Volume 41, No. 4 December, 1958
Gilbert, Irwin H.-Gerontology of Florida Entomologists .. 151
Branch, Nina, Lucile Logan, Elisabeth C. Beck and
J. A. Mulrennan-New Distributional Records for
Florida Mosquitoes ........---------------.----..---..---- 155
Hungerford, Herbert B., and Ryuichi Matsuda-Concerning
Gerris (Gerrisella) Poisson and a New Genus for Some
New World Gerris Species _..------.--.-------------- 165
Richards, W. R.-A New Aphid Genus (Homoptera:
Aphididae) ..-...-...-... --..------... .. -..-.. --.-----..-... ....-..-........-- 169
De Leon, Donald-The Genus Neophyllobius in Mexico
(Acarina: N eophyllobiidae) --------------.----------.------------.------- 173
Minutes of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society ----------..-. ---------....-....- .------- 183
Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 41st Annual Meeting
of the Florida Entomological Society ----.....--.----------... 188
Suggestions for the Preparation of Papers Submitted for
Publication in The Florida Entomologist ..--....-----.---- 193
Kerr, S. H., and J. E. Brogdon-A New Pest of Magnolias .- 195
Minutes of Meetings of The Subtropical Branch,
Florida Entomological Society ....--------...... ..----------.--... 196
Book Review ...------------...---.. ------ 197
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1958-1959
President ---.-.------------........................... -William P. Hunter
Vice-President -.....-.......-..- ..-- ..-..-...-- ... ...........Andrew J. Rogers
Secretary..---------.............-----..... -----..... -----Lawrence A. Hetrick
Treasurer.---.............................---- .....-- ---.... Robert E. Waites
Other Members of Executive Committee Milledge Murphey, Jr.
Irwin H. Gilbert
LEWIS BERNER ---..--.............--- .........------ Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP----....--..--........ Associate Editor
ROBERT E. WAITES---- ...-----.- Business Manager
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GERONTOLOGY OF FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGISTS
IRWIN H. GILBERT
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A.
The word "gerontology," as the word "entomology," is not in the vo-
cabulary of the average person. Webster defines it as the "scientific study
of the phenomena of old age." This paper does not directly deal with old
age, but discusses the economic aspects of Florida entomologists leading
up to retirement and the economic and social readjustments after retire-
To give a little insight on the span of a man's life I will quote from Mr.
William B. Stark's minutes of an address of Dr. Robert H. H. Goheen pre-
sented at the University Club of Winter Park on December 5, 1953. "Since
the time of Benjamin Franklin the span of human life in this country has
about doubled. That seems to be a cause for rejoicing; nevertheless it
introduces some very serious problems. In earlier times, in China for ex-
ample and among the Hebrews, there was great respect for old men. Cicero
asserted that, while physical strength declines with age, wisdom is not
impaired. The population of this country has doubled in sixty years, but
the number of people over 65 years of age has quadrupled. The life span
is steadily rising and may mount to a hundred years by the year 2000."
What is the life expectancy of a Florida entomologist? My insurance
agent has stated the life expectancy of an entomologist is a year or so
longer than the average. Florida living also slightly extends man's life.
For this paper I have used the expectation of life of white males in 1955
from tables prepared by the U. S. Public Health Service. The life expect-
ancy is different for each age group, and increases as each year with its
hazards is successfully passed. Thus an entomologist 25 years of age can
expect to live 45.5 years, or to reach the age of 70. One retiring at 55 can
anticipate 19.4 years of enjoyable living, until he is almost 75. If he de-
cides to work until he is 65, only 13 years of retirement will be expected.
At 70, the average retirement time is about ten years or about half as long
as that of the man who retired at 55.
Let us take a look at the economic status of Florida entomologists be-
fore and after retirement. After a survey of the salaries of the various
groups of entomologists of this State, I have concluded that the State work.
ers-with educational institutions, experiment stations, the Plant Board,
and Health Department-receive about the same or slightly less monetary
returns than the Federal Civil Service workers. Entomologists of the
Military Forces, which include officers of the U. S. Public Health Service,
and commercial technical entomologists receive from 20 to 25 percent more
net income than the other groups. As an example, Captains or Lieutenant
Colonels of the Army receive about 24 percent more net income than the
Federal Civil Service personnel of equivalent grades. While their salaries
are lower, they receive subsistence and rental allowances on which no in-
come taxes are paid. Also they do not make life insurance and retirement
contributions which the Civil Service and State workers do.
1 Presidential address delivered at the 41st annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society, August 28-29, 1958, at Tampa, Florida.
152 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
There are a number of retirement systems in operation for employees
of the State of Florida. For this paper I have used the latest systems
which are compulsory for most of the employees. The rate of contributions
is 6.25% for State workers and 6.5% for Federal workers. Members of the
Armed Forces and of most of the commercial companies do not contribute
to their retirement systems. Many commercial companies maintain an
employee's stock investment policy which supplements their retirement
Retirement benefits of commercial entomologists vary from 1.5% to 2.0%
of an average salary for each year of service. Some plans have additional
returns for employees who join the company's staff when they are 40 to
50 years of age. Members of the Armed Forces receive 2.5% of their base
pay (does not include subsistence and rental allowances) for each year of
service at the time of retirement. The benefits of a State worker at age
60 are 2% of an average salary for each year of service credit. The average
salary is based on an average of the highest 10 of the last 15 years of
service. This is 60% for 30 years of service. The benefits of a Federal
worker at age 60 are 1.5% for each of the first 5 years' service, 1.75% of
the second 5 years, and 2.0% for each year thereafter or 56.25% for 30
years of service. To determine the benefits of the Federal worker, the per-
centage benefits is multiplied by an average salary-a yearly average of
the highest 5 years' salary.
Members of the Armed Forces and most commercial men do not have
their annuities reduced if they retire before the age 60. Military personnel
must have 20 years of service. It is possible to retire at age 55 with re-
duced benefits, after 10 years of service for State employees and after 30
years for Federal employees. The annuities are cut 25% for the State and
5% for the Federal.
Let us make a comparison of the net income before and after retirement
of a Lieutenant Colonel and of an entomologist of an equivalent grade of
the Federal Civil Service. Both men retire at 60 years of age. For this
and succeeding examples, the present income tax and salary schedules were
used. I previously stated that before retirement the net income of the Army
entomologist would be 23.6% more than the Civil Service entomologist.
For about three years after retirement the civil servant would not pay
income taxes on his benefits, but still the Army man would receive 3.3%
more income than the civilian. For the next two years the military man
would receive about 20% more, or 9.3% for the first five years of retire-
ment. For the succeeding years the military officer would receive a little
over a thousand dollars a year more than the civilian, or 19.4%.
When is the best time to retire? This is a problem which each individual
must decide for himself. A Federal Civil Service entomologist with 40
years of service would receive a net income of only 4.5% more if he con-
tinued to work than if he retired. This difference would increase to 22%
after the retired individual had received an amount in retirement equal to
his contributions to the retirement fund. For example, consider two men,
65 years of age, of the same grade and with 40 years of service, one re-
tired and the other continuing to work. The latter would receive 9% more
income than the other during a normal life expectancy.
To cite a similar example of three men, age 60, life expectancy of 16
years, and 30 years of service, one retires at 60, another at 65, and the
Gilbert: Gerontology of Florida Entomologists 153
other at 70. The man retiring at 70 would receive about 32% more total
net income for the 16 years than the man retiring at 60 and about 13%
more than the one retiring at 65. The entomologist retiring at 65 would
receive 22% more than the one retiring at 60. However, you may think
the 60-year-old can enjoy his income of 32% less during his 16 years of
retirement more than the 70-year can enjoy his 32% more for his ten years
of work and six years of retirement.
Dr. Goheen also stated that "the change from an active working life
to a state of unemployment, the onset of chronic illness, and personality
changes which may make the old person 'difficult' to get along with, all con-
tribute to the possibility of retirement life becoming a cause of unhappi-
ness." A retired Army Colonel made the following observation to four
other retired professional men where I was present: "It looks to me that
men who retire in their early 60's enjoy retirement much more than those
who retire in their late 60's."
What to do with the increased leisure time? Many will want to catch
up with their fishing, hunting, and golf which they have neglected in the
past 10 or 20 years. Some will expand their field of operations to get
greater variations in these sports. I am sure many will travel to those
places they have wanted to visit all their lives and much more time will
be spent in planning such trips. I know of a lawyer who before making a
three-month trip spends six months to a year studying the languages and
customs of the places he plans to visit.
Some entomologists will want to pick up and continue working in a
specialized field which they have had to drop because of administrative
duties or research programs which required all their time. Recently I had
breakfast with two entomologists who plan, when they retire, to work
over unpublished biological and taxonomic papers which they have had in
their files for ten or more years.
During retirement one can develop a real unalloyed program of research.
Several years ago, a retired Federal entomologist living in Texas remarked
that he was having "the time of his life" with a research program of de-
veloping native plants for livestock feed. He stated that he did not have
to write up a protocol of the program, get it approved, worry about the
money being available, the statistical design of his tests, and be bothered
about it being discontinued if the research was not productive. The reports
could be written and used as he wanted them and not as required.
The retired life of Professor Herbert Osborn, the Master Teacher of
Entomologists, is another example of a real unalloyed entomological pro-
gram. While in his 70's before leaving the University for the winter in
Florida, he outlined his programs of study and pointed out the progress in
each to another professor. The purpose was to leave the research com-
pleted if he did not return. After he was 80 these practices were discon-
tinued because he knew he would return to complete his various programs.
Some may use much of their leisure time to keep their lawns, gardens,
and homes in showplace condition. A retired engineer told me that he
wouldn't install a lawn sprinkling system because of the great pleasure
he derived from moving the hoses and pulling of weeds at sprinkling time
in other areas of his yard.
A wise use of one's hobby will make leisure time fly. A few examples
are: a university history professor who is now an outstanding amateur
154 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
geologist, a civil engineer who has published a two-volume treatise on the
"dime novel," a university dean who has published books on the genealogy
of three families.
Another example is the University Club of Winter Park which has and
is being enjoyed by retired entomologists and men of other professions.
The University Club is a non-profit corporation whose primary purpose is
to provide the stimulus afforded by association with men of intellectual
tastes and varied experience. Men who have retired from active business
and professional life are in the majority, but an increasing number of
younger men find the club attractive. Ages now range from 24 to 95.
Range of origin and of occupation is equally great. Natives of almost every
State in the Union and of 24 foreign countries are included. About 270
colleges and universities are represented. Professional and business ex-
perience covers almost every important field. Many of the members have
attained eminence-about 20% are listed in Who's Who or American Men
Twenty college men conceived the idea of a University Club for mutual
acquaintance and exchange of ideas and experience. New members have
been received at almost every business meeting. There are now over 860
members. The cost of membership is kept low so that no qualified man,
whatever his financial status, need be excluded. Contributions in addition
to dues from members who are able and willing to help in support of the
club are a necessary part of the financial plan.
The internal activities of the club, those conducted for the benefit of
the members, include (1) regular meetings on alternate Saturday evenings
at which members dine together, transact club business, and listen to ad-
dresses by distinguished speakers; (2) "pow-wows" on two afternoons a
week when speakers, usually members, present subjects of which they have
special knowledge, with a following period of questions and discussion;
(3) group meetings for members with common interests.
The external activities, giving service to others, include Student Aid
Fund, College Scholarship Committee, promoting improvement of conditions
for the negroes of the community, conducting open meetings such as forums
and lectures for the benefit of the public, and permitting use of the Club's
facilities by civic and social service organizations.
While enjoying and profiting by our associations with one another we
aim to make the club an asset to the community.
In conclusion I would like to say that the retirement years of a Florida
entomologist should be a very happy period of his life. He will have suffi-
cient funds for the necessities of life as food, shelter, clothing, and normal
medical expenses. In addition he will be able to do those things which he
has had a great desire to do all his life. Because he is a scientist and has
above the normal amount of curiosity, he will have no difficulty in finding
things to do. He should occupy his leisure time with great enjoyment.
NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS FOR
NINA BRANCH,2 LUCILE LOGAN,3 ELISABETH C. BECK 3 AND
J. A. MULRENNAN *
During the course of a continuing light trap surveillance program con-
ducted by the Florida State Board of Health, some new and unpublished
distributional records for Florida mosquitoes have accumulated. These are
presented herein mainly as a contribution to the more precise delimitation
of the many mosquito species whose continental distributions may have
their northern or southern limits in the state of Florida.
Occasionally, records used will have been taken from publications or
from other sources as well as light traps, and reviewing these together with
a consideration of increased traffic during and since the war years, it should
be noted that various modes of transport could account for some species
having been captured beyond their apparent natural range in the state,
such as, for instance, Culex tarsalis in Dade County, Psorophora cyanescens
in Hendry County and Deinocerites cancer in Lake County. As this paper
will deal mainly with light trap records, the symbol (LT) will be used for
all such collections; the few others will be designated explicitly. Twenty-
five species comprise the following annotated list.
The authors wish to express appreciation to Dr. M. W. Provost, Director,
Entomological Research Center, Vero Beach, for helpful advice, and to Dr.
John Porter of the U. S. Quarantine Station, Miami Beach, for permission
to use light trap data from Fisher Island (Aedes tortilis, Culex tarsalis)
and Vaca Key (Mansonia titillans).
NEW STATE RECORD
Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) haynei Dodge
Larvae of W. haynei were collected from Sarracenia purpurea at Eleven
Mile Creek in Escambia County by Wm. Beck, Jr., in July, 1956. Four
larvae and four adults, reared from this collection, were verified as W.
haynei by Dr. Alan Stone of the U. S. National Museum. Larvae collected
at the same locality, April 13, 1950, were rechecked and found to be W.
haynei and not W. smithii as previously identified, thus invalidating the
W. smithii record (unpublished) for Florida.
NEW COUNTY RECORDS
Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus Wiedemann
Following 1904 when 131 adult specimens of A. albimanus were collected
by Dr. G. N. MacDonell at Key West, this species was observed in Florida
1 Contribution No. 60, Entomological Research Center, Florida State
Board of Health.
2 Biologist, Florida State Board of Health, Bureau of Entomology,
Entomological Research Center, Vero Beach.
