Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00197
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1958
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00197
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text



Volume 41, No. 2

June, 1958



Harris, Emmett D., Jr.-Factors Affecting the Results of
Corn Earworm Control Studies ----..----.... -----..-.----- 51

King, John R., and W. L. Thompson-Fruit Piercing Moth,
Gonodonta nutrix (Cramer), Attacks Oranges
in Florida -------..----------- ------ ---------- 61

Announcement of 41st Annual Meeting .------------.------- 65

Hood, J. Douglas-The Rediscovery of Dinurothrips vanzenyii
Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) ...---------........-------. 67

De Leon, Donald-Four New Typhlodromus from Southern
Florida (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) .....................------........--... 73

Patton, Constance Nicholas-A Catalog of the Larvaevoridae
of Florida ---....--------..--...----- ..----- -...... ..-- .. 77

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


OFFICERS FOR 1957-1958

President ---...........--..-......................- -------Irwin H. Gilbert
Vice-President ..---........................--.......--- ........William P. Hunter
Secretary ..---.........---.-------- --......---- ....... Robert 0. Kirkland
Treasurer ..---... ------....--.. ......-- ........----- Harold A. Denmark
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
Other Members of Executive Committee Henry True
Milledge Murphey, Jr.

LEWIS BERNER -..--....-...........--------- .........Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP ..........-- ...... Associate Editor
HAROLD A. DENMARK..--------... --Business Manager

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post
office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and
orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 2425,
University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
One zinc etching, not to exceed one-half page in size, or the equivalent
thereof, will be allowed free. The actual cost of all additional illustrations
must be borne by contributors. In general, the cost of a full page zinc
etching is $7.50. Reprints of articles may be secured by authors if they
are ordered before, or at the time proofs are received for correcting; 25
copies furnished free to authors.

Each additional
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ....................................... $ 5.25 $ 6.25 $ .98
5-8 ....................................... 8.75 10.75 2.10
9-16 ........................................ 13.00 17.10 3.00
17-20 ........................................ 19.25 23.50 4.00
More than 20 pages,
per page ............................ .98 .88 .19
Additional for covers with title and author's name,
First 50 ........................$5.25 Additional, each............$ .02


Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida

Many papers have been written on the control of the corn earworm,
Heliothis zea (Boddie), but few authors have published on those factors
that may affect the reliability and precision of the experiment on corn ear-
worm control. Some of these factors that have been studied by the author
are discussed in this paper.
EVALUATING INJURY: Most workers have estimated the degree of corn
earworm injury by two basic methods: 1) the percentage of injured or un-
injured ears, and 2) by an injury index to show the average degree of in-
jury per ear. To determine the injury index, numbered categories are arbi-
trarily based on the depth of injury from the tip of the ear by earworms en-
tering through the silk channel, and on the number of kernels damaged by
insects attacking the ear by chewing through the husk. The number of
ears in each category is multiplied by the category number. These products
are then summed and the total divided by the number of ears examined.
Walter (1948) described a method in which the categories are numbered
from 0 to 5 with 0 indicating no injury and 5 indicating the greatest amount
of injury. He also estimated the average number of kernels that are de-
stroyed for each category of injury. Connell (1956) developed an instru-
ment to facilitate measuring the depth of injury. Ditman and Ditman
(1957) described another instrument for this purpose. They also gave
details of a method by which the depth of earworm injury can be used to
estimate the actual percentage loss of kernels by weight.
During the summer of 1956, the author compared the two basic methods
of evaluating corn earworm injury in popcorn and field corn variety trials,
and in chemical control experiments on sweet corn. The two methods were
compared by several statistical measurements: the treatment F value; the
coefficient of variation; the lowest significant difference by the Multiple
Range Test; and, the percentage that the lowest significant difference was
of the average amount of injury in the experiment. A higher treatment F
value would imply that a method was more likely to detect significant differ-
ences among treatments. The coefficient of variation is the square root of
the error means square divided by the average amount of injury for the
experiment. The precision of an experiment varies inversely with the size
of the coefficient of variation (Snedecor 1946). The lowest significant
difference by the Multiple Range Test is that value used to compare two
adjacent, ranked means (Duncan 1953). It is analagous to the L.S.D. The
Multiple Range Test value cannot be used directly for comparing the two
methods as they give injury evaluations that are numerically different from
each other. However, by dividing the lowest significant difference by the
average amount of injury and multiplying by 100, percentage values for
each method are obtained which can be compared. These percentage values
merely reflect the coefficient of variation but are given for amplification.

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Journal Series No. 643.

The Florida Entomologist

On June 21 and 22, 25 ears from each plot were examined in a popcorn
variety trial that had been planted by Dr. V. E. Green, Jr. for agronomic
studies (Green and Harris, 1956a). There were 19 varieties in four random-
ized complete blocks. Each plot consisted of one row that was 100 feet in
length. Injury index categories were: 0-no injury; 1-injury to kernels
to one-eighth the length of the ear; 2-injury to one-fourth the length of
the ear; 3-injury to one-third the length of the ear; 4-injury to one-half
the length of the ear; 5-injury exceeding one-half the length of the ear.
For each plot the number of ears in each category was multiplied by the
category number. The products were added, divided by 25, and then multi-
plied by 100 to make whole numbers for greater ease in making calcula-
tions. The injury index method was superior to percent worm-free ears
for detecting significant differences among varieties (Table 1). This injury
index method gave a highly significant treatment F value as compared to
a non-significant one for percent worm-free ears. The coefficient of vari-
ation was much lower for the injury index method.


Angles for Percent Injury
Worm-free Ears Index

Treatment F value (d.f. = 18-& 54) 1.29 (NS) 33.19**
Average earworm injury 15.9 148.2
Coefficient of variation 51.4% 13.6%
Lowest significant difference by the
Multiple Range Test 11.6 29
Percent of average injury 72.8% 19.6%

1 Percent worm-free ears transformed to arc sin V % before analysis of variance.

Examinations were made for injury to field corn that had been planted
by Dr. V. E. green, Jr. for agronomic studies (Green and Harris, 1956b).
Thirteen varieties were compared in five randomized complete blocks. Each
plot consisted of a single row that was 100 feet in length. The corn was
harvested on July 9 but not examined for earworm injury until August 2,
1956. Twenty-five ears per plot were examined to compare the varieties
by each method of injury evaluation. Categories for the corn earworm
injury index were: 0-no injury; 1-tip only; 2-injury to kernels to one-
half inch below the tip of the ear; 3-injury to one and one-fourth inch
below the tip; 4-injury to two and one-half inches below the tip; 5-injury
exceeding two and one-half inches below the tip. Because it was infre-
quent, injury to the ear caused by earworms chewing through the husk was
not considered. Again the injury index was the superior method for de-
tecting significant differences among varieties (Table 2).
The criteria of injury index and percent worm-free ears were compared
in two chemical control studies on sweet corn. Twenty-five ears were ex-
amined per plot. The method of scoring was based on U. S. Standards for
Green Corn (Lennartson, 1954) as applied to corn earworm injury.

Vol. 41, No. 2

Harris: Results of Corn Earworm Control Studies 53

Code Grade Description of Injury
0 U. S. Fancy No evidence of insect, frass, or injury.
1 U. S. No. 1 Insect, frass, or injury in silk channel or at
tip of ear.
2 U. S. No. 2 Insect, frass, or injury to a depth greater than
1/ the length of the ear from the tip.
3 Cull Insect, frass, or injury to a depth greater than
1/ the length of the ear from the tip.

Injury to the side of the ears was negligible and was not included in the
analyses. In both experiments, analysis of percent worm-free ears gave
a higher degree of precision than analysis of injury indexes (Table 3).
The treatment F values were slightly higher, and the coefficients of varia-
tion and the differences needed to show adjacent, ranked treatment means
significantly different were much lower with percent worm-free ears.
The injury index method seemed superior in field corn and popcorn variety
trials but appeared inferior to the criterion of percent worm-free ears in
chemical control studies on sweet corn. The sweet corn injury index method
was less precise than for popcorn or field corn because of fewer categories
but it is doubtful that this is the reason for it failing to be as effective as
percent worm-free ears. It is also doubtful that there is any real difference
between field corn or popcorn and sweet corn in this respect. During the
silking period, insecticides were applied to the sweet corn and not to the
popcorn or field corn. A chemical probably tends to either completely pre-
vent or permit earworm injury with little effect on the degree of injury.
Differences in earworm resistance among varieties appear to be manifested
in the degree of injury per ear.
Originally it was thought that an injury index method might show differ-
ences among insecticide treatments that are too subtle to be detected by
percent worm-free ears. The data (Table 3) contradict this supposition.
From a practical standpoint in the Everglades area, percent worm-free
ears is a better criterion for evaluating corn earworm control on sweet
corn. Everglades grown corn is sold for the fresh market and the grower
is interested in obtaining only U. S. Fancy corn. A U. S. Fancy ear shows
absolutely no evidence of attack by the corn earworm. Field corn or pop-
corn is another matter. Here, we are not interested in grade requirements
but the actual amount of corn destroyed. Percent worm-free ears reveals
little about this, whereas, the injury index is a reliable estimate.
NUMBER OF EARS EXAMINED PER PLOT: By determining only the percent
worm-free ears and omitting the injury index, at least four times as many
ears can be examined in a given time. The precision of the experiment can be
increased by examining a larger number of ears per plot. Two of the chemi-
cal control experiments conducted in 1957 were harvested in such a manner
that the effect of sample size on the precision of the experiment could be de-
termined. In each experiment the percentage of worm-free ears per plot
was determined and the data were transformed to angles (arc sin V %
before analysis of variance.
The first experiment was conducted to screen some of the newer insec-
ticides for corn earworm control. The corn was sprayed only once during
the silking period in January. The corn earworm population was low and

54 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 2


Angles for Percent Injury
Worm-free Ears 1 Index

Treatment F value (d.f. = 12 & 48) 1.25 (NS) 2.08*
Average earworm injury 25.3 196.4
Coefficient of variation 30.9% 15.2%
Lowest significant difference by the
Multiple Range Test 10.0 38.1
Percent of average injury 39.4% 19.4%

