Volume 41, No. 3 September, 1958
Kerr, S. H., and F. A. Robinson-Chinch Bug Control
Tests, 1956-57 ... ----...... . ..... . .........--..... .. 97
Lofgren, C. S., and G. S. Burden-Tests with Poison Baits
Against Cockroaches ...........------------..--..--. .-----103
Hunt, Burton P.-Limnetic Distribution of Chaoborus
Larvae in a Deep Florida Lake (Diptera: Culicidae)... 111
Chapman, H. C.-Note's on the Identity, Habitat and Distri-
bution of Some Semi-Aquatic Hemiptera of Florida ........ 117
Hungerford, Herbert B., and Ryuichi Matsuda-A New
Genus of Gerridae (Hemiptera) from South America-.. 125
Blickle, R. L.-Notes on Aegialomyia psammophila (0. S.)
(Tabanidae: Diptera) ..--- .--- .---.---._.. 129
Genung, W. G., and N. C. Hayslip-Observations on Biology
and Ecology of Tortrix ivana Fernald (Lepidoptera:
Tortricidae), as a Pest of Celery in the Florida Ever-
glades, and Notes on Its Control ..------~---........----....----. 133
Hussey, Roland F.-A New North American Mozena
(Hemiptera: Coreidae) .---- -..-........---.--..- .---------------... 142
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1957-1958
President .....------ ---.....- --.. -----..Irwin H. Gilbert
Vice-President ---.......-........--... -----.. --........ William P. Hunter
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Treasurer ... --..-................... -..-......-.. Harold A. Denmark
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
Other Members of Executive Committee Henry True
Milledge Murphey, Jr.
LEWIS BERNER ..........---------............ -----.... ..Editor
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CHINCH BUG CONTROL TESTS, 1956-57 1
S. H. KERR AND F. A. ROBINSON
Department of Entomology
Agricultural Experiment Station
Previous tests established that very few of the insecticides commonly
available in 1952-55 were consistently effective in control of the Florida
lawn chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber (Kerr, 1956a, 1956b; Wolfenbar-
ger, 1953). In 1956 another series of tests was begun to screen additional
chemicals, and those which looked promising for chinch bug control were
selected for further testing in 1957.
1956 TESTS. METHODS AND MATERIALS
In 1956 tests were conducted in Orlando and Daytona Beach. The field-
plot technique was similar to that used previously (Kerr, 1956a, 1956b).
Plot size was 0.001 acre. The number of chinch bugs in one square foot of
the most heavily infested part of each plot was ascertained by a flotation
method. After the pre-arplication count was made, the numbers were ar-
ranged d seriatum and divided into two blocks of high population versus low
population. Each treatment appeared once in each block. The pesticides
and dosages used are shown in Table 1. Parathion was included as a stand-
ard by which to judge the performance of the other materials. Pesticides
were applied in water with-a sprinkling can at the rate of five gallons per
100 square feet. Subsequent counts were made at two-week intervals.
TABLE 1.-PESTICIDES USED IN 1956 CHINCH BUG TESTS.
Pesticide Formulation Actual/acre
Parathion-----............------.......... 46% Emul. Cone. 1.5 lbs.
Thimet....---.... --...--.....-- ......... 47.5 % Emul. Cone. 5 lbs.
Sevin.----..............-- ..... ...20% Emul. Cone. 5 Ibs.
C & C 8305---.....................------26% Emul. Cone. 5 lbs.
Diazinon...................-.....------25% Emul. Cone. 2, 4 lbs.
OS 2046-.........-- .-----------Water soluble liquid 2.6 lbs.
V-C 13 -................--.-------------. 75% Emul. Cone. 112 lbs.
Chlorthion-----...................--..44% Emul. Cone. 4 lbs.
Dylox.......................--- ----........50% Water soluble powder 5 lbs.
Guthion.....---- .....--------.25% Emul. Cone. 10 lbs.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Tables 2 and 3 show the results attained. Several of the chemicals
showed little promise and were dropped from further testing. These in-
cluded OS 2046, chlorthion, Sevin, and Guthion. Guthion gave good initial
control but was much less effective at later counts.
As expected, parathion gave very satisfactory control. The nematicide
V-C 13 gave the best control, but it was used at the very heavy nematicidal
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 724.
TABLE 2.-RESULTS OF CHINCH BUG CONTROL TESTS-1956. AVERAGE OF ALL PLOTS AT BOTH LOCATIONS. FIGURES IN THE
TABLE ARE NUMBERS OF CHINCH BUGS PER SQUARE FOOT.
Pre-Count ...... 48.5
2 weeks ...-........ 53.8
4 weeks ............ 59.0
6 weeks --......... 83.5*
Clth. Sevin Guth.
16.5* 22.5* 36.5*
199.0* 10.0* 5.0*
Diaz. 8305 Thimet Par. V-C 13 I
* = data from only 2 replicates and at one location, rather than 4 replicates.
Kerr and Robinson: Chinch Bug Control Tests 99
dosage, and further tests at more economical amounts were required of this
material. Thimet, Diazinon, Dylox, and C&C 8305 gave promising re-
TABLE 3.-MULTIPLE RANGE ANALYSIS OF THE INSETICIDES WHICH WERE
USED IN TWO REPLICATES AT EACH OF Two LOCATIONS IN 1956. FIGURES
IN THE TABLE ARE NUMBERS OF CHINCH BUGS PER SQUARE FOOT.
Check Diazinon Thimet Parathion 8305 V-C 13
Pre-Count ........- 48.5 80.5 34.0 33.3 40.5 48.0
2 weeks ........-... -- 53.8 4.8** 0.8 2.3 1.3 0.3
4 weeks .-........... 59.3 24.0 7.0 3.3 5.5 0.0
6 weeks* ............ 83.5 21.0 0.5 0.5 2.0 0.0
Data from Orlando only; not statistically analyzed but included for comparison.
** Any two means underscored by a given line are not significantly different from each
other at the 5% level. Any two means not underscored by the same line are significantly
1957 TESTS. METHODS AND MATERIALS
In 1957 the five promising pesticides found in the previous year were
given further trials. During 1956 and early 1957 reports were received
from commercial spray operators that DDT was no longer controlling
chinch bugs in some areas. As a check on these reports, DDT was included
in the tests at three different locations. Several other insecticides which
had not been previously tested by the writers were tried on a smaller scale.
Tests were conducted in Sarasota, Boca Raton, Lauderdale by the Sea,
and Jacksonville. Plot size in Lauderdale by the Sea was 0.001 acre, but
at the other locations was 0.0015 acres. Table 4 shows the materials and
dosages used. The technique used was the same as in 1956, except that four
of the materials were tried in one versus two applications and three replica-
tions were used. Thimet, Dylox, and DDT were the materials first tried in
one versus two applications. Thimet was omitted from the test in Jackson-
ville, because its effectiveness had been demonstrated and because its un-
availability and very strong odor would seem to preclude its practical use
TABLE 4.-CHINCH BUG TEST INSECTICIDES-1957.
Material Formulation Acre in Lbs.
DDT..........-.......-- ........-------...25% Emul. Cone. 10
Dylox-...-....-.......----------... 50% Soluble Powder 5
Diazinon....---...-....-..--..-.....25% Emul. Cone. 4
Thimet ..--...--............. ---47.5% Emul. Cone. 5
8305-...- ---..-.... .....-- ..---..-.46% Emul. Cone. 10
V-C 13~.-.......-...-----------..... 75% Emul. Cone. 16
Thiodan------...... ... ------2#/gal. Emul. Cone. 5
Toxaphene_. ---------.... 6#/gal. Emul. Cone. 10
Endrin...............----------.........20% Emul. Cone. 2
Aldrin ---....---.... .....-----------.2#/gal. Emul. Cone. 5
100 The Florida Entomologist
TABLE 5.-CHINCH BUG CONTROL RESULTS-1957.
CHINCH BUGS PER SQUARE FOOT.
Vol. 41, No. 3
AVERAGE NUMBER OF
Pre-Treatment 2 4 6 8
Treatment Count Weeks Weeks Weeks Weeks
Sarasota (Test area No. 1)
Check .................... 85 82 67 r 96 157
DDT ..................... 63 55 59 -
DDT* ....-... -........ 71 59 82 -
Dylox .---..-... ........ 78 0 7 16 39
Dylox* .................. 92 1 1 4 8
Thimet ..--..........-..-- 75 1 0 0 4
Thimet* ................ 74 1 0 1 5
Sarasota (Test area No. 2)
Check .........--.....- 44 66 43 58 -
Diazinon .... .......... 52 0 1 9 -
8305 -...--..-..... ........- 49 1 2 5 -
V-C 13 .................. 40 5 2 3 -
Toxaphene** ........ 34 30 -
Thiodan** ........... 31 38 -
Check ................-.. 66 43 58 -
Aldrin** ....-........... 32 32 -
Endrin** .............. 36 11 37 -
Check** ................ 66
DDT*, ** .............. 44
Diazinon ................ 71
8305 ..---.................. 63
Check .....---............... 42
DDT ...................... 51
DDT* .................... 49
Dylox .................... 57
Dylox* .................. 48
Diazinon ................ 46
Diazinon* .............. 46
V-C 13 .................. 38
Check** ............... 54 44 -
Toxaphene** -...... 60 28 -
Aldrin** ........--....-- 75 41 -
Endrin** .............. 70 23 -
Check* ................. 44 41 -
Thiodan* .............. 41 26 -- -
Two applications; 14-day interval.
** Average of only two replicates; rest are average of three.
Kerr and Robinson: Chinch Bug Control Tests
in the near future. Diazinon was used in place of Thimet. Thiodan, toxa-
phene, aldrin, and endrin were applied only in two replicates at the loca-
tions where they were tried.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 5 shows data for the materials tested in 1957. The outstanding
feature of the test in Sarasota was the failure of DDT to control chinch
bugs, whether one or two applications were made. In a test conducted in
the same neighborhood four years previously, two applications of the same
DDT dosage gave excellent control (Kerr, 1956a). Commercial spray oper-
ators in that area have reported increasing difficulty in obtaining control
One application of Thimet was as effective as two, but Dylox required
two applications to give good long-term control. Diazinon gave satisfactory
control. The V-C 13, which was used at a greatly reduced amount from the
previous year's nematicidal dosage, left several chinch bugs per square
foot. However, the residual effectiveness of a single application gave an
over-all control that compared favorably with the best of the other ma-
terials. Union Carbide Chemicals Company's 8305 gave excellent control.
Thiodan, toxaphene, aldrin, and endrin gave unsatisfactory control in Sara-
sota and in the southern part of the state and are not being considered
For the first time in a long series of chinch bug tests, some unknown
factor was encountered in the Boca Raton test which decimated the chinch
bug population in a large part of the lawn. Only fragmentary information
could be collected from this work, and Table 5 shows data from a few plots
in part of the lawn where the chinch bugs remained alive in the check area.