3 Biologist, Florida State Board of Health, Bureau of Entomology, Jack-
Director, Bureau of Entomology, Florida State Board of Health, Jack-
156 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
in only rare instances (Pritchard et al., 1946) until an extensive mosquito
survey was inaugurated on the Keys. From 1946 through 1950, A. albim-
anus was taken in considerable numbers in State Board of Health light
traps in Monroe County from Stock Island, near the southern tip, to Key
Largo, a distance of approximately 100 miles. Since that time, only sporadic
captures have been made in this area. The following report will be con-
cerned only with records from Monroe County where A. albimanus is
autochthonous; the occasional finding of this species in Dade County is
assumed to follow chance introduction from foreign ports (Pritchard et al.,
Monroe (LT) 1946: 34 2 9, Stock Island. 1947: 9 92 Stock Island;
1 2, Upper Matecumbe Key. 1948: 1 $, 702 9 2, Big Pine Key; 1 9,
Key Largo. 1949: 1 $, 164 9 2, Big Pine Key; 3 9 9, Stock Island. 1950:
17 9 9, Big Pine Key; 17 9 9, Key Largo; 7 9 9, Lower Matecumbe Key;
5 9 2, Upper Matecumbe Key; 5 9 9, Crawl Key; 2 9 Vaca Key. 1951:
1 9, Big Pine Key; 1 2, Vaca Key. 1954: 2 9 9, Big Pine Key; 2 9 9,
Upper Matecumbe Key. 1955: 1 2, Big Pine Key; 1 9, Upper Matecumbe
Key; 1 2, Key Largo. 1957 (first nine months): 7 2 9, Big Pine Key.
Anopheles (Anopheles) barberi Coquillett
The early records of King et al. (1939) list A. barberi as occurring in
Florida at Gainesville, Alachua County, and Tallahassee, Leon County.
More recently, during a fourteen year period, this rare tree-hole breeding
anopheline has been taken in Florida in a variety of localities and by various
methods; three larvae and seventeen adults comprise the total known cap-
ture. Carpenter and Chamberlain (1946) report the capture of three adults
in 1943 from Jackson, Bay, and Palm Beach Counties. State Board of Health
records report the collection of this species by light trap, truck trap, from
natural resting places, and as larvae, in three additional counties, and a
recapture in Jackson County.
Escambia (Natural Resting Place) 1942: (monthly totals) July 1 & 2
9 2, August 1 & 2 9 9, September 2 9 9, October 1 9, November 1 9,
Ellyson Field, Pensacola. Duval (Larvae) 1943: 14 October 3 L, Cecil Field,
Jacksonville. Hendry (LT) 1945: 12 June 1 9, 16 June 2 9 2, Clewiston.
Jackson (Truck Trap) 1955: 31 May 1 S, Marianna.
Mansonia (Mansonia) indubitans Dyar and Shannon
Since publication by Pratt (1945) of M. indubitans as a newly observed
mosquito addition to the fauna of the United States, this species has been
found to have widespread distribution in Florida, ranging from Monroe
County at the southern tip of the state northward from coast to coast to
the state boundary; westward it follows the Gulf coast to the boundary
county of Escambia. Although abundant in most sections of the state,
collections grow relatively more sparse in far-north localities. Captures by
State Board of Health light traps have been made in 42 counties. In the 11
northern counties listed below, numbers in parentheses will indicate the
number of times this species has been collected in each county, evidencing
Branch: Records for Florida Mosquitoes
St. Johns (3), Duval (8), Baker (1), Taylor (1), Leon (1), Franklin
(1), Gadsden (1), Jackson (1), Bay (1), Walton (1), Escambia (3).
Mansonia (Mansonia) titillans (Walker)
Distribution records compiled before 1945 for M. titillans may be mis-
leading since M. indubitans had not been described as a separate species in
North America before that time (Pratt, 1945), thus in some instances as-
signing to M. titillans an unwarranted northern distributional range. Ac-
tually, M. titillans has a limited range in Florida, occupying an area which
can be defined as the southern half of the Peninsula, below a line drawn be-
tween Titusville on the Atlantic coast and Sarasota on the Gulf coast.
This species has been taken by State Board of Health light traps in the east
coast counties of Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Martin, St. Lucie, Indian
River, and Brevard, in the neighboring inland counties of Hendry and Okee-
chobee, and on the Gulf Coast in Lee County. Chamberlain and Duffey
(1945) report M. titillans from Highlands County as well as from Palm
Beach and Martin Counties, Miles and Rings (1946) from Sarasota County,
and unpublished U. S. Quarantine Station records contain the report of a
female captured by light trap in July, 1947, on Vaca Key, Monroe County.
State Board of Health county records follow.
Brevard (LT) 1947: 2 August 1 9, Titusville. Broward (LT) 1948:
22 June 2 9 9, Ft. Lauderdale. St. Lucie (LT) 1950: 9 October 1 9, Ft.
Pierce. Dade (LT) 1951: 4 October 1 9, Biscayne Key. Hendry (LT)
1953: 19 June 1 9, Clewiston. Indian River (LT) 1954: 24 September 1
2, Vero Beach. Okeechobee (LT) 1954: 10 August 2 9 9, Okeechobee.
Lee (LT) 1955: 11 August 1 9, Ft. Myers.
Psorophora (Janthinosoma) cyanescens (Colquillett)
A state record was established for P. cyanescens in Florida when an
adult was captured in June, 1943, at Drew Field, Hillsborough County
(Carpenter and Chamberlain, 1946). A second adult was taken by light
trap, September 18, 1944, at Tyndall Field, Bay County (Carpenter et al.,
1945), and a third on July 18, 1945, at Dale Mabry Field, Leon County
(Miles and Rings, 1946). MCWA light trap records for Florida (unpub-
lished) accounted for an earlier capture of a female in Leon County, August
1, 1944, at Dale Mabry Field, and one female, October 26, 1945, at Clewis-
ton, Hendry County. Although the State Board of Health has had light
traps operating in no less than five northern counties as well as elsewhere
in the state since that time, no further records of P. cyanescens were noted
until July 14, 1953, when a female was taken at the Jim Woodruff Dam in
Jackson County where the species has since been captured in considerable
numbers. In later years, with light traps operating in 17 northern counties,
sparse captures have been reported from Okaloosa, Gadsden, Union and
Suwannee Counties only; light traps in peninsular counties have remained
negative for the species.
Okaloosa (LT) 1954: 23 July 1 9, Laurel Hill. 1955: 26 April 1 9,
Laurel Hill. Gadsden (LT) 1954: 31 August 1 9, Chattahoochee. 1956:
17 July 1 9, Chattahoochee. Union (LT) 1955: 23 August 2 9 ; 16 Sep-
tember 1 ; Raiford. Suwannee (LT) 1956: 11 September 1 S, Live Oak.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 41, No. 4
Psorophora (Janthinosoma) horrida (Dyar and Knab)
P. horrida was first recorded from Florida in 1945 when three males
were captured by light trap in Jackson County (Miles and Rings, 1946).
Since that time only one capture has been recorded from State Board of
Health light traps, a female in 1955, again in Jackson County. These four
captures constitute the present known records for this species in the state.
Jackson (LT) 1945: 28 May 3 3& Army Air Force, Marianna. 1955:
12 May 1 9, Marianna.
Psorophora (Grabhamia) pygmaea (Theobald)
P. pygmaea, which was first recorded in the United States from Monroe
County in 1901, again in 1903 and 1924, and from Dade County in 1946,
(Buren, 1946) has been taken regularly in State Board of Health light traps
in these two counties since 1949. To the north of this established range,
it was captured in Palm Beach, Martin and St. Lucie Counties in 1954
only and not since.
St. Lucie (LT) 1954: 15 April 4 9 9; 19, 2 9 ; 26, 1 9; 29, 1 2; Ft.
Pierce. Martin (LT) 1954: 20 April 1 9, Sewall's Point. Palm Beach
(LT) 1954: 25 May 1 9, Boca Raton.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) atlanticus Dyar and Knab
All State Board of Health records for A. atlanticus in Florida are based
on males only since the females cannot be separated with certainty from
those of A. tormentor. However, since verified males have been found in
50 of Florida's 67 counties, this species may be said to have state-wide dis-
tribution. It has been taken by light trap from the Keys in Monroe County
to the state's northern boundary, and westward to Escambia County, over-
lapping entirely the area where the less common A. tormentor is found.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) tormentor Dyar and Knab
State Board of Health records for A. tormentor are based on determina-
tions of larvae or of hypopygial characters only. This uncommon species
has been taken mainly in the northern sections of the state. In one in-
stance it was captured in inland peninsular Marion County. The entire
record is given.
Escambia (LT) 1942: 22 September 1 $, Pensacola. St. Johns (Larvae)
1948: 4 April 3 L, Palm Valley. Nassau (LT) 1948: 12 April 1 $, Ft.
Clinch. Marion (LT) 1950: 15 September 3 8 S, McIntosh. Wakulla (LT)
1953: 2 September 1 S, Panacea. 1957: 22 June 1 S, Panacea. Jackson
(LT) 1954: 16 April 1 S, Jim Woodruff Dam, Sneads. (Truck Trap) 1955:
3 June 1 $, 11 June 2 & $, 13 June 1 8, Marianna. Taylor (LT) 1956: 16
October 1 8, Steinhatchee.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) thelcter Dyar
At the time Thurman et al. (1949) noted the occurrence of A. thelcter
in the Florida Keys, it had been recorded from four localities in Monroe
County: Key West, Vaca Key, Long Key and Key Largo, all in 1946 and
Branch: Records for Florida, Mosquitoes
1947. Only three females of this rare mosquito have since been taken by
State Board of Health light traps, adding two new localities for the species.
Monroe (LT) 1948: 20 July 1 9, Big Coppitt Key. 1950: 14 October 1
9, Crawl Key No. 1. 1952: 25 July 1 9, Vaca Key.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) thibaulti Dyar and Knab
A. thibaulti was first recorded in Florida by Middlekauff and Carpenter
(1944) when they reported the capture by light trap of a male on April 7,
1943, at the Marianna Army Air Base, Jackson County. A subsequent
single capture of this rare species was made during a sampling technique
experiment conducted by the State Board of Health in 1955.
Jackson 1955: (Truck Trap) 7 May 1 S, Marianna.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) tortilis (Theobald)
The first record for A. tortilis in the United States was based on a
female taken by light trap, August 28, 1945, on Key West Island; later in
the same year it was reported from three new areas in the county, Vaca
Key, Cudjoe Key, and Stock Island; and in October, 1945, a male was cap-
tured by light trap at Clewiston in Hendry County (Pritchard et al., 1947).
Between 1947 and 1950, A. tortilis was reported from State Board of Health
light traps in several additional localities in Monroe County-Key Largo,
Upper Matecumbe Key, Lower Matecumbe Key, Crawl Keys, and Big Pine
Key-while Thurman et al. (1949) report on larvae of the species from
Long Key. Captures from Palm Beach County were made in 1946 and
1947, and from Dade County, Fisher Island, in 1949 and 1952.
Palm Beach (LT) 1946: 27 and 29 May 1 & each, Jupiter. 1947: 18 July 2
$, ,1 9, Belle Glade. Dade (LT) 1949: 9 and 14 October 1 9 each, Fisher
Island. 1952: (monthly totals) September, 5 $& 18 9 9; October, 12
9 2, Fisher Island.
Aedes (Aedes) cinereus: Meigen
This rare Florida species was first reported for the state by Carpenter
et al. (1945) with the capture by light trap of two males at the Marianna
Army Air Base in Jackson County, October 2, 1944. Additional captures
have been made by State Board of Health entomologists in 1948 and 1955.
Jackson 1948: (LT) 23 July 7 9 9; 24 July 2 &$ 4 9 9; Caverns State
Park. 1955: (Truck Trap) 15 June 1 S, Marianna.
Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen)
A. vexans has been taken by State Board of Health light traps in 51
counties in the state, occurring most frequently in the northwest and north-
ern sections, growing relatively more sparse in the central and southern
areas. This species has been recorded once from Monroe County and rarely
from four other counties south of Lake Okeechobee, being found not at all
in Dade and Broward County traps. The number of times specimens have
been collected in each of the far-southern counties is given in parentheses.
Lee (13), Collier (3), Hendry (4), Palm Beach (7), Broward (0),
Dade (0), Monroe (1).
160 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
Culex (Culex) bahamensis Dyar and Knab
C. bahamensis, which was first recorded from Florida in 1939 at Key
West, Monroe County (Fisk, 1939), has since been found regularly in other
localities on the Keys from Stock Island to Key Largo, light trap captures
being frequent. A record was established for Dade County when one male
was collected on Elliott Key in 1940 (King et al., 1944). Subsequent State
Board of Health light trap captures in this county, though sparse, have
been made from such widespread localities as Key Biscayne, Fisher Island,
Princeton, Homestead, Florida City and the Royal Palm Ranger Station in
the Everglades National Park. Throughout the past five years two light
traps have been in operation regularly in Broward County, yet, during that
time, C. bahamensis was captured in one trap and in 1953 only, although
abundantly, at the Gulf Stream Yacht Basin near Hallandale. The Broward
County record and subsequent monthly captures are as follows.
Broward (LT) 1953: 12 May 6 2 9, Hallandale. Total monthly cap-
tures: May 2 $, 88 29 ; June 5 S 363 9 9; July 1 S, 53 9; August
165 2 9; September 1 $, 20 9 9, Hallandale.
Culex (Culex) tarsalis Coquillett
The first published account of C. tarsalis in Florida contains the report
of one female taken by light trap at Pensacola, Escambia County, Septem-
ber 29, 1942 (Bradley et al., 1944), establishing a new state record. The
later capture by light trap of one female each at Marianna Army Air Base,
1943 (Middlekauff and Carpenter, 1944), and Tyndall Field, 1944 (Carpen-
ter, 1945), established new records for Jackson and Bay Counties respec-
tively. Since that time, this mosquito has been collected occasionally
throughout the state.