1 Percent worm-free ears transformed to arc sin V % before analysis of variance.


Angles for Percent Injury
Worm-free Ears Index

Experiment 1
Treatment F Value (d.f. = 19 & 38) 3.49** 3.03**
Average earworm injury -83.2 4.9
Coefficient of variation 8.6% 196.5%
Lowest significant difference by the
Multiple Range Test 12.0 16.0
Percent of average injury 15.4% 328.1%
Experiment 2
Treatment F Value (d.f. = 13 & 39) 9.31** 8.55**
Average earworm injury 51.9 58.0
Coefficient of variation 10.1% 41.7%
Lowest significant difference by the
Multiple Range Test 14.1 35.0
Percent of average injury 27.2% 60.3%

1 Percent worm-free ears transformed to arc sin V % before analysis of variance.


Number of ears per plot
25 50
Treatment F Value (d.f. = 15 & 45) 1.72 (NS) 2.66**
Coefficient of variation 10.8 7.1
Lowest significant difference by the
Multiple Range Test 10.7 7.0

1 Average of two analyses.

Harris: Results of Corn Earworm Control Studies 55

84 percent of the ears in the untreated check plots were worm-free. Six-
teen treatments (including the untreated check) were compared in four
randomized complete blocks. A 25-ear sub-sample was examined for corn
earworm injury in each row of each two-row plot. The two sub-samples
were used separately and combined in analyses of variance. The analysis
of the 50-ear sample gave about 52 percent more relative information than
the average of the analyses for the 25-ear sub-samples (Table 4). The
treatment F value for the 25-ear sub-sample was not significant, whereas,
that for the 50-ear sample was highly significant. The coefficient of varia-
tion and the lowest significant difference between two adjacent ranked
means as determined by the Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1953) was
greatly reduced by the larger sample size.

12 F


Coefficient of
Variation (%)

3 L

50 75


Number of Ears Examined
Fig. 1.-Number of ears examined per plot and the precision of a chem-
ical control experiment. a Multiple Range Test value for comparing two
adjacent, ranked means.

The Florida Entomologist

The second experiment was conducted to compare 15 insecticide treat-
ments. Most of these gave about the same degree of corn earworm control.
Treatments were applied at 24- or 48-hour intervals during the silking
period in April. Each was replicated four times in a randomized complete
block design. The untreated check plots, which contained an average of
49 percent worm-free ears, were not included in the analyses of variance.
A sub-sample of 25 ears was taken from each half of the two center rows
of each six-row plot. Four analyses each were made for samples contain-
ing 25, 50, and 75 ears per plot and then averaged for each sample size. In
each analysis, data from the same plot quadrant or combination of quadrants
were used throughout the analysis. The quadrants were chosen randomly for
the 50-ear samples as there was a possibility of two more quadrant com-
binations than were analyzed. Analysis for the 100-ear sample also was
The precision of the experiment increased sharply as the sample size
increased from 25 to 100 ears per plot (figure 1). The relative information
for the 100-ear sample was about 53 percent greater than that for a 25-ear
sample. Theoretically, the optimum sample size would be indicated by the
point at which the lines would become nearly horizontal. It is apparent
that this point was not reached with a sample of 100 ears per plot. Fur-
ther work is needed to disclose the optimum number of ears per plot to be
examined in corn earworm control experiments.
In determining a suitable sample size the experimenter should be guided
by the magnitude of the difference that he wishes to detect among treat-
ments within an experiment. In preliminary experiments to screen insecti-
cides or methods of application, a small sample size would probably be in
order. For experiments in which it is desired to detect small treatment
differences, 100 or more ears per plot should be examined.
EFFECT OF STAND: Douglas and Eckhardt (1953) reported that there
was greater earworm injury to field corn with fewer plants per acre, and
when the number and size of ears were reduced by nitrogen deficiency.
Eden (1956) reported that there were no significant effects in the percent-
ages of worm-free sweet corn ears resulting from differences in irrigation,
rate of nitrogen fertilizer, or spacing. Corn in their tests was sprayed
routinely for corn earworm control. Klostermeyer (1950) reported that
an increase in nitrogen fertilizer resulted in less corn earworm injury to
sweet corn and field corn. He thought that the effect of nitrogen was
through one or more of the following factors: earlier silking and maturity,
increased number and size of ears, decreased number of barren stalks, in-
creased length of husk extension, and tightness of husk.
In the field corn and popcorn variety trials planted by Dr. Green in
1956 there was an erratic reduction in stand caused by subterranean insects
and poor growing conditions. In both experiments each plot consisted of a
single 100-foot row in which the plants were intended to be spaced 12
inches apart. These rows were three feet apart and the planting rate
should have resulted in 14,520 plants per acre.
The regression (r = -0.2784*; Y = 1.791 0.2773X) of the injury
index on the number of popcorn ears per 100-foot of row is shown in figure
2 along with the percent change occurring to variety means when adjusted
for regression. Covariance analysis showed a significant reduction (F =

Vol. 41, No. 2

Harris: Results of Corn Earworm Control Studies 57

4.71*) of the error mean square by regression. Figure 3 shows the highly
significant regression (r = -0.4008**; Y = 288.2 1.0978X) of the corn
earworm injury index for field corn on the number of ears harvested per
100 feet of row and the percentage that variety means were adjusted for
number of ears per row. The reduction (F = 8.98**) of the error mean
square due to regression was highly significant. Figure 4 shows the same
information for the regression of percent worm-free ears on the number of
field corn ears harvested per row (r = 0.4337**; Y = 0.3866X 12.1).
The reduction (F = 10.89**) of the error mean square due to regression
was again highly significant.


So -160-
SRegr 5
o .ca


80 E0 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
Ears per i00 Feet of Row (X)
0 5

-10 -

80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
Ears per 100 Feet of Row (X)
Fig. 2.-The effect of ear population density on the degree of corn
earworm injury in a popcorn variety trial.

In a sweet corn planting in which the author conducted a chemical con-
trol study on budworms, a complex of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and Laphyg-
ma frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and a later chemical control study on the corn
earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), the stand was erratic as a result of frost
and wireworm injury. Before the first budworm insecticide application
there was a highly significant negative correlation (R = -0.8911**) be-
tween the percentage of plants injured by budworms and the number of
plants per row. After two insecticide applications for budworm control,
the negative correlation had fallen to a non-significant value (R = -0.2727).
There was a still lower negative correlation (R = -0.1912) between the
percentage of ears free from earworm injury and the number of plants
per row.
These experiments indicate a relationship between the number of plants
per row and the degree of earworm injury. This effect seems greater for
unsprayed corn in variety trials than it is for corn in chemical control
studies. The experimenter should take this relationship into consideration
when he has an uneven stand within a corn field.
GALLONAGE: Few will deny that with a given concentration of insecti-
cide the amount of spray applied per acre (at least to the point of run-off)
has an effect upon the degree of insect control. But how many experiment-

The Florida Entomologist

Regression of Yon X

80 90 100




195 c



' 180

Ears per 100 Feet of Row (X)
Fig. 3.-The effect of ear population density on the degree of corn
earworm injury in a field corn variety trial.


15 -35

10 Regression of Yon X 30

0- 20

- 5 -I 15
-- 10
-10 10





80 90 100
Ears per 100 Feet of Row (X)

Fig. 4.-The effect of ear population density on percent worm-free
ears in a field corn variety trial.

Vol. 41, No. 2

Harris: Results of Corn Earworm Control Studies 59

ers assume that when the spray pressure, nozzles, and sprayer speed are
constant, different insecticide sprays are applied at the same gallonage per
acre? Under such conditions it has been found that a spray containing two
pounds of actual DDT in 50 gallons prepared from four pounds of 50 per-
cent DDT wettable powder is applied at a much lower gallonage than one
prepared from one gallon of 25 percent DDT emulsifiable concentrate.
In one instance, it was found that two Myers jumbo nozzles per row
containing number 3 disks, at a spraying pressure of 200 pounds per square
inch, and a speed of about 3.4 miles per hour, delivered 36 gallons of DDT
wettable powder spray as compared to 48 gallons of DDT emulsion per
acre. When the self-propelled sprayer was shifted -to the next lower gear
to give a speed of approximately 2.0 miles per hour the wettable powder
spray was applied at the rate of 54 gallons per acre.
Analysis of gallons per acre applied on three dates at 3.4 miles per
hour and 200 pounds per square inch pressure indicated that DDT emulsions
were applied at 67.8 gallons per acre as compared to DDT wettable powder
sprays at 56 gallons per acre. This difference was highly significant.
A wettable powder spray flows through the nozzles at a reduced rate
probably because of increased viscosity and friction. It is suspected that
the author detected such great differences because a heavy concentration of
insecticide was used. But in corn earworm control it is common to use high
concentrations. There is a problem of how to apply equal gallonages of
two insecticidal sprays, without adding a variable that is just as important,
or more important, than gallonage. Nozzle sizes of the same type are dif-
ferent enough to over-compensate for this difference in gallonage. Spray-
ing pressure has to be changed too much to correct the gallonage. It seems
that the best selection would be to use a filter of finer mesh with the more
free-flowing material or to vary the speed of application.
DISCUSSION: Only a few of the factors that affect the results of corn
earworm control experiments have been discussed and the studies on these
factors are far from complete and conclusive. Many workers probably have
data on these and other factors that they consider of importance only to
themselves. Unless such data are published each worker must either study
these factors or ignore them.
The author has shown by two experiments that increasing the sample
size greatly increased the precision of the experiment. But it is not known
how many ears per plot should be examined to give optimum results. There
is apparently nothing in the literature concerning a closely related factor,
i. e. the number of replicates that should be included in the experiment.
Further, the author knows of no work that has been conducted to deter-
mine the best type of experimental design. Perhaps a Latin square would
give a more precise experiment than the randomized complete block that
is commonly used in corn earworm control studies.
Most workers analyze injury indexes without transformation, and analyze
percent worm-free ears as such or after transformation to angles (arc
sin V % ). Statisticians have shown that percentages usually should
be transformed to angles before analysis of variance but that data (includ-
ing percentages) with certain types of distribution should be transformed
to other values, e. g. logarithms (Snedecor, 1946). It seems that transfor-
mation to angles gives better results than analyzing raw percentages but

The Florida Entomologist

perhaps there is some other transformation that will give even more re-
liable results.
Studies and subsequent publications concerning the factors that influ-
ence the results of corn earworm control studies would greatly benefit all
entomologists studying the control of the corn earworm. Much of this in-
formation would be of direct importance to the corn grower.
SUMMARY: Comparisons of two methods of evaluating corn earworm
injury indicated that an injury index is superior for variety trials, whereas,
percent worm-free ears is superior for chemical control studies. Increasing
the number of ears examined per plot from 25 to 50 and 100 greatly in-
creased the relative information obtained from corn earworm control ex-
periments. Unequal stands were found to affect the results of corn ear-
worm control experiments, especially variety trials. The gallonage per
acre applied with wettable powder sprays was much less than that applied
with emulsions containing the same concentration of actual DDT when
other factors were constant.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The author is indebted to Mr. Edward King, Jr.,
Draftsman, and Mr. H. M. Spelman III, Staff Assistant, for preparation of
the graphs and to Mr. C. E. Seller and Mr. F. D. Stevens, Field Assistants,
for help in conducting field experiments.