DDT gave moderately good control. Where only one DDT application was
used, however, after six weeks the population had built up to a level that
was close to being damaging in size. Again, Diazinon and 8305 gave satis-
In Jacksonville, DDT, Diazinon, and V-C 13 gave excellent control with
one application. A single application of Dylox did not compare well.
As a result of the tests during the past two years, Diazinon and V-C 13
have been added to DDT and parathion as satisfactory materials for chinch
bug control. It is true that certain additional pesticides have given effec-
tive control, but at this time they are not available. The newly recom-
mended materials and dosages are: 25 percent Diazinon emulsion concentrate
at the rate of 1 to 2 pints per 5,000 square feet of lawn; V-C 13 at the rate
of 1 to 2 quarts per 5,000 square feet. Two applications of Diazinon, at an
interval of 1 1 to 2 weeks, are required for thorough control, but one applica-
tion of V-C 13 is sufficient. The lower dosages have given satisfactory con-
trol in several tests, but the higher dosages are suggested for the southern-
most parts of the state where conditions of turf development and climate are
Kerr, S. H. 1956a. Chinch bug control on lawns in Florida. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 49: 83-85.
Kerr, S. H. 1956b. Chinch bug control tests-1955. Fla. Ent. 39: 61-64.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1953. Insect and mite control problems on lawn and
golf grasses. Fla. Ent. 36: 9-12.
FOR ALL PURPOSES
Delivered on Time
PEPPER PRINTING COMPANY
For CITRUS VEGETABLES LIVESTOCK
Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
P. 0. Box 7067
TESTS WITH POISON BAITS AGAINST COCKROACHES
C. S. LOFGREN AND G. S. BURDEN
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A.
Poison baits consisting of some food material with a toxicant such as
phosphorus or boric acid have been used for many years for controlling
the cockroaches (Mallis 1954, pp. 181-5). Recently Keller et al. (1956)
reported that a bait consisting of cornmeal (73 percent), Coca-Cola sirup
(25 percent), and Dipterex (2 percent) controlled Periplaneta spp. in homes
for 30-60 days. This paper presents an evaluation of various poison-bait
formulations against the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana
[L.]) or mixed populations of this species with P. brunnea Burm. and the
Australian cockroach (P. australasiae [F.]) and against the German cock-
roach (Blattella germanica [L.]).
A large number of food materials were tested, separately and in combi-
nation, as 2-percent Dipterex poison baits. An acetone solution of insecti-
cide was mixed with the food material. After the acetone evaporated, the
bait was placed in small plastic vial lids. Small wads of cotton were soaked
in the liquid baits to facilitate feeding by the cockroaches. The baits were
exposed to the cockroaches-in cylindrical screen cages or plastic refrigera-
tor dishes. The cockroaches'were also supplied with dog food and water.
An excess of bait was used to permit ad libitum feeding. Two to six tests
were run with each bait, with five American cockroach nymphs or five or
ten German cockroach adults per test. Knockdown and mortality counts
were taken after various periods of exposure. Results of tests with baits
that killed at least 90 percent after 48 hours are recorded in Table 1.
Against American cockroaches, dextrin, cornstarch, and powdered sugar,
alone or in combination with each other or different food materials, were
the most effective dry baits, and Coca-Cola, root beer, and vanilla sirups
were the most effective liquid baits. Powdered sugar was the most effective
bait against German cockroaches. With this exception, German cockroaches
accepted liquid baits more readily than dry baits whereas American cock-
roaches showed little preference.
TESTS IN ROOMS, HOMES, AND DAIRY BARNS
A number of bait tests were run with selected food materials in rooms,
homes, or dairy barns. The baits were prepared in the same manner as
for the laboratory tests but not always with the same insecticide or concen-
tration. Cornmeal was used in most formulations to add bulk, absorb mois-
ture, and make the baits easier to apply.
Coca-Cola sirup and a mixture of cornmeal and powdered sugar con-
taining 1 percent of Dipterex were tested against infestations of German
cockroaches in rooms. The rooms were sealed so that no roaches could
escape. Approximately 67 grams of bait was divided among three stations
in each room. This was sufficient to provide ad libitum feeding. In another
The Florida Entomologist
TABLE 1.-ATTRACTIVENESS TO COCKROACHES OF VARIOUS FOOD MATERIALS
IN BAITS CONTAINING 2% OF DIPTEREX. LABORATORY TESTS.
Percent knockdown and kill after-
Food Material 1 2 4 24 48
(figures indicate percent) hour hours hours hours hours
Dextrin 50, cornmeal 50................
Dextrin 50, cornstarch 50.........
Pepsi-Cola sirup .................
Powdered sugar 25, cornmeal 75..
Vanilla sirup ........... .................
Root beer sirup ..................
Fructose water solution ................
Coca-Cola sirup ..... ...................
Dextrin 45, dried ox blood 10,
cornmeal 45 ....................
Peanut oil ......... ....-...........
Cornstarch ... ............ ...............
Dextrin 50, peanut oil 50 ............
Brewers' yeast (dried) ............
Dried ox blood ........ ........ .....
Dextrin 33%, dried brewers'
yeast 33%1, cornstarch 33/..
Maltose water solution ...........
Cherry sirup ................... .........
Cornmeal 33%, dextrin 33%,
dried brewers' yeast 33%1......
0 10 80 90
Powdered sugar --....................---... 0
Cornmeal 75, powdered sugar 25.- 0
Root beer sirup .......................-------- 0
Vanilla sirup ................--......-. ....- 0
Orlando fly food* -----........................... 0
Strawberry sirup ...............-...........- 0
Sucrose water solution .................. 0
Maltose water solution .........---.... 0
Coca-Cola sirup ..........................-----.... 0
Cherry sirup -------.............................. 20
Dextrin 25, dried ox blood 10,
cornmeal 25, Coca-Cola
sirup 40 ..........................--------.........--- 0
0 20 80 90
* 25% raw egg, 6% powdered milk, 34.5% honey, and 34.5% malt extract.
Vol. 41, No. 3
TABLE 2.-RESULTS OF TESTS
WITH POISON BAITS CONTAINING 1% DIPTEREX AGAINST GERMAN
COCKROACHES CONFINED IN ROOMS.
(figures indicate percent)
Percentage reduction after-
Coca-Cola sirup ......................
powdered sugar 25 -......... 67
powdered sugar 25 ........ 125
* After this count the room was dusted again.
TABLE 3.-TESTS WITH BAITS CONTAINING 1% DIPTEREX AGAINST COCKROACH INFESTATIONS IN HOMES.
Coca-Cola sirup 25 ......
Granulated sugar ....------..
white Karo sirup 25.... 112
powdered sugar 25........ 112
powdered sugar 25 ..... 225
dead cockroaches/number of live cockroaches after-
2 5-6 8-10 12-13 15-16 19-20 22-23 26-27
days days days days days days days days
TABLE 3.-TESTS WITH BAITS CONTAINING 1% DIPTEREX AGAINST COCKROACH INFESTATIONS IN HOMES.-Continued
Number of dead cockroaches/number of live cockroaches after-
8-10 12-13 15-16 19-20 22-23 26-27
days days days days days days days days
white Karo sirup 25......
Powdered sugar ..........
powdered sugar 25 ......
powdered sugar 25......
it was necessary to apply a residual
Test discontinued because bait was not giving satisfactory control of German cockroaches on these premises and
** 0/0 after 37 days.
t 9/3 a~ter 40 days.
$0/2 after 40 days.
0/0 after 54 days.
The Florida Entomologist
2 Pl 1-
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00 00 00
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I I IC I
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Vol. 41, No. 3
Lofgren and Burden: Tests With Poison Baits 109
test the cornmeal-powdered-sugar bait was applied as a dust from a small
plastic catsup dispenser. In three of the rooms in this test it was necessary
to replace bait that was eaten or became scattered and was swept out when
mortality counts were taken.
Table 2 shows the cornmeal-sugar bait applied as a dust to be the most
effective, but that at the stations the Coca-Cola bait was better.
Tests in homes were made with baits containing 1 percent of Dipterex
in the following food materials: granulated sugar, powdered sugar, and mix-
tures of cornmeal plus white Karo sirup, powdered sugar, or Coca-Cola
sirup. In one series the baits were put in small piles in out-of-the-way
areas or exposed in nut cups or envelopes. The cups were set on flat sur-
faces and the envelopes stapled to vertical surfaces in or behind cupboards,
behind sinks, refrigerators, and stoves and in other places where they would
not be washed or swept away and were not readily accessible to children.
In a second series of tests a mixture of finely ground cornmeal and pow-
dered sugar plus the toxicant was applied as a dust with small plastic cat-
sup dispensers. The treatments were evaluated by making regular inspec-
tions of the premises for dead and live roaches. The results given in Table 3
show that all the baits reduced the populations of Periplaneta but none
were appreciably effective against the German cockroaches.
In 1955 and 1956 tests were run against large mixed populations of
Periplaneta in several dairy barns. The baits contained 2 percent of Dip-
terex or malathion, 73 percent of cornmeal, and 25 percent of Coca-Cola
sirup or dextrin. Small piles of the bait were placed in corners, cracks,
and in other places where it would not be washed or swept away. When
less than 75 percent control was obtained after one week, a second appli-
cation was made.
In most of the dairies roach control was determined by taking flash pic-
tures at night. After the barns were vacated in the evening, the cockroach-
es crawled from their hiding places looking for food, and a large proportion
of them were located near or in the feed troughs and in the feed rooms.
Control was based on the reduction in the number of cockroaches in three
or four pictures before and after treatment. When low populations were
present, it was possible to make an accurate visual count with the aid of a
dim light. Percent control in the Fennell dairy was based on such visual
counts. After two weeks most of the bait had been destroyed, and counts
were discontinued. The results are presented in Table 4.
Both baits gave good control when Dipterex was used as the toxicant
(75 to 95 percent after one or two treatments, based on the original pre-
treatment count). When malathion was used, control ranged from 4 to 34
Laboratory and field tests with various poison bait formulations against
cockroaches are presented. In laboratory tests with 2-percent Dipterex
baits, powdered sugar showed the greatest attractiveness to German cock-
roaches (Blattella germanica [L.]), and dextrin and cornstarch alone or in
combinations were the most attractive to nymphs of American cockroaches
(Periplaneta americana [L.]).
In rooms and homes none of the baits tested against German cockroaches
gave satisfactory control. Baits consisting of 1 percent of Dipterex in gran-
The Florida Entomologist
ulated sugar or mixtures of cornmeal plus Coca-Cola sirup, powdered sugar,
or white Karo sirup were effective in reducing infestations of Periplaneta
spp. in homes. Seventy-five to 95 percent control of Periplaneta spp. in
dairy barns was obtained with baits containing 2 percent of Dipterex in
cornmeal plus dextrin or Coca-Cola sirup. When malathion was used as
the toxicant, control ranged from 4 to 34 percent.