Leon (LT) 1943: 4 November 1 9, Tallahassee. Dade (LT) 1949: 24
June 1 9, Fisher Island. Escambia (LT) 1949: 1 and 19 December 1 2
each, Innerarity Point; 6 December 1 9, Santa Rosa Island. 1953: 28 Sep-
tember 1 9, Innerarity Point; 29 September 9 9 9, Santa Rosa Island.
1954: 19 October 1 9, Innerarity Point. Pinellas, (LT) 1952: 10 October
1 9, Bellaire Beach. Walton (LT) 1953: 29 September 1 9, 30 October
1 2, Santa Rosa; 6 October 1 2, Grayton Beach. Levy (LT) 1953: 29
September 1 9, Cedar Keys. Manatee (LT) 1953: 1 October 1 9, Braden-
ton Beach. 1954: 23 November 1 9, Cortez. Sarasota (LT) 1953: 30
October 1 9, Nokomis.
Culex Subgenus Melanoconion
There are in Florida seven Culex (Melanoconion) species, of which one,
Culex mulrennani, is apparently the only mosquito endemic to the state.
Culex erraticus, Culex pilosus and Culex peccator have state-wide distribu-
tion, C. erraticus having been collected by State Board of Health entomolo-
gists as larvae or adult males in fifty counties, C. pilosus in forty-two,
while the apparently less common C. peccator has been reported by King
et al. (1944) from two counties, by Carpenter and Chamberlain (1946)
from nine additional counties, and by State Board of Health personnel from
seven additional counties. None of these workers reported C. peccator from
Branch: Records for Florida Mosquitoes 161
the Keys. The remaining Melanoconion species, along with C. mulrennani,
have a more limited distribution and will be discussed separately.
Culex (Melanoconion) atratus Theobald
Culex atratus was first recorded from Florida by Roth and Young
(1944) on the basis of the capture of a single male specimen by light trap
on Boca Chica Key, Monroe County, in 1942. Pritchard et al. (1947) ex-
panded its distribution by recording larval collections taken throughout the
Keys as well as light trap captures on the mainland in Collier and Manatee
Counties. Later captures by State Board of Health light traps are here-
with reported from Lee and Dade Counties.
Lee (LT) 1947: 22 July 1 S, Sanibel Island. Dade (LT) 1947: 24 Oc-
tober 1 8, Princeton.
Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis Dyar
Culex iolambdis, which was first recorded from Florida as Culex (Mel-
anoconion) elevator, has been reported by Pratt and Seabrook (1952) as
occurring in Monroe County at Key Largo, and in Martin and Palm Beach
Counties. State Board of Health workers have made further collections of
this species in both the Keys and mainland areas of Monroe County and ad-
ditionally in Collier, Manatee, Lee and Dade Counties.
Collier (LT) 1946: 2 July 1 Marco Island. Manatee (LT) 1946: 17
September 1 3, Cortez. Lee (LT) 1946: 27 September 1 $, Pineland. Dade
(LT) 1947: 28 October 1 S, Homestead.
Culex (Melanoconion) mulrennani Basham
The description of C. mulrennani as a new species from Florida (Basham,
1948) was based on seven males taken from limestone solution holes on
Big Pine Key, and larvae collected on Big Pine, Cudjoe and Ramrod Keys.
Although larval collections were obtained on the Keys from 1945 until
1950, wild-caught adults of C. mulrennani were not again observed until
Monroe (LT) 1953: 17 July 2 $8, 6 October 1 S, Big Pine Key.
Culex (Melanoconion) opisthopus Komp
This mosquito was originally recorded from Florida at Ft. Lauderdale,
Broward County, by Pratt et al. (1945), and later by Pritchard et al.
(1947) who recorded its capture by light trap in Palm Beach and Charlotte
Counties, and Monroe County on the mainland. Further captures have since
been made in Brevard, Dade and Collier Counties.
Brevard (LT) 1947: 2 August 1 o, Mims. Dade (LT) 1949: 21 Decem-
ber 1 S, Royal Palm State Park. Collier (LT) 1954: 27 May 4 & S, Collier-
Seminole State Park.
Deinocerites cancer Theobald
D. cancer has been taken regularly for three years or more by light trap
in the Atlantic coast counties from Monroe northward to Volusia. In five
instances the species has been captured beyond this range; northward in
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 41, No. 4
Flagler and St. Johns Counties on the east coast, inland in Lake County,
and on the Gulf coast in Hernando and Sarasota Counties.
Lake (LT) 1948: 5 November 1 9; 1949: 18 May 1 9, Leesburg. St.
Johns (LT) 1951: 11 September 1 9, Anastasia Island. Flagler (LT)
1955: 2 August 1 9, Flagler Beach. Hernando (LT) 1955: 2 September 1
9, Brooksville. Sarasota (LT) 1956: 27 July 1 9, Myakka River State
Basham, E. H. 1948. Culex (Melanoconion) mulrennani, A new species
from Florida (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 41(1): 1-7.
Bradley, G. H., R. F. Fritz, and L. E. Perry. 1944. Additional mosquito
records for the southeastern states. Jour. Econ. Ent. 37(1): 109.
Buren, W. F. 1946. Psorophora pygmaea (Theobald), an exotic mosquito
now established in Florida. Mosquito News 6(4): 185.
Carpenter, S. J. 1945. Collection records of Culex tarsalis in army camps
in the southeastern states during 1942, 1943 and 1944. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 38(3): 404-406.
Carpenter, S. J., and R. W. Chamberlain. 1946. Mosquito collections at
army installations in the Fourth Service Command, 1943. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 39(1): 82-88.
Carpenter, S. J., R. W. Chamberlain and J. F. Wanamaker. 1945. New
distribution records for the mosquitoes of the southeastern states in
1944. Jour. Econ. Ent. 38(3): 401-402.
Chamberlain, R. W., and T. E. Duffey. 1945. Collection records of Man-
sonia titillans (Walker) and Mansonia indubitans Dyar and Shannon
in Florida with keys to the species of Mansonia in the United States
(Diptera, Culicidae). Mosquito News 5(3): 96-97.
Fisk, F. W. 1939. New mosquito records from Key West, Florida. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 32(3): 469.
King, W. V., G. H. Bradley, and T. E. McNeel. 1939. The mosquitoes of
the southeastern states. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. No. 336. 91 pp.
1944. The mosquitoes of the southeastern states (rev. ed.). U. S.
Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. No. 336. 96 pp.
Middlekauff, W. W., and S. J. Carpenter. 1944. New distribution records
for the mosquitoes of the southeastern United States in 1943. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 37(1): 88-92.
Miles, V. I., and R. W. Rings. 1946. Distribution records for mosquitoes
of the southeastern states in 1945. Jour. Econ. Ent. 39(3): 387-391.
Pratt, H. D. 1945. Mansonia indubitans Dyar and Shannon-a new mos-
quito addition to the United States fauna. Jour. Kans. Ent. Soc.
Pratt, H. D., and E. L. Seabrook. 1952. The occurrence of Culex iolambdis
Dyar in Florida and Puerto Rico, with a description of the larva
(Diptera, Culicidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 54(1): 27-32.
Pratt, H. D., W. W. Wirth, and D. G. Denning. 1945. The occurrence of
Culex opisthopus Komp in Puerto Rico and Florida, with a description
of the larva (Diptera, Culicidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 47(8):
Pritchard, A. E., E. L. Seabrook, and J. A. Mulrennan. 1947. The mos-
quitoes of the Florida Keys. Fla. Ent. 30(1,2): 8-15.
Pritchard, A. E., E. L. Seabrook, and M. W. Provost. 1946. The possible
endemicity of Anopheles albimanus in Florida. Mosquito News 6(4):
Branch: Records for Florida Mosquitoes 163
Roth, L. M., and F. N. Young. 1944. Culex (Melanoconion) atratus Theo-
bald in Florida; a new continental North American record, with
notes on the other melanoconions of the southeastern United States.
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 37(1): 84-88.
Thurman, E. B., J. S. Haeger, and J. A. Mulrennan. 1949. The occurrence
of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) thelcter Dyar in the Florida Keys. Mosquito
News 9(4): 171-172.
NOTICE OF 42nd ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The Executive Committee of the Florida Entomological Society has
selected Miami, Florida, as the location for the 1959 meeting to be held on
September 10 and 11 at the McAllister Hotel.
The following committee assignments have been made by President
Hunter so that plans for the meeting can be made well in advance.
PUBLICITY COMMITTEE: Dr. L. C. Kuitert (Chairman, 1958-59), 3
Mr. W. B. Gresham, Jr., 2 year term
Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger, 1 year term
PROGRAM COMMITTEE (1959 meetings): Dr. F. G. Butcher (Chairman)
LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS COMMITTEE (1959 meetings): Mr. John Por-
FOR ALL PURPOSES
Delivered on Time
PEPPER PRINTING COMPANY
For CITRUS VEGETABLES LIVESTOCK
Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
California Spray-Chemical Corp.
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
P. O. Box 7067 ORLANDO Phone 3-0506
CONCERNING GERRIS (GERRISELLA) FOISSON AND A
NEW GENUS FOR SOME NEW WORLD
GERRIS SPECIES 1
HERBERT B. HUNGERFORD AND RYUICHI MATSUDA
In 1940 Dr. Raymond Poisson described Gerris settembrinoi from Belgian
Congo, and placed it in the new subgenus Gerrisella.2 In our generic re-
vision of the Gerridae we have had occasion to revaluate generic and sub-
generic characters in the family. Through the kindness of Dr. A. Collart
we have been privileged to study the types of this species preserved in the
Royal Museum of Natural History of Belgium. Careful examination has
indicated that the species in question does not belong to the genus Gerris,
but represents a valid genus. Gerris (Gerrisella) settembrinoi Poisson thus
is the type species of the genus Gerrisella, which we describe below.
There is no label on any specimen to mark it as holotype, allotype, or
paratype. However, in the description by Poisson we find "Distribution:
Congo belge, distr. Congo-Ubangi. 1 male et 1 femelle macropteres (types);
1 male et 1 femelle apteres sans rudiments 6lytraux: Kogbwa, 10 XII,
1935 (G. Settembrino) Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique". Therefore it is
clear that the macropterous male and female are the types in the sense of
holotype and allotype, and that the apterous forms are paratypes, or more
precisely morphotypes. We therefore place a lectotype label on the macrop-
Figure 1, Figure 2 (A-D)
Head with eyes relatively large. Eyes prominent with inner margin
greatly indented, thus head greatly widened posteriorly between eyes.
Clypeus elevated, well defined on basal margin. Labrum slender and
elongate. Antennae slender, first segment about as long as second and
third segments together, second, third and fourth segments subequal in
length. Rostrum with terminal segment on mesosternum.
Pronotum in apterous forms only feebly produced, with broadly rounded
posterior margin; posterior margin of mesonotum rounded; metasternum
about one fourth as long as mesosternum; omphalium present. Front leg
moderately stout, without sexual difference in shape; femur distinctly
longer than tibia; first tarsal segment greatly reduced. Middle leg much
longer than hind leg; femur a little longer than tibia; first tarsal segment
about three times as long as second. Hind leg with femur almost four
times as long as tibia; first tarsal segment only slightly longer than second.
Abdomen without connexival spines in both sexes. Seventh segment
longer than sixth in both sexes. Male without median emargination on
ventral posterior margin of seventh segment; eighth segment greatly pro-
longed dorsally and with broadly rounded posterior margin; pygophore
1 Contribution No. 1,002 from the Department of Entomology, University
of Kansas. This report is a by-product of a project conducted with the
aid of a grant from the National Science Foundation.
SBulletin du Mus6e royal d'Histoire naturelle de Belgique. XVI No. 40,
pp. 1-4, Figs. 1-3.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 41, No. 4
simply rounded on apical margin; paramere greatly reduced and hidden;
suranal plate with ventrally directed lateral flaps (Poisson described these
as "griffes g6nitales" in fig. 3, A, g 1940). Female with seventh segment
much longer than sixth; eighth segment well exposed.
Left, the wingless male of Gerrisella settembrinoi Poisson.
Right, the winged male of the same species.
MACROPTEROUS FORMS: Pronotum with humeri located at middle. Fore-
wing with Subc.2 united with R+M at the point of branching into R and M.
The genus Gerrisella is distinguishable from Gerris in the following key
1. The pronotum is only feebly prolonged in wingless forms in Gerri-
Figure 2. G
A. Gerrisella settembrinoi Poisson, The male antenna.
B. Gerrisella settembrinoi Poisson, The female front leg.
C. Gerrisella settembrinoi Poisson, Ventral view of the female abdomen.
D. Gerrisella settembrinoi Poisson, Lateral view of the male apical ab-
dominal segments, a, The suranal plate.
E. Eurygerris fuscinervis (Berg), a, The anterior lobe of the pronotum b,
The posterior lobe of the pronotum c, The mesonotum.
F. Eurygerris fuscinervis (Berg), The male front leg.
G. Eurygerris fuscinervis (Berg), The right forewing, Sc. Subcosta. R + M,
Radius plus Media. R, Radius. M, Media.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 41, No. 4
2. The hind tibia is about one-fourth as long as femur, while it is
a- least one half as long as femur in Gerris.
3. The lateral margin of the suranal plate in the male of Gerrisella
4. In macropterous forms the humeri are closer to the middle of the
pronotum in Gerrisella than in Gerris,.
In our study of the Western Hemisphere species assigned to Gerris
there is one group of species which stands quite apart from all the others.
This is apparent in the key to Gerris in "The Gerrinae of the Western
Hemisphere" by C. J. Drake and H. M. Harris (1934)" and also in "Gerrinae
in the University of Kansas Collection" by Louis C. Kuitert (1942)'. We
propose for them:
Eurygerris gen. nov.
Type species of the genus : Gerris fuscinervis (Berg)
Figure 2 (E-G)
Body widened across mesoacetabula. Female considerably larger than
male in most species.
Antennae with first segment longer than second, shorter than second
and third together, second, third and fourth subequal in length. Pronotum
in wingless forms not prolonged to posterior margin of mesonotum or,
if it is, anterior lobe distinctly sutured off mexicanuss Champion). Sc2
vein of forewing united with R+M before the point of branching into R
and M respectively (except in an occasional mexicanus). Omphalium pres.
ent. Male front femur strongly arched and depressed on inner margin
basally; first tarsal segment as long as or only slightly longer than second.