Connell, W. A. 1956. Control of larvae infesting sweet corn ears. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 49 : 539-542.
Ditman, L. P., and J. L. Ditman. 1957. On apparatus for measuring corn
earworm injury to sweet corn. Jour. Econ. Ent. 50 :371-372.
.Douglas, W. A., and Robert C. Eckhardt. 1953. The effect of nitrogen in
fertilizers on earworm damage to corn. Jour. Econ. Ent. 46 : 853-854.
Duncan, D. B. 1953. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Dept. of Sta-
tistics and Statistical Lab. Va. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Rpt. 6a : 1-54.
Eden, W. G. 1956. Influence of nitrogen fertilizer, spacing, and irrigation
on control of the corn earworm in sweet corn. Jour. Econ. Ent.
49 : 278-279.
Green, Victor E., Jr., and Emmett D. Harris, Jr. 1956. Studies with pop-
corn varieties in the Everglades area 1952-1956. Everglades Station
Mimeo Report 57-4.
Green, Victor E., Jr., and Emmett D. Harris, Jr. 1956. Results of research
with field corn in the Everglades Area 1956. Everglades Station
Mimeo Report 57-5.
Klostermeyer, E. C. 1950. Effect of soil fertility on corn earworm damage.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 43 : 427-429.
Lennartson, Roy W. 1954. United States standards for green corn. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Agricultural Marketing Service F. R. Doc. 54-2915 : 1-4.
Snedecor, G. W. 1946. Statistical Methods, 4th ed. 485 pp. Ames, Iowa.
The Iowa State College Press.
Walter, E. V. 1948. Corn earworm resistance in sweet corn inbreds and
hybrids. U. S. Dept. Agr. B.E.P.Q. E-745 : 1-22.

Vol. 41, No. 2


King and Thompson: Fruit Piercing Moth in Florida 65

quires about two weeks during the summer months; there are three gen-
erations from mid-July to September 1.
No control measure has been worked out. Under existing conditions,
eradication of the host plant, A. glabra, would possibly be the most effective
and economical method. According to Quayle (1938) poison baits have
been used in other countries to suppress adult population of related species.
SUMMARY: Samples of pierced oranges were received from a grove
near Fort Pierce, Florida in 1956. The insect involved was found to be an
adult moth, Gonodonta nutrix (Cramer). Considerable damage was done
to mature oranges as a result of the adult moths drilling holes in them.
From field observations made during two seasons, it was found that
the moth pierced the oranges during the night hours, and that other non-
piercing moth species used the holes to obtain food. The host plant for
the egg, larva, and pupa is the pond apple, Annona glabra (L.), which
grows along canals adjacent to citrus groves.
No control measure has been worked out, but with the limited population
of the host plant, A. glabra, it is possible that its eradication would provide
effective control of this pest.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: Acknowledgment is made to Messers. C. C. Woolard,
Jr. and R. L. Reese, of Fort Pierce, Florida for their help in life history
Crumb, S. E. 1956. The larvae of the Phalaenidae. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bul.
No. 1135.
King, John R. 1957. Summary of observations of citrus pests in Cuba
and the Isle of Pines. Citrus Magazine. 19(11) :21-22.
Quayle, H. J. 1938. Insects of citrus and other subtropical fruits. Com-
stock Pub. Co. Inc. Ithaca, N. Y.
Swanson, R. W. 1957. Cooperative insect pest survey. Florida State
Plant Board. 4(21) : 103.


The Florida Entomological Society will hold its annual meeting Septem-
ber 11-12, 1958, at the Tampa Terrace Hotel in Tampa. In addition to the
usual reading of papers (deadline for titles is August 1st), there will be
invitational speakers and two symposia. One panel will discuss nemas,
the other will talk about virus-vector relationships of plant diseases in
Florida. Dr. John S. Allen, President, University of South Florida, will be
the guest speaker at the banquet.
Members who have failed to receive the April communication calling for
titles can contact the Program Chairman, Frank W. Mead, State Plant Board
of Florida, Gainesville, if they so desire.



Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time








Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
California Spray-Chemical Corp.
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
P. O. Box 7067 ORLANDO Phone 3-0506


Cornell University

The finding of an old, "lost" species is certainly among the most gratify-
ing experiences of the systematist. It fills a gap in his knowledge, of which
he has been acutely conscious, while a new species merely extends his
knowledge in a more or less expected manner. Since the description of
Dinurothrips vanzenyii in 1919, by R. S. Bagnall, on the basis of a defective
unique female from Argentina, collected in 1905, others than I have no
doubt read and re-read his description, wondering whether the specimen
was really a Dinurothrips and, if so, whether it might not be simply the
short-winged form of D. hooker, the only other member of the genus. Mr.
Fritz Plaumann has now taken it in southern Brazil, and his material per-
mits for the first time a direct comparison between identical forms of the
two species and also between the males.
The other species treated below, D. hooker, is of interest, too, because it
is new to the known fauna of Florida and the United States.

1913. Dinurothrips Hood, Ins. Insc. Menstr., 1 (12) :150.
In connection with the genus itself, it is worth noting that the tarsi are
either one- or two-segmented, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6. This is a striking
fact, in view of the importance of the number of tarsal segments even in
the definition of much higher taxa in certain other orders of insects, such
as the Coleoptera. Dinurothrips, too, has a finger-like process near the tip
of the hind tarsi, on the dorsal surface, terminating in a stout seta (fig. 9).
The structure is not peculiar to this genus, however.
The following characters differentiate the two known species effectively:
a. (FEMALES, long-winged) : Yellowish brown to naked eye or under hand
lens, distinctly yellowish toward tip of abdomen; tibiae and tarsi yellow,
femora often yellow but frequently shaded with brown or even wholly
brown; legs longer, the hind tibiae (fig. 6) about five times as long as
wide; all tarsi one-segmented (figs. 6 and 9); pterothorax (fig. 7) about
as long as wide, the mesonotum (figs. 3 and 7) divided medially only in
posterior third, its sculpture finer, its reticles more sharply polygonal
and largely fanning out from the anterior end of median suture; segment
X of abdomen (see figure in original description) slenderer and more
tube-like.-(MALES, long-winged): Glandular areas on sterna III-VII
(fig. 10) subequal, that on III with lateral margins touching or surpassing
ante-coastal line; tergum IX (fig. 12) with two pairs of stout median
setae (one directly behind the other), and three pairs of long, strong,
dorso-lateral setae .........-.---... .....-------- ...... .. ---..-..-.............- hooker Hood
aa. (FEMALES, long- and short-winged) : Blackish brown or nearly black to
naked eye or under hand lens, somewhat yellowish toward tip of abdo-
men; legs blackish brown, with only the tarsi and the basal two-fifths of
hind tibiae yellowish; legs shorter, the hind tibiae (fig. 5) about four

The Florida Entomologist

times as long as wide; all tarsi two-segmented (fig. 5); pterothorax
(fig. 4) wider than long, with relatively shorter dorsal sclerites, the
mesonotum (figs. 2 and 4) completely divided along median line, its
sculpture coarser, its reticles rounded and less polygonal and not fan-
ning out from posterior third; segment X of abdomen stouter (about 1.6
times as long as greatest width), less concave at basal fourth, more
nearly conical than tube-like.-(MALES, short-winged) : Glandular areas
on sterna III-VII (fig. 8) unequal, becoming smaller on the anterior
sterna, that on III with lateral margins far behind antecostal line; ter-
gum IX (fig. 11) with only one pair of stout median setae and only two
pairs of long, strong, dorso-lateral setae ......................vanzenyii Bagnall
It may be well to note that Moulton, in his key to these species (Rev.
Ent., 3 [1] : 97, 1933), bases his separation on two characters: wing length
and leg color. The former character is seldom, if ever, of taxonomic value.
It usually indicates merely that our knowledge of the species is incomplete;
and sooner or later the missing form-usually the macropterous one-is
discovered. This is the case here. The latter of his two characters is based
upon error, he having given the color of the legs of hookeri under vanzenyii,
and vice versa. His records under hookeri (he did not know vanzenyii) are
doutless correct, nevertheless, as I have material of that species from the
same localities, and venzenyii appears to be more southern in distribution.

Dinurothrips hookeri Hood
(Figs. 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12)
1913. Dinurothrips hookeri Hood, Ins. Insc. Menstr., 1 (12) : 151,
Pl. V, Figs. 1-4.
Little need be added to the original description and figures, or to the
six additional figures now given and the characters enumerated above.
Short-winged forms are unknown and perhaps do not occur. The male,
however, has not been described. Its color is like that of the female, but
more yellowish. The principal structural characters are shown in figs. 10
and 12. Males are not frequent, though I have specimens from Jacare-
pagud, Campinas, Santos, and Nova Teutonia, all in Brazil.
DISTRIBUTION: Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, St. Lucia, Grenada, Trin-
idad, Panama, Surinam, Brazil, and Florida (Gainesville, taken in Septem-
ber, 1938 or 1939, by J. R. Preer, and in December, 1953, by Dr. Minter J.
Westfall, Jr., and me). It occurs on a variety of unrelated plants. As
was noted in the introduction above, it has not heretofore been recorded
from the United States or from Florida.