Keller, J. C., P. H. Clark, C. S. Lofgren, and H. G. Wilson. 1956. Cock-
roach control. Pest Control 24(9) : 12, 14, 17, 19-20.
Mallis, Arnold. 1954. Handbook of pest control. McNair-Dorland Co.,
New York. 1068 pp.
From August 17 to August 25, 1960, there will take place in Vienna the
ELEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ENTOMOLOGY. Inter-
ested persons, not yet having received a circular letter, are asked to contact
the secretary's office of the Congress, Vienna I., Burgring 7, by postcard as
soon as possible. Further information will be sent to them immediately.
Vol. 41, No. 3
LIMNETIC DISTRIBUTION OF CHAOBORUS LARVAE IN A
DEEP FLORIDA LAKE (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)
BURTON P. HUNT
University of Miami
Over a period of several years (1950-1957) visits were made to Deep
Lake, Collier County, for the purpose of obtaining limnological data. On all
occasions on which a vertical series of plankton collections were made it was
noted that larvae of a species of the phantom midge, Chaoborus, were always
present in the plankton obtained from the deeper waters and exhibited a
rather definite vertical distribution related to the size of the larvae.
Because of the difficulties attendant to reaching and studying the lake,
the sampling period was restricted to the hours between about 10:00 a.m. and
3:00 p.m. Water samples were obtained at various depths for chemical an-
alysis and plankton studies by means of modified Kemmerer water samplers
of 1189 and 2111 ml. capacity. The quantity of water obtained for a sample
at a given depth varied from 10.6 to 40.5 liters and usually amounted to
20 to 30 liters. Plankton was concentrated by means of a net constructed
of number 25 silk bolting cloth and preserved in approximately 8 per cent
formalin. Chaoborus larvae were measured by means of a linear ocular
micrometer and a dissecting microscope. Samples of the bottom material
from depths between 70 and 95 feet were secured with an Ekman dredge.
This material was washed in fine screens and examined for macroscopic
organisms. Subsurface temperature measurements were obtained by em-
ploying a deep-sea reversing thermometer. Chemical analyses were con-
ducted according to accepted procedures.
Deep Lake has some unusual characteristics and a brief description of
it seems appropriate. The lake is located in Collier County about one-
hundred yards east of State Highway 29 and ten miles north of the Tamiami
Trail, on the edge of the Big Cypress Swamp. It is nearly circular in out-
line with an open-water surface area of about 1.6 acres. During high
water periods it extends into the surrounding swamp for a considerable
distance. The maximum depth varies from about 95 to 98 feet, depending
on the general water level in the area. The basin forms a rough cone with
the apex slightly east of the lake center. There is a slightly shelving,
narrow littoral zone which gives way to a rock-rimmed drop-off which is
vertical for distances of 25 to 50 feet. The bottom of the deeper region
slopes rapidly into the single depression. Parker and Cooke (1944) con-
sider Deep Lake to be of sinkhole origin.
The lake is thermally stratified and exhibits distinct dichothermy. There
is a marked decrease in temperature from the surface to a depth of about
30 feet. From that point the temperature is virtually uniform down to
about 85 feet. In various years the temperature of this uniform zone has
varied between 16.60 and 18.00 C. Beyond 85 feet there is a slight but
marked increase in temperature. Correlated with the vertical temperature
pattern are certain chemical conditions which indicate that the deeper
The Florida Entomologist
waters are in a permanent state of meromixis. The pH of the lake water
usually ranges between 7.1 and 7.8. With the exception of one occasion,
free carbon dioxide was present in surface waters and always increased to
over 20 ppm. in deeper waters. Hydrogen sulfide was present below depths
of about 20 feet and increased greatly below 85 feet. Dissolved salts also
increased greatly in the deepest regions. No dissolved oxygen was ever
found at or below 20 feet and amounts at 10 feet ranged from 0.3 to 4.1
ppm. The slightly brown water was clear on all occasions and turbidity
measured less than 7 ppm.
The unusual nature of the water mass in Deep Lake is due primarily to
the small surface area, extreme depth, and protection from wind action
afforded by the high trees which surround the lake margin. The water
mass and associated bottom would seem to provide a very unfavorable
habitat for aerobic organisms at depths greater than about 18 feet.
Chaoborus larvae are a usual constituent of the insect fauna of lakes
in North America (Muttkowski, 1918; Eggleton, 1931; Johannsen, 1934;
Deevey, 1941; Welch, 1952; and others). Published information shows that
the larvae may be considered both as a benthic and planktonic form. At
times they are extremely abundant in the bottom mud, numbers as high as
71,500 individuals per square meter having been reported (Eggleton, 1931).
Their daytime abundance as a -limnetic form may vary from a few score
to a few thousand individuals per cubic meter of water.
The larvae are capable of moving actively, and in many localities definite
diurnal vertical migratory movements have been observed (Juday, 1921,
1922; Eggleton, 1932; and others). In these cases the bulk of the popula-
tion moves up into the surface waters at night and retreats to the deeper
waters or into the bottom mud during the day. The frequently reported
occurrence of larvae in plankton samples indicate that at least the smaller
ones are commonly limnetic in the day time although they are not usually
found in the surface waters during the middle of the day.
The vertical distribution of larvae in Deep Lake on nine different dates
is shown in Table 1. Six collections were obtained in the spring between
April 12 and May 2, two in winter and one in July. Larvae were always
present in the water stratum between 30 and 60 feet and usually occurred
in both shallower and deeper regions. The larval distribution was continu-
ous from the upper limit at which they were encountered downward to the
maximum depth occupied on a given date. On six occasions they were
first encountered at the ten foot depth but only once were they found in
the surface layer. On most dates larvae were collected at depths of 85 to
90 feet. None were ever found at a depth of 95 feet. On April 12, 1957, the
vertical range of the population extended from the surface to 90 feet. The
most restricted vertical range was encountered during a cold period on
February 7, 1953, when larvae were present only between 30 and 60 feet.
The number of larvae varied greatly on the various sampling dates.
Data are too limited to speculate on seasonal abundance, but it may be sig-
nificant that the smallest population was found at the time of the winter
samples and the largest number of larvae were present in July.
Vol. 41, No. 3
TABLE 1. ABUNDANCE AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF Chaoborus LARVAE IN DEEP LAKE.
Number of Larvae per Cubic Meter
Depth in April 28, April 26, Dec. 30, Feb. 7, May 2, May 1, April 14, April 12, July 13,
Feet 1951 1952 1952 1953 1953 1954 1956 1957 1957
1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 254 0
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1042
10 210 0 0 0 510 388 132 2600 6345
15 -- 1026 429 2547 1326
20 350 173 47 0 910 836 1335 1032 1042
25 957 -- -- 1800.
30 769 616 94 26 1479 776 1446 818 3125
40 874 284 189 2017 -- 491 1006 2118
50 454 332 -149 -
60 -94 284 652 656 943 473
70 280 134 0 0 515 60 -- 973
80 0 0 -- 248
85 78 0 0 0 --- -95
90 27 0 0 0 86 30 141 635 0
95 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
--------------------- ----- _--------------------------------------p
The Florida Entomologist
Pupae were encountered infrequently and those collected were ob-
tained at depths between 25 and 60 feet.
One or two samples of the bottom material from 70 to 95 feet were ob-
tained and examined on most visits to the lake. No macroscopic organisms
were found. The material is a mixture of pulpy and fibrous peat, brown in
color, oily, and extremely odorous. It seems likely that the larvae do not
enter this material, at least in the deep areas, and are therefore primarily
The apparent permanent lack of oxygen below about 18 feet means that
the larvae live, for much of the time at least, in an anaerobic environment
and can tolerate the extremely stagnant conditions in the region below 80
feet. Chaoborus larvae are well known for their ability to exist as anaer-
obes (Welch, 1952; and others); however, they cannot survive indefinitely
under such conditions. Eggleton (1931) reports that they can tolerate a
pH range from 3.0 to 9.2, excessive amounts of carbon dioxide, and oxygen-
less conditions for several days to several weeks. Larvae held in jars
placed on a lake bottom in anaerobic conditions died within a few weeks
It is likely that diurnal migration occurs in Deep Lake and the larvae
obtain relief from stagnant conditions during the night by moving to or
near the surface.
An increase in size of larvae"with increase in depth was noted on almost
every date on which samples were taken. The smallest, hence youngest,
larvae occupied the upper strata and the larger individuals inhabited the
deeper waters. This separation of the larval groups on a basis of size was
'nearly complete since few individuals of markedly different size were found
at the various depth levels. Similar conditions have been found in other
lakes. The usual size distribution associated with depth is shown for three
dates in Table 2. Most of the small larvae were above the 30-foot depth and
most of the larger specimens were found at greater depths. Almost all
specimens collected at depths of 40 feet or greater were near maximum size
for that date. Larvae found in the winter collections were all half grown,
of nearly uniform length (7-8 mm.), and occupied the middle third of the
The size of adult larvae in Deep Lake is not known for certain, but
probably ranges from about 9 to 12 mm., the length range of the largest
specimens encountered on April 14, 1956. In Michigan, mature larvae range
in length from about 10 to 12 mm. (Eggleton, 1932).
Length measurements were arranged into length-frequency polygrams for
the various collection dates in order to determine the number of size- and
age-groups present. Results were inconclusive since on some occasions only
one mode was evident while on others a definite bimodal curve or the sug-
gestion of one existed. Selected length-frequency data, typical of the con-
ditions encountered, are shown in Table 3. It is probable that during the
spring and summer two size- and age-groups are present as compared to
the one obvious size-group present in the winter. In certain Michigan lakes
three size-age groups were present during the winter months (Eggleton,
1932). Nothing is known concerning emergence of the adults at Deep Lake
Vol. 41, No. 3
Hunt: Chaoborus Larvae in a Deep Florida Lake 115
t? 0 MC L-e 10 N
U2 0* ^ O OIm LO L- 00 00 00 00 CD
a > >d a
00 0 m
o i i i 7i d 6 i i 06 q
Si -i 4 c l- C- O
The Florida Entomologist
and continuous sampling would be necessary to work out the life cycle of
TABLE 3. LENGTH-FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF LARVAE ON
SELECTED DATES IN DEEP LAKE.
Length in mm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Number of Individuals
Dec. 30, 1952
and Feb. 7, 1953 ................ 21 13
Number of Individuals
April 14, 1956 .....-..-..-...... 4 16 15 20 9 4 8 10 16 13 3
Number of Individuals
April 12, 1957 .-----............. 6 15 20 26 23 36 47 5
Number of Individuals
July 13, 1957 .............-..... 1 6 17 33 21 13 35 39 3 1
Deevey, E. S., Jr. 1941. Limnological studies in Connecticut. VI. The
quantity and composition of the bottom fauna in thirty-six Connecti-
cut and New York lakes. Ecol. Monogr. 11: 413-455.
Eggleton, F. E. 1931. A limnological study of the profundal bottom fauna
of certain fresh-water lakes. Ecol. Monogr. 1: 231-332.
