in the 1956-57 campaign.
During the first campaign a maximum of 12,645 traps was used as com-
pared with 50,267 in 1957. Much more effort was devoted to fruit cutting
as a means of detection in the first campaign than in the second. The fruit
fly was found in 20 counties in 1929 and in 28 counties in 1956.
Road blocks were used in both campaigns; however, they were much
more stringent in the 1929 outbreak and were manned by the National
Guard, which, as far as is known, is the only instance wherein the National
Guard participated in enforcing plant quarantines. The road blocks in the
1956-57 campaign were discontinued as soon as heavy infestations had been
cleaned up in the metropolitan areas, and in lieu thereof a patrol system

1 From a talk presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Florida En-
tomological Society, September 11, 1957.

The Florida Entomologist

was used to regulate the movement of host material from infestations in
rural areas.
During the first campaign, large quantities of citrus fruit were destroyed.
Despite the restrictions placed on the movement of all Florida host material
to other states, and to at least 13 foreign countries, the insect managed to
get out of Florida and was found in 17 shipments in seven different states.
In one case in North Carolina the fly apparently had gone through the vari-
ous stages of development and an adult was taken in a small grocery store.
During the present campaign, on the other hand, no Medflies have been found
in other states and the movement of most of the Medfly hosts was provided
for through the use of authorized fumigation and/or insecticidal treatments
so that crops could be shipped to any point in the United States and to a
number of foreign countries under proper certification.
In the 1929 campaign the principal means of eradication consisted of
host fruit removal; whereas, in the present campaign host fruits were not
destroyed, but instead insecticidal bait sprays with supplemental surface
treatments were the principal eradication tools. It is true, however, that
bait sprays of a different type were applied by ground sprayers to a limited
extent in the 1929 fight. In the 1956-57 campaign principal emphasis was
placed on aircraft applying the eradication treatments, and bait sprays
were applied one or more times to 799,757 acres. The repeat treatments to
this acreage to date has totaled in excess of 6,727,887 acres. At the present
time one single engine aircraft is carrying on the entire spray program cov-
ering 2,200 acres in Polk and HiHsborough Counties in comparison to the
350,000 acres treated during a single week at the peak of the campaign. It is
anticipated at this time, barring further finds, that the last aerial bait sprays
will be applied in Polk County on September 23 and in Hillsborough County
on October 8. The last area under quarantine, barring further finds, will be
released from all regulations on November 5 with regulations only being in
effect in limited areas in Polk and Hillsborough Counties after the 26th
of this month.
In looking toward the future we first should recognize the fact that
Mediterranean fruit flies, as well as other species of fruit flies, are continu-
ally being intercepted at air and ship ports of entry by Plant Quarantine
inspectors. For that reason the State of Florida is continually being ex-
posed to possibility of infestations slipping by this first line of defense. It
is absolutely essential, therefore, that an adequate detection program be
continued on a permanent basis in order to locate any infestations that may
be introduced in their incipient stage. This detection program should, of
course, give primary consideration to areas where specimens will most likely
be introduced such as ship ports, international air ports, and military instal-
lations. Fortunately, on the basis of current research data, it will be pos-
sible in such a continuing trapping program to use a single trap with a
multiple lure and be on the lookout for the melon, Oriental, and Mediter-
ranean fruit flies. To date a different type of trap would have to be used
in inspections for the Mexican fruit fly.
The advancements possible in the eradication treatments between the
1929 and the 1956 campaign were brought about through an intensive re-
search program. Eradication of the 1956-57 infestation would have been
all but impossible if the 1929-30 procedures were all that were available.

Vol. 41, No. 1

Rohwer: Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Florida 25

It is believed to be imperative that research work be continued in efforts
to still further increase the efficiency of survey and control techniques as well
as commodity treatment procedures. There should be a continued, close,
working relationship between research personnel and the agencies respon-
sible for detection in order that the most effective procedures would be used
in the survey work.
In addition to a continued research program on the Medfly, a similar
program should be continued in connection with research on the other fruit
flies as well as other foreign pests. It is only in this way that we will be
able to cope with them if and when they arrive.
We should expand to the fullest extent possible our cooperative working
arrangements with foreign countries in order that introductions of the
Medfly to additional areas would come to our attention promptly. Likewise,
we should give foreign countries technical assistance in dealing with current



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Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
California Spray-Chemical Corp.
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
P. O. Box 7067 ORLANDO Phone 3-0506


Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville

An extensive pattern of light-traps is operated throughout Florida for
routine sampling of mosquitoes. In addition, a series of light-traps was
operated in the vicinity of the new Jim Woodruff Dam on the Apalachicola
River in northwestern Florida as part of a study of the effects of impound-
ment on the mosquito populations of the area. Both of these endeavors
have contributed greatly toward a knowledge of the chironomid fauna of
Thus far four species of the genus Xenochironornus have been identified
from Florida. Of these, one appears to be undescribed.
This species is named in honor of the late Dr. J. Speed Rogers, teacher
and friend.
Xenochironomus rogersi, n. sp.
HOLOTYPE MALE. Wing 3.3 mm. long, leg ratio 1.6, antennal ratio 2.7.
Head yellowish brown; palpi light brown; antenae, except two basal seg-
ments, dark brown with dark brown plume.
Mesonotum yellow-brown, sometimes tinged with green; the vittae
ochraceous; the postnotum d a r k
brown to black in center, narrowly
fuscous at margins.
Wings tinged with dusky brown,
the wing veins brown; cross vein no
darker than other veins. Knob of
halters yellowish, sometimes tinged
with green.
First abdominal segment brown,
except for a narrow v-shaped lighter
/ area at center basally; segments 2 to
,/ 5 yellow-brown with apical third of
each segment dark brown; remain-
ing segments mostly dark brown.
Legs yellow-brown; apex of fore
femur, all of fore tibia and tarsi
dark brown, almost black. Knees
and all tarsi of middle and hind legs
dark brown. No beard on fore tibia
and tarsi.
Genitalia: (Fig. 1.) The very
broad short dististyles and the
Fig. 1.-Male genitalia, Xenochi- feathery projections on the anal
ronomus rogersi. point are distinctive.
FEMALE: Yellowish, with three
blackish-brown stripes on the mesonotum; the central stripe about 2.0 as
long as broad, beginning at the anterior end and extending back for 0.25 the

The Florida Entomologist

length of the mesonotum; the lateral stripes each about 4.0 as long as broad
and extending from the posterior end forward for about 0.65 the length of
the mesonotum. Each stripe is broadest anteriorly and narrows to a point
apically. Otherwise similar to the male except for the usual sexual differ-
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: The holotypic male, Winter Park, Florida, 8
May, 1956; 4 males, 3 females, Winter Park, Florida, 8 May, 1956, 19 July,
1956, 14 August, 1956, 3 September, 1956; 1 male, Tampa, Florida, 31 May,
1956; 1 male, Port Mayaca, Florida, 4 February, 1955.
The species herein described appears to be quite close to X. dorneri
(Malloch) (1915) of which only the female was described. The male is not
the same, however, as that described by Townes (1945) from Barro Colo-
rado Island, Canal Zone, as "X. dorneri ?". The female may be the same as
that Townes described from LaBelle, Florida. The females are so similar
in this genus that it is almost impossible to identify them to species.
We are indebted to Dr. Paul Arnaud, United States National Museum,
for aid in determining the taxonomic status of this species. The type has
been deposited in this museum.


Malloch, J. R. 1915. The Chironomidae, or midges, of Illinois, with par-
ticular reference to the species occurring in the Illinois River. Bul.
Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 10 : 275-543.
Townes, H. K. 1945. The Nearctic species of Tendipedini. Amer. Mid. Nat.,
34 : 1-206.

Vol. 41, No. 1


Department of Entomology
University of Florida

The Larvaevoridae (Tachinidae), or parasitic flies, comprise a large and
cosmopolitan family. It consists of some 300 genera and 5000 species, of
which 190 genera and 1500 species occur in North America (Essig, 1942).
The Florida species range in size from tiny three millimeter Chaetostigmop-
tera crassinervis (Walton) to the large spiny Juriniopsis adusta (Wulp)
which is 18 millimeters in length.
Adult Larvaevoridae are nectar feeders, and some have been reported
attracted to honeydew secretions of other insects. Some plants that have
a decidedly offensive odor to man are attractive to them.
The larvae typically are parasitic within the bodies of other insects. One
has been reported from a sowbug, a terrestrial crustacean, and a few have
been recorded from other arthropods. The greatest number of species para-
sitize larvae and pupae of the Lepidoptera. Certain members of other or-
ders, including Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Dermaptera, Hymenop-
tera and Diptera, are parasitized to a much lesser extent.

The taxonomic position of the Larvaevoridae is usually given as being
near the Sarcophagidae, to which they are related. Various authors have
placed this family either in the superfamily Oestroidea or Muscoidea, or
have grouped it along with the Hypodermatidae, Oestridae, Cuterebridae,
Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae in the superfamily Tachinoidea (Ender-
lein, 1936).
The group, or restricted parts of it, has had several family names, in-
cluding Tachinidae, Echinomyidae, Phasiidae, and Megaprosopidae. The
name used in this paper is the one in current usage.

It was necessary to rear host insects in the laboratory to secure host
records. Whenever a certain host species became prevalent, 25 to 100
larvae were collected. Mature larvae were selected for rearing as many
species are not parasitized until their last instar. Also, this materially cut
down the labor of feeding and caring for them. The caterpillars or other
host insects were hand-picked and placed in a large paper bag with a quan-
tity of their host plant, and the top of the bag was twisted tightly. These
containers make light, easily handled transportation cages.
Transference to rearing jars was done immediately after each collecting
trip. Rearing containers consisted of two screened cages and wide-mouthed,
gallon jars for the larger operations, and pint jars for individual rearing.

1 Based, in part, on a thesis submitted as partial fulfillment of the re-
quirements for the degree of Master of Science.
2 Present address, 705 Cherry St., College Station, Texas.

30 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 1

The plant material was washed if dusty or dry. Cotton batting was
wrapped around the ends of the stems, which were then placed in a small
jar of water. After the rearing container was filled to a depth of two or
three inches with clean, fresh, moist sand, the food material in its container
was firmly embedded in the sand. Then the larvae were introduced. Finally,
about two thicknesses of cheesecloth were tied over the mouth of the jar
and a label with all collection data was attached.
After the initial setting up of the rearing jars, fresh water was added
to the plant material daily. As most of the larvae had voracious appetites,
it was necessary to gather fresh food every other day.
At intervals of three to five days, all plant refuse and fecal pellets were
removed, or the larvae were moved to clean cages. After all the larvae had
entered the ground or had spun cocoons, all plant material was removed. A
twisted paper towel or other vertical support was placed in the cage to pro-
vide a resting place for adult hosts and parasites. Larvaevoridae, like the
Lepidoptera, must assume a vertical position to expand their wings. In
order to allow them time to dry and harden, the flies were killed in late
afternoon of the same day they emerged.
After the adults hosts and parasites stopped emerging, the sand was
sieved. Any remaining pupae were cleaned with a camel's hair brush and
transferred to clean sand or vermiculite for storage.