Dinurothrips vanzenyii Bagnall
(Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 11)
1919. Dinurothrips vanzenyii Bagnall, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,
Ser. 9, 4:256.
Bagnall's brief but discriminating description, based upon a unique
short-winged female from Tucuman, Argentina, taken more than fifty
years ago, is the only record of the species in the literature. The antennae

Vol. 41, No. 2

Hood: The Rediscovery of Dinurothrips vanzenyii 69

of his type had been broken off beyond segment II. Mr. Plaumann's recent
sending from southern Brazil comprises a good series of specimens, includ-
ing one long-winged female and two males, both of the latter short-winged.
It thus becomes possible for the first time to make a comparison between
females of the same form of the two species and to describe the male.
FEMALE, forma macroptera (newly discovered).-Somewhat shorter than
hookeri, the total length about 1.6 mm. Color blackish brown to nearly
black; head somewhat. yellowish in front; pronotum indistinctly yellowish

Fig. 1.-Dinurothrips vanzenyii Bagnall, head and pronotum;
9, brachypterous form-
Fig. 2.-D. vanzenyii, mesonotum; 9, brachypterous form.
Fig. 3.-D. hookeri Hood, mesonotum; 9, macropterous.

4 7

5 6

i,- *'-* '--- ---- --

S9 10

) 1 r 12

Fig. 4.-Dinurothrips vanzenyii Bagnall, outline sketch of
pterothorax; 9, macropterous form.
Fig. 5.-D. vanzenyii, left hind tibia and tarsus; 9, macropterous form.
Fig. 6.-D. hookeri, left hind tibia and tarsus; 9, macropterous.
Fig. 7.-D. hookeri, outline sketch of pterothorax; 9, macropterous.
Fig. 8.-D. vanzenyii, sterna III-VII of abdomen; &, brachypterous.
Fig. 9.-D. hookeri, left hind tarsus in lateral aspect; 9, macropterous.
Fig. 10.-D. hookeri, sterna III-VI of abdomen; S, macropterous.
Fig. 11.-D. vanzenyii, tergum IX of abdomen; S, brachypterous.
Fig. 12.-D. hookeri, tergum IX of abdomen; &, macropterous.

Hood: The Rediscovery of Dinurothrips vanzenyii 71

anteriorly and posteriorly; legs concolorous with body, except for the some-
what yellowish tarsi and the yellowish basal two-fifths of the hind tibiae;
antennae with segments I and III-V yellow, only the last of these shaded
apically, II dark brown, VI-VIII nearly black. Head 171 long medially, 182
laterally, 190 across eyes, 172 just behind eyes, 195 across cheeks, 183 near
base of cheeks, 154 across neck-line base, its structure and sculpture scarcely
different from those of short-winged form shown in fig. 1; eyes 88U long
dorsally, 55 wide, 80 apart. Pronotum 157tu long, 238 wide, sculptured as
in short-winged form (see fig. 1). Pterothorax (fig. 4) shorter than greatest
width; mesothorax 273,u across anterior angles, its greatest width 298;
Mesonotum with complete median suture, its sculpture as in short-winged
form (see fig. 2). Fore wings 815, formed as in type species. Abdomen
392/ across segments III-IV; X 162p long, 101 wide near base, conical rather
than sub-tubular in form; seta I on segment IX about 121u, II about 142;
seta I on X about 123u, II about 104. Antennal segments: I 27 (34), II 47
(40), III 94 (20), IV 60 (21), V 53 (23), VI 50 (23), VII 19 (12), VIII 48
(6-7); sense-cones on III and IV simple.
FEMALE, forma brachyptera (Bagnall's type is of this form, and the fol-
lowing notes and measurements are supplementary to his description).-
Length about 1.6 mm., or somewhat less. Color of head, body, legs, and
antennae as in macropterous form; fore wings brown, with a pale area just
before middle. Head (fig. 1) 165p long medially, 178 laterally, 186 across
eyes, 176 just behind eyes, 192 across cheeks, 175 near base of cheeks, 143
across neck-like base; eyes 86A long dorsally, 56 wide, 74 apart. Pronotum
(fig. 1) 137/A long (ranging from 137 to 152, with an average of 148), its
width in this specimen about 225. Pterothorax shorter than greatest width;
mesothorax 238 across anterior angles, its greatest width 251; mesonotum
with complete median suture, its sculpture shown in fig. 2. Fore wings
294g long, tapering to a narrow point. Abdomen 371 at segments III and
IV. Antennal segments: I 28 (34), II 44 (39), III 86 (20), IV 56 (21), V
53 (23), VI 47 (23), VII 19 (12), VIII 50 (6-7); sense-cones on II and IV
MALE brachypterouss; newly discovered).-Smaller and more slender
than female, otherwise very similar in color and structure; glandular areas
on sterna III-VII (fig. 8) and tergum IX of abdomen (fig. 11) very different
from those of hookeri (compare with figs. 9 and 11, respectively).
DISTRIBUTION: Tucuman, Argentina (Bagnall's type); Nova Teutonia,
S. C., Brazil, June, 1957, Fritz Plaumann, 1 macropterous 9, 7 brachypter-
ous 9 9, and two males brachypterouss), from grasses.

WMatdoe~it tkoIhxfr eatA?

*rE~i",8t I
^ ** ai ^ .''s^ rry
^'B' y' ''tf^^ B ^
iC ,I

-.<_. --.U im i, -;..,.7 .t1 !! ~



Nd" ~T: i

A great deal of work and knowledge goes into the
development of insecticides. Once developed, how-
ever, they're a priceless defense against the loss of
food and fiber, the disease, and the annoyance
caused by man's insect enemies. Velsicol Chemical
Corporation manufactures five basic insecticides
that are thoroughly proven, widely recommended,
and extensively used: Heptachlor, Chlordane,

Endrin, Parathion and Methyl Parathion. Each of
them is rated most efficient for specific types of
insect control, and all are available everywhere, in
ready-to-use, reasonably priced formulations. If
you deal with any phase of insect control, we think
you will find technical information about these in-
secticides highly useful.

Amozeng plant growth strmulont. Vels l
col's newest contribution to Increased
agricultural productivity Extensive re -
search program in progress


Pensacola, North Carolina

The typhlodromids described below are of particular interest because
the first one has three pairs of median setae instead of the usual two pairs
and the remaining three species have all or most all the setae of the dorsal
shield pectinate.
In these descriptions all measurements are in microns and are averages
unless variation from the average is more than ten percent, in such cases
the range is given.

Typhlodronmus ecclesiasticus, n. sp.
(Figures 1-4)
FEMALE.-Dorsal shield reticulate, 295 long, 155 wide at about L5 and
170 wide at about L7, with 19 pairs of setae as follows: 10 lateral, three
median, and six dorsal. Except for M2 and L10 all setae of the dorsal shield
short (13-21 long), smooth, and tapering to a point. M2 and L10 obovate,
flattened and with the edges distally serrate; M2 22 long, L10 23-28 long.
The extra pair of median setae situated between L6 and D4. Peritremata
extending forward to D1. Ventrianal plate constricted at sides with four
pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores, surrounded by four pairs of setae
including VL1 which is about 21 long, smooth, and tapering to a point.
Sternal plate indistinct, the number of pairs of setae on it not determinable.
Fixed digit with three subterminal teeth and one opposite pilus dentilis,
movable digit with one tooth. Legs relatively short (leg IV from base of
coxa to end of claw 226 long) and heavy, without macrosetae.
MALE.-Not known.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, April 18, 1955 (D. De Leon)
from Laguncularia racemosa; paratype: female, west of Perrine, Florida,
October 24, 1954, (D. De Leon) from Tecoma stands.

Typhlodromus ellipticus, n. sp.
(Figures 5-8)
FEMALE.-Body tan, broadly oval; dorsal shield with moderate imbrica-
tions, 296 long, 164 wide at L5 with 16 pairs of pectinate, narrow-elliptic
setae. In a few specimens D1 and D6 appear to be tapering and smooth,
and some of the other setae in some specimens (without consistency be-
tween specimens) scarcely elliptic and indistinctly pectinate, this condition
apparently caused by a turning up of edges of setae in mounting medium.
In the following measurements setal length is given above the line, distance
between setal bases below the line; for lateral setae this is the distance to
the setal base behind, for the others it is the transverse distance between
bases: L1 16, L2 15, L3 17, L4 19, L5 20, L6 20, L7 17, L8 41; M1 16, M2 29;
13 14 22 25 35 136 14 58 84

74 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 2

D1 19, D2 15, D3 14, D4 17, D5 18, D6 9 ; S1 14, S2 21; VL1 27 (the last
2 24 14 23 20 10
three setae also pectinate); in some specimens S2 on shield on one or both
sides; two pairs of pores. Anterior end of peritreme extending to D1, peri-
tremal plate curving behind coxae IV and there somewhat expanded, the
inner angle sharply pointed, the outer rounded. Sternal plate indistinct,
apparently with two pairs of setae and with caudal margin slightly concave;
genital plate 66 wide at posterior end; ventrianal plate 94 long, 70 wide at
anterior end with four pairs of preanal setae and a pair of large pores 15
apart. Fixed digit with two teeth distal of pilus dentilis and a lateral one
about opposite proximal tooth, movable digit with one tooth. Legs relatively
short and heavy; basitarsus IV with a coarse seta (appreciably coarser
than the other coarse setae of this or the other legs) 17 long, length of tar-
sus not including pretarsus, 78.

9 N 18 ( 12

2 10

71 6\ \\n

2 10 / ^ j ]

Explanation of Figures
Typhlodromus ecclesiasticus, n. sp.: Fig. 1, dorsal shield; Fig. 2, ventri-
anal plate; Fig. 3, seta L10 enlarged; Fig. 4, chelicera.
Typhlodromus ellipticus, n. sp.: Fig. 5, dorsal shield; Fig. 6, ventrianal
plate; Fig. 7, macroseta of tarsus IV; Fig. 8, spermatophore.
Typhlodromus jackmickleyi, n. sp.: Fig. 9, dorsal shield; Fig. 10, ventri-
anal plate; Fig. 11, macroseta of tarsus IV.
Typhlodromus annectens, n. sp.: Fig. 12, caudal end of peritremal plate.