Fggleton, F. E. 1932. Limnetic distribution and migration of Corethra
larvae in two Michigan lakes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts, Let.
Johannsen, O. A. 1934. Aquatic Diptera. Part 1. Nemocera, exclusive
of Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. Cornell Exp. Sta. Mem. No.
164, 71 pp.
Juday, C. 1921. Observations on the larvae of Corethra punctipennis Say.
Biol. Bull. 40: 271-286.
Juday, C. 1922. Quantitative studies of the bottom fauna in the deeper
waters of Lake Mendota. Wis. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 15:
Muttkowski, R. A. 1918. The fauna of Lake Mendota-A qualitative and
quantitative survey with special reference to the insects. Trans.
Wis. Acad. Sci., Arts, Let. 19: 374-482.
Parker, G. G., and C. W. Cooke. 1944. Late Cenozic geology of southern
Florida, with a discussion of the ground water. Fla. Geol. Surv.,
Geol. Bull. No. 27, pp. 29-31.
Welch, P. S. 1952. Limnology. New York, McGraw Hill Book Co., 538 pp.
Vol. 41, No. 3
NOTES ON THE IDENTITY, HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION
OF SOME SEMI-AQUATIC HEMIPTERA OF FLORIDA
H. C. CHAPMAN
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A.
In 1950 and 1951, Jon L. Herring published four papers in the FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST on the aquatic and semi-aquatic Hemiptera of northern Flor-
ida. In these he omitted the Hebridae, Saldidae, Ochteridae, and Gelastocor-
idae, all of which are generally referred to as semi-aquatic Hemiptera, but
actually are hygrophilous to littoral by nature.
This paper presents notes on my collections in these families from 1951
through 1954 and gives keys to genera and species. A few species that
occur in Florida, but which I have not collected, are included.
Most of my collections were made in the vicinity of Orlando and be-
tween Orlando and the East Coast. No attempt was made to collect all
species from different counties or localities. Unless studies were being con-
ducted in certain groups, only a small series of specimens was taken, and
the number of specimens collected does not necessarily reflect the abundance
of the species.
Key to the Genera of Hebridae
A Antenna of dried specimens apparently five-segmented, the ex-
tremely long fourth segment constricting at or near its middle
so as to simulate a joint ................... ....................Hebrus Curtis
A' Antenna four-segmented with fourth segment usually fusiform.....
-............-.......--.......--. ----....... M erragata W white
Key to the species of Merragata
A Fourth antennal segment not clubbed ..................----. brevis Champion
A' Fourth antennal segment distinctly clubbed ........................................ B
B Disk of pronotum with narrow insignificant median groove; mem-
brane of macropterous form milky white ..............brunnea Drake
B' Disk of pronotum with a wide deep longitudinal furrow; membrane
of macropterous form with fuscous spots ............ hebroides White
Merragata brevis Champion
This species was collected only from emergent vegetation in brackish or
saline waters near the East Coast. Macropterous adults were taken in
March, April, May, and August.
21 specimens collected from the following localities:
Cocoa, Indian River City, Mims, and Salt Lake.
The Florida Entomologist
Merragata hebroides White
This species apparently is not too common since it was collected only
from the east coast area. Specimens were taken from a roadside ditch
adjacent to the St. Johns River, a brackish slough adjacent to the Indian
River, and one specimen from a calcareous roadside stream. Most speci-
mens were macropterous whereas a few were brachypterous and all were
dipped from algal mats near the shore. Adults were collected in April,
June, and July.
47 specimens collected from the following localities:
Merritt Island, Mims, and Titusville.
Merragata brunnea Drake
Roadside ditches, lakes, rivers, sinkhole ponds, borrow pits, and other
similar areas that contain calcareous water possess this species which is
generally found adjacent to the shore on floating algal mats and on other
debris on the water surface.
With the exception of Hebrus consolidus (Uhler), this species appears
to be the most widely distributed hebrid in Central Florida. The brachyp-
terous form is more common than the macropterous form. Adults were
noted in January, February, May, July, October, November, and December
and undoubtedly occur throughout the year.
58 specimens collected from the following localities:
Center Hill, Coleman, Holly Hill, Indian River City, Mims, Oak Hill,
Orlando, Ormond, Titusville, ana Union Park.
Key to the species of Hebrus
A Apex of scutellum notched ...................................... .................... B
A' Apex of scutellum not notched ..................----- -......-.....--..........-- .....-- C
B Narrow white line extending from base of both clavus and corium;
antennal segment 3 equal to 5 with 4 much shorter............
........--......-..-....------. ...- buenoi Drake and Harris
B' Larger triangular white area at base of clavus; antennal segment
3 longer than either 4 or 5 ----....... ------.... --....--....burmeisteri L. and S.
C Base of clavus with distinct white triangular spot ..........---------
---........... ....... ------- --------------------... ---.... ---. consolidus Uhler
C' Base of clavus with indistinct pale spot or none........concinnus Uhler
Hebrus buenoi Drake and Harris
Specimens were collected from an area adjacent to a salt marsh, algal
mats in brackish waters of a roadside drainage ditch, the damp shores of
lakes, and from a damp area in a cypress swamp. Until recently this species
was thought to be H. bilineatus Champion which it resembles but my speci-
mens were compared with the type of bilineatus and were dissimilar. Con-
siderable superficial variation exists between specimens of buenoi collected
in Michigan and in Florida. All adults were macropterous and were noted
from January through June.
27 specimens collected from the following localities:
Cocoa, Mims, Orlando, Pine Castle, Slavia, and Winter Park.
Vol. 41, No. 3
Chapman: Some Semi-Aquatic Hemiptera of Florida 119
Hebrus burmeisteri L. and S.
This species was collected from roadside ditches and a calcareous spring
and apparently is somewhat rare in this general area. Only macropterous
adults were taken and these in January, April, October, and November.
6 specimens collected from the following localities:
Center Hill, Titusville, Wekiwa Springs, and Wildwood.
Hebrus concinnus Uhler
Several nice series of this species were taken, only from Orlando and
vicinity, around the damp margins of a lake and a fluctuating pond. All
adults were macropterous and were noted all months of the year except
March, August, and September.
54 specimens collected from the following localities:
Orlando and Pine Castle.
Hebrus consolidus Uhler
This species is the most commonly seen Hebrid and was noted in road-
side ditches, calcareous stream banks, shores of lakes, cypress swamps, and
other damp areas. The macropterous form is more common than the
brachpterous form but many of the latter were collected. The brachyp-
terous form was initially described by Porter (1954) from some of these
specimens. Adults were noted every month except August and September.
102 specimens collected from the following localities:
Center Hill, Cocoa, Floral City, Geneva, Holly Hill, Mims, Orlando,
Titusville, Wekiwa Springs, and Wildwood.
(Velvety Shore Bugs)
Genus Ochterus Latrielle
Key to the species of Ochterus
A Side margins of pronotum with pale spot near front angle............ B
A' Side margins of pronotum concolorous ............................banksi Barber
B Clavus completely yellow ......................................---flaviclavus Barber
B' Clavus concolorous with corium ...........................americanus (Uhler)
Ochterus americanus (Uhler)
This, the most common Ochterid, was often noted along the damp mar-
gins of lakes, roadside ditches, and other wet, mucky areas. Adults evi-
dently occur throughout the year as specimens were collected every month
except April, September, and November.
45 specimens collected from the following localities:
Christmas,\ Cocoa, Cocoa Beach, Kissimmee, Maitland, Mims, Oak Hill,
Orlando, Pine Castle, Slavia, Union Park, and Wekiwa Springs.
Ochterus flaviclavus Barber
This is an exceedingly rare species in collections. The majority of the
specimens were taken from mucky situations close to calcareous springs.
120 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 3
The edge of a salt-marsh and a cypress swamp each yielded single speci-
mens. Adults were collected in March, June, July, and August.
5 specimens collected from the following localities:
Altamonte Springs, Christmas, Oak Hill, Orlando, and Wekiwa Springs.
Ochterus banksi Barber
Schell (1943) reports this species as represented in the Francis Hunting-
ton Snow collection from Capron, Florida.
Key to the genera of Gelastocoridae
A Front tarsi with two claws; eyes large and prominent ........
--..........----.--- -----.----..-- -----..----.----.. Gelastocoris Kirkaldy
A' Front tarsi with one claw; eyes small, sessile, and not prom-
inent ..........................--..... ----.----- .---- Nerthra Say
Gelastocoris oculatus (Fabricus)
This species exhibits a great deal of variation both in size and color, and
was collected from almost any damp area, especially those adjacent to lakes,
ponds, rivers, and roadside ditches. Adults were taken every month of the
year. G. subsimilus Blatchley and G. barber Bueno are synonyms.
188 specimens collected from the following localities:
Christmas, Cocoa Beach, Indian River City, Kissimmee, Maitland, Mims,
Narcoosee, Oak Hill, Orlando, Osteen, Oviedo, Pine Castle, Salt Lake,
Sanlando Springs, Sarasota, Slavia, Titusville, Union Park, Wekiwa Springs,
and Winter Park.
Key to species of Nerthra
A Hemelytra fused together; ocelli present ....--..----...........-- stygica Say
A' Hemelytra not fused together, ocelli absent........rugosa (Desjardins)
Nerthra stygica Say
Adults and nymphs were collected from a roadside ditch, a damp area
adjacent to a lake, and from the base of emergent vegetation growing in
the brackish waters of the Indian River. Undoubtedly the reason this spe-
cies is somewhat rare in collections is because it usually remains motionless
when discovered or disturbed. Adults were noted in April, May, June,
July, September, October, and December.
28 specimens collected from the following localities:
Christmas, Indian River City, Orlando, and Oviedo.
Nerthra rugosa (Desjardins)
Blatchley (1926) records the taking of two specimens from the margin of
Arch Creek, Florida. Glossoaspis brunnea Blatchley is a synonym.
Chapman: Some Semi-Aquatic Hemiptera of Florida 121
Key to the genera of Saldidae
A Anterior lobe of pronotum with two large conical tubercles ......
...-....-........---------------------.. ---------- --- -..- Saldoida Osborn
A' Anterior lobe of pronotum without large conical tubercles .........------ B
B Membrane with five longitudinal looped cells .......Pentacora Reuter
B' Membrane with four longitudinal looped cells ..................................--- C
C Two distinct veins in corium with inner vein forked toward apex,
its branches reaching membranal suture -..--.....Saldula VanDuzee
C' Both veins in corium completely obsolete ......-..Micracanthia Reuter
Key to the species of Saldoida
A Posterior angles of pronotum sub-acute to acute........cornuta Osborn
A' Posterior angles of pronotum obtuse ....------- --- ..slossoni Osborn
Saldoida cornuta Osborn
This species was taken only from a roadside ditch, the damp shores of a
hammock-region lake and fluctuating pond, and apparently is less common
than slossoni. Except for one macropterous specimen, all were brachyp-
terous and were collected in January, February, June, and July.