Middle leg with femur a little longer than tibia; tibia usually curved; first
tarsal segment five to six times as long as second. Hind leg shorter than
middle leg; femur much longer than tibia. Abdomen without connexival
spines; seventh segment longer than sixth in both sexes. Pygophore
simply rounded on apical margin. Paramere vestigial. Suranal plate
To this genus belong the following species: Eurygerris fuscinervis
(Berg), E. mexicanus Champion, E. flavolineatus Champion, E. beieri Drake
and Harris, E. cariniventris Champion, E. kahli Drake and Harris, E. sum,
matus Drake and Harris, and E. carmelus Drake and Harris.
Since E. summatus Drake and Harris is known only from females it is
not mentioned in the published keys which are based upon males.
3 Annals of the Carnegie Museum XXIII, pp. 179-240.
SUniversity of Kansas Science Bulletin XXVIII, pt. 1, No. 7, pp. 113-
A NEW APHID GENUS
(HOMOPTERA : APHIDIDAE)1
W. R. RICHARDS 2
Insect Systematics and Biological Control Unit
Entomology Division, Ottawa, Canada
In recent years European aphid taxonomists have shown that the genus
Myzus Pass., as it is still defined by North American workers, is composed
of several distinct genera (BSrner, 1952; Stroyan, 1954). There are, how-
ever, a number of species of Myzus-like aphids that appear to be indigenous
to North America that cannot be assigned to any known genus. One of
these groups is exemplified by Myzus eriobotryae Tissot which comprises
the subject of this paper.
Hyalomyzus new genus
Type species: Myzus eriobotryae Tissot, 1935. Fla. Ent. 18: 40-52.
FIRST-INSTAR NYMPH.-Frontal tubercles well developed, scabrous. An-
tenna four-segmented; primary sensory lacking ciliated margins. Apical
rostral segment with two setae in addition to usual three apical pairs.
Dorsum of eighth abdominal segment with two or three setae. Tibiae
lacking spicules. First segments of tarsi each with two setae.
SECOND-INSTAR NYMPH.-Antenna five-segmented; primary sensoria with
weakly ciliated margins. Hind tibiae spiculose. First segments of tarsi
each with three setae. Otherwise like first-instar nymph.
THIRD-INSTAR NYMPH.-Antenna six-segmented. Otherwise essentially
like second-instar nymph.
APTEROUS VIVIPAROUS FEMALE.-Frontal tubercles well developed, scab-
rous, converging. Disc of head nearly smooth (Fig. 2). Antenna about
as long as body, strongly imbricated on anterior surface; primary sensoria
with ciliated margins; secondary sensoria absent. Rostrum reaching just
beyond second coxa; apical segment with two setae in addition to usual
three apical pairs. First segments of tarsi each with three setae. Dorsum
of abdomen sclerotic, very weakly pigmented, strongly wrinkled except on
segments VII and VIII (Fig. 1). Cornicle swollen, with strong imbrica-
tions, longer than cauda. Cauda short, blunt, slightly constricted at middle,
with two setae on each side. Short, blunt setae on antennae, dorsum of
body, and dorsal surfaces of legs; pointed setae elsewhere.
ALATE VIVIPAROUS FEMALE.-Dorsum of head smooth. Third, fourth,
and fifth antennal segments with many secondary sensoria distributed
evenly over entire surfaces of segments. Medius of forewing two-branched.
Dorsum of abdomen not strongly wrinkled, lacking pigmented sclerotic
areas; lateral sclerites well developed, deeply pigmented.
OVIPAROUS FEMALE.-Hind tibia swollen, with sensoria on entire length.
Otherwise essentially like apterous viviparous female.
1 Contribution No. 3812, Entomology Division, Science Service, Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Ottawa.
2 Associate Entomologist.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 41, No. 4
'1 -.11~ ..- -----
Figs. 1-3. Apterous viviparous female of Hyalomyzus eriobotryae (Tis-
sot). 1, Apical segments of abdomen. 2, Dorsum of head. 3, Apical seg-
ment of rostrum.
MALE.-Essentially like alate viviparous female, but secondary sensoria
smaller and more numerous.
HosTs.-The summer host is unknown, but it is probably some semi-
aquatic plant as nymphs and apterous and alate viviparae were collected
with Aspidaphium cuspidati Stroyan, which was collected on waterlogged
mosses (Stroyan, 1955, p. 306). The winter host is Crataegus sp. in Ontario,
and alate viviparae, oviparae, and males were collected in September and
October. Tissot (1935, p. 52) collected males and alate viviparae from
Crataegus sp., Eriobotrya sp., and Pyrus sp. in December.
Richards: A New Aphid Genus 171
SYSTEMATIC POSITION.-Hyalomyzus is referable to the Myzina B6rner
(1952b, p. 129), which comprises a group of Myzus-like genera in which
the nymphs (larvae) have spiculose hind tibiae. Within this group Hyalo-
myzus can be most readily distinguished by the absence of pigmented scler-
otic patterns on the dorsum of the abdomen in the alatae. The presence
of three setae on each of the first tarsal segments suggests affinities with
Myzus cerasi (F.), but, in the latter species the cornicles are cylindrical,
the alatae have a pigmented sclerotic patch on the dorsum of the abdomen
and the venter of the pterothorax is strongly and almost evenly spiculose
whereas it is smooth or nearly so in Hyalomyzus.
Not all of the Myzus-like genera that have been defined are as yet known
to be present in North America; but among those that are, Hyalomyzus
may be distinguished, so far as eastern species are concerned, by means of
the following key:
1. Nymphs (larvae) with spiculose hind tibia, or, antennae five-seg-
mented in adults --..............--- ...---- ...........---- ....----- ...-- ...--.... 2
1.' Nymphs (larvae) lacking spicules on hind tibia; antennae six-
segmented in adults .-..........---.....------------ ....-- ..---.------ 5
2. Antenna five-segmented; on mosses --..------........... ...-----..-------..... 3
2.' Antenna six-segmented; not on mosses ........................................... 4
3. Opening of cornicle transverse .....-----....-----............ Myzodium Brner
3.' Opening of cornicle oblique ---.........................Aspidaphium BSrner
4. Cornicle cylindrical or, if swollen, the first segment of hind tarsus
with two setae --.~..--..........--- ....--..-- ...-- .........-..-... Myzus Pass.
4.' Cornicle swollen and first segment of hind tarsus with three setae
.......---.....-- ------------------....... ....... ...--- ....Hyalomyzus n. gen.
5. First segments of hind tarsus with two setae; cornicle swollen.... 6
5.' First segment of hind tarsus with three setae; cornicles cylin.
drical ....----....-..---..- .---- ...--- ..----.. -----..... .... ..-- .........---.-------.. 7
6. Setae on dorsum of abdomen shorter than apical diameters of
cornicle .....--..........---. ...--.. ....------.............---Nectarosiphon Schout.
6.' Setae on dorsum of abdomen equal to or longer than apical di-
ameters of cornicle ....................................Rhopalomyzus Mordv.
7. Frontal tubercles in apterae each with a long, fingerlike projec-
tion; antennae of apterae shorter than body......Phorodon Pass.
7.' Frontal tubercles in apterae lacking long fingerlike projections,
but, sometimes well developed and strongly converging; an-
tennae in apterae longer than body ......................Ovatus v.d.G.
Another species that should probably be placed in Hyalomyzus is Myzus
sensoriatus Mason, which was described from four alate viviparous females
that were collected from Crataegus crusgalli L. in Washington, D. C. Ac-
cording to Mason (1940, p. 19), M. sensoriatus can only be distinguished
from H. eriobotryae by having ungues that are twice as long as the base
of the sixth antennal segment, whereas in eriobotryae the ungues are four
to five times as long as the bases.
A new genus of Aphididae has been erected with Myzus eriobotryae
Tissot as type species. Nymphs (larvae), apterous viviparous, and ovipar-
ous forms of eriobotryae have been described for the first time.
172 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
Burner, C. 1952a. Die Blattlausgattungen Myzus and Myzodes. Beitr.
Ent. 2: 122-127.
Burner, C. 1952b. Europe centralis Aphides. Die Blattliuse Mittleeuro-
pas: Namen, Synonyme, Wirtspflanzen, Generationzyklen. Mitt.
Thiiring Bot. Ges. Bieh. 3. 484 pp.
Mason, P. W. 1940. A revision of the North American aphids of the genus
Myzus. U.S.D.A. Misc. Pub. No. 371: 9-10.
Stroyan, H. L. G. 1954. A new subgenus and species of Myzus Passerini,
1860 (Hem. Aphididae). Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (B) 23: 10-16.
Stroyan, H. L. G. 1955. Recent additions to the British aphid fauna. Pt.
II. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 107, 304-307.
Tissot, A. N. 1935. A new Myzus from Florida. Fla. Ent. 18: 49-52.
THE GENUS NEOPHYLLOBIUS IN MEXICO
DONALD DE LEON
Coral Gables, Florida
So far as is known, members of the genus Neophyllobius prey on other
mites and on scale insects, but unlike most predaceous mites they are rather
deliberate in their movements. I have observed them feeding only twice,
one time on a tydeid, the other on a Brevipalpus.
The genus includes seventeen species found in Australia, North America,
and Europe. McGregor 1 in his paper on the North American species re-
cords one from Mexico; this paper describes 12 more from Mexico, bringing
the number of named species to 29.
The mites described below are broadly oval when viewed from above
and reddish brown in color with the gut contents usually appearing as a
white longitudinal stripe down the middle of the hysterosoma; they have
in the adult stage 15 pairs of bracteate dorsal body setae (six pairs of
dorsocentrals, nine pairs of mediolaterals) and two pairs of lateral body
setae. The dorsocentral setae are those setae along the mid-line and with
the bases of the respective pairs touching or nearly touching each other;
the mediolaterals are rather similar setae with their bases much more
widely separated; the laterals are those setae situated on or near the sides
of the body, one in front of coxa III, the other in front of coxa IV. A rod-
like sensillum about 5 microns long is present near the anterior margin of
coxal cavity I and a similar sensillum is on the palpifer. Ventrad the
mites bear four pairs of rather long (about 35-50 microns) setiform medio-
ventral setae, one pair is situated beneath the capitulum, one pair postero-
medial of coxae I, one pair about in line with coxae III, and one pair about
in line with coxae IV; five pairs of narrow-linear to lanceolate usually
spinose subcoxal setae, two of these pairs are situated near the bases of
coxal cavities I, and one pair each near the bases of coxal cavities II-IV;
in the female, two pairs of genital setae, one pair situated near the anterior
end of the genital opening, the other near its caudal end and three pairs
of closely set anal setae (four pairs in the male). Figure 6 typifies the
arrangement of the body setae. The palpi of these mites are basically sim-
ilar to the palpus of N. lombardinii described by Summers and Schlinger,2
except that the palptarsus of all these species bears four setae as shown
in figure 10; in addition, some species bear a minute sensillum on the pos-
terior margin of the palptarsus near its base. The species with two ex-
ceptions (N. quadrisetosus and N. trisetosus) bear the following number
of leg setae:
Coxae I-IV 1 each.
Femur I 4, II 3 (N. quadrisetosus 4), III 2 (N. trisetosus 3), IV 2.
Genua I-IV 1 each, a minute sensillum also on I and on II.
1McGregor, E. A. 1950. Mites of the Genus Neophyllobius. S. Calif.
Acad. Sci. Bul. 49, pt. 2: 55-70.
SSummers, F. M., and E. I. Schlinger. 1955. Mites of the Family Cali-
gonellidae (Acarina). Hilgardia 23 (12): 539-561.
174 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
Tibia I 9, II 8, III 8, IV 7, and each tibia with a subterminal, slightly
tapering nail-like sensillum (tibia I of the male bears two of
Tarsi I-II 2 each, ventral and unpaired; 1 pair each, dorsal subterminal;
3 pairs each, terminal. Tarsi III and IV similar to I and II, but
each with only 2 pairs of terminal setae. All tarsi with a pre-
tarsus bearing a pair of large claws and an empodium with
two rows of tenent hairs. In addition, the female bears a short
(4-5 microns) subbasal rod-shaped sensillum on I and on II, the
male bears a long (16-23 microns) curved, slightly tapering sub-
basal sensillum (Figure 12) on each of the four tarsi.
KEY TO SPECIES (FEMALES)
1. Dorsocentrals 2 to 5 not reaching to seta next behind............mexicanus
1.' At least one of the dorsocentrals 2 to 5, but for most species all of
these, reaching to or beyond the seta next behind-........................-.... 2
2. Femur II with four setae ................ ........----.....---.........quadrisetosus
2.' Femur II with three setae --..........................----- -------.....-- 3
3. Femur III with three setae -...............--....--- .....................trisetosus
3.' Femur III with two setae --..................-....-------------.-- 4
4. Seta of genu IV longer than or about as long as tibia IV .................. 5
4.' Seta of genu IV distinctly shorter than tibia IV ............------....................... 8
5. Setae of genua III-IV reaching beyond ends of respective legs....farrieri
5.' Setae of genua III-IV not reaching beyond ends of respective legs.... 6
6. Seta of genu III distinctly shorter than tibia III ....................inequalis
6.' Seta of genu III longer than or about as long as tibia III .............. 7
7. Seta of genu II shorter than tibia II, seta of genu III about as long
as tibia III ....-- -------................ ----..... ..... ....................equalis
7.' Setae of genua II and III distinctly longer than respective tibia......