De Leon: Four New Typhlodromus from Florida

MALE.-Resembles female in chaetotaxy, but S2 always on shield and
general curve of margin of shield unbroken at S2; shield 237 long, 144
wide. Spermatophore of shape shown in figure, foot 20 long, shaft 13 long.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, October 23, 1956, (D. De
Leon) on Conocarpus erecta. Allotype: same data as for holotype and on
same slide; paratypes: two females, one male, Coral Gables, June 3, 1956,
from Achras zapota; five females, two males, Coral Gables, October 16 and
23, 1956, from Conocarpus. Specimens were also collected at Delray
Beach, Florida, September 15, 1956, from Bursera simaruba; Coral Gables,
October 23, 1956, from Laguncularia racemosa; a single specimen from
mango, Miami, Florida, March 2, 1955, and from coconut Coral Gables,
November 2, 1955.
This is a fairly common mite on Conocarpus where it was found in associ-
ation with an undescribed species of Brevipalpus.

Typhlodromus jackmickleyi, n. sp.
(Figures 9-11)
FEMALE.-Body light tan, broadly oval; dorsal shield practically smooth,
very faintly imbricate, 341 long, 208 wide at about L5, with 18 pairs of
setae all but L9 and D6 pectinate and all but L2, L9, and D6 with a small
knob at tip. S1 and S2 pectinate and with a small knob at tip. The same
system is used to record setal lengths and distances between bases as that

used for T. ellipticus: L1 36, L2 24, L3 37, L4 43, L5 45, L6 45, L7 71, L8 58,
22 13 34 36 36 63 54 45
L9 5, L10 63; M1 27, M2 56; Dl 23, D2 27, D3 28, D4 36, D5 45, D6 10;
14 72 70 3 18 13 27 29 25

S1 34, S2 45; VLI 60 (faintly pectinate); four pairs of pores. Anterior end
of peritreme extending about to posterior margin of coxa I, peritremal plate
ending in a blunt angle behind coxa IV. Sternal plate with two pairs of
setae, posterior margin broadly irregularly V-shaped; ventrianal plate 111
long, 79 wide with three pairs of preanal setae, pores absent; genital plate
posteriorly 82 wide. Fixed digit with two teeth near terminal hook, inner
margin of movable digit not observable. Legs long and slender; patella,
tibia, and tarsus of leg IV each with a large seta slightly expanded at tip,
20, 27 and 45 long respectively; tarsus IV not including pretarsus 143 long.
MALE.-Not known.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, October 16, 1956, (D. De
Leon) on Conocarpus erecta in association with T. ellipticus, n. sp. The
mite is named for Dr. Jack Mickley of Hollywood, Florida.

Typhlodromus annectens, n. sp.
(Figure 12)
FEMALE.-Body off white, elongate; dorsal shield mildly imbricate, 260
long, 127 wide with 17 pairs of setae, only D6 smooth, the anterior laterals
generally more strongly pectinate than posterior ones. The same system is
used to record setal lengths and distances between bases as that used for

The Florida Entomologist

T. ellipticus: L1 34, L2 33, L3 39, L4 34, L5 39, L6 47, L7 49, L8 42, L9 41;
18 12 21 26 30 39 49 28
M1 33, M2 42; D1 15, D2 23, D3 33, D4 43, D5 43, D6 8; S1 30 pectinatee);
52 44 2 15 8 22 16 13
VL1 34 pectinatee); three pairs of pores. Anterior end of peritreme extend-
ing about to middle of coxa I, peritremal plate curving behind coxae IV, of
shape shown in figure. Sternal plate indistinct, apparently with two pairs of
setae; caudal end of genital plate 58 wide; ventrianal plate moderately
emarginate laterally, 85 long, 54 wide at anterior end with four pairs of pre-
anals and a pair of small pores 12 apart and about in line with posteriormost
preanals. Fixed digit with two teeth just behind terminal hook and one lat-
eral of them, movable digit with a small tooth at base of curve. Legs short,
rather slender, without distinctive setae; tarsus IV 70 long, excluding pre-
MALE.-Resembles female; dorsal shield 204 long, 118 wide. Sperma-
tophore L-shaped with a lateral projection just proximal of mid-part of
foot, tip of foot slightly expanded, and at about an angle of forty-five de-
grees to it, shaft 14 long, foot about 8.5 long.
NYMPH.-Resembles adult in number of setae, but pectinations less dis-
tinct and setae somewhat longer than in adult.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, June 4, 1956, (D. De Leon)
from Trema floridana; allotype: same collection data as for holotype; para-
types: three females, one male" August 30, 1955, from Morus rubra; three
females, one male, October 8, 1956, from Callicarpa americana, all from
Coral Gables, and three females, one male from Verbesina virginica, Delray
Beach, Florida, September 15, 1956. The specimens from Verbesina are
somewhat larger than those from the other plants. Other specimens have
been taken from Hamelia patent, Eriobotrya japonica, Tetrazygia bicolor
at Coral Gables, Callicarpa americana at Key Largo, June 7, 1956, and a
single specimen from Cercis canadensis, Columbus, Georgia, August 29,
The only other species in this genus known in Florida with many dis-
tinctly pectinate setae on the dorsal shield is T. transvaalensis (Nesbitt)1.
A differential diagnosis of the Florida species with pectinate setae follows:
16 pairs of dorsal shield setae ......................................elliptius, n. sp.
17 pairs of dorsal shield setae ....----.....................--------........... annectens, n. sp.
18 pairs of dorsal shield setae;
2 pairs of sternals ....-...................................jackmickleyi, n. sp.
18 pairs of dorsal shield setae;
3 prs of sternals .....------.....----.. ....................transvaalensis (Nesb.)
Paratypes of the above new species will be deposited in the University of
Florida Collections, Gainesville.

1 Nesbitt, H. H. J. 1951. A taxonomic study of the Phytoseiinae (fam-
ily Laelaptidae) predaceous upon Tetranychidae of economic importance.
Zool. Verhand. No. 12; 1-64, 32 pl.

Vol. 41, No. 2


Department of Entomology
University of Florida
(Continued from p. 39, Vol. 41, No. 1)

Leskiopsis Townsend
L. thecata (Coquillett)
Jacksonville, Nov. 3; Clearwater, Apr. 30. (Johnson, 1913 :71). [as
Lixophaga Townsend
L. diatraeae Townsend
"This species has not been recorded north of the Gulf States." (Curran,
1930 :100).
L. mediocris Aldrich
Monticello, Fla., Nov., 1954, A. M. Phillips, AES 10698. Parasites of
Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch) on pecan shucks.
L. variabilis (Coquillett)
Gainesville, Fla., 3/25/55, C. N. Patton.
Gainesville, Fla., 7/30-8/3/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-277L. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Lydella Robineau-Desvoidy
L. sodalis (Van der Wulp) ,
Ormond, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 : 73).

Lydellohoughia Townsend
L. dimiocki (Aldrich)
Florida. Metriona bivittata (Col.). (Stearns, 1933 : 153).
Cedar Keys, Fla., 5/6/1875, Hubbard and Schwartz. Reared from
Chelymorpha cassidea F. (Aldrich, 1932 : 5).

Megapariopsis Townsend
M. opace (Coquillett)
Jacksonville, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 :74).
M. sp. (? n. sp.)
Gainesville, Fla., 7/30-8/3/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-277D. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Metadexia Coquillett
M. sp. n.
Gainesville, Fla., 7/20-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-276D. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Microchaetina Van der Wulp
M. cinerea Van der Wulp
Ormond, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 : 75).

Microphthalma Macquart
M. disjuncta (Wiedemann)
White Springs, Fla., Townsend. (Aldrich, 1926b:3).

Muscopteryx Townsend
M. hinei Reinhard
So. Fla., March, 1923, J. S. Hine. (Reinhard, 1944:354. orig. desc.).

The Florida Entomologist

Myiopharus Brauer and Bergenstamm
M. dorsalis (Coquillett)
Biscayne Bay, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 :72). [as Carcelia]

Myiophasia Brauer and Bergenstamm
M. atra (Robineau-Desvoidy)
Crescent City, Fla., April 21; Charlotte Harbor, Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson,
1913 : 70).
M. globosa (Townsend)
Inverness, Mar. 3-20, Robertson; Jacksonville, May 9. (Johnson: 1913 :
M. metallica Townsend
Orlando, Mar. 15-22, Inverness, Mar. 15, Robertson; Ft. Myers, Nov. 19.
(Johnson, 1913 :70).
M. sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/12-18/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-279E. U.V. light trap.
2 spm.
Nemorilla Rondani
N. floralis (Fallen)
Gainesville, Fla., 7/30-8/3/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-277J. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
gen. sp.? near Nemorilla floralis (Fallen)
Orlando, Fla., 7/27/51, AES 9922. Parasite of the Bougainvillea cater-
pillae, Asciodes gordialis (Guen) det. H. W. Capps. There was a fly
puparium in the material when received 7/9/51.

Nicephorus Reinhard
N. floridensis Reinhard
Gainesville, Fla., 5/3/14, prob. J. R. Watson, AES, 185. Visitor to
Ceanothus (New Jersey tea).
Hilliard, Florida, July 24, 1939, R. H. Beamer. (Reinhard, 1944 :64.
orig. desc.).
Ocypterosoma Townsend
0. politum (Coquillett)
Jacksonville, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Coquillett, 1898 :234. orig. desc.).

Oestrophasia Brauer and Bergenstamm
0. calva Coquillett
Gainesville, Fla., 5/15-20/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-274B. U.V. light trap.
Gainesville, Fla., 6/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-275A. U.V. light trap.
0. clausa Brauer and Bergenstamm
St. Augustine, C. W. Johnson; Ormond, Mrs. Slosson; Lake Mary, March,
Griffith. (Johnson, 1916 : 71).

Ormia Robineau-Desvoidy
0. lineifrons Sabrosky
Daytona, Fla., April 8, 1919, C. W. Johnson. (Sabrosky, 1953 : 175. orig.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282E. U.V. light trap.
0. punctata Robineau-Desvoidy (s. str.)
St. Petersburg, Fla., 11/6/53, C. N. Patton, P-206. Three specimens
collected at neon lights a few blocks from the beach.