21 specimens collected from the following localities:
Christmas, Maitland, and Orlando.
Saldoida slossoni Osborn
The shores of many hammock-region and sand-shore lakes yielded speci-
mens of this species. Slossoni was also taken in a cypress swamp and single
specimens were noted from the shores of a sand-bottomed stream and from
the edge of a salt marsh. Eight macropterous specimens were collected with
the brachypterous form more common. Adults were collected in February,
April, June, July, and November.
50 specimens collected from the following localities:
Christmas, Maitland, Orlando, Pine Castle, and Titusville.
Key to the species of Pentacora
A Species with dorsal surface shining and many long erect hairs
........-----------. --.............-- --.... -... --.-.. --.----.. hirta (Say)
A' Species with dorsal surface dull and short erect setae ....-................ B
B Lateral margins of pronotum with short erect setae ..............
--......--..--.... ---- ---......-----------..-- signoreti (Guerin)
B' Lateral margins of pronotum without setae .-....- sphacelata (Uhler)
Pentacora hirta (Say)
Common in salt marshes where it abounds among the pickleweed and
other vegetation. A few specimens were taken along the sandy shores of
The Florida Entomologist
the Atlantic Ocean and a salt lake. Adults occur throughout the year.
P. pellita (Uhler) is a synonym.
25 specimens collected from the following localities:
Cocoa, Cocoa Beach, Mims, Sarasota, Shiloh, and Titusville.
Pentacora signoreti (Guerin)
This agile species haunts the bare salt flats of the salt marshes with the
tiger beetles which they appear to mimic both in form and method of flight.
A few specimens were taken along the sandy shores of the Atlantic Ocean.
Adults were collected in April, May, and June but occur throughout the
18 specimens collected from the following localities:
Cocoa, Mims, and Titusville.
Pentacora sphacelata (Uhler)
Common in the salt marshes where it occurs on damp thinly vegetated
areas and along the shores of salt-water lagoons. It has also been noted
from the sandy shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Adults were collected in
May, June, and July.
20 specimens collected from the following localities:
Cocoa, Cocoa Beach, and Sarasota.
Key to the species of Saldula
A Outer margins of pronotum with a pale stripe......-.... coxalis (Stal)
A' Outer margins of pronotum concolorous with pronotum.................. B
B Anterior tibia with a solid basal dark stripe; embolium with one or
more dark areas beyond the base ...........----.........pallipes (Fabricus)
B' Anterior tibia with the basal dark stripe interrupted before the
middle; embolium pale except at base........opacula (Zetterstedt)
Saldula coxalis (Stal)
Barber (1914) recorded Acanthia xanthochila var. limbosa Horvath from
Florida but it is probable that his specimens were S. coxalis since S. xantho-
chila var. limbosa is known only from Europe.
Saldula pallipes (Fabricus)
This is the most widely dispersed Saldid in Central Florida as it is
abundant in salt marshes, along damp shores of lakes and streams, and
almost any damp area. A few specimens were taken along the sandy shores
of the Atlantic Ocean. Frequently this species becomes so abundant in the
salt marshes that it outnumbers all of the Pentacora species. Adults were
taken every month of the year. S. interstitialis (Say) and S. reperta
(Uhler) are synonyms.
33 specimens collected from the following localities:
Cocoa, Cocoa Beach, Oak Hill, Orlando, Sarasota, Titusville, Union Park,
and Wekiwa Springs.
Vol. 41, No. 3
Chapman: Some Semi-Aquatic Hemiptera of Florida 123
Saldula opacula (Zetterstedt)
The U. S. National Museum possesses one specimen of this bog inhabit-
ing species from Paradise Key, Florida.
Drake and Chapman (1952, 1953) present a detailed description of these
species and their habits.
Key to the species of Micracanthia
A Antennal segments 3 and 4 swollen and densely pubescent; apical
portion of scutellum tumid and shiny black ............--..--..
..-......-.......-...... .----------------------------------.. pumpila Blatchley
A' Antennal segments 3 and 4 not swollen or densely pubescent; scutel-
lum not tum id or shiny .............................. ................................. B
B Antennal segment 2 shorter or at most sub-equal to segment 3......
--..-....-.................-..--.---------...--- husseyi Drake and Chapman
B' Antennal segment 2 distinctly longer than segment 3 --..................------- C
C Generally smaller species; dorsal surface much lighter; membranal
area dull white with few small fuscous spots; embolium usually
pale throughout its length ................---..................--humilis (Say)
C' Generally larger species; dorsal surface very dark; membranal area
completely fuscous; embolium with two pale areas separated by
a dark area ....----..--..................---.. floridana Drake and Chapman
Micracanthia pumpila Blatchley
This species appears to haunt salt marshes where it abounds on damp
and flooded areas beneath pickleweed and dead man's finger. It was usually
collected by a dipper while searching for mosquito larvae. This technique
was also successfully used in the New Jersey salt marshes to obtain large
numbers of the rare M. hungerfordi (Hodgden). Specimens also were taken
from damp areas adjacent to brackish streams. The brachypterous form
of pumpila is quite common. Adults were collected from February through
55 specimens collected from the following localities:
Cocoa, Mims, Oak Hill, Shiloh, and Titusville.
Micracanthia husseyi Drake and Chapman
The singular habit of lurking on grass which protrudes above the water
line is distinctive of this species. It was taken from vegetation in fresh,
brackish, and salt water and from floating logs in cypress swamps. When
these swamps dried up, this species was observed on the damp ground for
the first time. In the past this species was confounded in collections with
M. pumpila and humilis. Adults were collected all months except January,
September, and November.
170 specimens collected from the following localities:
Cocoa, Indian River City, Mims, Orlando, Salt Lake, and Titusville.
The Florida Entomologist
Micracanthia humilis (Say)
Apparently a fresh water habitat is preferred by this species since the
writer has only once collected it in the vicinity of salt water. It was col-
lected principally among the thin vegetation on the damp shores of streams,
lakes, sinkhole ponds, and other damp areas. Specimens were also taken
from the shores of cypress swamps. It is easily the most widely dispersed
Saldid in Central Florida next to Saldula pallipes. Adults were collected
every month but September.
55 specimens collected from the following localities:
Christmas, Cocoa, Indian River City, Kissimmee, Maitland, Mims, Or-
lando, Osteen, Pine Castle, Union Park, and Wekiwa Springs.
Micracanthia floridana Drake and Chapman
Collected only from a deserted wooden boat dock that extends out in the
Wekiwa River which originates from a typical Florida calcareous spring.
Adults and nymphs move about on the damp wood adjacent to the water
surface and are easily collected by hand. The writer has taken this species
twice in New Jersey in essentially the same type of environment, i.e., on
stumps and logs protruding above the water surface and above the water
line on a cement wall beneath a bridge. Former Florida records of M.
quadrimaculata (Champion) actually belong to floridana. Adults were
collected only in May, June, and July.
54 specimens collected from" the following locality: Wekiwa Springs
Barber, H. G. 1914. Insects of Florida. II. Hemiptera. Bull. Amer. Mus.
Nat. Hist. 33(31) : 495-535.
Blatchley, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of eastern North America.
Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis. p. 1028.
Drake, C. J., and H. C. Chapman. 1952. A new species of Micracanthia
from Florida (Hemiptera-Saldidae). Fla. Ent. 35(4): 147-150.
Drake, C. J., and H. C. Chapman. 1953. An undescribed saldid from the
Gulf States (Hemiptera-Saldidae). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 48(2):
Porter, T. W. 1954. Brachypterous form of Hebrus consolidus Uhler
(Hemiptera-Hebridae). Jour. Kans. Ent. Soc. 27(1) : 38-39.
Schell, D. V. 1943. The Ochteridae (Hemiptera) of the Western Hemi-
sphere. Jour. Kans. Ent. Soc. 16:29-46.
Vol. 41, No. 3
A NEW GENUS OF GERRIDAE (HEMIPTERA)
FROM SOUTH AMERICA1
HERBERT B. HUNGERFORD AND RYUICHI MATSUDA
This undescribed gerrid has been in our collection at the University of
Kansas for many years. For several years it was represented by four fe-
males bearing the label "Bolivia, S. A., Santa Cruz, J. Steinbach." One of
these the senior author sent to the late Professor Teiso Esaki, Fukuoka,
Japan, for his opinion in 1932, and made the suggestion that if it were new
would be glad to send them all to him for description. However, perhaps
because we had only females, he did not describe the species but wrote "This
species may represent a new genus, which may be separated from Telmato-
metra 1) in the different shape of eyes, being more slender in dorsal aspect
and much more backwardly protruded; 2) in the position of the insertion
of the antennae, being not caudad of the anterior margin of eyes; 3) and
in the longest first antennal segment etc. There is no described genus which
may include this species."
In 1938 our museum received eight males and eight females of this
species collected by A. M. Olalla in Bolivia, South America, and at long
last we are describing this interesting new species. We still have no winged
Trepobatoides gen. nov.
Small and elongate ovate in shape. Head between eyes longer than wide,
widened posteriorly. Eyes oblong, covering anterolateral angle of pronotum.
Antennal cavities located in front of anterior margins of eyes. Antennae
slender, first segment longer than two following segments together, espe-
cially so in female; relative length of second to first greater in male than
in female. Rostrum extending beyond prosternum.
Pronotum small, narrower than head including eyes. Mesonotum with
posterior margin feebly concave. Metasternum entire, without omphalium,
a little longer than second ventral abdominal segment. Anterior margins of
first and second abdominal tergites distinct, produced anteriorly. Male gen-
italia with distinct but simple paramere. Suranal plate simple.
This genus is related to Telmatometra and Trepobates but peculiar in
the following characters:
1. The first antennal segment is longer than the second and third
segments together in both sexes, much longer than the second and third
combined in the female.
2. The relative length of the second to the first antennal segment is
distinctly longer in the male than in the female.
3. The relative length of the first to the second tarsal segment in the
middle leg is about 2:1; whilst the same never exceeds 1.5:1 in Trepo-
bates and Telmatometra.
1 Contribution No. 995 from the Department of Entomology, University
of Kansas. This report is by-product of a project conducted with aid of a
grant from the National Science Foundation.
The Florida Entomologist
The black median stripe on the head occurs also in Trepobates but not
in Telmatometra, and the first antennal segment is relatively longer in
Trepobates than in Telmatometra. These characters suggest closer rela-
tionship to Trepobates than to Telmatometra.
Type species of the genus :
Trepobatoides boliviensis Hungerford and Matsuda
Plate I. Trepobatoides boliviensis Hungerford and Matsuda. Left side
male, right side female.
Trepobatoides boliviensis sp. nov.
(Plate I; Figures A- E)
SIZE: Apterous males: 3.57 to 3.78 mm. long.; 1.6 mm. greatest width.
Apterous females: 3.36-4.45 mm. long; 2.1 mm. greatest width.