................................. ........... ---------... ......consobrinus
8. Striae of dorsum consisting chiefly of broken striae; proximal posterior
margins of all femora strongly serrulate............................lobatus
8.' Striae of dorsum consisting chiefly of unbroken striae; proximal pos-
terior margins of femora not strongly serrulate ............................ 9
9. Dorsocentral 3 more than half as long as width of body; seta of genu
III about two-thirds as long as tibia III ..............................horridus
9.' Dorsocentral 3 less than half as long as width of body; seta of genu
III about one-half (or less) as long as tibia III .............................. 10
10. Seta of genu II distinctly longer than genu II .................................... 11
10.' Seta of genu II about as long as or shorter than genu II ............... 12
11. Seta of genu II nearly as long as seta of genu III and about half as
long as seta of genu IV; genual setae weakly spinose....marginatus
11.' Seta of genu II about half as long as seta of genu III and about one-
third as long as seta of genu IV; genual setae I-III strongly
spinose ................................... .... ..................----.longulus
De Leon: Genus Neophyllobius in Mexico
12. Genual setae coarse, setiform, distinctly spinose ..............-.......curtipilus
12.' Genual setae linear setaa of genu II is slightly obovate), very faintly
spinose ..--------......-.... ---.--- ----.... ....-..- .--- ---... ............-- ..spatulus
In the following descriptions all measurements are in microns and body
lengths exclude the capitulum; the lengths of body setae are given from
front to back.
Neophyllobius quadrisetosus, n. sp.
The presence of four setae on femur II and two setae on femur III dis-
tinguishes N. quadrisetosus from all other species.
FEMALE: Length of body setae: Dorsocentral 1 47, 6 34 (2 to 5 are ob-
scured by gut contents); mediolaterals 64, 48, 35, ? (broken off?), 56, 45,
47, 40, 27; laterals 36, 16. Legs: Femora I-IV 186, 138, 158, 193 long re-
spectively, feumur II with four setae; genual setae I-IV 226, 50, 43, 252
long respectively; tibiae I-IV 190, 141, 192, 226 long respectively. Length
340, width 245.
MALE: Not Known.
Holotype: Female, Guaymas, Son., intercepted at Nogales, November
7, 1956, (Noel) in soil from cactus; U. S. National Museum No. 2465.
Neophyllobius trisetosus, n. sp.
N. trisetosus bears three setae on femur III as does N. lombardinii
Summers & Schlinger, but differs from their drawings and description of
that species in having among other characters the mediolaterals of about
the same lengths as the dorsocentrals.
FEMALE: Palpus slender, femur with two spinose setae, tarsus with
four setae. Body with dorsal and ventral striae unbroken; setae of the fol-
lowing lengths: Dorsocentrals 73, 74, 83, 73, 65, 32-45; mediolaterals 64,
59, 51, 58, 73, 49, 49, 45, 31-42; laterals 32, 19; subcoxals 31, 45, 37, 38, 27.
Legs: Femora I-IV 177, 141, 142, and 159 long respectively; genual setae
I-IV 62, 54, 59, and 101 long respectively; tibia I-IV 189, 166, 196, and 211
long respectively. Length 326, width 313.
MALE: Resembles female, but dorsal body setae proportionally some-
what smaller and the dorsocentrals on more pronounced raised bases, DC 6
is especially reduced in size; dorsals strongly bracteate. Length 235, width
NYMPH: Resembles adult, but no lateral in front of coxa IV and no
seta on coxa IV; femora I-IV with 3, 2, 1, and 1 setae respectively; tibia
I-IV with 6, 5, 5, and 3 setae respectively and each with a subterminal sen-
sillum; tarsi I-IV each with one mid-ventral seta, two dorsal subterminal
setae, and tarsi I and II each with three pairs of terminal setae, tarsus III
with two pairs and tarsus IV with one pair of terminal setae. The legs are
proportionally much shorter than those of the adult.
LARVA: Dorsum with five pairs of dorsocentrals and nine pairs of
mediolaterals; no lateral setae and coxae without setae; femora I-III with
2, 2, and 1 setae respectively; genu I-III each with one seta and I and II
each with a minute sensillum; tibia I-III each with three setae and a nail-
176 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
like subterminal sensillum; tarsi I-III each with one mid-ventral and two
dorsal subterminal setae, tarsi I and II each with two pairs of terminal
setae and a small subbasal sensillum, tarsus III with one pair of terminal
Holotype: Female, Oaxaca, Oax., February 1, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
Quercus sp. Paratypes: One male and one female, same data as for holo-
type; one female and one nymph, Siete Cabrillas, Oax., other data as for
holotype; one male one female, one nymph, Tamazulapan, Oax., February
1, from an unknown tree. Additional specimens were collected near Quir-
oga, Mich., Sta. Maria del Oro, Nay., and Ixtlan del Rio, Nay.
Neophyllobius farrieri, n. sp.
N. farrieri resembles N. lamimani McG., but differs from McGregor's
drawing and description of it by having four short spinose setae on femur
I in place of three long, minutely barbed lanceolate setae and in other
FEMALE: Palpus slender, the two femoral setae weakly spinose; tarsus
with the usual four setae and a posteroproximal peg-like sensillum. Body
with dorsal and ventral striae unbroken; setae of the following lengths:
Dorsocentrals 65, 72, 66, 66, 49, 41; mediolaterals 65, 47, 38-49, 40-56, 56-69,
44-54, 45-53, 37, 27-36; laterals 26, 29; subcoxals 27, 60, 52, 50, 42. Legs:
Femora I-IV 165, 134, 136, and 150 long respectively; genual setae I-IV
longer than the combined lengths of their respective tibiae and tarsi; tibiae
I-IV 184, 157, 183, and 199 long respectively. Length 326, width 299.
MALE: Not known.
NYMPH AND LARVA: These stages resemble those of N. trisetosus in
chaetotaxy, except that femur I of the nymph bears five setae and the genual
setae are all longer than the combined lengths of their respective tibiae and
Holotype: Female, Puenta de Nejapa, Oax., January 31, 1957, (D. De
Leon) from Spanish moss. Paratypes: One female, one nymph, and one
larva, same data as for holotype. This mite is named for Dr. M. H. Farrier
of North Carolina State College.
Neophyllobius inequalis, n. sp.
(Figures 5 and 6)
N. inequalis resembles N. farrieri, but can be distinguished from that
species by having the seta of genu III distinctly shorter than tibia III and
by other characters.
FEMALE: Palpus slender, the two femoral setae distinctly spinose; tar-
sus with four setae. Body with dorsal striae broken in area medial of
mediolaterals 2 to 4 and ventral striae broken in the areas bordering apod-
emes I and II. Body setae of the following lengths: Dorsocentrals 38-50,
38-55, 43, 54, 51, 27; mediolaterals 52, 45, 42-56, 44, 56, 52-61, 43-57, 31,
20-33; laterals 26, 13; subcoxals 28, 56, 45, 34, 20. Legs: Femora I-IV
168, 126, 136 and 155 long respectively; genual setae I-IV 102, 96, 140, and
200 long respectively; tibiae I-IV 170, 136, 175, 192 long respectively.
Length 293, width 216.
De Leon: Genus Neophyllobius in Mexico
MALE: Not known.
NYMPH: Resembles female, but with typical nymphal chaetotaxy.
Holotype: Female, Veracruz, Ver., December 31, 1956, (D. De Leon)
from Erythrina sp. Paratypes: One female and one nymph, same data as
for holotype; one female, Veracruz, January 3, 1957, from Terminalia
Neophyllobius equalis, n. sp.
N. equalis resembles N. farrieri in having long genual setae, but differs
from farrieri in having the seta of genu II shorter than tibia II.
FEMALE: Palpus with femoral setae spinose, tarsus with four setae.
Body with dorsal striae broken in area medial of mediolaterals 2 to 4 and
ventral striae broken in areas bordering apodemes I and II. Body setae
of the following lengths: Dorsocentrals 61, 74, 67, 78, 67, 39; mediolaterals
61, 63, 62, 59, 74, 55, 62, 42, 34-45; laterals 27, 13; subcoxals 32, 58, 47, 39,
29. Legs: Femora I-IV 174, 137, 133, and 156 long respectively; genual
setae I-IV 143, 140, 169-190, and 232 long respectively; tibia I-IV 180, 152,
173-193, and 198 long respectively. Length 308, width 266.
MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, Navarrete, Nay., March 29, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
Guazuma sp. Paratype: Female, same data as for holotype, but from an
unknown host. A specimen collected near Valles, S.L.P., December 20, 1956,
may belong here; it is somewhat larger, but with shorter leg segments,
genual setae and body setae.
Neophyllobius consobrinus, n. sp.
N. consobrinus appears to be most closely related to N. equalis. It is
readily distinguished from that species by having the seta of genu II distinct-
ly longer than tibia II.
FEMALE: Palpus with the two femoral setae spinose, tarsus with four
setae. Body with dorsal striae broken in only a few places medial of medio-
laterals 2 to 4, ventral striae broken in a wide area bordering apodeme I
and in a wide area bordering apodeme II. Body setae of the following
lengths: Dorsocentrals 52, 48, ? (obscured), 52, 56, 24; mediolaterals 47,
49, 43, 43, 52, 43, 44, 36, 24; laterals 31, 18; subcoxals 29, 55, 49, 43, 29. Legs:
Femora I-IV 181, 138, 139, and 162 long respectively; genual setae I-IV
155, 167, 195, and 240 long respectively; tibiae 169, 139, 163, and 187 long
respectively. Length 280, width 230.
MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 18, 1957, (D.
De Leon) from Jaquinia pungens.
Neophyllobius lobatus, n. sp.
N. lobatus resembles N. sierra McG. in general characters, but differs
from McGregor's description and drawing of that species in having the seta
The Florida Entomologist
of genu IV shorter than tibia IV, in having the proximal posterior margins
of the femora strongly serrulate, and in other characters.
FEMALE: Palpus with the two femoral setae spinose, tarsus with the
usual four setae and a rod-shaped sensillum. Body with most all the
dorsal striae broken, ventral striae broken in areas bordering apodemes
I and II. Body setae of the following lengths: Dorsocentrals 45, 45, 45,
42, 45, 30; mediolaterals 43, 45, 45, 47, 60, 41, 40, 29, 23; laterals 22, 16;
subcoxals 26, 43, 33, 32, 18. Legs: Femora I-IV 138 106, 125, and 130 long
respectively; genual setae I-IV 54, 42, 45, 121 long respectively; tibiae
I-IV 122, 101, 127, and 150 long respectively. Length 322, width 273.
MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nay., April 11, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
Neophyllobius horridus, n. sp.
(Figures 9 and 10)
N. horridus belongs in the sierrae-lobatus group of mites, but is readily
distinguished from the other mites in this group by having DC 3 more than
half as long as the width of the body.
FEMALE: Palpus with the two femoral setae weakly spinose, tarsus
with the usual four setae. Body striae dorsad in area medial of mediolat-
erals 2 to 4 very fine, close together and unbroken giving the area an almost
smooth look, ventral striae in areas bordering apodemes I and II scarcely
broken. Body setae of the following lengths: Dorsocentrals 86, 81, 155,
91, 92, 37; mediolaterals 56, 54, 54, 52, 80, 56, 62, 53, 40; laterals 31-38, 24;
subcoxals 36, 48, 44, 37, 37. Legs: Femora I-IV 180, 146, 143, 156 long
respectively; genual setae I-IV 94, 88, 130, 187 long respectively; tibiae I-
IV 185, 164, 193, and 207 long respectively. Length 281, width 244.
MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, Route 35, 18 miles southeast of Guadalajara, Jal.,
March 22, 1957, (D. De Leon) from an unknown host.
Neophyllobius marginatus, n. sp.
(Figures 11 and 12)
N. marginatus resembles N. horridus, but DC 3 is somewhat less than
half as long as the width of the body and the seta of genu III is much less
than half as long as is tibia III.
FEMALE: Palptarsus with four setae and a rod-shaped sensillum. Body
with dorsal striae coarse, unbroken; ventral striae unbroken. Body setae
of the following lengths: Dorsocentrals 64, 70, 100, 72, 69, 27; mediolat-
erals 57, 58, 49, 52, 75, 46, 50, 40, 33; laterals 30, 18; subcoxals 25, 50, 35,
Fig. 1. quadrisetosus, legs II-IV Fig. 8. lobatus, legs II-IV
Fig. 2. trisetosus, legs II-IV Fig. 9. horridus, legs II-IV
Fig. 3. farrieri, legs II-IV Fig. 10. horridus, palptarsus
Fig. 4. equalis, legs II-IV Fig. 11. marginatus, legs II-IV
Fig. 5. inequalis, legs I-IV Fig. 12. marginatus, tarsus II of
Fig. 6. inequalis, dorsum (left male
half), venter (right Fig. 13. longulus, legs II-IV
half) of body Fig. 14. curtipilus, legs II-IV
Fig. 7. consobrinus, legs II-IV Fig. 15. spatulus, legs II-IV
Vol. 41, No. 4
De Leon: Genus Neophyllobius in Mexico
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 41, No. 4
42, 28. Legs: Femora I-IV 155, 125, 125, and 146 long respectively; genu II
33 long; genual setae I-IV 64, 47, 46-63, and 106 long respectively; tibia
I-IV 168, 143, 178, 199 long respectively. Length 314, width 271.
MALE: Resembles female, but dorsal setae, especially DC 3 relatively
shorter and DC 6 very short. Length 235, width 206.
NYMPH AND LARVA: Chaetotaxy similar to these stages of N. triseto-
Holotype: Female, Ixtlan del Rio, Nay., March 24, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from a composite heavily infested with Brevipalpus. Paratypes: Two
males, two females, two nymphs, one larva, same data as for holotype; one
female, nine miles west of Tepic, Nay., March 25, 1957, from Quercus sp.
Neophyllobius longulus, n. sp.
N. longulus appears to be closely related to marginatus differing from
it by having the seta of genu II about half as long as the seta of genu III,
by having genual setae I-III strongly spinose, and by other characters.
FEMALE: Palpus with the two femoral setae strongly spinose, tarsus
with four setae. Body with dorsal striae unbroken, ventral striae broken
in areas bordering apodemes I and II. Body setae of the following lengths:
Dorsocentrals 50, 51, 82, 59, 64, 34; mediolaterals 63, 62, 40, 40, 65, 38,
34-42, 37, 35; laterals 27, 20-29; subcoxals 33, 42, 42, 36, 27. Legs:
Femora I-IV 155, 127, 131, 152 long respectively; genu II 33 long; genual
setae I-IV 76, 51, 90, 141 long respectively; tibiae 190, 161, 196, and 207
long respectively. Length 315, width 248.
MALE: Not. known.
NYMPH: Chaetotaxy similar to this stage of N. trisetosus.