Oxynops Townsend
0. anthracina (Bigot) (= 0. serratus Townsend teste Aldrich)
Biscayne Bayfront, Fla., 11/30/08, Mrs. Townsend. (Townsend: 1912 :
110. orig. desc.). [as serratus].

Vol. 41, No. 2

Patton: A Catalog of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 79

0. nitens (Coquillett)
Biscayne Bay, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 :71). [as Hypostena]
Florida. (Aldrich, 1924 :147).

Pacidianus Reinhard
P. sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 11/19/55, C. N. Patton, P-284. One spm. emerged from
jar of Anisota virginiensis (Drury) which had been collected as
larvae on 9/22/55. det. H. J. Reinhard.

Paradidyma Brauer and Bergenstamm
P. affinis Reinhard
Florida. (Reinhard, 1934c : 35).
P. apicalis Reinhard
Gainesville, Fla., 5/15-20/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-274C. U.V. light trap.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/12-18/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-279H. U.V. light trap.
P. singularis (Townsend)
Gainesville, Fla., 10/19/55, C. N. Patton. Loose in laboratory.
Gainesville, Fla., 7/30-8/3/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-277C. U.V. light trap.

Paralispe Brauer and Bergenstamm
Paralispe sp., possibly new, possibly P. infernalis Townsend
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-280I. U.V. light trap.
1 spm. det. H. J. Reinhard.

Patelloa Townsend
P. leucaniae (Coquillett)
Oleno State Park, Fla., 9/8/55, C. N. Patton, P-275B. Reared from
Datana ministry (Drury) collected as mature larvae on Hicoria to-
mentosa on 8/14/55. det. H. J. Reinhard.

Phasiops Coquillett
P. flava Colquillett7
Gainesville, Fla., 1952, Jones and Anthony. Reared from larva? of
Tabanus petiolatus Hine. A second specimen, probably this species,
reared from T. fumipennis Wied. in 1954. U.S.D.A. collection at
Phasiopsis Townsend
P. floridana Townsend
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261L. On Polygonum hy-
Miami, Fla., Nov. 4-29, 1908, Townsend. (Townsend, 1912 :108. orig.
Phasmophaga Townsend
P. sp. (?antennalis Townsend)8
Alachua Co., Fla., March, 1953, L. A. Hetrick, P-222. Ex Anisomorpha
buprestoides (Stoll).
P. meridionalis Townsend
Cutler, Fla., May 29, 1908, Townsend. Reared from Anisomorpha bu-
prestoides (Stoll). (Johnson, 1913 :71).

S"This species was reared once before, from Tabanus sp., prob. trimacu-
latus, at Magnolia, La."-C.W.S.
8 "Townsend recorded P. meridionalis from Florida, from the same host,
but from limited available material, I am inclined to think that meridionalis
is a synonym of antennalis."-C.W.S.

The Florida Entomologist

Phorocera Robineau-Desvoidy
P. claripennis Macquart
Jay, Fla., 7/21/45, AES 9062. Three flies reared from about 5 dozen
bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw. which were sent
in on above date. Flies emerged 8/4 and 8/21/45.
Poe Springs, Fla., 9/23/54, C. N. Patton, P-225A. One specimen reared
from over 50 larvae of Megalopyge pyxidifera A. &. S.
Vero Beach, Fla., 7/31/18, Berger, SPB 8522. from Prodenia eridania.
Cram. det. R. T. Webber. [as Euphorocera].
Gainesville, Fla., 8/20/28, AES 7027. Taken from breeding cage of
Gainesville, Fla., 3/24/48, A. N. Tissot and G. E. Ritchey, AES 9463.
Reared from larvae or pupae of Heliothis virescens (F.) collected
boring in green pods of sweet yellow lupine.
Gainesville, Fla., 4/12/55, C. N. Patton, P-247. Reared from [prob.]
Plathypena scabra (F.).
P. edwardsi Williston
Inverness, Fla., 3/18, Robertson. (Johnson, 1895 :332).
P. sp., probably einaris Smith
Alachua Co., Fla., 10/6/53, H. V. Weems, SPB.
P. (sens. lat.) floridensis Townsend
Gainesville, Fla., 1/15/29, AES 7062. Parasites of the rubber worm,
Lymire edwardsi Grote.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/15/53, C. N. Patton, P-203. One specimen reared
from Datana major G. & R.
Blue Springs, Fla., 10/21/54, C. N. Patton, P-226. Four flies reared
from a single larva of Anisota sp. nr. rubicunda (F.). Host larva
had three macrotype eggs"glued to its integument.
Davenport, Fla., 10/3/52, Poucher and Frierson, SPB 114788. Reared
from the grape leaf skeletonizer. [Harrisina americana Guer.].
Lake City, Fla., 7/28/1897. Laphygma frugiperda (A. & S.)
Gainesville, Fla., J. R. Watson. Ex Anticarsia gemmatilis Hub. (Town-
send, 1916 : 217. orig. desc.). [as Euphorocera].
Miami, Fla., 2/14/49, O. D. Link, Reared from pupa of Melanchroia
cephise Cramer, emerged 2/23/49. Reared by G. W. Dekle.
St. Petersburg, Fla., 11/26/55, C. N. Patton, P-287. Nine flies reared
from about 200 larvae of Syntomeida epilais Jaiker. Parasites emerge
from host pupae, pupate in the soil. Many probably succumbed to
fungus which attacked pupae of host.
P. hamata Aldrich and Webber
Gainesville, Fla., January, 1955, L. A. Hetrick. Ex Neodiprion sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/19/55, C. N. Patton, P-265. Parasite of a sawfly on
pine, ?Neodiprion sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/18/55, R. A. Dennison, P-266. Parasites of Neodi-
prion fabricii (Leach).
P. (Palpexorista) imitator Aldrich and Webber
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-280C. U.V. light trap.
P- sp., apparently subnitens Aldrich and Webber '
Gainesville, Fla., summer, 1944. A. N. Tissot, AES 10651B. Parasites
of a moth larva on cherry laurel. [The moth compares with one det.
by J. F. G. Clarke as "near Triprocris".]
P. tachinomoides Townsend
Miami, Fla., Townsend: Lake Mary, March, Griffith. (Johnson, 1913 :72).
"Subnitens was described from Virginia, and only the holotype seems
to be known. The Florida specimens differ only slightly and seem to me
now to be only variants, or a Floridian subspecies, which often show red-
dish color."-C.W.S.

Vol. 41, No. 2

Patton: A Catalog of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 81

Plagiomima Brauer and Bergenstamm
P. alternate Aldrich
White Springs, Oct. 16-18, Townsend. (Aldrich, 1926c :27).

Plagiprospherysa Townsend
P. parvipalpis (Van der Wulp)
Gainesville, Fla., May 20, H. L. Dozier. At chinquepin blooms. (Dozier,
1920 :372).
Plectops Coquillett
P. melissopodis Coquillett
Gainesville, Fla., 3/27/55, C. N. Patton.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282N. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Polistomyia Townsend
P. plumipes (Fabricius)
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261-0. On Polygonum ky-
Gainesville, Fla., 9/12-18/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-279B. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Highlands Hammock State Park, Fla., 3/18/52, H. V. Weems.

Promasiphya Townsend
P. confusa (Aldrich)
Miami, Fla., Townsend; Biscayne Bay, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Aldrich,
1925 :109. orig. desc.). [as Masiphya]

Prosenoides Townsend
P. flavipes (Coquillett)
Alachua Co., Fla., 11/16/53, H. V. Weems, SPB.
Fla. City, Fla., 7/24/53, H. V. Weems, SPB.
Lake Worth, Charlotte Harbor, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Coquillett, in John-
son, 1895 : 314. orig. desc.).

Pseudeuantha Townsend
P. rubripes Aldrich
Miami, Fla., Oct. 29, Mrs. Townsend. (Aldrich, 1921: 91. orig. desc.).

Pseudochaeta Coquillett
P. argentifrons Coquillett
Sebring, Fla., 6/26/53, H. V. Weems, SPB.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/12-18/55, L. 'A. Hetrick, P-279K. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Charlotte Harbor, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Coquillett, in Johnson, 1895 :310.
orig. desc.).
P. perdecora Reinhard
Oldtown, Fla., 7/11/39, D. E. Hardy. (Reinhard, 1946b : 115. orig. desc.).

Pseudomyothyria Townsend
P. ancilla (Walker)
Alachua Co., Fla., 9/21/53, H. V. Weems, SPB.

Ptilodexia Brauer and Bergenstamm
P. tibialis Robineau-Desvoidy
Crescent City, Fla., 4/21. (Johnson, 1913 : 74).

The Florida Entomologist

Rhamphinina Bigot
Rhamphinina-Ptilodexia complex, prob. n. sp. 10
Alachua Co., Fla., 10/26/38. [ ]
Gainesville, Fla., 9/2/17, J. R. Watson, AES 1825. At Eupatorium in
flatwoods. [ ]
Roeseliopsis Townsend
R. floridensis Greene
Palm Beach, Fla., 6/25, Dyar. (Greene, 1934 :30. orig. desc.).

Salmacia Meigen
S. crassicornis Fabricius
Gainesville, Fla., 11/9/53, C. N. Patton, P-204. One specimen reared
from a larva of Prodenia eridania Cram.
Sebring, Fla., 12/24/49, H. V. Weems, SPB.
Key West, Fla., 12/30/52, H. V. Weems, SPB.
Sanford, Fla., 11/11/42, AES 10484. Reared from a pupa of Feltia sub-
terranea (F.) which had pupated 11/17. On 11/29, a thick, tan-
colored liquid exuded from the posterior end of the pupa. On 12/27,
the fly emerged. det. M. T. James, 1945.
S. pallens Wiedemann
So. Fla., Townsend. (Johnson, 1913 : 74).
S. senilis (Williston)
"Oak grove, Virginia, Fla., Daucus 2, viii, ? CHTT." cited as label of
specimen. (Morrison, 1940 : 352).
S. sp. texensisis Reinhard)
Key West, Fla., 12/28/53, H. V. Weems, SPB. On Flaveria linearis.
S. sp. 9
Tallahassee, Fla., 9/23/54, AES 10572D. Reared from Laphygma fru-
giperda (A. & S.).
Schizotachina Walker
S. ruficornis Greene
Titusville, Fla., G. G. Ainslee. (Greene, 1934 :33. orig. desc.).
S. vitinervis (Thompson)
Biscayne Bay, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Thompson, 1911 :268. orig. desc.).
S. sp., possibly n. sp.
Deerfield Beach, Fla., 6/29/53, Mrs. W. B. Larzelere, AES 10255B.
Reared from Chionodes sp. on seagrape.