Since adult larvaevorids are nectar feeders, the most profitable collect-
ing sites are areas of blooming shrubs and flowers. Viburnum, Melilotus
alba and butterfly bush in spring, and Solidago sp., Bicens pilosa and
Polygonum hydropiperoides in fall yielded the greatest variety of specimens.
Midmorning is the most favorable time for collection. The Ormiini, para-
sites of nocturnal Orthoptera, are often taken at lights. Ultraviolet light
promises to be a good method of collecting seldom seen species which are
not attracted to incandescent or neon lights.
Adults were killed in a chloroform tube and pinned immediately if pos-
sible. When there were reared specimens that could definitely be associ-
ated with a puparium, this was pinned in a capsule beneath the adult which
emerged from it. In mass hearings, puparia were preserved in alcohol.
In order to study details of larval mouth hooks, cuticle and spiracles, it
was necessary to mount them on slides. The procedure, modified from Dr.
A. N. Tissot's aphid-mounting technique, is as follows:

Prick larva in several places near anterior end. Partially sever last
segment from body. Place in five percent, cold potassium hydioxide
overnight or in hot solution for twenty to thirty minutes. Using a blunt
instrument remove body contents by pressing gently from anterior to
posterior end. Wash in water by alternately pressing and releasing
integument. Transfer to the following solutions in order, allowing the
larval skin to remain in each about thirty minutes.
acetic alcohol (10% acetic acid in distilled water and 95% alcohol 1 to 1)
70% alcohol
95% alcohol
95% alcohol, clove oil 5 to 1
95% alcohol, clove oil 1 to 1
pure clove oil

Patton: Catalogue of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 31

Place a drop of Canada balsam on slide. Arrange the larva in bal-
sam on the slide, turning the last segment spiracles up, the skin flattened
and mouth hooks protruding or extracted. Apply glass cover slip.
After several days, when the slides are dry, labels can be affixed.


Previous contributions to a knowledge of Florida Larvaevoridae include
the study of specimens collected by Mrs. A. T. Slosson, mostly from the
Biscayne Bay area. C. W. Johnson's two lists in 1895 and 1913 cited many
records of Larvaevoridae. H. L. Dozier's ecological study in 1920 added more
host records.
The following list alphabetically lists records of over 200 species of
Larvaevoridae from Florida. These records include specimens from my own
collection, and the collections of the Entomology Departments of the Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station, the State Plant Board of Florida, and
the University of Florida College of Agriculture. Published records from
the literature are also included.
Records from sources other than my own are quoted in original form
and content, except that the most recent name of the parasite has been cited.
Information under each species is as complete as possible, giving in order
locality, date, collector, catalog number, and host. Records from the litera-
ture follow the same order, with the author and literature citation last.
Footnotes followed by the initials C.W.S. are comments by C. W. Sa-
brosky, mostly from personal correspondence. Notes and comments in
brackets are my own.
Unless otherwise indicated specimens from the above named collections
were identified by C. W. Sabrosky.

The following abbreviations are used in the catalog.
P-C. N. Patton catalog numbers
AES-Entomology Department, Florida Agricultural Experiment
SPB-Entomology Department, State Plant Board of Florida
CED-Entomology Department, College of Agriculture, University
of Florida

Achaetoneura Brauer and Bergenstamm
A. aletiae (Riley)
Gainesville, Fla., 10/12/53 to 10/30/53, C. N. Patton, P-200B. Thirteen
specimens reared from cage of 50 Estigmene acre (Drury) larvae.
Gainesville, Fla., 11/18/53, C. N. Patton, P-202. Parasite larva emerged
from larva of Megalopyge opercularis (A. & S.) on above date, pu-
pated in soil, and adult emerged 11/30/53.
Gainesville, Fla., 4/10/54, C. N. Patton, P-220A. Six flies reared from
500 larvae or pupae of Malacosoma americana (F.).
Poe Springs, Fla., 9/23/54, C. N. Patton, P-225B. One specimen reared
from over 50 larvae of Megalopyge pyxidifera (A. & S.).
?Gainesville, Fla., 8/26/30, AES 7242. Reared from the Bella moth.
[Utethesia bella (L.)]

The Florida Entomologist

Ocala, Fla., 12/22/31, A. N. Tissot, AES 7786. Reared from Xantho-
pastes timais Cramer, larvae taken from Hymenocallis crassifolius.
det. J. M. Aldrich.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/13/39, A .N. Tissot, AES 8544. Reared from larvae
or pupae of Mocis repanda (F.).
Gainesville, Fla., 11/24/34, W. P. Hunter. Reared from larvae of Ur-
banus proteus L.
St. Petersburg, Fla., 11/26/55, C. N. Patton, P-286. About 30 flies reared
from over 200 larvae and pupae of Syntomeida epilais Walker.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/28/55, C. N. Patton, P-262A. Reared from Datana
ministry (Drury) larvae. Flies emerging 10/11/55.
A. sp., probably archippivora (Williston)
Clearwater, Fla., 6/1/53, L. S. Maxwell, AES 10245B. Reared from
larvae or pupae of Laphygma frugiperda (A. & S.) on St. Augustine
A. sp. nr. cuculliae Webber
Gainesville, Fla., 4/6/48, A. N. Tissot, AES 9940B. Reared from Estig-
mene acrea Drury larvae and pupae collected in a lupine field.
A. frenchii (Williston) complex3
Gainesville, Fla., 9/9/55, C. N. Patton, P-256. Parasites of Datana in-
tegerrima G. & R. collected on 8/12/55 on Hicoria tomentosa.
Oleno State Park, Fla., 9/8/55, C. N. Patton, P-257. Parasites of Da-
tana ministry (Drury), two lots collected on Hicoria tomentosa on
A. sp. nr. laniiferae Webber
Eagle Lake, Fla., 10/30/48, Mrs. Maude Cowden, AES 9609. Parasites
of Eupseudosoma involutum var. floridanum Grote. Two host larvae
sent in on above date. One larva found dead 11/6/48, and two days
later, two fly puparia'were found in the soil. Flies emerged 11/17/48.
A. piperi Townsend
Gainesville, Fla., 10/10/53, C. N. Patton, P-211. Taken on Bidens
pilosa. det. H. J. Reinhard.
A. rileyi (Williston)
Gainesvlile, Fla., 11/3/37, K. V. Wheeler. Ex orange dog pupa.
Gainesville, Fla., 1940, D. B. Fogarty, CED. Ex Papilio cresphontes
A, schizurae Townsend
Gainesville, Fla., April 13-14, H. L. Dozier. (Dozier, 1920 : 372).

Acroglossa Williston
A. hesperidarum Williston
Inverness, Fla., March 10, 22, Robertson. (Johnson, 1913 : 74).

Acronarista Townsend
A. mirabilis Townsend
Palm Beach, Fla., Dyar. (Townsend, 1908 :85, orig. desc.).

Actia Robineau-Desvoidy
A. americana (Townsend)
Gainesville, Fla., 5/29-6/5/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-273A. U.V. light trap.

Admontia Brauer and Bergenstamm
A. sp.
Alachua Co., Fla., 4/12/38, CED.

3 "I believe that what has been called 'frenchii' may be a complex requir-
ing further study."-C. W. S.

Vol. 41, No. 1

Patton: Catalogue of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 33

Admontiopsis Townsend
A. tarsalis (Coquillett)
Gainesville, Fla., 4/13/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-271. U.V. light trap.

Aphira Robineau-Desvoidy
A. ocypterata Townsend
Florida, Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 : 72).

Archytas Jaennicke
A. apicifer (Walker)
Gainesville, Fla., 3/20/55, C. N. Patton, P-237. Reared from pupa of
Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth), pupated within host pupa.
Gainesville, Fla., 11/22/53, C. N. Patton, P-209. On Bidens pilosa.
A. aterrimus (Robineau-Desvoidy)
Gainesville, Fla., 4/10/54, C. N. Patton, P-220. Ninety-seven flies reared
from over 500 Malacosoma americana F. pupae. The parasite pupa
was located in the anterior end of the host pupa. Adult flies emerged
about 9 A.M., and were most active at night.
A. convexiforceps Brooks
Miami, Fla., Nov. 11-21, Townsend. (Brooks, 1949 : 23, orig. desc.).
A. lateralis (Macquart)
Gainesville, Fla., April 13-14, H. L. Dozier. Most abundant parasite
reared from Malacosoma americana F. (Dozier, 1920 :372).
Gainesville, Fla., 1940, Fogarty, AES. Ex Malacosoma americana F.
A. marmoratus (Townsend)
Sabrosky (1955) refers published Florida records of A. incerta (Meigen)
to this species, with which he synonymizes A. piliventris (Meigen),
stating that A. incerta occurs only in South America.
Tallahassee, Fla., 9/23/54, AES 105272B. From Laphygma frugiperda
(A. & S.) collected on badly damaged hegari.
Goulds, Fla., 4/2/42, AES 10483. Reared from a pupa of (probably)
Prodenia latifascia Wlk., collected on above date; fly emerged
4/27/42. det. M. T. James, 1945.
Gainesville, Fla., 7/31/53, AES 10320B. Reared from Laphygma frugi-
perda (A. &. S.) collected on millet. Flies emerged 8/15 and 8/16.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/12-18/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-279L. U.V. light trap.
A. metallicus (Robineau-Desvoidy)
Ocala National Forest, Fla., 10/24/54, C. N. Patton.
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261C. On Polygonum hydro-
A. rufiventris Curran
Sebring, Fla., 6/26/53, H. V. Weems.
Alachua Co., Fla., 10/20/49, H. A. Denmark.

Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy
B. bifasciata (Fabricius)
Blue Springs, Fla., 11/9/54, C. N. Patton, P-227. Reared from Anisota
sp. nr. rubicunda (F.). Parasites pupate inside host pupae.
B. borealis Aldrich
Highlands Hammock State Park, Fla., 3/27/51, H. V. Weems. On
Comus strict.
B. slossonae Coquillett
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261D. On Polygonum hydro-
B. townsendi Aldrich
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261A. On Polygonum hydro-

The Florida Entomologist

Beskia Brauer and Bergenstamm
B. aelops (Walker)
Gainesville, Fla., 9/16/17, J. R. Watson, AES 1939.
Alachua Co., Fla., 10/20/40, CED.

Biomya Rondani
B. angustifrons Reinhard
Gainesville, Fla., 5/29-6/5/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-273B. U.V. light trap.
B. aurigera (Coquillett)
Gainesville, Fla., 7/30-8/3/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-277E. U.V. light trap,
3 spm.
B. georgiae (Brauer and Bergenstamm)
Gainesville, Fla., 7/30-8/3/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-277A. U.V. light trap,
27 spm. [Other dates yielded only a few spm.]

Blepharipeza Macquart
B. inermis (Bigot)
Charlotte Harbor, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1895 :332).

Bonnetia Robineau-Desvoidy
B. comta (Fallen)
Leesburg, Fla., 4/19/42, AES 10485. Reared from a larva of Feltia
subterranea (F.) which died 5/2/42. The next day, a fly puparium
was found. Adult emerged 5/13/42. det. M. T. James, 1945.

Bucentes Latrielle
B. geniculata (DeGeer)
Inverness, Fla., Feb. 12-Mar.'22, Robertson. (Johnson, 1913 :71).

Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy
C. amplexa (Coquillett)
SKey West, Fla., 7/15/18, E. L. Gehry, SPB 3373. Nine flies from one
pupa of Megalopyge opercularis (A. & S.). det. R. T. Webber.
Key West, Fla., 12/7/29, R. G. Milner. Ex Megalopyge opercularis
(A. & S.). det. Merrill.
C. diacrisiae Sellers
Gainesville, Fla., 5/6/55, C. N. Patton, P-242B. One fly reared from
larva of Estigmene acrea (Drury).
C. flavirostris (Van der Wulp)
St. Petersburg, Fla., SPB 8361. Ex Megalopyge opercularis (A. & S.),
reared from pupae. det. R. T. Webber.
Key West, Fla., 7/15/18, SPB. Ex Megalopyge opercularis (A. & S.).
Adults emerged 9/11/21. [The lapse of three years is impossible;
the adults undoubtedly emerged in 1918.1
C. formosa (Aldrich and Webber)
Gainesville, Fla., 1933, CED. Ex Automeris io (F.).
Gainesville, Fla., 4/27/29, AES 10652. Automeris io (F.).
C. lagoae (Townsend)
Gainesville, Fla., 3/5/54, L. A. Hetrick, P-217. Four adults emerged
from cocoon of Megalopyge opercularis (A. & S.).
Jacksonville, Fla., 5/4/54, W. F. Lyons, AES 10476. Five specimens
emerged from a cocoon of Megalopyge opercularis (A. & S.) received
on 12/9/53.
C. reclinata (Aldrich and Webber)
Gainesville, Fla., 10/12/53 to 10/30/53, C. N. Patton, P-200A. Five
adults reared from cage of 50 Estigmene acrea (Drury) larvae.
Gainesville, Fla., 1/7/54, C. N. Patton, P-213. Six parasites from a
single larva of Ecpantheria deflorata F., pupated 12/23/53, emerged
1/7 to 1/10/54.

Vol. 41, No. 1

Patton: Catalogue of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 35

Palatka, Fla., 12/9/53, C. N. Patton, P-205. Mature larva of Ecpanthe-
ria deflorata F. collected on 11/1/53, appeared freshly molted. Eight
parasite larvae pupated in soil, about 12/5/53. Adults emerged
12/9/53 to 12/12/53.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/27/54, C. N. Patton, P-231. Seven flies reared
from a single larva of Estigmene acrea (Drury).
C. sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 11/6/38, AES 8314B. Parasites of hag-moth larvae
or pupae. Of the 14 pupae, only one perfect adult emerged. [Phobe-
tron pithecium?]

Cenosoma Van der Wulp
C. signifera Van der Wulp
Highlands Hammock State Park, Fla. 3/29/51, H. V. Weems.

Ceracia Rondani
C. dentata (Coquillett)
Georgetown, May 10, 1894, C. W. Johnson. (Johnson, 1895 :334).
Biscayne Bay, Fla. (Johnson, 1913 :73).
C. (n. sp.?) near dentata Coquillett
Gainesville, Fla., 9/26-10/5/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-281. U.V. light trap,
1 spm.
Ceratomyiella Townsend
C. angusticornis (Townsend)
Inverness, Lake Worth, Mar. 3-19, Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 :73).
Miami, Fla., Oct. 8 and 15, Townsend. (Reinhard, 1934c :16).

Chaetogaedia Brauer and Bergenstamm
C. analis, (Van der Wulp)
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261H. On Polygonum hydro-
Alachua Co., Fla., 3/15/35, CED.
gen. sp. nr. Chaetogaedia
?Gainesville, Fla., 8/10/30, H. E. Bratley, AES 7260. Parasite of
Litoprosopus sp., larva collected on Washingtonia palm. Fly emerged
Chaetoglossa Townsend
C. nigripalpus Townsend
Inverness, Fla., Feb. 23, Robertson. (Townsend, 1892b :126).
C. picticornis Townsend
South Florida, Feb. 16, Apr. 4, Robertson. (Townsend, 1892b : 126).
C. violae Townsend
Inverness, Fla., Feb. 16, Mar. 26, Robertson. (Townsend, 1892b : 126).
Florida. (Johnson, 1913 :72).

Chaetophleps Coquillett
C. n. sp.4
Gainesville, Fla., 7/18/38, R. J. Wilmot, AES 8522. Four larvae emerged
from a roach, Periplaneta americana (L.).
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-280G. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Chaetophlepsis Townsend
C. townsendi (Smith)
Miami, Fla., Oct. 27, Townsend. [ holotype] and
Ft. Meade, Fla., Aug. 30, 1919. [9] (Reinhard, 1952 :16).
4 "Poor condition, all wings broken, but apparently a new species. Very
few records from cockroaches of any kind."-C. W. S.

The Florida Entomologist

Alachua Co., Fla., 11/7/38, H. Hixon.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-280H. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282H. U.V. light trap.
3 spm.
Chaetostigmoptera Townsend
C. crassinervis (Walton)
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-280F. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Cholomyia Bigot
C. inaequipes Bigot
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-280A. U. V. light trap.
3 spm.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282A. U.V. light trap.
5 spm.
Chrysotachina Brauer and Bergenstamm
C. alcedo (Loew)
Gainesville, Fla., 9/2/54, C. N. Patton, P-224. Six flies reared from be-
tween 30 and 40 larvae of Urbanus proteus L. Four more pupae
were attacked by a fungus and were discarded.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282C. U.V. light trap.
2 spm.
Cistogaster Latreille
C. immaculate Macquart
"This species ranges from Alberta to Quebec in Canada, Illinois to Texas
east to the Atlantic Coast in the United States." (Brooks, 1945:
230). [Fattig also recorded it from Georgia.]

Cnephalomyia Townsend
C. floridana Townsend
White Springs, Fla., Oct.-Nov., Townsend. (Johnson, 1913 :73).
Miami and White Springs, Fla., Oct.-Nov., 1908, Townsend. (Townsend,
1912 : 113. orig. desc.).

Copecrypta Townsend
C. ruficauda (Van der Wulp)
Lake Worth, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 :74).

Cryptomeigenia Brauer and Bergenstamm
C. sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 5/15-20/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-274D. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Cuphocera Macquart
C. hirsuta (Townsend)
Alachua Co., Fla., 3/5/55, H. V. Weems. At Melilotus alba.

Cylindromyia Meigen
C. binotata (Bigot)
Gainesville, Fla., 5/5/55, C. N. Patton.
C. fumipennis (Bigot)
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261N. On Polygonum hy-
Avon Park, Fla., 3/26/54, F. W. Mead, SPB.

Doryphorophaga Townsend
D. australis Reinhard
Gainesville, Fla., 6/30/37, CED. Ex potato beetle.
S"Described from Ohio and Texas and recorded from Long Island,
N. Y."-C. W. S.

Vol. 41, No. 1

Patton: Catalogue of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 37

D. sedula Reinhard'
Gainesville, Fla., 4/20-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-272. U.V. light trap.
1 spin.

Epidexia Townsend
E. pulverea (Coquillett)
Florida. (Coquillett, 1897 :115. orig. desc.) [as Masicera]
E. (n. sp.?)
Alachua Co., Fla., 10/31/?.

Epidexiopsis Townsend
E. orbitalis Townsend
Miami, Fla., Oct. 28, 1908. (Townsend, 1916a :308. orig. desc.).

Euantha Van der Wulp
E. lituratc (Olivier)
Alachua Co., Fla., May 7, 1938, H. Hixon.
Alachua Co., 1027, 1938, CED. [This might mean 10/27/38].

Eucelatoria Townsend
E. armigera (Coquillett)
Gainesville, Fla., 3/19/42, A. N. Tissot, AES 10482. Reared from a
larva of Agrotis ypsilon (Rothm.). The larva died on 3/23 and two
days later, two fly puparia were found. Flies emerged 4/6 and
4/7/42. det. M. T. James, 1945.
E. conosa Van der Wulp
Florida. (Ingram, Jaynes, and Lobdell, 1939 :657).
E. rubentis (Coquillett) -
Gainesville, Fla., 8/11/55, C. N. Patton.
Gainesville, 9/1/55, C. N. Patton.
Gainesville, Fla., 7/30-8/3/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-277B. U.V. light trap.
7 spm.
E. sp. (? dark rubentis Coq.)
Gainesville, Fla., 3/20/55, C. N. Patton, P-236. Two dozen larvae of
Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.) collected on above date. Flies
emerged: 2 on 4/6/55, 1 on 4/7/55, 1 on 4/11/55.

Eucordyligaster Townsend
E. minuscule (Van der Wulp)
Gainesville, Fla., 10/3/53, C. N. Patton. Resting on azaleas.
Highlands Hammock State Park, Fla., 3/15/52, H. V. Weems.

Euphasiopteryx Townsend
E. dominicana (Townsend)
Biscayne Bay, Fla., Mrs. Slosson; Hollywood, Fla., March 2, 1939, W.
Benedict. (Sabrosky, 1953 : 295).
E. ochracea (Bigot)
Gainesville, Fla., 9/17/38, R. J. Wilmot, AES 8343.
Florida-Belleair, Ft. Drum, Ft. Myers, Hollywood, Morrison Field, and
So. Miami. (Sabrosky, 1953 :299).

Euthera Loew
E. tentatrix Loew
Worthington Springs, Fla., 7/18/47, P. W. Calhoun, AES 9311. Reared
from an adult bug-Euschistus servus Say, collected on cotton. Fly
emerged 7/27/47.
Gainesville, Fla., 7/20-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-276B. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.

The Florida Entomologist

Gainesville, Fla., 9/12-18/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-279C. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Eutheresia Townsend
E. sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282J. U.V. light trap.
1 snm. det. H. J. Reinhard.

Eutrichopoda Townsend
E. abdominalis Townsend
Panama City, Fla. (Sabrosky, 1950 :336).

Exopalpus Van der Wulp
E. n. sp. nr. smith (Van der Wulp)
Alachua Co.. Fla., 4/17/38.

Exorista Meigen
E. mella (Walker) (larvarum of American authors)
Gainesville, Fla., 5/22/55, C. N. Patton, P-244. Sixteen flies reared
from the pupae of Estigmene acre (Drury). One or two is the usual
number from one host pupa, but I have seen three. Parasite larvae
emerge from host pupae and pupate in soil.
Live Oak, Fla., 5/20/55, C. N. Patton, P-246. Fourteen flies emerged
from cage of 33 Estigmene area (Drury) larvae and pupae.
Marianna, Fla., 5/19/51, W. W. Glenn, AES 9991. Two specimens
reared from about 6 hosts-Apantesis phyllira Drury.
Gainesville, Fla., 4/12/48, A. N. Tissot, AES 9941A. Reared from Es-
tigmene acre (Drury), larvae collected in lupine fields. [See AES
9488. Out of 6 parasitized larvae, 24 larvaevorids were reared, the
above species and Gymnocarcelia ricinorum (Tns.).]
Live Oak, Fla., 4/6/51, AES 9892. About 17 flies reared from larvae?
of Apantesis phyllira Drury. Only 1 moth obtained from some 20
Frontiniella Townsend
F. parancilla Townsend
Crestview, Fla., 8/1/47, F. W. Barber, AES 9930. Reared from pupae
of Tetralopha scortealis (Led.). Fly puparia formed within pupae of
the moths.
Gaediopsis Brauer and Bergenstamm
G. flavipes Coquillett
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261K. On Polygonum hy-
Genea Rondani
G. aurea James
Monticello, Fla., 7/26/14, A. I. Fabis. Bred from Tetralopha subcanalis
Wlk. (James, 1943 : 112. orig. desc.).

Goniomima Townsend
G. luteola (Coquillett)
Pelican Lake and Belle Glade, Fla., May 3, 1955, D. D. Questal. From
Leucania sp. on sugar cane.

Guerinia Robineau-Desvoidy
G. simulans (Meigen)
Gainesville, Fla., spring, 1954, C. N. Patton, P-233. Parasites of a
small sawfly on Fraxinus sp.
"This is the species recorded as Nemoraea smith in Johnson's 'Diptera
of Florida' (1913). If one from Mexico is correct as smithii, the Florida
species is slightly different."-C. W. S.

Vol. 41, No. 1

Patton: Catalogue of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 39

Gymnocarcelia Townsend
G. ricinorum Townsend
Gainesville, Fla., 10/12/53, C. N. Patton, P-200C. Eleven specimens
reared from cage of 50 Estigmene acre (Drury) larvae.
Gainesville, Fla., 11/22/53, C. N. Patton, P-201. Four parasite larvae
emerged from a single isolated prepupa of E. acre (Drury).
Gainesville, Fla., 4/9/48, G. W. Dekle, AES 9939. Eight flies reared
from single larva of Estigmene acre (Drury).
Gainesville, Fla., 5/15/55, C. N. Patton, P-243. Twenty-nine flies reared
from larvae of Estigmene acre (Drury).
Live Oak, Fla., 5/17/55, J. E. Brogdon, P-245. Twenty-four flies reared
from 33 larvae of Estigmene acre (Drury).

Gymnoerycia Townsend
G. rubra Townsend
Miami, Fla., 11/16/08, Mrs. Townsend. (Townsend, 1916a :313. orig.
Houghia Coquillett
H. septipennis Coquillett
Gainesville, Fla., 9/12-18/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-279J. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-280K. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Juriniopsis Townsend
J. adusta (Van der Wulp)
Gainesville, Fla., 10/5/55,,C. N. Patton, P-267. Three empty puparia
found in larval skin of Ecpantheria deflorata F.
J. floridensis Townsend
Sebring, Fla., 6/26/53, "H. V. Weems.

Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy
L. leucophrys (Wiedemann)
Gainesville, Fla., 3/31/38, A. N. Tissot, AES 8147A. Reared from lar-
vae of Estigmene acre (Drury).
Gainesville, Fla., 4/27/44, AES 10231. Reared from larvae or pupae of
Euchaetias egle Drury collected on climbing milkweed. det. CNP.

Leskiella James
L. brevirostris James
Florida. (James, 1943 :97. orig. desc.).

Leskiomima Brauer and Bergenstamm
L. cinerea James
Orlando, Fla., Jan., 1930, D. J. Nicholson. (James, 1943 :101. orig.
Alachua Co., Fla., 2/13/54, SPB.
L. tenera (Wiedemann)
Monticello, Fla., J. B. McGill. Reared from Acrobasis juglandis (LeB.)
larvae. (James, 1943 : 102).

Leskiopalpus Townsend
L. depilis (Coquillett)
Everglades National Park, Fla., 12/28/51, H. V. Weems.
Alachua Co., Fla., 4/29/36. Reared from fern roller.
Lake County, Fla., 11/1/53, SPB.
(To be Continued)




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Beginning early in the 14th century, the city of Venice required all ships
desiring trade with its people to remain at anchorage for forty days prior
to docking. The word quarantine (derived from the Italian quarantine,
meaning forty) has come, since this time, to connote not 40 days of isola-
tion but rather a system or type of scientifically established restrictions
involving in some cases, embargoes and in others, treatments and inspec-
tions of peoples, cargoes and/or carriers.
Only in comparatively recent times have entomological quarantines
achieved recognized standing. Representatives of various European coun-
tries, in 1881, agreed upon certain measures to limit the area of destruction
occasioned by the importation from America of the grape phylloxera.
California, in 1886, was the first of our states to take action to prevent
the introduction of agricultural pests and plant diseases from foreign
countries or other states. The Federal Plant Quarantine Act of 1912
established regulations covering international commerce.
Public Health entomology since 1900 has operated to control insect vec-
tors of disease arriving at United States ports in ships. The establishment
of codified federal regulations in 1941 gave a definite entity to the public

JULY 1, 1956, THROURH JUNE 30, 1957.

Number or Number of
Order Families Specimens

Thysanura ............................ 1 1
Ephemeroptera .................-- 1 11
Odonata ......-----......................... 1 1
Orthoptera ................-........ 6 125
Isoptera ......................-----..... .. 1 1
Dermaptera ....................... 2 4
Psocoptera .-------......................... 1 4
Thysanoptera .-.................... 1 1
Hem iptera ..-......................... 11 65
Homoptera ..................--..... 7 115
Coleoptera ............................ 25 217
Trichoptera .-----......................... 1 2
Lepidoptera ........................ 13 324
Diptera ....................... ..... 34 7567
Hymenoptera ...........-.......... 13 191

Totals: 118 8629

1 Entomologist, U.S. Quarantine Station, Miami Beach, Florida, Division
of Foreign Quarantine, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare.