COLOR: Pale testaceous with black stripes, sides and venter covered with
a frosty pile (see plate 1). The white lateral stripes of mesothorax are due
Vol. 41, No. 3
Hungerford and Matsuda: New Genus of Gerridae 127
to frosty or silvery pile on pale testaceous background. Median black strips
on head and round dots on pronotum sometimes reduced or nearly oblit-
erated. Beak pale testaceous except distal segment which is shiny black.
First antennal segment testaceous above, brown beneath, other segments
brown. Legs testaceous, darker apically; front femur brown beneath.
Trepobatoides boliviensis Hungerford and Matsuda
Fig. A. Antenna of male.
Fig. B. Antenna of female.
Fig. C. Right paramere.
Fig. D. Ventral view of female apical abdominal segments.
Fig. E. Ventral view of male apical abdominal segments.
The Florida Entomologist
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS: Antennae not quite as long as body.
Relative length of antennal segments in male : 1st : 2nd : 3rd : 4th :: 57 :
21 : 28 : 40; in female : 70 : 22 : 26 : 38. First antenna segment slender
and slightly curved. Beak stout, third segment extending onto mesosternum.
TABLE 1. THE RELATIVE LENGTH OF THE LEG SEGMENTS IN A MALE.*
Tarsal Tarsal Total length
Femur Tibia seg. 1 seg. 2 of tarsus
Front leg ........ 70 50 6 18 24
Middle leg ...-.. 135 200 60 30 90
Hind leg .......... 165 78 13 16.5 29.5
Measurements are ocular micrometer units-20 units = 0.42 mm.
Middle leg longest; middle femur stoutest; middle first tarsal segment
twice as long as second. Ventral abdominal segments of male short except
last one, which is about as long as two preceding segments together; first
genital flattened, slightly depressed and longer than last abdominal; last
abdominal plus genital segments longer than rest of abdomen. Ventral
abdominal segments of female short except last, which is as long as two
preceding segments together; genital segments more or less withdrawn
ventrally. Male paramere shaped as in fig. C.
COMPARATIVE NOTES: The nearest relatives appear to be in the genus
LOCATION OF TYPES: Holotype, allotype and paratypes (7 males and 7
females) bear the labels "Bolivia, S. A. R. Chapare, March 1938, A. M.
Olalla" and "Road between Todos Santos and Palmer;" also four female
paratypes labeled "Bolivia, S. A., Santa Cruz, J. Steinbach." This type
series is in the Francis Huntington Snow Entomological Collection, Uni-
versity of Kansas.
Vol. 41, No. 3
i) ~ ''
NOTES ON AEGIALOMYIA PSAMMOPHILA (0. S.)
R. L. BLICKLE
New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, Durham
Ocean beaches on the east coast of Florida were examined for speci-
mens of Aegialomyia psammopkila (0. S.) during 1957. Adult flies were
taken on Long Key, April 19; Winter Beach, May 3; Fort Pierce (Pepper
Park), May 6; Vero Beach, May 6; Sebastian Inlet, Brevard County, May
14; and at the northern end of Cocoa Beach, May 18. Since this species has
been recorded from Georgia (Philip, 1950), it probably occurs on all the
beaches of the east coast of Florida. This fly was taken on every beach
from Fort Pierce inlet to the Sebastian Inlet, and on the two beaches sur-
veyed outside of this area.
The ocean beach in the Fort Pierce (Pepper Park) area is probably the
type locality. The locality listed by Osten Sacken (p. 445, 1876) is Fort
Capron, Florida. Aided by Mr. William Bidlingmayer the site of Fort
Capron was located. It is indicated at the present time by a plaque on a
granite stone on the "Old Dixie Highway" in the town of St. Lucie. This
marker is on the west side of the Indian River, about three miles north of
Fort Pierce. However, Osten Sacken (p. 445, 1876) states that the speci-
mens were taken "on the sea beach". The sea beach east of the Fort Capron
marker is approximately the beach area of Pepper Park. This may or may
not be the exact location where the type specimens were taken.
A survey of the sand beaches along the Indian River from Sebastian to St.
Lucie, Florida, was made, but no Aegialomyia were seen. The beaches along
the river are narrow and subject to frequent inundation by tides and this
may account for the failure to discover any of these flies in these habitats.
Aegialomyia psammophila was found on beaches which were frequented
by bathers, i. e. at Cocoa, Fort Pierce, and Vero Beach, as well as on
beaches seldom visited by people such as Long Key and Sebastian Inlet.
The flies were more numerous on the less frequented beaches but were, nev-
ertheless, common at Pepper Park, a public beach.
A few beaches on the west coast of Florida were examined with negative
results, these areas being on Sanibel Island, Captiva Island, and at Choko-
The beaches, where the flies were found, are quite different in some re-
spects. The one at Long Key was narrow, seldom four yards wide, and was
not exposed to a great deal of tidal action. The other beaches examined
were from ten to forty yards wide depending on the stage of the tide, these
beaches being exposed to a great deal more tidal and wave action. The
sand on the beaches from Sebastian Inlet south was loose and contained
considerable shell. The sand at Cocoa Beach was firm and had a tendency
to pack, in fact, automobiles were driven along this beach. It is seldom if
ever that cars can be driven on the southern beaches.
The adult flies seem to prefer the drier parts of the beach above the
high tide line. A few were seen on the wet sand but they porbably flew
1 Contribution (No. 52) from the Entomological Research Center, Florida
State Board of Health.
The Florida Entomologist
there when they were disturbed by the observer. On windy days they could
be found resting on the seaweed litter on the upper part of the beach and
in several instances they were noted crawling down into the piled up sea-
weed. At Long Key they were on all parts of the beach, probably due to
the fact that the beach was narrow.
While walking along the beach one would disturb the flies so that they
would fly for a short distance, alight and face the observer. If a fly was
disturbed repeatedly it would fly out over the ocean before alighting on the
sand again. These horseflies flew close to the ground, usually within two
feet of the sand. Due to the low flying and the very bright light condi-
tions it was difficult to follow the flight when it was over the ocean or for
more than twenty yards. The habits of this fly, when disturbed, resemble
those of the Cicindelidae. In fact, the position of the fly at rest, the color
markings on the wings, and the size of the fly give them the habitus of
Cicindela dorsalis media Lec.2 also found on these beaches. This similarity
has been remarked by others (Haeger, 1948). Another insect found on
some of the beaches in association with the horseflies was an Asilidae,
Laphystia litoralis Curran.2 These flies, at first glance, resemble the Aegia-
lomyia in flight and resting habits, however, they are one-third smaller. All
of the above insects are white in appearance as is often the case with psam-
Many observations were made to determine the habits of the flies. They
were seen resting on the sand and on the seaweed litter, or flying when dis-
turbed. In only one instance was any other action noted. A female A.
psammophila was observed moving about on a mass of seaweed litter. Since
the abdomen of the fly was swollen it was thought that it may have been
gravid. The fly kept the tip of its abdomen in contact with the seaweed as
-it crawled about. After moving about on this material for a distance of
about three feet the fly moved to the sand, then crawled for a distance of
fifteen feet, pausing momentarily every two or three feet. The course taken
was tortuous since the female was crawling between scattered piles of sea-
weed. The tip of the abdomen was in contact with, or very close, to the
sand during the entire period. The time elapsed during the entire action
was approximately fifteen minutes. The action terminated when the fly
was disturbed by another insect and flew away.
Several times a female fly came to rest on the bare leg of the observer,
but there was no attempt to obtain a blood meal.
A search for the immature stages of Aegialomyia psammophila resulted
in the finding of one larva and one pupal case. Both of these were taken
from the beach on Long Key. The pupal case was near the upper margin
of the beach. The larva was taken from the moist sand beneath a pile of
seaweed approximately two feet from the ocean. The larva was two inches
below the surface of the sand. Many amphipods and earthworms were
found in the sand from which the larva was taken.
The larva was placed in a plastic pill box and transported to the labora-
tory. Beach sand and a small amount of seaweed were placed in the pill
box with the larva. The sand was kept moist by adding tap water as
needed. Small pieces of frozen horsemeat were given to the larva as food
2 Identification by Insect Identification Laboratory, Agricultural Research
Vol. 41, No. 3
Blickle: Notes on Aegialomyia psammophila (0. S.) 131
but did not seem to be satisfactory. Phorid larvae, Megaselia sp., were then
used as food and proved to be acceptable to the larva. The larva, taken on
April 19, was 22 mm. long. The larva moulted once, a cast skin being found
in the sand on June 24. It changed to a pupa on July 1, the length of the
larva being 25 mm. at the time of pupation. A male fly emerged on July 12.
The larva of A. psammophila is white and there are no distinguishing
markings. The anal segment is truncate and resembles the larva of Haem-
atopota in this respect.
The pupa, in general appearance, resembles those of Tabanus, however,
the tubercles of the pupal aster are elongate with the apical three-fourths
greatly narrowed. The length of the tubercles is approximately five times
the basal width. The pre-anal fringe is uninterrupted and composed of
twenty-two spines, those on the lateral margin are short and those on the
ventral part long. The dorso-lateral combs are composed of six spines. The
annular fringe on the abdominal segments is made up of alternate long and
short spines. The long spines are approximately one-half the length of the
segment over which they extend. The fringe is denser on the dorsal and
lateral parts of the segment. The first abdominal segment has only six
long, widely spaced spines on the dorsal surface, and three long spines on
each side just posterior to the spiracle.
A pupal case taken from sand on beach at Long Key agrees in every
respect with the male pupa except one. The pre-anal fringe on the Aegialo-
myia pupal case is interrupted leaving a gap on the ventral portion and
dividing the fringe into two parts of about eight spines each. Since this
condition, the interruption 5f the anal fringe, occurs in both Tabanus and
Haematopota female pupal cases, this pupal case is considered to be one
from which a female fly had emerged.
The combination of long, slender, terminal parts of the tubercles of the
aster and the long hair fringe on the abdominal segments are the main
differences which separate these from other Tabanid pupae.
Haeger, J. S. 1948. A species of horsefly inhabiting white sand beaches.
News Letter, Fla. State Bd. of Health, May.
Osten Sacken, C. R. 1876. Prodrome of a monograph of the Tabanidae of
the United States. Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 2 (4): 445.
Philip, C. B. 1950. Corrections and addenda to a catalog of Nearctic Ta-
banidae. Amer. Mid. Nat. 43 (2) : 430.
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OBSERVATIONS ON BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF TORTRIX
IVANA FERNALD (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE),
AS A PEST OF CELERY IN THE FLORIDA
EVERGLADES, AND NOTES ON
ITS CONTROL 1
W. G. GENUNG 2 AND N. C. HAYSLIP 3
The tortricid moth, Tortrix ivana Fernald, has been observed at various
times in celery plantings in the Florida Everglades. During the spring of
1948 Hayslip (1948) found larvae of this moth causing severe injury in some
plantings. In view of the serious nature of the infestation, it was considered
desirable to study the life history and ecology of this little known species.
The data obtained are from insectary studies and field observations. Popu-
lation trends were derived from light trap catches of adult moths at the
Everglades Experiment Station. Population trends have been correlated
with the celery production period of the year, based on carlot shipments, to
ascertain when the crop is most likely to be infested.
The literature on Tortrix ivana Fernald is very brief. Hyslop (1934)
mentions that the species was described in 1901 from Florida specimens,
and that the insect was not recorded again until 1931, when severe damage
was reported to rose foliage and flower buds on Long Island, New York.
This tortricid was next reported in 1933 by Clarence O. Bare (1934), at-
tacking celery in the Everglades. The late R. N. Lobdell, then entomologist
at the Everglades Experiment Station, and Bare examined a field southeast
of the station where an infestation of the celery leaf tier, Phlyctaenia
rubigalis (Guen.), was suspected. A severe infestation of Tortrix ivana
Fernald was found. Bare expressed concern over the possibility of the moth
becoming a major pest of celery in the Everglades. However, the species
was not observed again attacking this crop, until Hayslip (1948) reported
a severe infestation of a tortricid on celery in the Everglades, a decade and
a half after the initial report from the area. Specimens submitted by Hay-
slip to the Division of Insect Identification, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, were determined only as Tortricidae, possibly Platynota sp.
Subsequent material submitted by the writers in 1951 was determined by
J. F. Gates-Clark of the above division to be Tortrix ivana Fernald. Since
1948, light to moderate numbers of the insect have been observed yearly in
late celery plantings in the Everglades. Genung reported studies on this
tortricid in 1951-53. According to Wilson and Hayslip (1951), this species
has not attacked celery in the Sanford area. In early April, 1956, light
damage by this species was observed in the Everglades, and the large num-
bers of adults present indicated that before the season was over severe in-
SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 739.
SAssociate Entomologist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
3 Entomologist, Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida.
--5- 300 -A
250 1951-'52 250-
200 250 1953-'54 /
200 3 00'
I00/ 2 0 150 / t. .
0 50 -
NOV. I DEC.I JAN I FEB. I MAR I APR. I MAY I JUNE I JULY I AUG.I NOV. I DEC. I JAN. I FEB. I MAR I APR. IMAY I JUNE I JULY I AUG I
20 1952-'53 2 \ 1954-'55
150 \, 150
100- / 100-
50 v 50
Figures 1-4.-Population trends of Tortrix ivana, broken line, in relation to celery production season, solid line. Mean number moths and
mean number carlot shipments. Seasons 1951-52, 1952-53, 1953-54, 1954-55.
Genung and Hayslip: Pest of Celery in the Everglades 135
jury could result. However, serious attacks did not materialize, probably
due to partial control of both adults and larvae by regular applications of
DISTRIBUTION, HOST RANGE AND LIFE HISTORY
Little is known of the distribution of this tortricid. The species has
been of economic importance in Florida and New York, indicating that the
insect can tolerate highly variable conditions and may have a wide distribu-
tion. The writers have collected or noted the adults occurring at lights over
most of the peninsular portion of Florida, from Miami and Belle Glade to
St. Augustine and Gainesvillc.
HOST STUDIES: Since host preference and host specificity could be im-
portant factors in control, considerable time was spent in inspection to
determine the natural host plants in the area. Initial inspections were made
on wild and cultivated plants related to celery, but no infestations were
found on other umbelliferous plants growing in the vicinity. The scope of
the inspection work was then broadened to include all the plant species com-
monly growing in the agricultural area of the Everglades, including both
wild and cultivated plants. Immature stages of Tortrix ivana Fernald were
found on 15 plant species representing 10 widely divergent plant families.
Two additional plant families and three species are listed in the sparse
literature on the moth (Bare, 1934; Hyslop, 1934). This brings the number
of host species reported under field conditions to 18. Additional plants rep-
resentative of other families and species artificially infested with this insect
were acceptable to the larvae, some of the insects completed their develop-
ment in each instance. The number of recorded hosts from the standpoint
of families and species is not exceptionally large. However, the plant
species that are acceptable hosts of Tortrix ivana Fernald represent families
that practically span the spermatophytes from Poaceae (Graminae) to
Except where parasitism prevented, eggs and larvae found in the field
have been reared to the adult stage in order to eliminate the possibility of
misidentification. (Host data are summarized in Table 1.)
CHARACTER OF INJURY: Damage to celery caused by Tortrix ivana
Fernald resembles that of the celery leaf tier. Young larvae feeding on the
petioles cause lengthwise grooves which they cover with fine silken web-
bing. Some larvae bore holes into the petioles and work entirely within the
protection of the stalk. These worms appear to inflict injury equivalent to
much larger larvae. Hayslip (1948) reported that one planting was ob-
served in which losses amounted to 50 percent or more of the crop in some
DESCRIPTION OF STAGES: Egg-The light greenish-yellow eggs are de-
posited in irregular, shingled masses on the upper and lower leaf surfaces,
and occasionally on the petiole. Egg masses may vary from less than a
half dozen to as many as 50 or 60 eggs. Most field-collected masses ob-
served did not exceed 25 eggs. Five females, which were under close obser-
vation, laid an average total of 105 eggs with a minimum of 99 and a max-
imum of 115. The number of masses per female ranged from two to six.
The incubation period varied from five days to nearly two weeks in this
study, the average hatching time being approximately seven days.
TABLE 1.-HosT PLANTS OF Tortrix ivana FERNALD.
T. ivana found Remarks
Pig Weed amaranth
Amaranthus spinosus L.
Amaranthus hybridus L.
Galinsoga ciliata Raf. (Bl.)
Apium graveolens L.
Paspalum urvillei Stent.
Medicago sativa L.
Ipomea batatas L.
Commelina diffusa Burm.
Momordica charantia L.
Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi.
var. acephalicc D. C.
var. capitata L.
HOSTS FOUND IN EVERGLADES.
Reared to adult
Reared to adult
Reared to adult
Reared to adult
Reared to adult
Reared to adult. Some
Adult flushed while
Adult flushed while
Adult flushed while
Reared to adult
A few larvae
Three larvae did not
A few adults.
Table 1 (Cont.)
False Bishops weed
Iva imbricata L.
Rosa odorata L.
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.
(B) PLANT HOSTS REPORTED IN LITERATURE
(C) PLANTS ACCEPTABLE WHEN ARTIFICIALLY INFESTED
Ptlimnium capillaceum (Michx.)
Boehmeria nivea L.
Zea mays L.
Digitaria decumbens Stent.
Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt)
Panicum purpurascens Raddi
Raf. Amanaceae (Umbeliferae)
138 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 3
Larva-Just prior to eclosion the embryonic caterpillars can be seen
within the eggs. The light-colored, black-headed larvae that emerge from
the eggs move out quite rapidly from the shell mass, frequently dropping
to lower levels by means of suspension threads. Small, irregular holes are
eaten in the leaves by the young caterpillars. The newly hatched larvae
become darker with age through ingestion of chlorophyl bearing materials.
Early in their development the young larvae begin to web the leaves to-
gether for protection. Many larvae move to the celery petioles, but on less
succulent plants the feeding appears to be confined entirely to the foliage.
The fully grown larvae are from 12 to 18 millimeters in length, and, in May,
they have been observed to require 16 to 20 days to attain full growth.
Pupa-The prepupa moves out to the leaf area where it webs itself in for
transformation to the pupa. The greenish to brownish, slender pupae aver-
age about 9 millimeters in length and become darker with age. The pupa is
attached to the leaves by means of a well developed cremaster, and upon
removal readily re-attaches to any surface that is not too smooth. About
one week was required to complete the pupal stage in May.
Adults-The adult moth is a typical tortricid, having the usual bell-
shaped outline when the wings are folded. The moths are from 5 to 9.5
millimeters long, averaging about 8 millimeters. They are light brown or
tan with variable darker brown markings on the forewings. The hind
wings are greyish. Consistent differences in markings between the sexes
were not observed. The tip of abdomen, apical margin of the forewings and
both the apical and anal margins of the hind wings are fringed. Eyes are
prominent and antennae are filiform; the latter has scales that sometimes
give these organs a serrated appearance. The tibia are armed with spur-like
outgrowths. The moths are often plentiful at light, where a noticeable de-
cline in numbers can be observed in late summer. The insect is very amen-
able to cage rearing. Three generations were reared from a collection of
larvae from the field. Mating habits probably are largely nocturnal. How-
ever, the moths have been observed in copula during daylight on several
occasions. The insects seem to live only one to three days after completing
oviposition. The adults are erratic fliers with a zig-zag or wavering flight
NUMBER OF GENERATIONS: Because of the difficulty of keeping sufficient
numbers of the insects alive during the summer population decline, it was
impossible to determine the exact number of generations during the year.
During the spring and summer 31 to 44 days were required to complete a
generation from egg to adult, but a longer period is probably required during
the winter months. More than four years of studying the population trends
indicate that the late summer, fall and winter generations normally occur
under conditions of low population. The number of generations probably
would be more during exceptionally mild winters.
PARASITES: A bethylid parasite reared from field collected larvae was
determined to be Goniozus platynotae Ashm. by Dr. C. F. W. Muesebeck.
The adult wasps emerge from pyriform cocoons constructed beside the
shriveled remains of the dead host, within webbed or rolled leaves. Six of
these parasites emerged from two cocoons. The wasps are black with
Genung and Hayslip: Pest of Celery in the Everglades 139
yellow legs, ant-like and rather elongate in form. An egg parasite, Tricho-
gramma sp., was reared from field collected egg masses. Bare (1934) re-
ports rearing T. minutum from eggs collected near Belle Glade in 1933.
No predators or diseases of Tortrix ivana Fernald have been observed in
the field or insectory. However, the rapid decline in population in late sum-
mer may be due to disease. Larvae in cages at this time died off with a
rapidity suggestive of an epizootic.
Population trends of Tortrix ivana Fernald have been studied through
the use of light traps since 1951. The purpose of this work was to observe
the seasonal occurrence of the species and its correlation with the celery
production season. Catches were made about twice weekly when weather
conditions were favorable. For determining actual population levels by
this means, there is little purpose in operating traps during exceptionally
cold or stormy periods. Counts were averaged for bi-weekly periods for
plotting graphs (Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4). The correlative data on celery pro-
duction was plotted from carlot shipments over two-week periods from the
Belle Glade area. The data obtained thus far indicate that Tortrix ivana
Fernald does not ordinarily reach its peak population until the celery har-
vest period is nearly over, and that usually no population of conseqeunce
occurs until late in the season. These data have been confirmed by inspec-
tions in growers fields and experimental plantings. The larval population
peak would be two to three weeks earlier than that of the adult peak.
The 1948 infestation reported by Ilayslip was a little earlier than nor-
mal, occurring from mid to late April. However, the severe infestation
reported by Bare (1934) occurred in January, indicating that under certain
conditions abnormally large populations can develop during the winter. An
examination of area weather reports failed to show any affects directly
attributable to high winter temperature. If high temperature had been
important in this instance, the key period should have been the month pre-
vious to the appearance of the infestation (December, 1932). The minimum
temperatures for December were from 10 to 14.5 degrees higher than the
average for the four-year period over which the present population study
was made. The December, 1949, minimum temperatures were even higher
than those in 1932, without a high population developing in January. The
mean temperatures also did not seem to be of critical importance. Rainfall
was so variable under all conditions that it was not considered an important
factor in relation to these populations.
From these studies it appears that any threat to the celery crop by
Tortrix ivana Fernald in the Everglades is most likely to come late in the
season. The population drops so rapidly in late summer that early plant
beds are not likely to be attacked seriously. From the past history of the
species it can be concluded quite safely that sporadic damage by this insect
may occur during the winter months, when as yet unrecognized ecological
conditions are favorable. Population trends during this study were quite
similar for each year, the peak population ranging from the last half of
May to late in June. Late summer, fall and midwinter populations have
been uniformly low.
The Florida Entomologist
Tortrix ivana Fernald is a potentially dangerous insect, capable of caus-
ing large economic losses, even though ecological factors may tend to keep
the species from becoming a year-to-year pest during the main vegetable
growing season. Probably some unrecorded infestations have occurred and
some losses have been attributed to other species which occurred simul-
Populations of Tortrix ivana Fernald have been too light or sporadic on
celery in the Everglades during the course of this study to obtain experi-
mental control data. Hayslip (1948) obtained satisfactory control with a
power duster using 5 percent DDT. The duster outlets were permitted to
drag through the celery tops during the operation. His observations indi-
cated that a power sprayer apparently did not force the material down into
the heart and lower petiole area where the worms were feeding. Recent
observations have indicated that a nozzle placement may be used, where
one or two nozzles are located over the center of the row to force the foliage
open, allowing for spray from two other nozzles to be delivered into the
opened tops. This arrangement should give somewhat better coverage than
the usual top and side delivery.
Counts made in a commercial field with a heavy adult population in early
April indicated that parathion killed many adult moths. Fifty-foot sections
of 10 untreated rows and 10 treated rows were beaten in order to flush the
moths, which were recorded as they flew from the foliage. Only 32 moths
were flushed from the treated rows while 96 were recorded from the un-
treated rows. A dust of 5 percent DDT and 1 percent parathion is sug-
gested for control of this species. Where growers are not equipped for
dusting, a combination of 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion and 1 pint
of 25 percent parathion emulsion per hundred gallons of water is suggested,
applying 200 gallons per acre with the above mentioned nozzle placement.
Tortrix ivana Fernald has been a sporadic pest of celery in the Ever-
glades since 1933. The insect may cause great injury because the larvae
feed extensively in the bud and petiole area, where contact with insecticides
is difficult to obtain. Field observations and a study of population trends of
adult moths indicate that this species is most likely to be a sporadic or late
season pest of celery. Best control has been obtained with DDT dust applied
with power dusters with outlets dragging through the celery tops. Para-
thion sprays appeared to reduce the population of ovipositing adults. A
combination dust, containing 5 percent DDT and 1 percent parathion, would
probably be superior to DDT alone against this species. The moth has a
wide range of host plants, including a number of common weeds. The popu-
lation peak normally appears not to be reached until the celery season is
nearly over. The duration of the stages under spring conditions was found
to be as follows: egg, 5-12 days; larva, 16-20 days; pupa, 7 days. A bethylid
parasite attacks the larvae and Trichogramma sp. attacks the eggs.
Vol. 41, No. 3
Genung and Hayslip: Pest of Celery in the Everglades
The writers wish to express their appreciation to Mr. Erdman West for
the determination of certain host plants; to Mr. Edward King, Jr., for prep-
aration of graphs, and to Mr. H. M. Spelman III, Staff Assistant, for the
photographic work. Records on celery shipments from Belle Glade were
made available by officials of F. E. C. RR. Messers C. E. Seiler and J. J.
Lockhart, Field Assistants, were helpful in many aspects of the work.
Hayslip, N. C. 1948. Ann. Rep., University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta.
Hyslop, J. A. 1934. Insect findings of recent years which are, or may be-
become of interest to nursery inspectors and plant quarantine officers.
Jour. of Econ. Ent. 27: 559.
Bare, Clarence 0. 1934. Tortrix ivana Fernald, a celery pest in the Ever-
glades of Florida. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 720.
Genung, W. G. 1951. Ann. Rep., University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. 179.
Genung, W. G. 1952. Ann. Rep., University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. 202.
Genung, W. G. 1953. Ann. Rep., University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. 227.
Wilson, J. W., and N. C. Hayslip. 1951. Insects attacking celery in Florida.
1951. Bul. 486. University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. 7,28.
FERTILIZERS AND INSECTICIDES THAT ARE SUPERIOR
Foctories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA
A NEW NORTH AMERICAN MOZENA
ROLAND F. HUSSEY
Department of Biology, University of Florida
Several years ago, during a study of certain Coreidae in the University
of Michigan Museum of Zoology, it became evident to me that the original
description by Stal (1862) of Mozena nestor and the colored figure of StAl's
type given by Distant (1881) could not be reconciled with Texas specimens
labeled nestor by J. R. de la Torre-Bueno in 1920 or 1921 and running to that
species in his "Synopsis" (1941). These specimens seemed, instead, to rep-
resent an undescribed species. Correspondence with Dr. R. I. Sailer revealed
that both he and Mr. H. G. Barber had independently recognized this new
species in the U. S. National Museum collections. Dr. Sailer has most
generously forwarded the specimens from that Museum to me for study,
and they are included among the paratypes listed below.
Mozena buenoi, new species
Mozena nestor [nec] StAl, Torre-Bueno, 1941, Ent. Amer. 21(2) : 55.
More robust than M. lunata (Burm.) or M. arizonensis Ruckes; shape of
pronotum like that of M. nestor as figured by Distant; smaller than nestor
(whose female type measured 26 mm.), with wider abdomen which is vir-
tually as wide as pronotum, and with femoral tubercles white, not black.
Length ( holotype) 18.5 mm. Width 8.3 mm. across humeral angles,
S6.5 mm. across base of hemelytra, 8.2 mm. across apex of fifth abdominal
segment. Color commonly cinnamomeous; basal part of pronotum at mid-
dle, broad lateral margins of scutellum, and basal third or more of exposed
connexival segments yellowish; corium more or less widely suffused with
yellowish along apical margin. Thoracic pleura with a longitudinal, yellow-
ish or ivory-white, callous ridge, more or less interrupted, above coxal cavi-
ties, turning obliquely upward and backward at middle of metapleura;
coxal cavities, posterodorsal corner of metapleura, and lower half of hind
margin of propleura more or less ivory white, punctate with reddish brown.
Abdominal segments 3 to 6 each side (sometimes segment 7 also) with a
conspicuous, yellow or ivory-white, callosity, those of segments 3 and 4
almost longitudinal, but slightly dislocated at the intersegmental suture,
that of segment 5 a little more oblique, those of segments 6 and 7 (when
present) much more oblique and entirely disconnected from the ones on
preceding segments, callosities of segments 3 to 5 (sometimes also that
on 6) abruptly widened behind middle of segment.
Antennae reddish cinnamomeous, basal segment much darker to almost
black above, fourth segment usually quite heavily infuscated; lengths of
segments 1 to 4 (in hundredths of a millimeter), 270:280:245:280. Pro-
notum thickly rugulose-punctate, more strongly transversely rugulose on
area before scutellum; lateral margins before the sinus with 10 to 12 small,
white tubercles, anterolateral and posterolateral margins of humeral proc-
esses narrowly white, crenulate; humeral angles flaring, their anterior mar-
gins very lightly convex, tipped with a small, subacute tooth directed out-
Hussey: A New North American Mozena
ward or slightly backward but never upward. Scutellum transversely ru-
gose, and sparsely, coarsely punctate. Segment 4 of connexivum denticulate,
segments 5 and 6 distinctly toothed at outer apical angle.
Hind femora about % as thick as long, thickest somewhat beyond mid-
dle; dorsal surface with two rows of small, widely spaced, white tubercles,
and with a lateral row of similar tubercles on anterior face; posteroven-
trally with a stout tooth at the thickest point, followed by two smaller
ones, and anteroventrally with two or three smaller, black-tipped teeth on
apical third. Hind tibia strongly compressed, distinctly curved upward on
apical half; ventral edge with a stout tooth somewhat beyond middle and
with two or three smaller teeth and numerous denticles distad of this.
Female very like the male in size, form, and color. Hind femora less
swollen and with smaller teeth, the white tubercles less conspicuous; hind
tibiae narrower, less strongly curved, and with smaller teeth; anterior half
of dorsal margin often black in color.
Holotype male and allotype female, Juniper Canyon, Chisos Mountains,
Texas, July 5, 1928 (F. M. Gaige), in University of Michigan Museum of
Zoology. Paratypes, 35 males and females, as follows. TEXAS: topotypic,
July 8, 1928 (F. M. Gaige); Chisos Mountains, Sept. 1 (G. M. Greene), June
10-12, 1908 (Mitchell and Cushman), July 19 (J. W. Green); Chisos Moun-
tains, Big Bend Park, July 2-5, 1942 (H. A. Scullen); Alpine, June 4-5,
1927; Davis Mountains, June 26, 1942 (H. A. Scullen); Fort Davis, summer
1914 (C. Thompson), labeled Mozena nestor Stal by J. R. de la Torre-Bueno.
ARIZONA: Dewey, Aug. 1917; Huachuca Mountains, June 9, 1935 (J. N.
Knull); Chiricahua Mountains, July 22, 1945 (W. W. Jones). MEXICO:
6 mi. n. Jalostitlan, Jalisco, Aug. 20, 1954 (R. R. Dreisbach). Paratypes in
University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, U. S. National Museum, Uni-
versity of Florida Collections, and collection of R. R. Dreisbach. A few
paratypes are labelled simply "Tex." or "Ari." and bear neither definite
locality, date, or collector's name.
There is considerable variation in color within the species, the palest
individuals presenting rather a grayish tinge above, not unlike that fre-
quently seen in M. arizonensis. Some specimens are quite definitely yellow
beneath, but even on these the pale callosities of pleura and abdomen stand
out strikingly distinct. Total length varies in the specimens seen from
18.1 mm. to 23.5 mm., but most specimens are less than 20 mm. long.
Distant, W. L. 1881. In: Biologia Centrali-Americana, Hemiptera-Heterop-
tera, Vol. 1 (p. 110, P1. 11, fig. 5).
Stal, C. 1862. Hemiptera Mexicana [2d installment]. Ent. Zeit., Stettin,
23(4-6): 273-280 (p. 278).
de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. 1941. A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of
America north of Mexico. Part II. Ent. Amer. 21(2): 41-122. (p. 55.)