Siphoclytia Townsend
S. robertsoni Townsend
So. Florida, Robertson. (Townsend, 1892b :117. orig. desc.).
Inverness, Fla., 3/13/17, Robertson. (Johnson, 1913 :71). [as Epi-
Siphophyto Townsend
S. floridensis Townsend
Florida. (Reinhard, 1946a : 82).
Inverness, Fla., March 1-29, Robertson. (Johnson, 1895 :333).
S. neomexicanus Townsend
So. Florida, Robertson. (Townsend, 1892b :128. orig. desc.).

Siphosturmia Coquillett
S. rostrata (Coquillett)
Gainesville, Fla., 8/19/17, J. R. Watson, AES 1738. At yellow composite
bitterweedd or mayweed).
1 "White grub parasites. (I have been accumulating material for a
revision for a long time)."-C.W.S.

Vol. 41, No. 2

Patton: A Catalog of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 83

Slossonaemyia Townsend
S. rostrata (Coquillett)
Biscayne Bay, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Coquillett, 1898 : 235. orig. desc.).
[as Chaetophleps].

Spallanzania Robineau-Desvoidy
S. bucephala (Meigen) .
Gainesville, Fla., 3/4/44, A. N. Tissot, AES 10481. Four specimens
reared from larvae or pupae of Feltia subterranean (F.). det. James,
S. hebes (Fallen)
Gainesville, Fla., May 25, H. L. Dozier. A number of specimens taken
at chinquepin blooms.
S. pansa Snow
St. Augustine, Fla., C. W. Johnson. (Johnson, 1895 :334).

Spathidexia Townsend
S. creolensis Reinhard
Miami, Fla., Oct. 28, Townsend. (Reinhard, 1955 :131. orig. desc.).
S. sp. nr. rasilis Reinhard
Gainesville, Fla., 5/15-20/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-274G. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Spathimeigenia Townsend
S. hylotomae (Coquillett)
Gainesville, Fla., 10/14/55, C. N. Patton, P-264. Parasite of a sawfly,
Arge rubiginosa (Beauv.), on Rhus sp.
S. spinigera Townsend
Lake Butler, Fla., 11/28/49, W. J. Cowen, AES 9901. Two flies reared
from over a dozen larvae of Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch.)
Gainesville, Fla., 10/18/55, R. A. Dennison, P-266. Parasites of Neo-
diprion fabricii (Leach).

Stomatolydella Townsend
S. infernalis Townsend
Lake Worth, Fla. (Coquillett, 1897 :63). [Misidentified in this paper
as Didyma inconspicua].

Sturmia Robineau-Desvoidy
S. australis Coquillett
Jacksonville, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Johnson, 1913 :73).
S. fraudulent Van der Wulp
Florida. (Coquillett, 1897 : 112).
S. harrisinae Coquillett
Gainesville, Fla., 5/30/52, L. W. Sistrunk, AES 10083. Two flies reared
from "several" larvae of Harrisina americana Guer.
n. sp. near "Sturmia" harrisinae Coquillett
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6/54, C. N. Patton, P-229. A single fly reared from
over 200 larvae of Harrisina americana Guer.
S. incompta (Van der Wulp)
Gainesville, Fla., 3/16/55, C. N. Patton, P-235. Twenty flies reared
from a pupa of Pholus fasciatus Sulzer that had been collected as a
mature larva in October, 1954.
S. strigata (Van der Wulp)
Jacksonville, Fla., Coquillett. (Johnson, 1913 : 73).

The Florida Entomologist

Tachinomyia Townsend
T. floridensis Townsend
Florida. (Webber, 1941 :293).
Alachua Co., Fla., 8/25/48, Solomon, CED.

Tachinophyto Townsend
T. floridensis Townsend
St. Augustine, Mar. 21; Tick Island, May 12, C. W. Johnson; Jackson-
ville, bred from Schizocercus, Mrs. Slosson; Inverness, Mar. 27, Rob-
ertson; LaBelle, Nov. 14. (Johnson, 1913 : 70). [as Hypostena].
T. maculosa (Coquillett)
St. Augustine, Fla., C. W. Johnson. (Coquillett, in Johnson, 1895 :313.
orig. desc.). [as Hypostena].
T. setinervis (Coquillett)
Biscayne Bay, Fla., Mrs. Slosson. (Coquillett, 1898 : 236. orig. desc.).
[as Hypostena].
T. vanderwulpi (Townsend)
Inverness, Fla., Feb. 12, Robertson. (Johnson, 1913 : 71). [as Hy-
Thelairodoria Townsend
T. (n. sp.?)
Gainesville, Fla., 7/30-8/3/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-277K. U.V. light trap.
2 spm.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19-23/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-280J. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A Hetrick, P-282M. U.V. light trap.
2 spm.
Theresia Robineau-Desvoidy
T. tandrec Robineau-Desvoidy
Jacksonville, May 22, C. W. Johnson. (Johnson, 1913 :74).

Trichopoda Latreille
T. lanipes (Fabricius)
Gainesville, Fla., 9/2/55, C. N. Patton, P-254. Reared from adult 9
Acanthocephala femorata. det. C. N. Patton.
Otter Creek, Fla., 10/1/55, C. N. Patton, P-261P. On Polygonum hydro-
T. pennipes (Fabricius) complex
Gainesville, Fla., 4/26/55, C. N. Patton, P-240. Reared from adult
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.). det. C. N. Patton.
Gainesville, Fla., 5/4/55, C. N. Patton, P-241. Reared from adult
Archimerus alternatus (Say) det. R. F. Hussey. det. C. N. Patton.

Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy
W. citheroniae Sabrosky
Gainesville, Fla., 11/17/46, A. N. Tissot, AES 9189. Reared from
Citheronia regalis (F.) pupa. Mature host larva collected on 10/13/
46. Forty flies emerged on above date. (Sabrosky, 1948 :65. orig.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/27/55, C. N. Patton, P-260. Three flies reared from
Citheronia regalis (F.) pupa. Fourth puparium was attacked by a
Palatka, Fla., 11/7/55, L. T. Nieland and J. S. Jensen, P-285. Thirteen
flies reared from a pupa of Eacles imperialis (Drury).
W. datanae (Townsend)
Gainesville, Fla., 9/28/55, C. N. Patton, P-262B. Five specimens reared
from Datana ministry (Drury) larvae that had entered soil by above
date. Flies emerging on 10/11/55.

Vol. 41, No. 2

Patton: A Catalog of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 85

W. deilephilae (Osten-Sacken)
Gainesville, Fla., 9/1/55, C. N. Patton.
W. intermedia Reinhard
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282G. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
W. okefenokeensis Smith 1
Alachua Co., Fla., 1941.
Gainesville, Fla., 3/27/55, C. N. Patton.
W. quadripustulata Fabricius
Ft. Meade, 7/26/18, J. C. Holton, SPB 8320. Reared from Prodenia
eridania Cram. det. R. T. Webber.
Vero, Fla., 7/31/18, E. W. Berger, SPB 8323. Ex. P. eridania. det.
W. rufopicta (Bigot)
Gainesville, Fla., 7/22/54, AES 10540B. Reared from larvae or pupae
of Laphygma frugiperda (A. & S.). Fly emerged 8/2/54.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/19/51, L. C. Kuitert, AES 9947A. Four specimens
reared from a mixed infestation of Prodenia eridania, P. ornithogalli
(Guene6), P. dolichos, Heliothis armigera (Hubner), and Laphygma
frugiperda (A. & S.).
Gainesville, Fla., 8/16/51, A. N. Tissot, AES 9980. Reared from several
Prodenia eridania collected on sweet potatoes.

Xanthoernestia Townsend
X. sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282K. U.V. light trap.
1 spm.
Xanthomelanodes Townsend
X. atripennis (Say)
Gainesville, Fla., 10/16/53, H. V. Weems, SPB.
Florida. (Sabrosky, 1950 : 365.).

Zelia Robineau-Desvoidy
Z. vertebrate (Say)
Gainesville, Fla., 7/8/17, AES 1506. Two flies-resting head down on
trunk of tree and occasionally flying out a few feet, only to return to
same spot. Made a buzzing noise like a locust.
Gainesville, Fla., 11/13/55, M. M. Murphey, P-283. Reared from larva
of Passalus cornutus F. det. C. N. Patton.
Z. zonata (Coquillett)
Jacksonville, Fla., May 22, 1894, C. W. Johnson. (Coquillett, in Johnson,
1895 : orig. desc.). [as Gymnodexia].

Zenillia Robineau-Desvoidy
Z. boarmiae (Coquillett)
Seabreeze, Fla., Host, Urodus parvulus (Hy. Edw.)
Ormond Beach, Fla., 6/5/55, D. W. Anthony, P-248. Reared from pupa
of Urodus parvulus (Hy. Edw.). Pupated within lace cocoon of host.
Gainesville, Fla., 3/29/55, C. N. Patton.
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, P-282L. U.V. light trap.
4 spm.
Z. hyphantriae (Townsend)
Florida. (Sellers, 1943 : 15).
"Z." lobeliae (Coquillett)
Blue Springs, Fla., 10/11/54, C. N. Patton, P-228. Five adults reared
from one larva, and three from a second larva of Acronicta sp. nr.
S"Rarely collected species."-C.W.S.