Holotype: Female, Matias Romero, Oax., January 30, 1957, (D. De
Leon) from Calophyllum sp. Paratypes: One female, one nymph, same data
as for holotype.
Neophyllobius curtipilus, n. sp.
N. curtipilis belongs in the sierrae-lobatus group of mites, but differs
from the other members, except N. spatulus, by having the seta of genu II
about as long as or shorter than genu II; the genual setae are distinctly
FEMALE: Palptarsus with four setae. Body with dorsal striae fine and
unbroken in area medial of mediolaterals 2 to 4, ventral striae broken in
areas bordering apodemes I and II. Body setae of the following lengths:
Dorsocentrals 53, 56, 64-85, 64, 61, 31; mediolaterals 60, 57, 42, 41, 63, 38,
41-50, 36-46, 32; laterals 27-36, 19; subcoxals 31, 44, 34, 36, 34. Legs:
Femora I-IV 174, 139, 141, 155 long respectively; genu II 33 long; genual
setae I-IV 75, 32-46, 84, 140 long respectively, all setiform, distinctly spin-
ose; tibiae I-IV 194, 167, 195, 224 long respectively. Length 308, width 250.
MALE: Resembles female, but DC 6 very short. Length 238, width 213.
NYMPH AND LARVA: Similar to these stages of N. trisetosus.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 10, 1957, (D.
De Leon) from Cordia dentata. Paratypes: One male, same data as for
De Leon: Genus Neophyllobius in Mexico
holotype; one male, one female from Guazuma tomentosa, other data as for
holotype; one female from an unknown host, Tuxtla Gutierrez, January 12.
Additional specimens were taken from Rhus schideana, Lonchocarpus rugo-
sus, Quercus sp., avocado and several other hosts in the same area during
January. One of the specimens taken from oak was observed feeding on a
Neophyllobius spatulus, n. sp.
N. spatulus resembles N. curtipilis, differing from that species chiefly
in having the genual setae linear and faintly spinose.
FEMALE: Palptarsus with four setae. Body with dorsal striae unbroken
in area medial of mediolaterals 2 to 4, ventral striae broken in areas border-
ing apodemes I and II. Body setae of the following lengths: Dorsocentrals
47-66, 50-75, 77, 69, 62, 35; mediolaterals 64, 62, 50, 47, 66, 46, 36; laterals
30, 19; subcoxals 38, 51, 38, 38, 18. Legs: Femora I-IV 176, 142, 143, and
154 long respectively; genu II 33 long; genual setae I-IV 53-70, 30, 65-99,
and 108 long respectively, faintly spinose-bracteate, coarse, their sides near-
ly parallel, except II which is widest at about the distal third; tibiae I-IV
190, 145-208, 173-208, and 217 long respectively. Length 308, width 253.
MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, Route 15, nine miles west of Tepic, Nay., March 25,
1957, (D. De Leon) from a composite infested with Brevipalpus sp. Para-
types: Two females, same data as for holotype, but from a different spe-
cies of composite; one female, km post 666, Route 190 north of Tehuantepec,
Oax., January 31, 1957, from a malpighiaceous shrub.
Holotypes except as noted have been retained in the writer's collection;
paratypes will be deposited in the University of Florida Collections, Gaines-
Neophyllobius mexicanus McGregor (1950)
I have not seen this species. It was intercepted at Brownsville, Texas
on avocado budwood from "Mexico". Based on McGregor's description it
can be distinguished from all the species described above by its short body
setae. A specimen which fits the description of this species fairly well was
collected by Mr. Frank Mead and the writer on Key Largo, Florida, June,
1956, from Zanthoxylon.
Acknowledgments are made to Mr. Miguel Palacios Rinc6n of the Insti-
tuto de Historia Natural de Chiapas for the identification of the host plants
I collected while there and to Dr. E. W. Baker, Agricultural Research Ad-
ministration, U.S.D.A., for the loan of material from the National Museum.
The Genus Neophyllobius in Mexico
New species of Neophyllobius. The legs are arranged in the same order
for each species-the anteriormost to the left. All legs are drawn to ap-
proximately the same scale and are of females, except as noted.
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MINUTES OF THE 41st ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The 41st Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society was
held in the Tampa Terrace Hotel, Tampa, Florida, on August 28th and 29th,
1958. Registration was from 6:00 to 8:00 P.M. on Wednesday, August 27th,
and 8:30 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. August 28th.
On Wednesday evening an Executive Committee meeting was held in
the President's suite and a color film shown in the Roman Room of the
The opening session began at 9:00 A.M., Thursday, August 28th, with
President I. H. Gilbert presiding.
Thirty-eight papers, including five invitational papers and one invita-
tional panel were presented to the Society.
On Thursday at 3:15 P.M. a boat tour of the Tampa waterfront on Miss
Florida Second, was enjoyed by members and their families. From 6:00
to 7:00 P.M. a social hour provided by industry, was held in the Palm Room
of the Tampa Terrace Hotel and followed by a banquet with W. G. Bruce
serving as Toastmaster and Dr. John S. Allen was guest speaker.
The first business meeting was called to order by President Gilbert at
11:40 A.M., Thursday, August 28th. President Gilbert called for a reading
of the minutes of the last meeting. John E. Porter made a motion we dis-
pense with the reading since the minutes have been published in THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. The motion was seconded and carried unan-
President Gilbert appointed the following committees:
W. C. Rhoades, Chairman Frank Robinson, Chairman
A. J. Rogers E. P. Merkel
M. H. Muma
The President then called for a report of the Treasurer:
H. A. Denmark reported that the paid up membership of the Society
numbers 267 with 4 honorary members. He reported that the financial
condition of the Society is excellent-
REPORT OF TREASURER-BUSINESS MANAGER FOR YEAR ENDING
AUGUST 21, 1958.
Hospitality Hour Funds ..-...............-------- ...----..................... $ 363.00
Registration Fees ......-...........-- -- ....-------- --.---........ ......... 286.00
Banquet Fee .... ............-- .....--..---------......................---. 342.00
Dues -...--........ ...........----........------.....-- .......--..- 1,058.50
Subscriptions ........-.....-------....---- ---- ...... -.......... 368.67
Reprints .....-- ...-...---- ------.-----....-.......-...-- ....----- 149.92
Advertising ...----..~................ ..........--........-..... 936.48
Back Numbers .-......-- ...... ......----------.... --. -..........-- 63.00
Etchings ..----....-..--.....------------------..... ...------ 13.98
Plates ...--.......... ........-------. .-----------.. ------ 15.00
Cash on hand 8/31/57 ..--........----....--- ----------.--.-- 818.09
Cash-Gratuity-Sec. help during 57 Convention ...---...................---- $ 12.41
Orlando Convention Bureau (Printing) ....---.....--..~.-- ......--. ..--.. 4.64
San Juan Hotel-Banquet and Beverages ......----.....----.......-......... 788.30
Streep Music & Cunningham Quartet, 57 Banquet ....--------....................... 55.00
The Florida Entomologist
Florida National Bank-Ret Klienhans check (reimbursed by
Klienhans 1/58) .-------............................................... 6.00
Jim Brogden-Exhibit expense ...................---------........ .....----..... 20.42
American News- Overpayment refund ...............................-............. 9.00
Parker Office Supply ...............-............................... 1.08
'Entomology in Action' postage ..... --..............- ...........-.........-.... 13.44
Pepper Printing Company .........................-- .......................... 2,172.10
Postage & Misc. expense ....-------------..........---..-----............... 100.71
Florida National Bank service charge ....--.. ----.............--........-- .60
Mrs. H. A. Denmark, Sec. help 56-57, 57-58 .............--.......--.............. 20.00
Cash on hand 8/21/58 ...-....-------. --........--.........---------. ...... 1,210.94
H. A. DENMARK,
Lewis Berner commented on the exchange of publications and gifts by
the Society. President Gilbert asked that a list of publications exchanged
be published in the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
The business meeting was adjourned with the President calling for a
short meeting following the afternoon session.
The second business meeting was called to order by President Gilbert at
3:30 P.M., Thursday, August 28th. In the following message to the Society,
President Gilbert expressed his thanks and appreciation for having had the
honor of being President of the Society:
"Since I will not be present for the final business meeting, I would
like to report to the members of the Florida Entomological Society of
the great privilege and honor it has been to be your President for this
"I would like to express to all members my many thanks for a suc-
cessful year. This success is and will be due to the members of the
committees who have helped me so willingly. To point out the follow-
"To our Vice President-William P. Hunter, the other members of
the Executive Committee, the editors of the FLORIDA ENTOMOLO-
GIST and members of the following committees:
John E. Porter
Chas. R. Stearns, Jr.
A. N. Tissot (Chairman)
Obtaining 1961 meeting,
ESA in Fla.
F. Gray Butcher
D. O. Wolfenbarger
James T. Griffiths
Herman S. Mayeux (Chairman
M. Lewis Wright
D. O. Wolfenbarger
A. A. Whipp
J. T. Griffiths (Chairman)
Committee on Changing the
F. Gray Butcher
John W. Wilson (Chairman)
Entomology in Action Talks
M. Lewis Wright
Entomology in Action Display
James E. Brogdon Ca.rvw4~
l o Ut PM 'qh %y Fra .' C 6b t t
R. R. Reed
Doyle J. Taylor
) G. D. Sloan
William B. Gresham, Jr. (Chairman)
L. C. Kuitert
A. A. Whipp
William W. Warner
Certificates of Honorary Members
William P. Hunter
Milledge Murphey, Jr.
Vol. 41, No. 4
Minutes of the 41st Annual Meeting 185
Resolutions Committee Rep. Judge of Science Fair,
W. C. Rhoades (Chairman) Gainesville
A. J. Rogers Robert E. Waites
Martin H. Muma
Program Committee Frank A. Robinson (Chairman)
Wm. A. Sim4on E. P. Merkel
Alfred S. Mills
Howard V. Weems, Jr.
-Frank W. Mead (Chairman)
The final business meeting was called to order at 4:30 P.M., Friday,
August 29th, with Vice President Bill Hunter presiding.
Vice President Hunter called for a report of the Auditing Committee,
which was given by Frank Robinson: "The Auditing Committee has ex-
amined the records of the Treasurer-Business Manager, and finds them in
good order, with all receipts and disbursements clearly recorded and ac-
counted for". J. T. Griffiths moved that we accept the report of the Treas-
urer and the motion was seconded and carried unanimously.
Vice President Hunter called for a report of the "Entomology in Action"
Committee. FraJk Mead. reported that the exhibit is the same as last year
and had been used at the AES Meeting in Memphis and the Beekeepers
Meeting this year. Lewis Wright reported that the "Entomology in Action"
talks had been given about a dozen times throughout the state this year.
He encouraged members to use "Entomology in Action" talks more freely.
Frank W. Me adlisted the following places where the "Entomology in
Action'exhibit has been shown:
1. 40th Annual Meeting Florida Entomological Society, Orlando, by
Brogdon, Murphey, Mead.
2. Exchange Club, Gainesville, by Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr.
3. Annual Meeting, Florida Beekeepers Association, Tallahassee, by
4. Army Reserve Officers Meeting, Gainesville, by Lt. Col. William
5. Annual Meeting Entomological Society of America, Memphis, by
H. Mayeux and F. W. Mead.
6. Open House and Science Fair, Florida Southern College, Lakeland,
by Biology Prof. H. M. Field.
7. 41st Annual Meeting, Florida Entomological Society, Tampa, Brog-
don, M. Murphey and Mead.
The Secretary read a letter from Dr. A. D. Hess, Chairman of the
Exhibits Committee of the ESA as follows:
"We heard much favorable comment on the exhibit which the Florida
Entomological Society had at the Entomological Society of America
meetings in Memphis last year. This year the meetings will be held in
Salt Lake City, December 1-4 and we are hoping that Florida may again
have an exhibit. Could you please put me in contact with the individual
who might be responsible for planning such an exhibit?"
A motion was made, seconded, and carried unanimously instructing the
incoming President to appoint a committee to study the possibility of send-
ing the "Entomology in Action" display to the meeting in Salt Lake City.
Vice President Hunter called for a Membership Committee report.
J. T. Griffiths made the following motion:
"WHEREAS: The Florida Entomological Society membership is avail-
able to anyone 'interested in entomology', and
"WHEREAS: Many nematologists, because of overlapping interests, are
vitally concerned with some phases of entomology,
"BE IT HEREBY RESOLVED THAT:
"The Florida Entomological Society will encourage the dissemination
of nematological information by including papers on nematology at its an-
nual meeting, if such are of interest to entomologists, and to accept papers
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 41, No. 4
for publication in the Florida Entomologist, if space and funds permit,
until such time as a Florida Nematological Society is founded to perform
these functions for nematologists."
The motion was carried unanimously.
After considerable discussion. J. T. Griffiths made the following motion:
"The membership form recommended by the Membership Commit-
tee be accepted for use by the Society.
"It be so modified by the Secretary as to make it usable for a per-
manent card file."
The motion was carried unanimously.
J. T. Griffiths moved that the incoming President appoint a committee
to study sustaining membership fee, which will be voted on at the next
annual meeting. The motion was carried unanimously.
Milledge Murphey commented on honorary members and stated that a
certificate will be presented to them.
Vice President Hunter called for a report of the Resolutions Committee.
Martin Muma read the following resolutions:
1. Whereas the invitational speakers contributed significantly to the
success of the program of the 41st annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society, be it resolved that the Secretary be instructed
to express the appreciation of the society to each invitational speaker
by appropriate letter.
2. Whereas the name "Cotton States Branch" is not a descriptive branch
name as applied to Florida as well as other states in this branch,
Be it Resolved that the F. E. S. go on record as favoring a change
in name from the "Cotton States Branch" to another, more descrip-
tive and representative name for the branch.
Finally, Be It Resolved that a copy of this resolution be sent to
the Cotton States Branch of the E. S. A. for consideration at the busi-
ness meeting of their forthcoming annual meeting.
3. Be it resolved that the Florida Entomological Society extend a cor-
dial invitation to the Entomological Society of America to hold its
1961 annual meeting in Florida.
4. Be it further resolved:
A. That the Society express its special appreciation to the Local
arrangement and Program Committees for arranging and con-
ducting this excellent meeting.
B. That the Society does hereby express its sincere thanks to the
members of industry for a most enjoyable social hour.
C. That the Society does hereby express its appreciation to the
State Plant Board for providing the special trailer exhibit.
D. That a note of thanks be written by the Secretary to the man-
agement of the Tampa Terrace Hotel and to the Greater
Tampa Chamber of Commerce, Convention Bureau expressing
our appreciation for a most enjoyable stay in Tampa."
The report of the Resolutions Committee was adopted unanimously.
Vice President Hunter called for a report of the Public Relations Com-
mittee. A. N. Tissot read the following report and moved the amendment
be adopted. The motion was carried unanimously:
Report of Committee for Constitutional Amendment to provide a per-
manent Public Relations Committee of the Florida Entomological Society:
The committee recommends that another section be added to Article
II of the By-Laws, to be known as Section 6 and that the present Sections
6 and 7 be renumbered as Sections 7 and 8 respectively. It is further
recommended that the proposed Section 6 read as follows:
Section 6.-There shall be a permanent Public Relations Committee
of three members. It shall be the duty of this committee to handle such
matters as publicity, education, and general public relations in fulfill-
ment of the first objective given in the Constitution, which is "To pro-
mote the study of entomology." The committee shall also be concerned
with the disbursement of Society funds and the chairman (or repre-
Minutes of the 41st Annual Meeting 187
sentative) of the committee shall serve in an ex-officio capacity with
the Executive Committee for the allocation of funds among the various
Upon the adoption of this amendment the incoming President shall
name the full initial committee, one member of which will serve for
one year, one for two years and one for three years. Each succeeding
President shall appoint one member of the committee for a three year
term. The chairman of the committee shall be designated each year by
the President under whom he will serve."
Vice President Hunter called for a report of the committee for studying
changes in the Executive Committee of the Society. F. Gray Butcher read
the following recommendation:
"This committee recommends that Article IV of the Constitution of
the Florida Entomological Society be amended to read as follows:
Section 1. The officers of the Florida Entomological Society shall
consist of a President, a Vice-President, a Secretary each of whom shall
be elected annually; and a Treasurer, who shall be elected for a term of
Section 2. The Executive Committee is the legal representative of
the Society and as such shall be in charge of the affairs, funds, and prop-
erty of the Society and shall conduct the business of the Society, sub-
ject to decisions on policy by the membership.
This Executive Committee shall consist of the following Society
members: President, Vice-President, the immediate Past President, the
Secretary, the Treasurer, three members at large and one representa-
tive elected by each Branch.
Upon the adoption of this amendment the Executive Committee Mem-
bers at Large shall be elected in the following manner: One to serve
one year, one to serve two years and one to serve three years. At each
annual meeting thereafter one Executive Committee Member at Large
shall be elected for a term of three years. The representative of the
Branch or Branches shall be elected annually by the members of the
Section 3. Six (6) members of the Executive Committee shall consti-
tute a quorum for the transaction of its business."
After considerable discussion, the motion was defeated.
Vice President Hunter commended our Editor and Associate Editor on
the good job they are doing with THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. The
Membership gave a standing vote of thanks for the outstanding job the
editors are doing.
Vice President Hunter thanked the Local Arrangements Committee.
A motion was made that the Hospitality Funds residue be earmarked as
"Hospitality Funds" in the Treasurer's report. J. T. Griffiths moved we
adopt the motion and it was carried unanimously.
Vice President Hunter called for a report of the Committee for securing
the 1961 meeting of the ESA for Florida. After considerable discussion by
members of the committee and others, J. T. Griffiths moved the President
appoint a committee to secure the 1961 meeting for Florida and instruct
the committee to make recommendations to the ESA that the McAllister
Hotel in Miami be made headquarters of the meeting, and that in the event
travel to Miami was considered to be too distant, suggest the Robert Myer
Hotel in Jacksonville. The motion was carried unanimously.
Vice President Hunter called for a report of the Nominating Committee.
L. C. Kuitert read the report nominating the following slate of officers:
President--...............................------------Mr. Wm. P. Hunter
Vice President ------......................Dr. Andrew J. Rogers
Business Manager----................Dr. Robert E. Waites
Secretary----.............................------Dr. L. A. Hetrick
Executive Committee------..................Mr. John E. Porter
Editor.................---..............---- Dr. Lewis Berner
Associate Editor................----Mr. Norman C. Hayslip
188 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
F. Gray Butcher asked for a unanimous ballot. The slate of officers was
elected by a unanimous vote.
Incoming President Hunter expressed his thanks and appreciation for
being our President during the coming year.
The meeting was adjourned. Respectfully submitted,
ROBERT O. KIRKLAND,
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE
41st ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The following papers were presented by invitation:
HOFFMAN, C. H. (Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research
Service, U. S. D. A., Beltsville, Maryland.) Entomology Research Division
Programs Relating to Florida Insect Problems. USDA entomological re-
search benefits Florida. Important contributions include identification of
specific insects and development of control methods. A new insecticide of
low mammalian toxicity-6-chloropiperonyl chrysanthemumate, known as
barthrin-looks promising. Attractants such as angelica seed oil and esters
of 6-methyl-3-cyclohexene-l-carboxylic acid aided the Mediterranean fruit
fly program. Introduced parasites help control the Rhodesgrass scale and
sugarcane borer. Earworm-resistant sweetcorn hybrids have been devel-
oped. New insecticides control scales, tobacco insects, and resistant mos-
quitoes, house flies, and cockroaches. Repellents provide remarkable pro-
tection against arthropodborne diseases. A unique product of research is
the eradication of screw-worms by release of males sterilized by irradiation.
Basic research to help solve future complex insect problems is conducted
in the new Insect Physiology and Insect Pathology Laboratories.
MAY, ALAN W. S. (Department of Agriculture and Stock, Queensland,
Australia.) Problems of Economic Entomology in Queensland with Special
Reference to Fruit Flies. Situated with subtropical and tropical latitudes,
Queensland cultivates a wide range of agricultural and horticultural crops.
Understandably, pests are of major importance. The Queensland fruit fly,
Strumeta tryoni (Froggatt) (Trypetidae: Diptera), an indigenous species,
breeds in all cultivated fruits except cucurbits and pineapples, as well as a
wide range of ornamental and wild hosts. Seven additional native species
are also of economic importance. Successful control in commercial crops
with DDT has followed long term studies of (1) distribution and seasonal
abundance, based on trapping station data; (2) field behaviour and its re-
lationship to climatological data and host preferences; and (3) laboratory
and field screening of insecticides.
SIMONS, JOHN N. (University of Florida, Everglades Experiment Sta-
tion, Belle Glade, Florida.) Pseudo-Curly Top, a Treehopper Transmitted
Plant Virus. After a search of four years a treehopper, Micrutalis sp., has
been found to be a vector of the pseudo-curly top virus of tomato. This
finding was particularly interesting since Membracids had not been previ-
ously implicated as vectors.
The treehopper occurs commonly on nightshade, Solanum gracile (Link),
but has not been found to reproduce on other weeds to date. Under green-
house conditions it breeds readily on eggplant. The life cycle takes about
a month during the summer months; several generations are produced each
The virus transmitted by this treehopper causes symptoms in tomato
which are very similar to those caused by the sugar beet curly top virus
in the western United States. Symptoms induced in nightshade and to-
bacco, Nicotiana glutinosa L., are also identical, but the pseudo-curly top
virus does not cause symptoms in many species of plants that are infected
by typical curly-top virus. These include pepper, squash, bush bean, zinnia,
and beet. The vector virus relationships of the pseudo-curly top virus ap-
Abstracts of Papers at 41st Annual Meeting 189
pear to be similar in many respects to those of the beet leafhopper, Cir-
culifer tenellus (Baker), and typical curly-top virus. The virus can be ac-
quired by a treehopper in as little as 30 minutes feeding time. There is a
short latent period-about 24 hours-during which time transmission does
not take place. Once the insects are viruliferous, inoculation can take
place with a feeding of less than an hour. Virus is retained for several
weeks in the treehopper, but the probability of an insect causing an infec-
tion decreases as the length of time from the original acquisition feeding
WALKER, THOMAS J. (Dept. Entomology, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville.)
Significance of Cricket Calls. Females of three species of tree crickets
were subjected to tape recordings of natural and artificial sounds, and it
was demonstrated that each responds only to the call of its own species.
The differential response is due to differences in pulse rates in the calls.
The pulse rate of the call of the male varies with temperature, and the pulse
rate to which a female of the same species will respond varies with temper-
ature in the same fashion. Possible applications of these findings are dis-
SCATTERDAY, JAMES A. (Div. of Veterinary Public Health, Bureau of
Preventable Disease, Fla. State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Fla.) East-
ern Equine Encphalomyelidis in Florida.
The following are abstracts of papers presented by an invitational panel,
dealing with aspects of the eradication of the imported fire ant:
BLASINGAME, W. E. (Georgia Department of Entomology, Atlanta.)
Georgia Imported Fire Ant Eradication Program. A program aimed at the
eradication of the Imported Fire Ant was initiated in Georgia in September,
1957. This ant species has been found in 45 Georgia counties on approxi-
mately 400,000 acres. An emergency grant of $250,000.00 was recently pro-
vided to finance the program during the present fiscal year.
COWPERTHWAITE, W. G. (State Plant Board of Florida, Gainesville.)
Present Status of the Imported Fire Ant Eradication Program in Florida.
The imported fire ant eradication program in the state has been resolved
to little more than a sniping engagement by wet weather which character-
izes Florida's summer seasons. Because insecticides are not applied when
foliage is damp, there have been few occasions when the campaign could
be pushed at full tilt. As a result, less than 5,000 acres of infested prop-
erties have been treated in the past 90 days. Meanwhile, county committees
are huddling with state and federal agencies in perfecting plans to continue
the eradication effort once the rainy season ends.
DYKSTRA, WALTER W. (Branch of Wildlife Research, Bureau of Sport
Fisheries and Wildlife, United States Department of the Interior, Washing-
ton 25, D. C.) Relation of Wildlife to the Fire Ant Eradication Program.
Findings from current investigations by wildlife biologists indicate high
immediate mortality and appreciable delayed mortality among birds and
small mammals inhabiting several of the study areas treated with granular
heptachlor or dieldrin for fire ant control. Adequate data is not yet avail-
able to determine: (1) all of the factors which may contribute to wildlife
losses; (2) the duration and degree of delayed mortality; (3) the side effects
on reproduction and food chain organisms; and (4) the extent and signifi-
cance of mortality on treated areas in relation to the total wildlife popula-
tion. Several modifications in the technique of application and pesticide
formulation are being studied as possible means for reducing hazards to
FRYE, O. E., JR. (Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission,
Tallahassee.) Relation of Wildlife to the Fire Ant Eradication Program
in Florida. Wildlife authorities are concerned about the use of the insecti-
cides, dieldrin and heptachlor, in introduced fire ant control program.
Studies conducted in Texas, Alabama, and Louisiana have shown serious
losses of wildlife in certain instances. Forms killed include beneficial in-
sects, crustaceans, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In Hardin
County, Texas, bird populations reduced 92 to 97 percent within two weeks
190 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
after application. Nesting success of birds in treated area reduced 89 per-
cent. Heptachlor lethal to wildlife on both wet and dry soil. In Wilcox
County, Alabama, 14 of 16 coveys of bobwhite quail disappeared from treated
area, many found dead. Long term effect of insecticides feared more than
immediate losses. Situation aggravated by public acceptance of and de-
pendence upon "miracle" insecticides. Appears impossible for widespread
use of such potent poisons to fail to disturb natural balances.
To date apparently little damage has occurred in Florida. Fire ant
control authority, State Plant Board, is working closely with conservation
authorities to minimize damage from control operations.
LIVINGSTON, B. P. (Div. Plant Industry, State of Alabama.) Fire Ant
Program-State of Alabama. Federal and State funds became available
October 1, 1957, for a fire ant eradication program. The State Board of
Agriculture adopted a program providing for the Federal and State gov-
ernments and individuals concerned to share a one-third cost basis. State
and County Fire Ant Committees appointed by the Commissioner of Agri-
culture have been a great help to us.
All farmers who have participated in the cooperative program have been
highly pleased and have so testified. They state that they have found no
live fire ants on their property following the treatment and have experi-
enced no significant loss of wildlife.
PADGET, LAMAR J. (Plant Pest Control Div., Agr. Res. Ser., U. S. D. A.,
Gulfport, Miss.) The Fire Ant Eradication in the Southern States. The
present program is the fourth attempt to organize a cooperative endeavor
directed at the suppression of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis saevissima
richteri Forel). The first attempt was in 1937 when the Alabama Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Industries, in conjunction with the Public Works
Administration, attempted a suppression program in Baldwin County, Ala-
bama. The next attempt at organized control was in 1948 when the Missis-
sippi State Plant Board obtained an appropriation to fight the fire ant in
the vicinity of Artesia, Miss. This attempt was short-lived because of lack
of equipment for the application of material and insufficient funds to extend
the program to the entire affected area. In the early fifties, the State of
Louisiana obtained an appropriation to assist the farmers in the eradication
of this pest and used considerable quantities of chlordane in the Evangeline
parishes. The present effort was undertaken when $2,400,000 was provided
to the Department of Agriculture in the Appropriation Act of 1958. This
program visualized the beginning of the work in the outer fringes of the
infestation in an effort to move the outer boundaries of the ant to a more
restricted area. At the time this program was undertaken, infestations
were known to be present in some 27,000,000 acres in 9 southern states, and
infestations to occur in 237 counties in this area. Since the beginning of
the program in November 1957, programs in some degree of magnitude have
been conducted in 168 of the 239 counties now known to be infested, and all
known infestations treated in 67 of the counties, which includes all known
infestations in three of the affected states, Arkansas, North Carolina, and
South Carolina. Some one-half million acres have been treated so far.
Work is being pursued as rapidly as funds, weather conditions, and other
factors will permit.
BARTLETT, F. J., AND C. S. LOFGREN. (Plant Pest Control Div., Agr. Res.
Ser., U. S. D. A., Gulfport, Miss.) Improving Methods for Imported Fire
Ant Control. So~, 6;" +kt
The following are abstracts of /papers presented at the 41st annual
BIDLINGMAYER, W. L. (Fla. St. Bd. Health, Entom. Res. Center, Vero
Beach, Fla.) Mosquito Penetration Tests with Louver Screening. Louvered
insect screening is designed to exclude sunlight as well as insects. Lou-
vered screening with 17 and 23 louvers per inch were evaluated by compar-
ing the rate of escape of Aedes aegypti and A. taeniorhynchus with standard
18 x 14 mesh copper and the 22 x 22 mesh fiber glass screens. The 17 mesh
screen was found to be inferior to the 18 x 14 mesh screen. No significant
differences were found between the 23 mesh and the 22 x 22 mesh screens.
Abstracts of Papers at 41st Annual Meeting
It was concluded that the 23 mesh louvered screen would be satisfactory
but not the 17 mesh screen.
DIXON, R. EARL (Peninsular Pest Control Service, Jacksonville.) How
Legislation Affects the Pest Control Operator. The need of legislation is
based on the sincere belief of the need to protect the buying public. Scien-
tific journals, university sponsored short-courses, associations, and entom-
ologists have contributed more to educating the pest control operator than
legislation. Legislation gets more binding each year as additional rules
and regulations are added. It requires increases in prices, extra services,
extra expenses and without proper enforcement creates hardship.
Du CHANOIS, F. ROBERT (U. S. Navy Disease Vector Control Center,
Naval Air Station, Jacksonville 12, Fla.) Applied Entomological Training
Program and Facilities of the U. S. Navy Disease Vector Control Center.
Recent developments and refinements in planning, organization and assign-
ment of specific responsibilities for pest prevention and control programs
within the Naval Establishment are discussed as background. The standard
for Training and safety of Department of Defense uniform Standards for
Insect and Rodent Control stimulated intensified training of subprofessional
vector and pest control operators and supervisors as an aid to their com-
pulsory certification as such. The need for comprehensive, specialized
training of this nature, previously unavailable in the Navy, was met in
part, by an advanced course, "Disease Vector and Economic Pest Preven-
tion and Control", available on a navy-wide basis. Course content and
methods of presentation, emphasizing trainee participation, are discussed
and the importance of training grounded on sound entomological principles
under the direction of professional military entomologists is stressed.
GENUNG, WILLIAM G. (University of Florida, Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle Glade, Florida). Biological and Ecological Notes on Mydas
maculiventris Westwood as a Predator of White Grubs in South Florida.
Maggots of Mydas maculiventris Westwood were found feeding on scar-
abaeid larvae in the soil. Previous reports on mydaidae, mention only rot-
ten wood as the larval environment. Moderately drained sandy soil is the
preferred habitat of M. maculiventris,. The species has not been observed
on organic soil, though host insects are plentiful. A two-year life cycle is
indicated. Adults emerge in August and September.
GENUNG, WILLIAM G. (University of Florida, Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle Glade, Florida). Notes on the Syntomid Moth Lymire ed-
wardsi (Grote) and its Control on Ficus. A syntomid, Lymire edwardsi
(Grote) was highly injurious to Ficus spp. during the summer of 1958. Vir-
tual defoliation occurred in some south Florida areas. A chalcid parasite
Brachymeria robusta (Cresson) was important in reducing the infestation.
B. ovata (Say) and a larvaevoid fly were also reared from the pupae. Pred-
atory pentotomidae fed on the larvae. Good chemical control was obtained
with both toxaphene and DDT emulsifiable concentrates.
HARRIS, EMMETT D., JR. (Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
Florida). Observations on the Occurrence of a Milky Disease among Larvae
of the Northern Masked Chafer, Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Atypical
type A milky disease which is caused by the Cyclocephala strain of Bacillus
papilliae Dutky was observed to give excellent control of the northern
masked chafer, Cyclocephala borealis Arrow, attacking St. Augustine grass
in a pasture on organic soil in the Everglades. In 25 days, the pest popula-
tion fell from about nine to less than one grub per square foot.
HARRIS, EMMETT D., JR., AND VICTOR E. GREEN, JR. (Everglades Experi-
ment Station, Belle Glade, Florida). Comparison of Field Corn Varieties
for Resistance to Earworm and Stored Grain Insect Injury in the Ever-
glades. Field corn varieties were compared in 1957 for resistance to dam-
age by the corn earworm, Heliothis, zea (Boddie), and the rice weevil, Sitoph-
ilus oryza (L.). Each ear was assigned index numbers to indicate the de-
gree of damage by each insect species and averages of these values were
used to compared the varieties. The damage from either insect species
192 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 41, No. 4
appear to decrease as kernel hardness increased. Rice weevil damage was
significantly correlated with corn earworm damage.
MERKEL, E. P. (Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service,
U.S.D.A., Lake City, Florida). The Pine Flower, Cone, and Seed-Insect
Research Program at the Lake City Research Center. An intensive research
program on insects affecting slash and longleaf pine seed-production was
initiated at the U. S. Forest Service, Lake City Research Center in 1957.
This research, in an almost unexplored field of forest entomology in the
South, is particularly timely because of increasing demands for large quan-
tities of high-quality pine seed. Progress in the identification of the insects
causing damage to flowers, cones, and seeds is described. Two phycitid
moths of the genus Dioryctria have been the most destructive insects found
to date. Life history studies of these species have revealed many complex
insect-host relationships. Benzene hexachloride has been found to be the
most effective insecticide in preliminary laboratory-screening and small-
scale field tests.
PORTER, JOHN E. (U.S.P.H.S., Quarantine Station, Miami Beach, Fla.)
A Preliminary Report on the Presence of Hackberry Psyllids in Florida
(Homoptera: Psyllidae). Of the 8 known spp. of Pachypsylla only venusta
Osten Sacken, celtidis-gemma Riley, celtidis-mamma Fletcher, celtidis-inten-
eris Mally, and celtidis-vesicula Riley are reported as occurring in Florida on
Celtis mississippiensis Bose. A brief resume is given of the biology of the
spp. and a method is reported for recognizing the 5 different nymphal in-
stars and for identifying the 5th instar nymphs of each spp.
PROVOST, MAURICE W. (Fla. St. Bd. of Health, Entom. Res. Center, Vero
Beach, Fla.) The Influence of Moonlight on Light-Trap Catches of Mosqui-
toes. The New Jersey light trap catches, on an average, six times more mos-
quitoes at new moon than at full moon although this differential is usually
concealed by the many other factors affecting the catches. This is demon-
strated for seven genera: Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Deinoc-
erites, Aedes and Psorophora. The ratio is close to that shown by others for
Noctuid moths, and it is apparently caused by differences in contrast be-
tween light in trap and background illumination rather than difference in
actual flight activity in the insects.
PROVOST, MAURICE W., AND NINA BRANCH. (Fla. St. Bd. of Health, Entom.
Res. Center, Vero Beach, Fla.) Food of Tendipedid Larvae in Polk County
Lakes. In a preliminary study, the numbers of Glyptotendipes paripes
were related to plankton density and the latter to nutrients introduced into
the Polk County lakes. G. paripes and Tendipes decorus, through filter-
feeding mechanism, fed non-selectively on plankton except for small blue-
green algal cells and diatoms which may pass through the larval nets and
except for large zooplankters which may swim away from tubes. These
tendipetids favor sand bottoms. Hypothesis for tendipetid pest numbers:
nutrient introduction raises plankton levels, thus increasing tendipetid pro-
duction, which process is abetted by disturbing bottom and exposing more
ROHWER, G. G. (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service, Plant Pest Control Division, Winter Haven, Florida.) Work Needed
in Florida to Protect This State from Important Tropical and Subtropical
Fruit Flies. The second Florida invasion by Mediterranean fruit flies ap-
parently has been eradicated. New invasions of important tropical and
subtropical fruit flies must be expected despite work done to exclude them.
Effective detection work should be continued with provision for immediate
financing for eradicating new infestations. Research in Florida is needed
now to be prepared for eradication with as little loss as possible.
TRUE, HENRY H. (Rohm and Haas Co., Ft. Lauderdale). The Place of
the Commercial Entomologist in Florida Agriculture. Points out impossi-
bility of raising Florida crops in present volume without insect control.
Gives brief resume of increasing complexity of insecticidal materials and
increasing importance of dissemination of correct information to growers.
Stresses commercial entomologist's role in assisting official agencies by
advising in the selection and proper use of recommended materials.
SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION OF PAPERS
SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION IN
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
The following suggestions are proposed in order to minimize revisions
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2. Use of the common names of insecticides and the iterim designations
of insecticides which have been approved by the Committee on Insecti-
cide Terminology of the Entomological Society of America should be
3. Use of the common names of insects which have been approved by the
Committee on Common Names of Insects of the Entomological Society
of America is the policy.
4. The title of the paper should be short and concise.
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a. Give each table a clear, concise heading stating its contents. Head-
ings should be double spaced.
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The Florida Entomologist
in the paper. Illustrations may be run either as text figures or as
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By adhering to the suggestions given above, manuscripts can be
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FERTILIZERS AND INSECTICIDES THAT ARE SUPERIOR
Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA
Vol. 41, No. 4
Kerr and Brogdon: A New Pest of Magnolias 195
A NEW PEST OF MAGNOLIAS
S. H. KERR AND J. E. BROGDON 2
Hay (1958)3 reported a damaging infestation of the phycitid Euzophera
ostricolorella Hulst on yellow poplar in western Kentucky and Tennessee
in 1954-57. He stated that this lepidopterous borer apparently has not been
considered economically important and that its reported range in eastern
United States has been from New York to Georgia. Mr. H. W. Capps of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Entomology Research Devision, iden-
tified as Euzophera, probably ostricolorella, a borer the writers found
severely damaging magnolias (M. grandiflora) in the area of Macclenny,
Florida, during the winter of 1956-57. Yellow poplar and magnolia are
related species, but apparently this is the first recorded injury to mag-
nolias. The trees examined were all young, about three to six feet in
height. They were growing in blocks up to a couple of acres in size in
commercial nurseries. In some of the nurseries virtually every tree was
attacked, and the damage was severe. The larvae apparently feed on the
outer tissues and rarely do the burrows disappear beneath the surface,
though the wood was deeply etched in these small trees. The winding bur-
rows were confined to the bottom few inches of the trunk and the large
roots entering the crown. The beginning point of feeding was sometimes
visible just above the ground, but frequently a small amount of soil needed
to be pulled away from the base of the trunk to reveal the burrows. Two
or three larvae were commonly found in trees only a couple of inches in
diameter at the base and complete girdling frequently occurred. Girdled
trees were killed, and less severe feeding damage resulted in varying de-
grees of yellowing and dropping of the leaves. It was evident that the
magnolias had the ability to recover eventually from large amounts of larval
feeding that stopped short of complete girdling.
On February 1, 1957, when the trees were first examined, only large
larvae and pupae were found. By late March many adults had emerged.
Hay (1958) observed the main adult flight to be in early spring, and he
believed there was one generation a year in the Kentucky-Tennessee area
with some evidence of a partial second generation.
SAgricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida.
2 Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville, Florida.
SHay, C. J. 1958. Life history and control of a root collar borer
(Euzophera ostricolorella Hulst) in yellow poplar. Jour. Econ. Ent. 51:
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 41, No. 4
MINUTES OF MEETINGS OF THE SUBTROPICAL BRANCH,
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
July 11, 1958: 12 members attended the meeting of the Subtropical Branch
held in the Community Hall at South Miami. Dr. John E. Porter gave
a very interesting speech about the Aedes aegypti survey being con-
ducted by the U. S. Public Health Service. The yellow fever mosquito
was found recently as far north as to Savannah, Georgia, and in dock
areas in Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, and St. Croix.
August 13, 1958: 13 members of the Subtropical Branch went on a field
trip to the Entomological Research Center, Florida State Board of
Health, at Vero Beach. They were all impressed when Dr. Maurice W.
Provost showed them the very well equipped laboratory where funda-
mental research is being conducted on the biology, physiology, and
control of mosquitoes, sandflies, and tabanids. Also he told about the
plans for a new building for research on control by insecticides and
improvements in the marsh area.
October 8, 1958: 14 members of the Subtropical Branch attended the
monthly meeting at the South Miami Community Center. Dr. John E.
Porter gave a report on the possibilities for different kinds of research
presented by a study of the insects on one or two hammocks in the
Everglades National Park, which is planned as a project for our Branch.
Mr. William Bidlingmayer of the Entomological Research Center at
Vero Beach gave an interesting talk on the biology of Culicoides furens
ALFRED S. MILLS,
THE WORLD OF BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS, by Alexander B. Klots, 207 pp.,
illustrated, 24 plates in color. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
New York . Price $15.00.
Dr. Klots, author of "A Field Guide to the Butterflies," is to be congratu-
lated on the publication of his newest work. "The World of Butterflies and
Moths" gives an excellent summary of the biology of the Lepidoptera docu-
mented with a profusion of magnificent color plates and black and white
photographs and drawings. The colored plates are some of the finest that
have been published, and the black and white photographs are the result of
skilled photography, most of which was the work of Dr. Klots.
In the introduction the author says, "When it was suggested that I
might contribute a book on butterflies and moths to the series of La Nature
Vivante I was both flattered and elated; for I realized that this was an un-
precedented opportunity to present, not only something of the familiar
beauty of these animals, but also much of their unique interest. The
abundance of photographs with which these books are illustrated increases
this opportunity in a way that has seldom, if ever, been equalled.
"Now that the book is finished, I am all too conscious of its short-
comings, for the subject is so large that many times the present text would
be needed to cover it adequately. But the wealth of illustrations compen-
sates for many of the enforced textual brevities and, best of all, does much
to introduce the reader to these insects as living members of their environ-
mental communities, not as mere dried cabinet specimens." He has cer-
tainly achieved this result in his work.
There are seven chapters discussing the evolution and phylogeny of
the Lepidoptera, anatomy, life cycles, ecological relationships, specialized
senses, habits, behaviors, and finally relationships with man.
McGraw-Hill Book Company has done a real service to the science of
entomology by publishing this splendid volume.-L.B.