42 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 1


Species Alive Knocked Down Dead

Culicidae ...............................................- 5
Aedes sp. ............................--- .. 3 1 78
A. sp. (prob.) euiris --------------- 1
A. sp. (prob.) tortilis ........------- 3
A. albifasciatus ...................................... -- 2
A obturbator .........................................-- 1
A. sollicitans ....................-.......- -............... 2 18
A. taeniorhynchus .................... ---- 88 18 728
A tortilis --............................................. 2
Aedomyia squammipennis ......................... 1
Anopheles sp ......----........................--- -- 10
A. (Nyssorhynchus) sp ............................ 4
A. sp. (prob.) albimanus ......................... 3
A. sp. (prob.) crucians ................................ 1
A. sp. (prob.) grabhamii .............................. - 1
A. sp. (prob.) quadrimaculatus -...-..-....... 1
A albim anus .......................------- ........... 1 10
A albitarsis ................................. ............ 1
A. crucians ...................... -------..... 9
A. grabhamii .------------.....................~~.-... .... 1 11
A. quadrimaculatus .....................-............. 1 1
A. neomaculipalpus .................................... - 1
A. vestitipennis --- --..........1.................. - 1
Culex sp ..........--- --- ......-... ............ 23 79
C. (Melanoconion) sp. ....-----.----.-.... .........-- 4 57
C. sp. (prob.) nigripalpus --............................ 1 -
C. sp. (prob.) quinquefasciatus .................. 2 6
C. sp. (prob.) tarsalis ...................-- ..........- 2 1
C. nigripalpus .................................. ........... 9 4
C. pilosus ...................---- ......-..............- 1
C. quinquefasciatus -----........... ....................... 163 47 94
C. tarsalis --..................----- .............-...-... 2 2 1
Culiseta sp. ---......... ....---------.... -............. 3
Mansonia sp. ................................... ....... 1 21
M. flaveolus ..... ------........... ------............... 3
M indubitans ..................--- ..................... 10
M titillans ---............................................. 1 17
Psorophora sp ...........................-----------............- 3
P. ciliata ----......---..---- ---....... ........... --- 1
P. confinnis .....-........ ..------ ---.---------......... 1 21
P. pygm aea .............................................- 4

Totals: 305 68 1219

Porter: Public Health Service Quarantine Entomology 43

health quarantine entomology program. The details of this program were
published in the June, 1957, issue of the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. 2 Briefly,
the U. S. Public Health Service has pioneered the development and im-
provement of aircraft disinsectization to destroy vectors of disease (and also
some potential agricultural pests). It is responsible for establishing the
federal regulations we follow governing in-flight spraying of aircraft and
the inspection of airplanes after their arrival at United States airports,
along with the entomological surveillance of these airports.
The Public Health Service maintains certain inspectional and control
facilities against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in southern United States. This
entails searching and spraying of aircraft and ships arriving from yellow
fever suspect or endemic ports along with the control of mosquito breeding
at airport and in the dock areas.
The reports of insect recoveries made by our sanitary inspectors at the
various airports of entry have proved to be useful data for analysis by au-
thorities throughout the world, interested in the possible threats to their
countries of insects "hitch-hiking" aboard airplanes.
Some of our recent findings, as shown in the Tables 1-4, indicate
to some extent the variety of insects found aboard planes and ships.
It can be seen from these tables that insects of all kinds are capable of
being transported by aircraft and ships. Many insects arrive in Miami in
a condition satisfactory for further propagating the species and would
possibly do so if our inspectors did not apply terminal disinsectization in
most instances. Thus, there is a necessity to maintain a continuing alert-
ness and defense against these potential threats of disease and destruction.

Number of Number of
Order Families Specimens

Thysanura ....--......-.............. 1 5
Collem bola ...-..................-..... 1 1
Ephemeroptera ................... 1 3
Orthoptera ............................ 3 8150
Dermaptera ........................ 2 61
Psocoptera ............................ 1 31
Thysanoptera .........-............ 1 1
Hemiptera ...----........................ 6 79
Homoptera ... --..................... 3 11
Coleoptera ..... ------....................... 17 173
Lepidoptera ........--....--------.... 5 53
Diptera ..............-----........... 22 6603
Hymenoptera .-----.......--...--- 7 7618

Totals: 70 22789

Data taken from inspection records of Miami Quarantine Station, November, 1945-
May, 1946; May, June, August and September, 1950, and July 17, 1957.

2 Porter, John E., 1957. The development of public health Service quar-
antine entomology and its program in South Florida. Fla. Entom. 40(2):

44 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 1


Species Alive Dead

Culicidae .---........ ------ --- ----------.......... 4
Aedes sp .......----...-----........ --- ..----...... 1 1
A. aegypti (larvae) ..... ... -----.... ............---- 2 -
A aegypti ...........------... ...................... 8 1
A sollicitans ~.~....... ... ..... ....... 3 1
A. taeniorhynchus ----.---............ ...------ ...... 15 30
Anopheles sp. ............----.....-----....... ......-- 1
Anopheles sp., prob. albimanus ................-- 1
A albim anus .................----------.... ..... ....- 2
A. crucians ................ ----..-....... -------- 1
Culex sp ................------ -------------........... 1 15
C. nigripalpus ................ --... -.......... ....... 1
C. quinquefasciatus ...........---------.. .........- 42 11

Totals: 72 69

Data taken from inspection records of Miami Quarantine Station, November, 1945-
May, 1946; May, June, August and September, 1950, and July 17, 1957.

LARVAE: On February 10, 1957, a specimen of Terrapene carolina was col-
lected near Gainesville, Florida. Examination of its neck region revealed
two large and two small wounds surrounded by several large swellings each
packed with fly larvae, thirty-five of which were removed from the wounds
and reared to adults. Approximately 36 larvae remained in the swellings.
These larvae later left the wounds and pupated. The adults were identified
as Sarcophaga cistudinis Ald.1 The turtle was cared for in captivity for
four and one-half weeks, at which time it died. Apparently the damage
caused by the larvae (total number of larvae counted was 71) was exten-
sive enough to cause the death of the turtle. Wayne King and James V.
Griffo, Jr., Department of Biology, University of Florida.

Identification made by Mr. W. L. Downes, Entomological Research
Service, U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Maryland.

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