The Florida Entomologist

afflicta Grt. (det. H. W. Capps). The fly larvae cut holes in the
host's integument and applied their spiracles to the openings.
Z. mathesoni Reinhard
Gainesville, Fla., 4/22/36, A. N. Tissot, AES 7549. Reared from a cater-
pillar, apparently a tussock moth, found on poison ivy.
Gainesville, Fla., 4/24/36, A. N. Tissot, AES 7552. From a caterpillar,
apparently the same as no. 7549 (tussock moth) found feeding on
Viburnum semitomentosus.
[Dr. Tissot says he remembers a gray larva with dark pencils; this
description is reminiscent of Olene leucophaea A. & S.] det. H. J.
Zygosturmia Townsend
Z. inca Townsend
Gainesville, Fla., 9/12/46, AES 9057. Sixteen flies recovered from cage
in which 7 larvae of Herse cingulata (F.) had been reared. Puparia
were found in a honey-comb-like mass.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/5/45, A. N. Tissot, AES 9058. Seventeen flies re-
covered from cage in which 2 larvae of Herse cingulata (F.) were
reared. A mass of 28 puparia were found 5 inches below surface of
soil, arranged in a single layer resembling a wasp comb. Because
of a loose cover, apparently many of the flies escaped. det. A. N.
DeFuniak Springs, Fla., 11/4/54, AES 10598. A dozen flies reared from
a single partially pupated larva of Herse cingulata (F.).
Z. protoparcis (Townsend)
Gainesville, Fla., 6/14/54, C. N. Patton, P-230. Eleven flies reared from
pupa of Protoparce sexta (Johan.).
Gainesville, Fla., 6/1/36, R- D. Becker, AES 7556. Reared from a single
Protoparce sexta (Johan.) larva. Thirteen puparia found in a box,
all but 8 flies escaped.
Gainesville, Fla., 8/23/55, C. N. Patton, P-249. Parasites of larva of
Protoparce sexta (Johan.). On 8/8/55, the mature larva was dark-
ened, especially about the prolegs. On 8/11/55, large fly larvae
emerged from host. Adults emerged on above date.

Grouped below are specimens which, because of incomplete determina-
tion, were not included in the preceding catalog. They are listed by catalog
number, followed by Professor Reinhard's determination and collection data.
P-274F: near Xanthoernestia sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 5/15-20/55, L. A. Hetrick, U.V. light trap. 1 spm., 9.
P-279I: near Euceromasia sp.
Gainesville, Fla., 9/12-18/55, L. A. Hetrick, U.V. light trap. 1 spm.
P-282I: genus and species unknown
Gainesville, Fla., 10/6-14/55, L. A. Hetrick, U.V. light trap. 4 spm.
[Mr. Sabrosky placed these spm. in the Urodexiini.]
P-219: near Phyllophorocera
Gainesville, Fla., 12/21/54, C. N. Patton. On Viburnum.
P-248B and Seabreeze, Fla.: n. sp. (?"Possibly n. gen. Reinhard said he
had a lone female in poor condition standing in his collection for 40
years, waiting for better material to describe it."-C.W.S.)
Ormond Beach (Eleanor Village) Fla., 6/5/55, D. W. Anthony, P-248B.
One specimen reared from Trichostiba parvula. It pupated within
the host pupa, and its puparium possesses two anterior processes
resembling horns. Reared by C.N.P.
Seabreeze, Fla. Ex Trichostiba parvula. AES. 5 spm.

Vol. 41, No. 2

Patton: A Catalog of the Larvaevoridae of Florida 87

I wish to thank Mr. Curtis W. Sabrosky of the Insect Identification and
Parasite Introduction Section, Entomology Research Branch, USDA, for
the verification or determination of virtually every larvaevorid in the sev-
eral collections in the area. I also wish to thank Prof. H. J. Reinhard of
the Entomology Department, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas,
for additional determination of specimens forwarded to him by Mr. Sa-
brosky. Mr. George B. Merrill and Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., made avail-
able to me the records and collection of the State Plant Board of Florida.
Dr. A. N. Tissot and Dr. John T. Creighton permitted the use of the records
and collections of the Entomology Departments of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture, respectively.

Aldrich, J. M. 1921. The muscoid genera Pseudeuantha and Uremyia.
Ins. Insc. Mens. 9(1-3) : 83-92.
1924. Notes on North American Tachinidae. Ins. Insc. Mens. 12(10-
12) :145-149.
1925. Notes on some types of American muscoid Diptera in the collec-
tion of the Vienna Natural History Museum. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.
18(1) : 107-130.
1926a. North American two-winged flies of the genus Cylindromyia
Meigen (Ocyptera of authors). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 68(art. 23):
1926b. American two-winged flies of the genus Microphthalma Mac-
quart, with notes on related forms. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 69(art.
13) : 1-8.
1926c. Notes on muscoid flies with retracted hind cross-vein, with key
and several new genera and species. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 52:
1928. A revision of the American parasitic flies belonging to the genus
Belvosia. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 73(art. 8) :1-45.
1931a. Notes on Francis Walker's types of North American flies. Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus. 80(2910) : 1-16.
1931b. North American two-winged flies of the genus Spathimeigenia,
with descriptions of five new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 80(art.
11) : 1-10.
1932. Records of dipterous insects of the family Tachinidae reared by
the late George Dimmock, with description of one new species and
notes on the genus Anetia Robineau-Desvoidy. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
80(art. 20) :1-8.
Aldrich, J. M., and R. T. Webber. 1924. The North American species of
parasitic two-winged flies of the genus Phorocera and allied genera.
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 63(art. 9) :1-90.
Brooks, A. R. 1945. A revision of the North American species of the
Rhodogyne complex. Canad. Ent. 67 :218-230.
1949. New North American larvaevorine flies. Canad. Ent. 81(1) :
Coquillett, D. W. 1897a. Revision of the Tachinidae of America. Ent.
Tech. Ser. Bull. 7. 140 pp.
1898b. Additions to my synopsis of the Tachinidae. Canad. Ent.
30 : 233-237.
Curran, C. Howard. 1927. Some new American Tachinidae. Bull. Brook.
Ent. Soc. 22 :144-154.

88 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 2

1928. Revision of the American species of Archytas. Canad. Ent.
60 : 201-282.
1930. Report on the Diptera collected at the Station for the Study of
Insects, Harriman Interstate Park, New York. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
Hist. N. Y. 61 : 21-115.
Dozier, Herbert L. 1920. An ecological study of hammock and piney woods
insects in Florida. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 13(4) : 325-380.
Fattig, Perry W. 1949. The Larvaevoridae (Tachinidae) or parasitic flies
of Georgia. Emory Univ. Mus. Bull. No. 8. 40 pp.
Greene, Charles T. 1934. Tachinid flies with an evanescent fourth vein,
including a new genus and five new species. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash.
36(2) : 27-40.
Ingram, J W., Jaynes and Lobdell. 1939. Sugarcane pests in Florida.
Rev. Appl. Ent. Ser. A. 27 : 657.
James, M. T. 1943. A review of the larvaevorid flies of the tribe Leskiini
with the setulose first vein (Ri). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 93(3212) :
Johnson, C. W. 1895. Diptera of Florida. With additional descriptions of
new genera and species by D. W. Coquillett. Proc. Acad. Nat, Sci.
Phila. 1895. 303-340.
1913. Insects of Florida. I: Diptera. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. N. Y.
32(art. e) : 37-90.
Morrison, F. 0. 1940. A revision of the American species of Gonia Mei-
gen. Canad. Jour. Res. 18(D) :336-362.
Reinhard, H. J. 1931a. The two-winged flies belonging to Siphosturmia
and allied genera, with descriptions of two new species. Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus. 79(art. 11) : 1-11.
1931b. Revision of the American parasitic flies belonging to the genus
Winthemia. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 79(art. 20) :1-54.
1934a. Revision of the American two-winged flies belonging to the genus
Cuphocera. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 83(2974) :45-70.
1934b. New North American Tachinidae. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 29
(5) :186-195.
1934c. American muscoid flies of the genera Ceratomyiella and Para-
didyma. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 83(2973) :9-43.
1942. A new species of Oedematocera with notes and key. Ent. News.
53(4) :106-108.
1944. New North American Tachinidae belonging to the genus Muscop-
teryx. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 37(3) :352-358.
1946a. A review of the tachinid genera Siphophyto and Coronimyia.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 48(4) : 79-92.
1946b. The tachinid genera Pseudochaeta and Phaenopsis in North
America. Canad. Ent. 78 : 111-121.
1952. Muscoid flies of the genus Chaetophlepsis. Jour. Kans. Ent. Soc.
25(1) : 13-21.
1954. Parasitic flies of the genus Prosenoides. Canad. Ent. 86(?) :
1955. New nearctic Sarcophagidae and Tachinidae. Bull. Brook. Ent.
Soc. 59(5) :128-133.
Sabrosky, C. W. 1948. Winthemia citheroniae, n. sp., with notes on the
correct name of W. cecropia. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 50(3) :63-67.
1950. Notes on Trichopodini, with description of a new parasite of cot-
ton stainers in Puerto Rico. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 40(11) : 361-371.

Patton: A Catalog of the Larvaevoridae- of Florida 89

1953. Taxonomy and host relationships of the tribe Ormiini in the
western hemisphere. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 55(4 and 6) :167-183,
and 289-305.
1955. The taxonomic status of the armyworm parasite known as
Archytas piliventris (Van der Wulp). Fla. Ent. 38(2) :77-83.
Sellers, Wendell F. 1943. The nearctic species of parasitic flies belonging
to Zenillia and allied genera. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 93(3157) :
Stearns, L. A. 1933. Observations on the biology and control of Metriona
bivittata Say. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26(1) : 153.
Thompson, W. R. 1911. Tachinidae, new and old. Canad. Ent. 43 : 265-
Townsend, C. H. T. 1892a. New North American Tachinidae. Ent. News.
3(6) : 129-131.
1892b. Notes on North American Tachinidae, with descriptions of new
species. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 19 : 88-132.
1908. The taxonomy of the muscoidean flies, including descriptions of
new genera and species. Smith. Misc. Coll. 51(1803) : 138 pp.
1912. Foundation of some new genera and species of muscoid flies
mainly on reproductive and early stage characters. Jour. N. Y. Ent.
Soc. 29(2) : 107-118.
1916a. New genera and species of muscoid flies. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
51(2152) : 308-313.
1916b. Miscellaneous muscoid notes and descriptions. Ins. Insc. Mens.
4(10-12) : 121-128.
1916c. Descriptions of two new Tachinidae (Diptera). Ent. News.
3(6) : 129-131.
Webber, R. T. 1930. Revision of the North American tachinid flies of the
genus Achaetoneura. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 79(2853) : 1-37.
1941. Synopsis of the tachinid flies of the genus Tachinomyia, with
descriptions of new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 90(3108):


Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs