Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Creator: Florida Entomological Society
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Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1959
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
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Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 42, No. 3 September, 1959




CONTENTS
Page
Genung, W. G.-Observations on and Preliminary Experi-
ments with a Polyhedrosis Virus for Control of Cabbage
Looper, Trichoplusia ni (HBN.) --..-.........................------ 99
Weidhaas, Donald E., J. B. Gahan, and H. R. Ford-Effect
of Temperature, Aeration, pH, and the Presence of Soil
on the Toxicity of Various Insecticides to Mosquito
Larvae .-----...-..-..- ---........-...-....... ..... .....---- -............ ... 105
Davis, A. N., D. E. Weidhaas, and H. R. Ford-Relative
Susceptibility of Salt-Marsh Mosquitoes from Georgia
and Florida to Insecticides ..-------- ...---------------. 109
De Leon, Donald-Seven New Typhlodromus from Mexico
with Collection Notes on Three Other Species (Acarina:
Phytoseiidae) --......---......-.............................-- .........-........ 113
De Leon, Donald-The Genus Typhlodromus in Mexico
(Acarina: Phytoseiidae) ....------....... ............. ..................... 123
Miller, William E.-A Unique New North American Species
of Pinecone-Feeding Laspeyresia Related to L. ingens
Heinrich (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae) -..........-........-..... 131
Causey, Nell B.-Narceus woodruffi, New Species, a Florida
Milliped (Spirobolida: Spirobolidae) -..----..---...........-... 135
Book Review -...~.-._...........- --------------------------...... ... 138


Published by The Florida Entomological Society
















THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


OFFICERS FOR 1958-1959

President ....------......---...--- ----- ----.--..------. William P. Hunter
Vice-President ---.....-.---------- .-----. --- Andrew J. Rogers
Secretary...-..-..................................................---Lawrence A. Hetrick
Treasurer.......----.........---....-- .....------ --Robert E. Waites
Henry True
Other Members of Executive Committee John E. Porter
Irwin H. Gilbert

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LEWIS BERNER--....-.....---...-.... .-------. ----. Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP -----........--.....- .Associate Editor
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OBSERVATIONS ON AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS
WITH A POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS FOR CONTROL OF
CABBAGE LOOPER, TRICHOPLUSIA NI (HBN.)

W. G. GENUNG 1

Because of difficulty in controlling cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni
(Hbn.), with insecticides in recent years, preliminary biological control
trials were considered to merit investigation. DDT treatment has given
only 50 to 70 per cent control in the Everglades for several seasons, and
there are indications that other materials are less satisfactory than for-
merly. While endrin gives excellent control, its use is hampered by a
zero residue tolerance, and its use is not permitted on lettuce. Although
some experimental materials show promise, none are as outstanding as
DDT and toxaphene were originally. The geographical magnitude of the
looper control problem is indicated by the recent literature. Bibby (1957)
in Arizona, Reid and Cuthbert (1957) in the southeast, and Hervey and
Swenson (1956) in N. Y. discuss the difficulties in obtaining insecticidal
control.
Observations in the Everglades area for several seasons have indicated
that a highly infectious disease appeared to eliminate this looper com-
pletely in the late spring and early summer. Sample looper material
killed by the infection was sent to Dr. S. R. Dutky of the Entomology
Research Division, U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Maryland, for diagnosis. Dr.
Dutky attributed the disease to a polyhedrosis virus of cabbage looper.
The disease under natural conditions of the epizootic usually appears so
late in the season that fullest benefit is not derived from it. Investigations
of the diseases usefulness when applied to the larval environment prior
to natural appearance of the virus in the field were accordingly under-
taken.
The literature of Polyhedrosis disease of cabbage looper is not exten-
sive. Chapman and Glasser (1915) listed Autographa brassicae Riley
(Trichoplusia ni) as a host of a polyhedrosis virus in 1915. Sweetman
(1936) also lists Autographa brassicae as attacked by this disease. Stein-
haus (1949) states only that a polyhedrosis virus affects the species here
and in Russia. Genung (1951) reported very rapid reduction of cabbage
looper population in the Everglades in 1951, and Florida Experiment
Station workers Hayslip et al. (1953), have briefly mentioned the disease
as a natural control factor. Semel (1956) discussed an epizootic on Long
Island in 1956. Genung (1955) and Hall (1957) have reported use of the
virus in Biological Control experiments in Florida and California, re-
spectively.
FIELD OBSERVATIONS
DESCRIPTION OF DISEASED LOOPERS: Cabbage loopers infected with this
virus generally assume a yellowish or whitish, to mottled white coloration
one to three days prior to death. Feeding may continue until an hour or

1Associate Entomologist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
Florida. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series, No. 854.










100 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 42, No. 3

two prior to the infected larva's death. After dying (Figure 1) the in-
fected larva remains attached to the foliage by its prolegs. The cuticula
becomes soft, the entire body becomes extremely flaccid and the dead insect
usually hangs head downward. Discoloration and virtual liquefaction of
the body contents proceeds at a very rapid rate. Observable changes occur
in less than one hour. The body wall ruptures easily, often through weight
of its own contents and the contents pour out upon the foliage. Freshly
killed loopers are usually very pale but darken rapidly, becoming mottled
with brown and eventually becoming dark brown to nearly black. Fir ally,
only an amorphous tar-like spot remains on the foliage where the larva died.




Ail

















Fig. 1. Polyhedrosis killed cabbage loopers; left, one hour after death;
right, eight hours after death.

OBSERVATIONS ON PROGRESS OF THE DISEASE: An infected looper brought
from the field at 10:00 a.m. fed until about 11:30 a.m., died by 1:30 p.m.,
and turned almost brown by 5:00 p.m. Three infected larvae in the in-
sectary that were still feeding at 5:00 p.m. had died and become dark
brown by 8:00 a.m. of the following day.
The polyhedral bodies characteristic of the disease and present in the
blood of infected loopers can be seen with aid of a compound microscope
in blood samples from freshly killed loopers.
Infection in the pupal stage appears to occur only in the very early
stage of pupation and then only when the pre-pupa was infected prior to
pupation.
RAPIDITY OF CONTROL UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS: From the first
appearance of the disease in the field until virtual elimination of the
looper population, under conditions of heavy looper infestation, usually
requires about two to four weeks in the Everglades area. In most seasons
the disease appears in late April or early May, but may occur as early as
the first of April. Temperature and humidity may be important factors














Genung: Control of Cabbage Looper


in rapidity of development of the natural epizootic. Population density
appears to be important in rate of development of the infection.
PROBABLE AGENTS OF DISSEMINATION: Water on the foliage is prob-
ably important in speeding the infection of loopers on individual plants.
Rainwater or heavy dews will carry the virus over the leaf and will spread
the infection to other leaves or plants while running off.
Dipterous insects appear to be among the most likely insect vectors
of the disease to loopers on other plants or to distant plantings. Muscidae,
Sarcophagidae, and Larvaeovoridae are attracted to the semi-liquified viruli-
ferous material on which they feed in large numbers. These restless,
strong-flying insects, contaminated by the virus, may thus transfer the
disease to looper infested foliage at considerable distances from the source
of contamination. Other insects, particularly those that would be attracted
to the infectious materials, can be suspected as mechanical vectors. Ovi-
positing adult moths fluttering about the contaminated foliage may infect
the ova at time of egg deposition. Finally, it appears that under dry
conditions the virus or particles containing the virus may be airborne.
SPECIFICITY: The virus appears specific to Trichoplusia ni larvae.
Such closely related phalaenids as Autoplusia egena (Gn.) and Anomis sp.
appeared immune to the infection, as all attempts to infect these species
in the laboratory were unsuccessful. Semel (1956) also mentions the
specificity of the virus.
EXPERIMENTAL
MATERIALS AND METHODS: For a source of infection prior to natural
appearance of the disease, virus infected loopers were collected in the
field in late May, 1954. Larvae were placed in half pint jars and stored
at room temperature. The dead insects liquified except for a small amount
of coarser sclerotized parts. When liquification was complete about /
pint of the infectious material was available.
Before beginning tests sample material was submitted to Dr. Dutky
for a polyhedra count. The material was found to contain 45.6 billion
polyhedra per cc., on the average, with an error of two per cent. Ac-
cording to Dr. Dutky "the small amount of error of the counts indicated
a good degree of homogeneity of the sample material."
A small scale pot trial and a field experiment were planned for testing
the viruliferous material. Collards were selected as the looper host crop
in each case. The pot trial was conducted on plants about ten inches high,
set in six-inch diameter, glazed earthenware crocks, and artificially infested
to get heavy concentration of larvae on a few plants. Twenty-four small
plants were potted in early April and later infested with field collected
larvae of various instars, excepting the last, as it was concluded that these
might be ready for pupation before the virus could affect them.
Twelve plants were treated with a polyhedra spray containing 10.5 cc.
of the viruliferous material thoroughly mixed in one pint of water. The
infectious material was applied with a Hudson, continuous-spray-type,
hand-atomizing gun of a sort commonly used for household insecticides.
Enough spray was applied to wet the foliage. Fine droplet size produced
no run-off and good coverage was obtained without a spreader sticker.
Tanada (1956), using a bacterium and a granulosis virus for several lepido-














The Florida Entomologist


terous pests, obtained increased mortality by using a B-1956 spreader
sticker with the disease producing agents. Considering the high polyhedra
count the amount of virus material used might seem excessive; however, it was
first deemed important to learn if the disease could be induced successfully
prior to its natural appearance, and because of the lateness of the looper
infestation, time was of critical importance. Twelve plants received no
treatments and were isolated from the treated plants by approximately 100
yards distance and with protection from intervening buildings. All plants
were kept outdoors. English sparrows were observed feeding on the
loopers and this required partial screening to prevent mortality from this
source. Mortality counts were made at different dates as shown in Figure 2.
The remaining viruliferous material was used in the field experiment,
and was computed to be 0.83 ml. per gallon of water. The spray was applied
to four rows of collards, 200 feet long, down wind from four untreated
check rows. Because of the wind and highly infectious nature of the virus,
randomization was impracticable. The polyhedra spray was applied with
an estate sprayer at about 75 gallons per acre. By the time a large enough
looper population occurred in the field for testing, the disease had begun
to appear naturally. Counts were made one week after application on
ten plants in each row. Live and dead worms were recorded to obtain the
per cent mortality.


80




60


C
0
- 40



o
S20


O27
27 30


4 7 9 12


Apr. May

Fig. 2. Percent mortality in out-
door pot trial prior to natural ap-
pearance of the virus.


Fig. 3. Percent mortality in field
obtained by applicaiton of virus
after appearance of the natural
epizootic, as indicated by the check.


90

80

70

60

o 50

s 40
C
o
0 30

20

10


102


Vol. 42, No. 3













Genung: Control of Cabbage Looper 103

RESULTS
As shown in Figure 2, within 15 days over 85 per cent mortality had
occurred under the polyhedrosis treatment on potted plants. A five per
cent mortality was recorded from the check. First mortality was observed
1 week after application when approximately 11 per cent of the larvae
succumbed. The five days to first mortality, originally reported in this
work (1955), is now believed to have been due to another cause since 48
hours additional time was required for occurrence of any further mortality,
a total of seven days to first larvae death. Mortality reached 33 per cent
three days later and 67 per cent after two more days. Mortality exceeded
the 87 per cent figure shown, as all the worms were eventually killed on
the treated plants. At this time only about 15 per cent of the larvae on
the checks had been affected (Figure 3), but no mortality occurred in the
checks until about 70 per cent kill occurred in treated plants. It is believed
that infection in the checks was caused by experimental contamination, but
it may have resulted from natural factors. First mortality was of young
larvae, mortality of older larvae was delayed, but all eventually died of
the virus.
Results of the field experiment were partially obscured by the natural
epizootic. However, the percentage of dead loopers in the virus treated
plots was from 20 to 50 per cent higher than in the untreated checks,
indicating that had the natural occurrence of the disease been delayed
considerable effectiveness could reasonably have been anticipated within
two weeks of application. Due to higher temperatures both larval de-
velopment and incubation period of the disease seemed more rapid than
in the pot trial, although substantiating data were not obtained for this.
The mean per cent of control for the field experiment is shown in Figure 3.
The Polyhedra treatment was not statistically superior to the check. How-
ever, there was a consistent superiority of the polyhedra treatment and
with more observations significant differences would undoubtedly have been
obtained from the field trial.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

A Polyhedrosis virus indicated a high degree of effectiveness for control
of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.), in an outdoor pot trial during
late April and early May, using a very heavy concentration of Polyhedra.
The disease showed first mortality 7 days after application and gave nearly
complete control of loopers within three weeks.
Effectiveness of the virus during late May in a small field test was
partially obscured by the natural appearance of the disease. However,
results were sufficiently clear cut that further investigations appear desir-
able, as this phalanid has become increasingly difficult to control with
insecticides.
Grower interest in Polyhedrosis virus for looper control would probably
be slow to develop for the following reasons: (1) Several days would be
required from time of application for visible results. (2) Maintaining
a source of inoculum would require special efforts to produce, harvest, and
store the material.














The Florida Entomologist


Use possibilities that need exploration are: (1) Application of the
virus as a control of serious outbreaks when insecticides fail or (2) In-
clusion of the inoculum regularly with an insecticide as a supplementary
control measure. However, the preliminary tests reported here offer only
indications and do not give sufficient evidence at this time either to limit
or to suggest use of this polyhedrosis virus beyond the realm of experi-
mentation.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Mr. C. E. Seller, field assistant, assisted in various phases of the work.
Messrs. H. M. Spelman III and Edward King did the photographic work
and prepared the graphs, respectively.

LITERATURE CITED

Bibby, F. F. 1957. Field tests of insecticidal sprays for control of cabbage
looper on lettuce. Jour. Econ. Ent. 50 (1): 101-102.
Chapman, J. W., and R. W. Glasser. 1915. A preliminary list of insects
which have wilt, with a comparative study of this polyhedra. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 8 (1) : 140-149.
Genung, W. G. 1954. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., Annual Report, p. 183.
Genung, W. G. 1955. Fla. Agr. Expt Sta., Annual Report, p. 241.
Hall, Irvin M. 1957. Use of a polyhedrosis virus to control cabbage looper
on lettuce in California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 50 (5): 551-553.
Hayslip, N. C., W. G. Genung, E. G. Kellsheimer, and J. W. Wilson. 1953.
Insects attacking cabbage and other crucifers in Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta., Bull. 534.
Hervey, G. E. R., and K. G. Swenson. 1954. Effectiveness of DDT for
cabbage caterpillar control in western New York: 1944-1953. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 47 (4) : 564-567.
Reid, W. J., and F. P. Cuthbert. 1957. Control of caterpillars on com-
mercial cabbage and other cole crops in the south. Farmers Bull.
2099. U.S.D.A.
Semel, Maurie. 1956. Polyhedrosis wilt of cabbage looper on Long Island.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 49 (3) : 420-421.
Steinhaus, Edward A. 1949. Principles of insect pathology. McGraw-
Hill Book Co., New York. p. 471.
Sweetman, Harvey L. 1936. The biological control of insects. Comstock
Publishing Co., Ithaca. p. 85.
Tanada, Yoshinori. 1956. Microbial control of some lepidopterous pests
of crucifers. Jour. Econ. Ent. 49 (3): 320-329.


Vol. 42, No. 3


104












rr






sm,














EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, AERATION, pH, AND THE
PRESENCE OF SOIL ON THE TOXICITY OF VARIOUS
INSECTICIDES TO MOSQUITO LARVAE

DONALD E. WEIDHAAS, J. B. GAHAN, and H. R. FORD
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A.

The use of water-soluble insecticides for the control of floodwater Aedes
mosquitoes by introducing the chemical into irrigation water as it flows
into the fields has been studied for several years. Following laboratory
studies in Orlando, Florida (Gahan et al., 1955a, 1955b), field studies in
California (Gahan and Mulhern, 1955c) and in Arkansas (Gahan and
Noe, 1955d) showed it to be a promising method. Further studies in 1956
(unpublished) indicated that the effectiveness of this method decreased
over long distances of flow and in shallow water. Laboratory studies were
therefore made to determine factors responsible for this loss of effective-
ness in order to aid in finding a chemical or developing a formulation that
would increase the efficacy of this type of treatment. Fourth-instar larvae
of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say were the test insects.

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, AERATION, AND PH
Distilled water treated with four organophosphorus insecticides at
approximately twice the LC-100-parathion 0.02, malathion 0.5, Diazinon
0.05, and Dipterex 0.5 p.p.m.-was aged for 24 hours under various con-
ditions of temperature, aeration, and pH. To determine the effect of
temperature, the treated water was placed in an oven heated to 110, 120,
or 1300 F. For aeration studies, air from a small aquarium pump was
bubbled through the treated water. In tests on the effect of pH, sodium
bicarbonate was added to the distilled water to give a pH of 8.0 or 9.0.
Controls for all test conditions consisted of treated water aged for 24 hours
at 800 F. The water was treated by pipetting an acetone solution of the
insecticide into it to give the desired concentration. After the aging
period, four dilutions were prepared and tested in duplicate jars against
mosquito larvae. From the mortality after 24 hours the LC-50's were
determined for each aging condition. Loss of toxicity was indicated by
an increase in the LC-50 over that of the controls. Results are given in
Table 1.
Aging for 24 hours at pH 8.0 and 9.0 did not greatly reduce the toxicity
of any of the materials. A slight loss of toxicity was apparent at both

TABLE 1. LC-50's (PARTS PER MILLION) OF ACETONE-WATER PREPARATIONS
OF FOUR INSECTICIDES AGED FOR 24 HOURS UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS
OF TEMPERATURE, AERATION, AND PH.

Temperature (0 F.) pH
Insecticide Control 130 120 110 Aeration 8.0 9.0
Parathion 0.0046 >0.01 0.0054 0.0054 0.0041 0.0044 0.0038
Malathion .058 .16 .058 .074 .060 .076
Diazinon .027 .049 .050 >.050 .030 .030
Dipterex .14 .35 .15 .13 .11 .10














The Florida Entomologist


pH's with malathion but not with Dipterex and parathion. Aeration
greatly decreased the toxicity of Diazinon and slightly decreased that of
malathion, but did not affect parathion or Dipterex. When these materials
were heated, the toxicity of Dipterex was reduced at 1300 but not at 120,
parathion at 1300 but only slightly at 1200 and 1100, malathion at 1200
but not at 1100, and Diazinon at both 1200 and 110 F. Parathion and
Dipterex were the most stable to the factors tested and Diazinon was the
most susceptible.

EFFECT OF PRESENCE OF SOIL
Since temperature, aeration, and pH did not seem to account for the
loss in toxicity observed in the field, the effect of the presence of soil was
tested.
In the first experiment water treated with parathion at 0.02 p.p.m.
from an acetone solution or a mixture of 1 part of parathion plus 4 parts
of Triton X-100 was placed over 50 grams of builders' sand or soil in glass
jars 3 inches in diameter and allowed to stand for 24 hours. The soil was
Florida soil consisting of a sandy base with a large amount of organic
matter. Three volumes of treated water (50, 100, and 150 ml.) were used.
In one series the treated water was poured rapidly over the soil or sand
to cause agitation, and in another it was poured slowly over the sand or
soil, which was covered with a filter paper, to prevent agitation. After
the aging period 25 larvae in 25 ml. of distilled water were placed in each
test jar and the mortality was read after an additional 24 hours. Several
checks and controls were run to ensure the accuracy of the tests. In the
checks untreated water, alone or in the presence of sand or soil without
insecticide, caused no mortality. In the controls the presence of filter
"paper alone did not appreciably decrease the toxicity of the insecticide,
and 50 ml. of water treated with both formulations of the insecticide with
no sand or soil present killed all larvae in 24 hours.
The concentration of parathion initially prepared was approximately
twice the LC-100. Addition of test larvae in 25 ml. of water further
diluted the material so that the final test concentration was different for
each volume. However, it was still greater than the LC-100. Therefore,
some loss of toxicity could have occurred even though complete kill was
obtained. These tests were designed to find large losses in effectiveness,
and the following discussion refers only to loss evident from these tests.
The results are given in Table 2.
Water treated with either formulation lost little toxicity in the presence
of sand, but in the presence of soil there was a large loss. In jars in
which the soil was agitated the loss was greater than in those in which
filter paper prevented agitation. However, even in the test with non-
agitated soil the mortality was low, indicating that toxicity was lost by
contact with the soil through the filter paper. The lower mortality in the
smaller volumes of treated water indicated that the loss was greater in
shallower water. Mortality was lower with the Triton X-100 formulation
than with the acetone solution. Apparently the Triton X-100 increased
the adsorption of parathion. In this experiment it was impossible to show
whether the loss of toxicity resulted from adsorption or breakdown of
parathion; however, the former appears to be the more probable cause.


106


Vol. 42, No. 3













Weidhaas: Toxicity of Various Insecticides


TABLE 2. PERCENT MORTALITY OF MOSQUITO LARVAE IN WATER TREATED
WITH TWO PARATHION FORMULATIONS AND AGED FOR 24 HOURS OVER
SOIL OR SAND, WITH AND WITHOUT AGITATION.

Milliliters of Over Soil Over Sand
Treated Water Triton X-100 Acetone Triton X-100 Acetone

Agitated
50 0 2 96 100
100 16 36 100 100
150 68 82 100 100
Not agitated
50 22 74 90 100
100 84 100 100 100
150 94 100 100 100



A second experiment was run to determine whether the same loss of
toxicity would occur with a heavy clay soil from a California test plot.
The experiment was run in the same manner, except that acetone solutions
of four insecticides were used and the soil in all jars was covered with filter
paper. Parathion was used at 0.02, Dipterex at 0.5, malathion at 0.3, and
Phosdrin at 1 p.p.m. As shown in Table 3, all four insecticides lost toxicity
when tested over this soil sample at the two smaller volumes.

TABLE 3. PERCENT MORTALITY OF MOSQUITO LARVAE IN WATER TREATED
WITH FOUR INSECTICIDES AND AGED FOR 24 HOURS OVER SOIL FROM
CALIFORNIA. (4 REPLICATIONS.)*

Milliliters
of Water
Over Soil Parathion Dipterex Malathion Phosdrin

50 1 0 0 0
100 72 49 66 93
150 100 97 88 100

50 ml. of treated water with no soil used as controls gave 100% mortality with all four
materials.

Finally, 18 insecticides were tested to determine their relative loss of
toxicity over Florida soil. Water treated with acetone solutions of the
insecticides was poured over soil protected by filter paper and aged 24
hours. Control lots were aged 24 hours without soil. Most of the con-
centrations used were twice the LC-100; but this information was not
available for some insecticides and the concentrations used proved to be
less than the LC-100. Table 4 gives the results of these tests. Two
materials, 2,4-dimethylbenzyl chrysanthemumate and 2,4-dimethylbenzyl
2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate, showed no loss of
toxicity.














The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 42, No. 3


TABLE 4. EFFECT OF AGING FOR 24 HOURS IN THE PRESENCE OF SOIL ON
THE TOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES ADDED TO WATER AS ACETONE SOLUTIONS.

Concentra- Percent Mortality
Insecticide tion No Soil 50 Grams of Soil
(p.p.m.) 50 ml. 50 ml. 100 ml. 150 ml.


Barthrin ..........................---. ..... 0.2
1-Naphthyl methylcarbamate
(Sevin) .............-............-- ... 1.0
6-Bromopiperonyl chrysanthe-
mumate ........-..................... 2
2-Chloroethyl 2,2-dichloro-
vinyl methyl phosphate .-- 2.0
1-Chloromethylethyl 2,2-di-
chlorovinyl ethyl phosphate 1.5
2,4-Dimethylbenzyl
chrysanthemumate ............ .1
Piperonyl chrysanthemumate 1.0
2,4-Dimethylbenzyl 2,2-di-
methyl-3- (2-methylpropyl) -
cyclopropanecarboxylate .._. .1
DDVP .-..........-.....-- ...-... .... .---- .2
Diazinon -...............--....----------
Dicapthon --.............-.............. .05
O,O-Diethyl O-p-methyl-
sulfoxide-
. phenylthionophosphate ..... .05
Dipterex ...----............ --........--- .5
EPN .........-.......- ~.....-- .... .02
Ethyl DDVP ..........--- ....... .2
Malathion ...-- ... ...--- --............- .3
Para-oxon .....-----------.....-....-- .01
Phosdrin .........-.........----....--- 1.0
2-Chlorovinyl dipropyl
phosphate ..........-...-- ... ..----.. 2.0
Pyrethrins ..........................---- 1.0


78 100 100

0 4 52


84 46 96 98


0 100

80 100


LITERATURE CITED
Gahan, J. B., G. C. LaBrecque, and J. R. Noe. 1955a. Laboratory studies
with water-soluble insecticides for the control of mosquito larvae.
N. J. Mosquito Extermin. Assoc. Proc. 42: 131-137.
Gahan, J. B.., G. C. LaBrecque, and C. V. Bowen. 1955b. An applicator
for adding chemicals to flowing water at uniform rates. Mosquito
News 15(3) : 143-147.
Gahan, J. B., and T. D. Mulhern. 1955c. Field studies with water-soluble
insecticides for the control of mosquito larvae in California pastures.
Mosquito News 15(3): 139-143.
Gahan, J. B., and J. R. Noe. 1955d. Control of mosquito larvae in rice
fields with water-soluble phosphorus insecticides. Jour. Econ. Ent.
48(6) : 665-667.


108
















RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SALT-MARSH
MOSQUITOES FROM GEORGIA AND
FLORIDA TO INSECTICIDES

A. N. DAVIS, D. E. WEIDHAAS, and H. R. FORD
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A.

Laboratory tests demonstrating insecticide resistance in salt-marsh
mosquitoes, Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.) and A. sollicitans (Wlkr.), were
first reported by Deonier and Gilbert (1950), who found that larvae col-
lected from the intensively treated area near Cocoa Beach, Florida, were
more resistant to DDT than larvae from untreated areas near Titusville,
Florida. Later Keller and McDuffie (1952) found that larvae from the
Cocoa Beach area had developed resistance to BHC and that the resistance
to DDT had increased considerably. Keller and Chapman (1953) reported
resistance in the Cocoa Beach area to dieldrin as well as DDT and BHC.
Although considerable data had been collected on the susceptibility of
salt-marsh mosquitoes from Florida, no laboratory tests had been con-
ducted to compare these mosquitoes with others from an area far enough
from abatement districts to minimize the possibility of migration. In the
course of a search for such an area, it was learned from H. E. Schoof of
the U. S. Public Health Service that the use of DDT near Savannah, Ga.,
prior to June 1957, had been limited to sporadic treatments with DDT
as a fog. Salt-marsh mosquitoes from this area were therefore compared
with those from St. Johns, Brevard, Indian River, and Broward Counties
in Florida, where chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides had been used as
larvicides and adulticides for 11 years.

TEST INSECTS

Mosquito eggs were collected from Georgia and eggs or larvae from
Florida. Salt-marsh sod suspected of containing eggs was inundated in
the field. If viable eggs were present, larvae could be observed in the
water after a short time. Sods with high concentrations of eggs were cut
and transported to the laboratory where they were inundated and the
hatching larvae were reared to the proper stage for testing. Larvae were
also collected in the field and, if not in the proper stage when collected,
were reared to testing stage in the laboratory.

LARVICIDE TESTS
Batches of 25 fourth-instar larvae of mixed populations of A. taenior-
hynchus and sollicitans were exposed in 250 ml. of an acetone-distilled
water suspension or solution of the insecticide according to the standard
Orlando test method (Weidhaas and Gahan, 1958). DDT, BHC, dieldrin,
malathion, parathion, Bayer 21/199, Diazinon, and Dipterex were tested
at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 0.0005 p.p.m. After 48 hours of
exposure at 78 F., mortality counts were taken and the LC-90's calculated.
Each LC-90 was based on the average mortality obtained in duplicate jars
at each of three to five concentrations. In 1956 or 1957 all materials were














110 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 42, No. 3

tested once or twice against larvae from each of four counties in Florida.
Each material was tested three times against Georgia larvae during July
1957.
As shown in Table 1, the Georgia larvae were 8 to 10 times more
susceptible to DDT, BHC, and dieldrin than the larvae from Florida, but
there was no more than a 2-fold difference in susceptibility to the five
organophosphorus insecticides.

TABLE 1. COMPUTED LC-90's (IN P.P.M.) OF EIGHT INSECTICIDES TO SALT-
MARSH MOSQUITO LARVAE FROM GEORGIA AND FLORIDA.

Insecticide Georgia Larvae Florida Larvae

DDT ~...... ----.-.- ..-. .............- ....- 0.008 0.088
BHC ...--.~.... -........ .- ... .. ........-- .030 .245
Dieldrin ...--..-....... ................- .012 .096
Malathion ..-....--..-..-... .......... .039 .030
Parathion ....-..--...- .....-.. ..- ---. -- .-- .002 .004
Bayer 21/199 .....................-... ..-- .004 .007
Diazinon .....................-----------.. ---- .025 .048
Dipterex .......--- .....--..........----- ------ .140 .117


ADULTICIDE TESTS

During 1957 salt-marsh mosquitoes from Georgia and Florida were
reared to adults in the laboratory for tests with contact sprays. Groups
Sof 100 to 200 pupae were placed in pint jars, and a 10-ounce, conical, waxed,
paper cup, with 1 inch of the tip removed, was placed over the mouth of
each jar to funnel the emerging adults into a cylindrical screen cage.
Within 72 hours after emergence the adults were anesthetized with carbon
dioxide and distributed into exposure cages made of cylindrical metal
sleeves covered on each end with screen wire. Both males and females
were used, and each exposure cage received 25 to 30 mosquitoes. The
mosquitoes were allowed to recover fully from the anesthesia before being
tested.
Solutions of DDT, BHC, and malathion, at concentrations ranging from
2.0 to 0.005% in odorless kerosene, were applied to the mosquitoes in a
wind tunnel. This apparatus consisted essentially of a cylindrical tube
4 inches in diameter through which a column of air was moved at 4 m.p.h.
by a suction fan. The mosquitoes contained in the exposure cage were
placed in the center of the tube. One-fourth milliliter of insecticide solu-
tion was atomized at a pressure of 1 p.s.i. into the mouth of the tunnel,
and the mosquitoes were exposed momentarily as it was drawn through
the cage. Duplicate cages were exposed to each concentration in each test.
After treatment the mosquitoes were again anesthetized, transferred to
untreated screen holding cages, and held in a room with a temperature
of 84 F. and a relative humidity of about 70%. A cotton pad saturated
with honey-water (1:5) solution was placed on the top of each cage. The
mortality was recorded after 24 hours. Ninety-three percent of the 5,830
mosquitoes from Florida and more than 99% of the 1,902 from Georgia


__ __ __














Davis: Mosquitoes from Georgia and Florida 111

were taeniorhynchus. Two tests were made with each material against
the Georgia mosquitoes and from five to nine against those from Florida.
The LC-90's computed from these tests are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2. COMPUTED LC-90'S (IN PERCENT) OF THREE INSECTICIDES AS
CONTACT SPRAYS AGAINST ADULT SALT-MARSH MOSQUITOES FROM GEOR-
GIA AND FLORIDA.

Insecticide Georgia Adults Florida Adults

DDT ....-...........-..--- ......- ............ -0.120 0.940
BHC .............-- ........................... .120 .150
Malathion ........-...-....--- -- ..------ .098 .041


The adults from Georgia were 7.8 times more susceptible to DDT than
those from Florida, but there was little difference in susceptibility to BHC.
Adults from Florida were 2.4 times more susceptible to malathion than
adults from Georgia.
LITERATURE CITED
Deonier, C. C., and I. H. Gilbert. 1950. Resistance of salt-marsh mosquitoes
to DDT and other insecticides. Mosquito News 10(3): 138-143.
Keller, J. C., and H. C. Chapman. 1953. Tests of selected insecticides
against resistant salt-marsh mosquito larvae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 46(6):
1004-1006.
Keller, John C., and W. C. McDuffie. 1952. The development of insecticide
resistance in salt-marsh mosquitoes in Florida. N. J. Mosquito Ex-
termin. Assoc. Proc. 39: 139-144.
Weidhaas, D. E., and J. B. Gahan. 1958. Effect of certain changes in
testing technique on mortality of mosquito larvae. Mosquito News
(In press).


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SEVEN NEW TYPHLODROMUS FROM MEXICO WITH
COLLECTION NOTES ON THREE OTHER SPECIES
(ACARINA: PHYTOSEIIDAE)

DONALD DE LEON
Erwin, Tennessee

The species treated below belong to the group of typhlodromids with
four pairs of anterior lateral setae. Chant (1957a) placed this group
in Amblyseius Berlese which he considered a subgenus of Typhlodromus
Scheuten. He discussed the reasons for this action in a later paper (Chant,
1957b). As he also shows in his study of the immature stages of some
phytoseiids (Chant, 1958), the typhlodromids with the above character
appear, on the basis of setal development, to be more closely related to
the species in the genera Amblyseius Berlese and Amblyseiopsis Garman
than they do to the typhlodromids with more than four pairs of anterior
lateral setae. But the placing of typhlodromids with four pairs of anterior
lateral setae with the amblyseiids brings together mites of very different
facies. To distinguish this group from the amblyseiids it is proposed that
it be removed from Amblyseius Berlese and be given subgeneric rank, the
subgenus being named and characterized as follows:
Typhlodromopsis, n. subgen. Phytoseiids resembling Typhlodromus
sensu strict in general facies, but with four pairs of anterior lateral
setae; the lateral setae all more or less of the same lengths, none
of them (or M2) long and whip-like; M2 and ultimate lateral seta
usually strongly pectinate; dorsal setae 2 to 5, especially D4 and D5,
about as long as or at least not very much shorter than most of the
laterals. Ventrianal shield with not more than three pairs of preanal
setae. Legs without long, whip-like setae. Typical species of sub-
genus: Typhlodromus cucumeris Oudemans.

In the following descriptions all measurements are in microns and are
averages unless variations from average is more than ten per cent, in that
case the range is given. In the use of metapodal shield and metatarsus for
what, in previous papers, I called the parapodal shield and the basitarsus,
I have followed Evans (1957). I have used the names proposed by Garman
(1948) for the setae of the dorsal shield.

Typhlodromus, (Typhlodromopsis) finlandicus (Oud.) (1915)
T. finlandicus is common and widely distributed in Mexico. It was
collected on 26 occasions and from about as many different plants. Rep-
resentative collections are listed below:
Mante, S.L.P., December, from Sabal palmetto.
Veracruz, Ver., December and January, from Achras zapota, coco-
nut, and others.
Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January, from avocado, mahogany, and
others.
San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, January, from peach.
Guadalajara, Jal., March, from pomegranate, Bougainvillea, and ash.
Puerta Vallarta, Jal., May, from Bursera sp.














114 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 42, No. 3

Tepic, Nay., March, from Verbesina sp. and others.
San Bias, Nay., March, from an unknown host.

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) mesembrinus Dean (1957)

T. mesembrinus was collected chiefly in the area around Tuxtla Gutierrez,
Ch. in January from a large variety of plants including mango, avocado,
Annona sp., and Diospyros ebenaster. It was also taken from pear in
December near Montemorelos, N. L., from coffee at Tamazunchale, S.L.P.,
and from Malvaviscus sp. in January at Veracruz.

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) peregrinus Muma (1955)

T. peregrinus appears to be limited to the east coast of Mexico and
to the section round Tuxtla Gutierrez, Ch. A list of representative col-
lections follows:

Tamazunchale, S.L.P., December, from Asclepias curasavica.
Veracruz, Ver., December and January, from Sclerocarpus sp.,
Cupania macrophylla, Gliricidia sepium, and a half dozen other
plants.
Cordoba, Ver., February, from Bursera simaruba and Erythrina sp.
Jalapa, Ver., March, from Inga sp.
Coatzcoalcos, Ver., January, from Waltheria brevipes, and Rhyncan-
thera mexicana.
Tuxtla Gutierrez, Ch., January, from Achras zapota, Tecoma stans,
and six other species of plants.

The specimens of T. peregrinus collected in Mexico have for the most
part longer setae on the dorsal shield than do the Florida specimens, the
lateralss especially being noticeably longer. The Mexican specimens were
first thought to be distinct, but the spermatophore bearer of the male is so
similar to that of the male peregrinus from Florida it is unlikely they are
separate species.


Figures 1- 3. Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) planetarius, n. sp. 9,
dorsal shield, metapodal shields, and ventrianal shield.
Figures 4- 6. Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) quercicolus, n. sp. 9,
dorsal shield, metapodal shields, and ventrianal shield.
Figures 7-10. Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) fordycei, n. sp. S,
spermatophore; 9, dorsal shield, metapodal shields, and
ventrianal shield.


Figures 11-13.

Figures 14-17.


Figures 18-21.


Figures 22-25.


Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) simplicissimus, n. sp. 9,
dorsal shield, metapodal shields, and ventrianal shield.
Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) cucumeroides, n. sp. S,
spermatophore; 9, dorsal shield, metapodal shields,
and ventrianal shield.
Typholodromus (Typhlodromopsis) sabali, n. sp. 3, sper-
matophore; 9, dorsal shield, metapodal shields, and
ventrianal shield.
Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) confertus, n. sp. S,
spermatophore; 9, dorsal shield, metapodal shields, and
ventrianal shield.











115


De Leon: Typhlodromus from Mexico


13 r


10














116 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 42, No. 3

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) planetarius, n. sp.
(Figures 1-3)
T. planetarius appears to be most closely related to T. peregrinus Muma
but differs from that species by having much larger lateral setae, L1 to L4
being about as long as or longer than the distances between their bases
and L7 and L8 being about equal in length and longer than M2.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 282 long, 182 wide, rather coarsely imbricate,
and with 17 pairs of setae of the following lengths: L1 29, L2 27, L3 32,
L4 37, L5 19, L6 26, L7 25, L8 29, L9 49-56 (sparsely and minutely pecti-
nate); M1 20, M2 22; D1 28, D2 20, D3 18, D4 18, D5 20, D6 9; VL1 31;
S1 31, S2 18. Peritreme extending forward about to anterior margin of
coxa II. Sternal shield indistinct; genital shield 74-85 wide; ventrianal
shield 90 long, 49-58 wide (at anterior widening) with three pairs of
preanal setae and a pair of half-round pores and bordered by four pairs
of interscutal setae including VL1; two pairs of metapodal shields. Digits
of chelicerae apparently without teeth (but digits poorly oriented). Leg
IV with macrosetae of the following lengths: genu 23, tibia 20, metatarsus
38; other legs without macrosetae.
MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, Tepic, Nay., March 25, 1957 (D. De Leon), from
Inga spuria. Paratypes: One female, same data as for holotype; two
females, Santa Maria del Oro, Nay., March 24, from Clethra sp.

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) quercicolus, n. sp.
(Figures 4-6)
T. quercicolus resembles T. masseei Nesbitt 1951 as described by him,
but' differs from it most noticeably by its smaller size, by L5 being nearly
as long as L6, and by D4 and D5 being appreciably longer than D2 and D3.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield nearly smooth, except at anterolateral margins
and area between D5 and M2 where it is weakly and coarsely imbricate, 355
long, 210 wide with 17 pairs of setae of the following lengths: L1 45-54,
L2 29-35, L3 37-47, L4 47-63, L5 42-62, L6 47-54, L7 42-49, L8 36-45, L9
72-83; M1 7-13, M2 63; D1 22-29, D2 14-18, D3 11-15, D4 20-28, D5 27-38,
D6 10. M2 and L9 minutely and sparsely pectinate. Sternal shield with
three pairs of setae; genital shield 74-88 wide; ventrianal shield 115 long,
96 wide with three pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores and bordered
by four pairs of interscutal setae including VL1 which is 59 long; two
pairs of metapodal shields, the primary one 27 long and 7 wide; fixed digit
with a sub-terminal tooth and with five small teeth in the middle third
and the pilus dentilis; movable digit not observable. Legs with setae
rather long and slender with macrosetae not much longer than the others,
a macroseta on genua I-IV and on tibia IV and metatarsus IV; macrosetae
of leg IV of the following lengths: genu 42, tibia 35, metatarsus 68.
MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, Quiroga, Mich., March 11, 1957 (D. De Leon), from
Quercus sp. Paratypes: One female, Chuparcuero, Mich., other data as
for holotype, and one female, Ciudad del Maiz, S.L.P., June 11, 1957, from
Quercus sp.














De Leon: Typhlodromus from Mexico


Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) fordycei, n. sp.
(Figures 7-10)
T. fordycei resembles T. reticulatus Oudemans, but differs from Chant's
redescription of that species (Chant, 1958) by the ventrianal shield having
a pair of pores, by the male having 3 pairs of preanal setae, and in other
characters.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 324 long, 188 wide with 17 pairs of setae. All
laterals, except L9, 18-27 long, L6 the longest; L9 67 long; M2 36 long;
all dorsals, except D6, 14-21 long, D1 and D5 of about the same lengths.
Sternal shield with three pairs of setae; genital shield 72 wide; ventrianal
shield 110 long, 95 wide with three pairs of preanals and a pair of pores;
four pairs of interscutal setae including VL1 bordering the ventrianal
shield; two pairs of metapodal shields, the primary pair about 27 long.
Fixed digit with apparently five teeth along middle third, teeth of mov-
able digit not observable. Genua I-IV with macrosetae 21, 15, 25, and 33
long respectively, tibia and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta 19 and
39 long respectively; all macrosetae rather large and expanded at tips.
MALE: Resembles female; dorsal shield 267 long, 166 wide. Ventri-
anal shield with three pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores. Sper-
matophore bearer more or less evenly curved, about 31 long measured in
a straight line from base to tip.
Holotype: Female, La Tinaja, Ver., February 5, 1957 (D. De Leon),
from Pithecolobium lanceolatum. Paratypes: Four females, two males, other
data as for holotype; one male, Cordoba, Ver., February 5, 1957, from
banana.
The mite is named in honor of Mr. J. B. Fordyce of Apple Valley, Calif.

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) simplicissimus, n. sp.
(Figures 11-13)
T. simplicissimus differs from other mites with nine rather short lateral
setae and L7 paired with M2 chiefly in having L2 and L3 distinctly shorter
than L1 or L4, by the ventrianal shield having pores almost directly behind
and close to the bases of the posterior pair of preanals, and by the numerous
small teeth on the fixed digit.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 317 long, 208 wide with nine lateral, two
median, and six dorsal pairs of setae; the lengths of most of these setae
follow: L1 30, L2 11-20, L3 18, L4 25-36, L5 17, L6 18-23, L7 14-18,
L8 10, L9 56-72; M1 11, M2 28-44; D1 21, D3 11, D5 17. Sternal shield
with three pairs of setae; genital shield 77 wide; ventrianal shield
105 long, 74 wide with three pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores
almost directly behind and close to the bases of the posterior pair of pre-
anals; ventrianal shield bordered by four pairs of interscutal setae includ-
ing VL1 which is 38 long; two pairs of metapodal shields the primary
one 18 long and about 6 wide, the accessory 17 long and about 3 wide.
Fixed digit with about 12 very small teeth on the basal two-thirds and
three somewhat larger, more rounded, sub-apical teeth; movable digit with
three teeth. Genua I-IV each with a macroseta 24, 23, 25, and 35-44 long
respectively; tibia and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta 18 and 35-44
long respectively, all macrosetae tapering to a fine point.














The Florida Entomologist


MALE: Not known.
Holotype: Female, Cordoba, Ver., February 4, 1957 (D. De Leon),
from Eugenia jambos. Paratypes: One female, Veracruz, Ver., January
1, 1957, from Cupania macrophylla; two females, Cordoba, Ver., February
4, 1957, one from Bursera simaruba and one from Miconia glaberrima.

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) cucumeroides, n. sp.
(Figures 14-17)
T. cucumeroides resembles T. cucumeris Cudemans, but differs from
the description of that species in Nesbitt (I.c.) by its greater size, by the
shape of the ventrianal shield, by lacking a macroseta on metatarsus IV,
and by other characters.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield rather coarsely and strongly imbricate, 408
long, 200 wide with 17 pairs of setae. The lengths of most of these setae
follow: L1, 22, L2 22, L3 22, L4 27, L6 31, L7 28, L8 28, L9 47; M2 38;
D1 25,, D4 18, D5 18. Sternal shield indistinct; genital shield 86 wide;
ventrianal shield 144 long, 116 wide with three pairs of preanals and a
pair of elliptic pores. Ventrianal shield bordered by four pairs of inter-
scutal setae including VL1 which is 38 long; two pairs of metapodal
shields, the primary one 29 long, 9 wide. Fixed digit with four teeth
between the pilus dentilis and the terminal hook; movable digit with one
tooth. Legs without macrosetae.
MALE: Resembles female; dorsal shield 360 long, 200 wide. Ventri-
anal shield with three pairs of preanal setae and a pair of elliptic pores,
Spermatophore bearer with foot 27 long, shank 23 long.
Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nay., March 26, 1957 (D. De Leon), from
Pectis arenaria. Paratype: One male, same data as for holotype.

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) sabali, n. sp.
(Figures 18-21)

T. sabali resembles T. reticulatus Oudemans but differs from Oudemans'
description of that species (in Nesbit, 1951) chiefly by having a pair of
large pores on the ventrianal shield and a macroseta on each of the last
three segments of leg IV.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield rather strongly imbricate, 327 long, 195 wide
with nine lateral, two median and six dorsal pairs of setae. The lengths
of most of these setae follow: L1 24-36, L2 13-19, L3 13-19, L4 22-36, L6
20-33, L9 72-81; M2 46; D1 23, D3 17, D5 20. Sternal shield with three
pairs of setae, the posterior pair not set on small posteriorly directed
arms; genital shield 73 wide; ventrianal shield 105 long, 95 wide with three
pairs of preanal setae and a pair of large pores and bordered by four
pairs of interscutal setae including VL1 which is 45 long; two pairs of
metapodal .shields. Fixed digit with pilus dentilis and with eight teeth
of rather uniform size and evenly spaced between terminal hook and base
of digit; movable digit with three small teeth. Genua I-IV each with
a macroseta 18, 18, 26, and 44 long respectively; tibia IV and metatarsus
IV each with a macroseta 27 and 48-60 long respectively, the macrosetae
of leg IV very slightly enlarged at the tips.


Vol. 42, No. 3













De Leon: Typhlodromus from Mexico


MALE: Resembles female. Dorsal shield 261 long, 185 wide; ventri-
anal shield with three pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores. Sper-
matophore bearer L-shaped, the foot 17 long, the shank 15 long.
Holotype: Male, about six miles northeast of San Blas, Nay., March
28, 1957 (D. De Leon), from Sabal rosei. Paratypes: Three females, same
data as for holotype; three females, two males from Casearia spp., other
data as for holotype. Other specimens were collected from Tabebuia, Citrus,
and Rhizophorus at San Bias.

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) confertus, n. sp.
(Figures 22-25)
The female of T. confertus closely resembles the female of T. sabali.
The imbrications on the dorsal shield of the former are smaller and more
pronounced, the ventrianal shield is a little longer in proportion to its
width and it differs in several other apparently minor characters, but the
ventrianal shield of the male of confertus bears four pairs of preanal setae
and the foot of the spermatophore bearer is slightly shorter than the shank,
whereas with sabali the ventrianal shield of the male bears three pairs of
preanal setae and the foot of the spermatophore bearer is slightly longer
than the shank.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 328 long, 205 wide with rather small pro-
nounced imbrications and with nine lateral, two median, and six dorsal
pairs of setae. The lengths of most of these setae follow: L1 27, L2 20,
L3 19, L4 24-36, L6 22-29, L9 78; M2 47; D1 22, D4 13-17, D5 20. Sternal
shield with three pairs of setae; genital shield 76 wide; ventrianal shield
110 long, 94 wide with three pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores
and bordered by four pairs of interscutal setae including VL1 which is
46 long; two pairs of metapodal shields, the primary one 22 long and
about 6 wide. Fixed digit with eight teeth proximal of the line of crossing
of the movable digit and with a large tooth near base of terminal hook;
movable digit with two to three teeth. Legs with rather short stout setae;
genua I-IV each with a macroseta 19, 18, 18, and 35 long respectively; tibia
IV and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta 12-18 and 50-60 long re-
spectively, the tips very slightly enlarged.
MALE: Resembles female; dorsal shield 267 long, 175 wide; ventrianal
shield with four pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores. Spermatophore
bearer L-shaped, the foot about 14 long, the shaft about 17 long.
Holotype: Male, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Ch., January 15, 1957 (D. De Leon),
from Coccolobis sp. Paratypes: Two females, same data as for holotype;
two females, A. M. Terrazas, S.L.P., December 21, 1956, from Hamelia
patens; six females, Veracruz, Ver., December and January from Verbesina
olivacea, Heliocarpus tomentosa, Eupatorium odoratum, and Coccolobis sp.
Additional specimens were collected at Cordoba, Ver., February, from
orange; at Tuxtla Gutierrez, Ch., January, from Eupatorium hemiptero-
podum and from many other plants in the above listed places.
Paratypes of the above new species will be deposited in the University
of Florida Collections, Gainesville; the holotypes have been retained in
the author's collection.














The Florida Entomologist


KEY TO SPECIES OF SUBGENUS TYPHLODROMOPSIS IN MEXICO

1. Ventrianal shield roughly rectangular with anterior margin convex,
constricted at sides and usually widest at a point about in line with
base of anus ..................... .--------------------- .....--........ ...--- .... 2
Ventrianal shield roughly pentagonal or triangular with anterior margin
nearly straight, not or scarcely constricted at sides and usually
widest at a point about in line with second pair of preanals ........ 5

2. Anterior and posterior preanals crowded toward each other, bases of
anterior pair removed from anterior margin of shield .................... 3
Anterior and posterior preanals normally arranged, bases of anterior
pair touching or nearly touching anterior margin of shield ......--- 4

3. L1 to L4 about as long as distances between their bases; macrosetae
with tips sharp .................................... .---------.... fiinlandicus (Oud.)
L1 to L4 much shorter than distances between their bases; macrosetae
with tips strongly expanded ........---------...........................---mesembrinus Dean

4. L8 minute or nearly so, very much shorter than M2 and usually dis-
tinctly shorter than L7; genua I-IV each with a macroseta ..........
......... ........ ................. ............ ............ ..... peregrinus M um a
L8 not minute, longer than M2 or L7; genua I-III without macrosetae
.............................. .... -..............-....-- ... ............... planetarius, n. sp.

5. L2 and L3 as long as or longer than distance to seta behind ............
................................. .......------- ................. ...... quercicolus, n. sp.
L2 and L3 shorter than distance to seta behind .............................------- 6

6. Macrosetae of leg IV strongly expanded at tips; male with sperma-
tophore bearer rather evenly curved ............................ fordycei, n. sp.
Macrosetae of leg IV sharp or only slightly expanded at tips ............ 7

7. The pair of pores of ventrianal shield behind and close to bases of third
(posterior) pair of preanals .............................. simplicissimus, n. sp.
The pair of pores of ventrianal shield between or posteromedial of bases
of third pair of preanals ................------------- ---.......--------- 8

8. L1 distinctly shorter than distance to L2; pores of ventrianal shield
posteromedial of bases of third pair of setae; male with foot of
spermatophore bearer distinctly longer than shank; a large species
--....----..-.....------------...... ---. .--------------.. cucumeroides, n. sp.
L1 about as long as or longer than distance to L2; pores of ventrianal
shield in line with or very nearly in line with bases of third pair
of preanals; male with foot of spermatophore bearer about as long as
shank; smaller species ..............----........------------------.......... 9

9. Ventrianal shield of male with three pairs of preanal setae -............
...................... ....................................................................... sabali, n sp.
Ventrianal shield of male with four pairs of preanals ..- confertus, n. sp.


Vol. 42, No. 3


120













De Leon: Typhlodromus from Mexico


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank the following botanists for the identification of plants;
Mr. Miguel Angel Palacios Rinc6n, Instituto de Historia Natural de
Chiapas, for those in the region round Tuxtla Gutierrez; Dr. Rogers
McVaugh, University of Michigan, for those of Jalisco and Nayarit, and
Dr. Faustino Miranda, Instituto de Biologia, Casa del Lago, Mexico, D. F.,
for those from other parts of Mexico.

LITERATURE CITED

Chant, D. A. 1957a. Descriptions of some phytoseiide mites (Acarina:
Phytoseiidae). Part I. Nine new species from British Columbia
with keys to the species of British Columbia. Part II. Redescrip-
tions of eight species described by Berlese. Canad. Ent. 89 (7):
289-308.
Chant, D. A. 1957b. Note on the status of some genera in the family
Phytoseiidae (Acarina). Canad. Ent. 89 (11): 528-532.
Chant, D. A. 1958. Immature and adult stages of some British Phyto-
seiidae Berl., 1916 (Acarina). Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.), Jour. 43
(294): 599-643.
Dean, H. A. 1957. Predators of Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), Tetrany-
chidae. Ent. Soc. Amer., Annals. 50: 164-165.
Evans, G. 0. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Aca-
rina) with keys to the families and genera. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.),
Jour. 43 (291): 203-259.
Garman, P. 1948. Mite species from apple trees in Connecticut. Conn.
Agr. Exp. Sta., Bul. 520, 27 p.
Muma, M. H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in
Florida. Ent. Soc. Amer., Annals. 48: 262-272.
Nesbitt, H. H. J. 1951. A taxonomic study of the Phytoseiinae (family
Laelaptidae) predaceous upon Tetranychidae of economic importance.
Zool. Verhand. 12, 64 p., 32 pl. Leiden.
Oudemans, A. C. 1915. Acarologische Aanteekeningen LVI. Ent. Bericht.
4 (83): 180-188.


















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THE GENUS TYPHLODROMUS IN MEXICO
(ACARINA: PHYTOSEIIDAE)

DONALD DE LEON
Erwin, Tennessee

The genus Typhlodromus as here considered comprises only those mites
restricted by Chant (1957) to the subgenus Typhlodromus. These are
typhlodromids with more than four pairs of anterior lateral setae. Four
new species are described and collection records are given for seven other
species. I can find no record of any member of this group having pre-
viously been collected in Mexico. These mites were associated usually
with colonies of plant feeding mites on leaves or on twigs of the infested
plant. Predatorism was observed but once when a nymph, probably T.
cornus, was seen to feed on an egg of Tenuipalpus baker on Arbutus
glandulosa.
In the descriptions of new species all measurements are in microns and
are averages unless the variation from the average is more than ten per
cent, in that case the range is given. In this, as in previous papers on
the family (De Leon, 1957, 1958), the names suggested by Garman (1948)
for distinguishing the setae of the dorsal shield are used.
The females of two species, T. cornus and T. ellipticus, vary in the
number of lateral setae-sorie specimens have 8, some 9 on a side. The
dorsal shield of these two species at S2 on occasion cuts in around this
pair of setae on either one or on both sides; the other times it comes down
straight on both sides placing the pair on the shield on both sides. In
the key to species at the end of this paper these two species consequently
are keyed out twice-once under mites with eight lateral setae and once
under mites with nine lateral setae.

Typhlodromus ellipticus De Leon (1958)
T. ellipticus, known previously only from southern Florida, occurs
rather commonly around Veracruz, Ver. In that area it was taken in
December 1956 and January 1957 from nine different plants including
coconut, Achras zapota, and Ixora. Other collection records follow: Cor-
doba, Ver., February 1957, from Burscra simaruba; Tuxtla Gutierrez,
Chiapas, January 1957, from several hosts; San Cristobal, Chiapas, Jan-
uary 1957, from Alnus sp. and Matias Romero, Oax., January 1957, from
Annona sp.
The pectinations of the dorsal setae are not distinct in some specimens.

Typhlodromus alveolaris De Leon (1957)
This very distinctive mite was described from a single specimen taken
on Cassia sp. growing on the grounds of the U. S. Plant Introduction Gar-
den near Coral Gables, Fla. In Mexico three specimens were collected
March 3, 1957, at Rinconado, Ver., from Piscidia piscipula.












The Florida Entomologist


T

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2 r

2


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y
7/










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All figures are of females. Upper
ing, ventrianal shield.


drawing, dorsal shield; lower draw-


Figure 1. Typhlodromus adjacentis, n. sp.; Figure 2. T. carinulatus,
n. sp.; Figure 3. T. luculentis, n. sp.; Figure 4. T. juniper, n. sp.

Typhlodromus adjacentis, n. sp.
(Figure 1)
T. adjacentis belongs to the species group with eight lateral setae. It
is readily distinguished from the other species in this group by the very
short setae of the dorsal shield, the expanded and strongly pectinate mar-
gins of M2 and L8, and the nearly pentagonal ventrianal shield.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield reticulate, 304 long, 182 wide with 16 pairs
of setae on the dorsal shield as follows: eight laterals, six dorsals, two
medians. All setae of dorsal shield short; except for L8 longest lateral
seta (L6) is 16 long; L8 50 long, elliptic, somewhat flattened, strongly
pectinate; M2 similar to L8, 28 long. Sternal shield indistinct; ventrianal
shield 109 long, 84 wide, of shape shown in the figure and with four pairs of
preanal setae and a pair of pores; three pairs of interscutal setae, includ-


124


Vol. 42, No. 3













De Leon: The Genus Typhlodromus in Mexico


ing VL1, bordering ventrianal shield; VL1 smooth, 17 long; two pairs
of metapodal shields, the primary one in two specimens rather wedge-
shaped and two specimens bear what appears to be a faint, small, oval
tertiary shield just mediolateral of primary shield. Leg IV with macroseta
18 long.
MALE: Resembles female. Dorsal shield 235 long, 155 wide; ventri-
anal shield with four pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores.
Holotype: Female, Aticama, Nay., April 8, 1957 (D. De Leon) from
Randia sp. Paratypes: Two females, same data as for holotyne; two
females, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 26 and 27, 1957, from Telauma
mexicana and Sapindus saponaria; one male, Aticama, Nay., April 13,
1957, from coffee.

Typhlodromus cornus De Leon (1957)
One of the most common typhlodromids collected in Mexico was T.
cornus. Records of representative collections follow: Near San Cristobal,
Chiapas, January, from Trixis sp., Persea schideana, Archibaccharis
nucrenata and Arbutus glandulosa; Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January,
from Sida acuta, Quercus sp., Ceiba acuminata, and other plants; near
P. de Vacas, Oax., from Byrsonima crassifolia; Huito, Oax., from Quercus
sp.; Tzintzuntzan and Chuparcuero, Mich., March from Verbesina sp., and
an unknown host; Guadalajara, Jal., March, from avocado and pome-
granate; Tepic, Nay., March, from Quercus, Pisonia and other plants.
The Mexican specimens on the whole are larger than Florida specimens
and specimens with S2 on the shield (thus giving a count of nine lateral
setae) are more common than specimens with S2 in its normal position.
.Of 53 specimens, 34 per cent have eight pairs of lateral setae, 61 per cent
have nine pairs of lateral setae, and 5 per cent have eight lateral setae
on one side and nine lateral setae on the opposite side. Specimens with
eight or with nine pairs of lateral setae were not restricted to any one
place, except possibly Tuxtla Gutierrez where the only specimens collected
had eight pairs of lateral setae.

Typhlodromus conspicuous (Garman) (1948)
Records of representative collections of this distinctive species follow:
Mante, Tams., December, from Sapindus saponaria; Veracruz, Ver.,
December and January, from Lime, Pithecolobium, Malvaviscus, and other
plants; Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas and neighboring region, January, from
Trixis sp., Zanthoxylum sp., Alnus arguta; Oaxaca, Oax., February, from
Quercus sp.; Tepic, Nay., March, from Verbesina sp., Baccharis trinerva,
and Sapium sp.; San Blas, Nay., March, from Cedrela sp., Ardisia revoluta,
and Casearia sp.

Typhlodromus floridanus Muma (1955)

T. floridanus was collected as follows: Veracruz, Ver., January, from
Bumelia sp.; Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January, from Lippia hypoleia
and from an unknown plant; Tehuantepec, Cax., January, from Cocos
nucifera and from Citrus sp.


125














The Florida Entomologist


Typhlodromus annectens De Leon (1958)
Collection records for this species follow: Mante, Tams., December,
from Croton cortesianus, Veracruz, Ver., December and January, from
Guazuma tomentosa, Psidium sp., and cherimoya; San Cristobal, Chiapas,
January, from Alnus arguta; Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January, from
Morus alba and Sapindus saponaria; Acuitzingo, Ver., February, from
Eupatorium petiolare; San Blas, Nay., May, from Helicteres guazumae-
folia; Ciudad del Maiz, S.L.P., June, from Cedrela sp.

Typhlodromus carinulatus, n. sp.
(Figure 2)
T. carinulatus belongs to the species group with nine lateral setae and
M2 unpaired with any other seta. It is readily distinguished from other
members of this group in having nearly all the lateral setae pectinate and
shorter than the distance to the next seta behind, short smooth dorsal
setae, and ventrianal shield with a constriction well towards the anterior
end and with a pair of pores.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 281 long, 172 wide, imbricate-areolate, with a
series of more or less coalesced areolae extending down the middle and
giving the shield a slightly ridged appearance; seventeen pairs of setae
on the dorsal shield, the nine pairs of laterals, except L2, all somewhat
to distinctly shorter than distance to seta behind and all pectinate except
L8; L1 16, L4 21, L6 23 and L9 37 long; the six pairs of dorsals short,
smooth; M1 short, smooth, M2 38 long, expanded, flattened, and strongly
pectinate at edges. Sternal shield indistinct; ventrianal shield constricted
anteriorly, with four pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores and bor-
dered by two pairs of interscutal setae including VL1; two pairs of meta-
podal shields, the primary one lenticular in shape, 21 long, 5 wide. Leg
IV without macrosetae.
Holotype: Female, La Tinaja, Ver., February 5, 1957 (D. De Leon),
from Pithecolobium lanceolatum.

Typhlodromus luculentis, n. sp.
(Figure 3)
T. luculentis belongs to the species group with nine lateral setae, M2
unpaired with any other seta and the ventrianal shield without a pair of
pores. The strongly pectinate lateral setae all of about the same length
distinguish this species from other members of this group.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 316 long, 172 wide, strongly imbricate anterior
of setae M2 and with 17 pairs of setae as follows: Nine laterals all
strongly pectinate, six dorsals only D1 pectinate, and two medians. The
lengths of most of these setae follow: L1 31, L2 31, L3 29, L4 33, L5 36,
L6 35, L7 36, L8 34, L9 39; D1 31, D5 18; M1 18, M2 39; VL1 34 (faintly
pectinate). Sternal shield with two pairs of setae; ventrianal shield with
four pairs of preanals, no pores, and bordered by three pairs of interscutal
setae including VL1; two pairs of metapodal shields, the primary one
oval, 19 long, 5 wide. Leg IV without macroseta.


126


Vol. 42, No. 3













De Leon: The Genus Typhlodromus in Mexico


MALE: Resembles female. Dorsal shield 255 long, 159 wide; ventri-
anal shield with four pairs of preanal setae and no pores.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 11, 1957 (D.
De Leon), from Guazuma tomentosa. Paratypes: One male, same data
as for holotype; one male, January 15, 1957, from Cecropia peltata, other
data as for holotype.

Typhlodromus pacificus McGregor (1956)

T. pacificus was collected in the following localities: Reynosa, Tams.,
December, from Croton torreyana and Melochia tomentosa; P. de Vacas,
Oax., January, from Byrsonima crassifolia; Arenal, Jal., March, from
Lagascea sp.; Encinal, S.L.P., June, from Quercus sp.

Typhlodromus juniperi, n. sp.
(Figure 4)
T. juniperi belongs to the species group with nine pairs of lateral setae,
M2 unpaired with any other seta and the ventrianal shield without a pair
of pores. It differs from other members of this group by having L2 and
L3 short and M2 reaching less than halfway to L9.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield reticulate 334 long, 181 wide with seventeen
pairs of setae of the following lengths: L1 16-20, L2 13-20, L3 15-18,
L4 13-20, L5 19, L6 18-24, L7 20, L8 11-18, L9 30; D1 17, D2 12, D3 11,
D4 11-15, D5 11-18, D6 10; M1 11-15, M2 20; VL1 22. Sternal shield with
two pairs of setae; ventrianal shield 98 long, 58 wide with four pairs of
preanal setae and no pores and bordered by two pairs (one specimen has
three pairs) of interscutal setae including VL1; two pairs of metapodal
shields, the primary one 24 to 39 long and about 6 wide, the secondary
one narrowly oval and about 10 long. Leg IV with a slender macroseta.
MALE: Resembles female. Dorsal shield 259 long, 165 wide; ventri-
anal shield with four pairs of preanals and no pores. Foot and shank of
spermatophore bearer about equal in length and at about right angles to
each other.
Holotype: Female, Reynosa, Tams., December 18, 1956 (D. De Leon),
from Croton torreyana. Paratypes: One male, two females, Huito, Oax.,
February 1, 1957, from Juniperus sp.; one female, Carmen, Puebla, March
4, 1957, from Juniperus sp.
Paratypes of the above new species will be deposited in the University
of Florida Collections, Gainesville.

KEY TO SPECIES (FEMALES) WITH MORE THAN FOUR PAIRS OF ANTERIOR
LATERAL SETAE

1. Dorsal shield with 8 pairs of lateral setae .......------....... .....---..--- 2
Dorsal shield with 9 pairs of lateral setae ....--...-..-... -- ...- .......... 6
2. Most lateral setae coarse, narrow-elliptic, or pectinate or a combination
of these characters ....................----..--------------------- 3
Most lateral setae slender, simple, and tapering gradually to a point 4


127













The Florida Entomologist


3. Anterolateral area of dorsal shield alveolate, lateral setae very coarse
..-.... --...-..............--------.---------....... .----.--.------.. .. alveolaris DeL.
Anterolateral area of dorsal shield imbricate, or rather smooth; lateral
setae narrow-elliptic and usually distinctly pectinate ....................
--...-...-...........--.---... --------.-....--------..--- ----- .. ellipticus DeL.

4. Bases of L2 and L3 about their own diameter apart; L1 to L5 (except
L2) reaching less than halfway to seta behind .... adjacentis, n. sp.
Bases of L2 and L3 well separated from each other; L1 to L5 reaching
more than halfway to base of seta behind ...................................... 5

5. L7 over one-half as long as L8; leg IV without macrosetae; body
brownish .....------...............-...........---.....--- .... conspicuous (Garman)
L7 less than half as long as L8; leg IV with macroseta; body light
tan or whitish ...............--......---.--------.---- cornus DeL.

6. D2 to D5 very long, reaching to, or well beyond base of seta behind;
leg IV without macroseta ........-------------........... ---.. .....------------- 7
D2 to D5 short, reaching about to or falling well short of seta behind;
leg IV with or without macroseta .............------- ................. 8

7. Peritreme reaching forward to beyond middle of coxa I; most setae of
dorsal shield smooth; male with triangular scoop-shaped apophysis
on femur II; larger species, female with dorsal shield 340-400 long
.-....-..---------.. ... ....--.............--------.... floridanus Muma
Peritreme not reaching forward to beyond middle of coxa I, usually
only as far as middle of coxa II; most setae of dorsal shield pecti-
nate; male without apophysis on femur II; smaller species, female
with dorsal shield 240-290 long .................................. annectens DeL.

8. Ventrianal shield with a pair of pores ........................... ................. 9
Ventrianal shield without pores ....................................................... .. 11

9. Most lateral setae smooth, simple, and tapering gradually to a point;
ventrianal shield distinctly "waist-shaped" -...........--.. cornus DeL.
Most lateral setae pectinate, narrow-elliptic, or narrow elliptic and
pectinate; ventrianal shield scarcely "waist-shaped" or not at all.. 10

10. Bases of L2 and L3 close together; D2 to D5 tapering, slender, simple
...-....... .......-..-........................ ..... carinulatus, n. sp.
Bases of L2 and L3 well removed from each other; D2 to D5 narrow-
elliptic and usually pectinate .......----................................. ellipticus DeL.

11. Most lateral setae pectinate ................................-........... luculentis, n. sp.
Only seta L9 of lateral series may be pectinate .................................... 12

12. M2 reaching much more than halfway to base of L9; L4, L5, and L6
reaching to or nearly to base of seta behind ............ pacificus McG.
M2 reaching distinctly less than halfway to base of L9; L4, L5, and L6
reaching about halfway or less to base of seta behind juniperi, n. sp.


Vol. 42, No. 3













De Leon: The Genus Typhlodromus in Mexico


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to thank Dr. Rogers McVaugh of the University of Michigan
for identifying plants collected in Jalisco, Nayarit, and Michoacan; Mr.
Miguel Angel Palacios Rinc6n of the Instituto de Historia Natural de
Chiapas for identifying plants collected in the vicinity of Tuxtla Gutierrez;
and Dr. Faustino Miranda of the Instituto de Biologia, Mexico, D. F., for
identifying plants collected in the other states.

LITERATURE CITED
Chant, D. A. 1957. Descriptions of some phytoseiide mites (Acarina:
Phytoseiidae). Part I. Nine new species from British Columbia with

keys to species of British Columbia. Part II. Redescriptions of eight
species described by Berlese. Canad. Ent. 89 (7): 289-308.
De Leon, D. 1957. Three new species of Typhlodromus from southern
Florida (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Ent. 40 (4): 141-144.
1958. Four new species of Typhlodromus from southern Florida (Aca-
rina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Ent. 41 (2): 73-76.
Garman, P. 1948. Mite species from apple trees in Connecticut. Conn.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 520. 27 p.
McGregor, E. A. 1956. The mites of citrus trees in southern California.
Southern Calif. Acad. Sc. Mem. 3 (3): 1-42.
Muma, M. H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in
Florida. Ent. Soc. Amer., Annals. 48: 262-272.


129
















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A UNIQUE NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF PINE-
CONE-FEEDING LASPEYRESIA RELATED TO L. INGENS
HEINRICH (LEPIDOPTERA, OLETHREUTIDAE)

WILLIAM E. MILLER'
Lake States Forest Experiment Station
Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture

In their investigations of pine cone and seed insects, U. S. Forest Service
entomologists at the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station have reared
a species of Laspeyresia which is undescribed. The orange-like coloration
of the moth distinguishes this species immediately from all other known
members of the genus; no other described species of Laspeyresia approaches
such a hue. Laspeyresia ingens, which is a superficially gray moth, appears
to be the nearest relative. The new species is described below and given
the specific name anaranjada, the Spanish adjective meaning orange.










'-V






Figure 1. Adult of Laspeyresia anaranjada from Sarasota Co., Florida.
Figure 2. Adult of L. ingens from Dare Co., North Carolina.

Laspeyresia anaranjada, new species
Wingspan 16.0 mm.
Labial palpus, head, and collar beige; antenna slightly lighter beige.
Patagium and upper side of thorax beige, faintly tinged with rust. Under-
side of thorax pearl-white.
Forewing light rust with four more or less equally spaced, mostly pearl-
white crossbands, the apical one being situated just inside termen. Be-
tween the apical and the next crossband are two partial crossbands which
extend back from the leading edge of the wing 1/7 of its width in that area.
The second crossband inward from the apex has a slight break just costad
of the middle of the wing. Lead-colored scales comprise the apical edges
of much of the second crossband and a little of the third. Two more partial

1Stationed at the East Lansing, Michigan, field unit. The field unit is
maintained in cooperation with Michigan State University.














The Florida Entomologist


crossbands originate on trailing edge between the two middle crossbands
and extend forward Vs the width of the wing in that area. The innermost
crossband not as distinct as the other three. Cilia of fore- and hindwings
pearl, tinged with brown.
Hindwing covered with rust-tipped beige scales. Undersides of wings
beige, slightly darker in the forewing than in the hindwing.
Legs pearl-white except for outer sides of tarsal segments which are
beige with white apical bands. Abdomen pearl-white.










4 -6











Figure 3. Valva of Laspeyresia anaranjada.
Figure 4. Aedeagus of L. anaranjada.
Figure 5. Aedeagus of L. ingens.
Figure 6. Genital plate of L. anaranjada.
Figure 7. Genital plate of L. ingens.

Variations from the above description of the holotype female were
found among the four paratypes as follows: The labial palpus, head, antenna,
and collar may be much lighter in color, approaching pure white. The
second crossband inward from the wingtip may be broken more than once
and hence consist of several segments (Figure 1). Also, the forewing may
have a half dozen or so small patches of silvery white scales of the same
kind as comprise the crossbands. Finally, tarsal segments may be brown
with white bands rather than beige with white bands.
The species is described from the female type (U. S. National Museum
Catalog Number 64675) which has label data as follows: "Cordele, Ga.
5/21/50, Pinus palustris cones, C. F. Speers Collector, 9 genitalia slide
2.VI.58 W. E. Miller." The town of Cordele is in Crisp County.
Four specimens with label data as follows are designated paratypes:
(1) "Cordele, Ga. 5/22/50, C. F. Speers Collector, Pinus palustris cones,
Genitalia on slide 19.IX.1950 J.F.G.C. 9737"; (2) same label data except
5/20/50; (3) same label data except 5/17/50; and (4) "Archbold Biol. Sta.


132


Vol. 42, No. 3













Miller: Pinecone-Feeding Laspeyresia


Highlands Co., Fla., VI:12-19:55; at light, Coll. by A. K. Wyatt, 14056,
& genitalia slide 6.XI.58 W. E. Miller."
Also seen were seven other specimens from Cordele, Georgia, and Siesta
Key (Sarasota County), Florida. All material is in the U. S. National
Museum. A better characterization of the species would probably have
resulted from the same number of specimens in better condition than the
available ones.


Figure 8. Known distribution of Laspeyresia
anaranjada. Solid points are records based on speci-
mens seen; other points are records based on speci-
mens in the collection of the Southeastern Forest
Experiment Station (E. P. Merkel, in correrpond-
ence).

The wingspans of 2 Laspeyresia anaranjada males were 14.0 and 15.0
mm., and those of 7 females averaged 15.9, ranging from 15.0 to 17.0 mm.
Genitalia of three males from Siesta Key, Cordele, and Archbold Bio-
logical Station and of three females from Cordele and Siesta Key were
studied. The male valva and aedeagus are shown in Figures 3 and 4
and the female genital plate in Figure 6. These structures appeared to
be the genitalic ones with the greatest diagnostic value.
Laspeyresia anaranjada differs in many ways from L. ingens (Figure
2), but the most striking is coloration. Another difference lies in the shape
of the valvae. The middle lobelike process seen in the valva of L. anaran-
jada may be either completely lacking or much reduced in L. ingens. There
are different numbers of cornuti, ranging from 3 to 4 in L. anaranjada













134 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 42, No. 3

compared with 8 to 11 in L. ingens (Figure 5); different numbers of apical
spines on the aedeagus, there being 12 to 14 in L. anaranjada compared
with about 30 in L. ingens; and a difference in the shape of the genital
plate (Figures 6 and 7) (genitalia of one L. ingens female (paratype) seen
from St. Petersburg, Pinellas County, Florida, and four L. ingens males
from Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, North Carolina, and St. Petersburg,
Florida). Female genitalia of L. ingens have been illustrated by Heinrich.2
Laspeyresia anaranjada moths have emerged from about mid-March
till mid-May, and they have been reared from larvae infesting mature
cones of slash pine, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelmann (E. P. Merkel,
in correspondence) and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Miller.
The known geographic distribution of Laspeyresia anaranjada is south-
ern Georgia and Florida (Figure 8). It probably has a wider distribution,
however, since the hosts which it is known to attack occur over a much
larger area.

2Heinrich, C. 1926. Revision of the North American moths of the
subfamilies Laspeyresiinae and Olethreutinae. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bul.
132: 1-216.












- -






I 2















NARCEUS WOODRUFFI, NEW SPECIES, A FLORIDA
MILLIPED (SPIROBOLIDA: SPIROBOLIDAE)

NELL B. CAUSEY
Fayetteville, Arkansas

Florida, with representatives of three genera of spirobolid millipeds,
is the most important center of speciation of this order east of the Rocky
Mountains (Causey, 1955). There are no records from more than half
of the counties, but with careful collecting, all should yield one or more
species. In Alachua County, for example, four species have been collected.
The most restricted spirobolid genus in Florida is the monotypic
Floridobolus (Causey, 1957; Keeton, 1959), which is known from only one
locality in Highlands County. Four forms of the genus Chicobolus occur
from Key West north into the panhandle and on through Georgia and into
South Carolina. The complex genus Narceus occurs from Key West north
into the New England States and west as far as 97 longitude; in Florida,
where it has attained its greatest diversity, some forms have overlapping
ranges.


















1 > 2

Narceus woodruffi, new species, male holotype. Fig. 1. Last two body
segments, dorsal view. Fig. 2. First two segments of the right legs of
the third, fourth, and fifth pairs, cephalic view.

The male gonopods are so uniform throughout the genus Narceus they
are of little value for making specific determinations. The taxonomy is
based chiefly upon the shape of the coxal lobes of the legs anterior to the
gonopods; also the following somatic characters have varying and unequal
value: size, ratio of body thickness to length, color, shape of the collum,
height of the mesial margin of the anal valves, and the size and distribution
of the microscopic puncta on the exoskeleton.













The Florida Entomologist


Narceus woodruffi is the smallest, darkest, and has the most restricted
range of any species of the genus. It is named for Mr. Robert E. Woodruff,
who collected the holotype.

Narceus woodruffi, n. sp.
Figures 1 and 2
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from all other species of the genus by the
rectangular, elongated, and subequal coxal lobes of legpairs 3, 4, and 5
of the male, and by the dark black-brown color, the small and relatively
thin body, and the low mesial margins of the anal valves.
TYPE LOCALITY: 4.2 miles south of Hawthorn, Putnam County, Florida.
"The habitat," wrote Mr. Woodruff, "is known locally as high pine-turkey
oak and contains an unusual association of plants and animals. The
milliped was dug from beneath a pile of cow dung."
RANGE: Known only from Putnam and Alachua Counties, Florida.
DEPOSITION OF TYPE MATERIAL: Male holotype, American Museum of
Natural History; female paratypes, Florida State Plant Board, Gainesville,
Florida, and the author's collection.
DESCRIPTION OF MALE HOLOTYPE: Greatest body width 4 mm., length
about 50 mm., 49 segments, the last one legless. Body color in alcohol
black-brown, the hindbelts slightly darker than the midbelts on some seg-
ments, legs and antennae dark red. Body surface shining, coarsely punctate,
the puncta most numerous in and on each side of the segmental furrows.
Setigerous labral foveolae 4 + 5. Ocelli black, flat, closely arranged in
five series in a subtriangular area. Mandibular cheek with the usual
shallow antennal furrow, which is not at all covered by the collum; an'erio-
ventral margin of mandibular cheek with the usual small, acute lobe.
Antennae long enough to reach back about halfway between the anterior
and the posterior margins of the collum. Anterior margin of collum very
slightly concave at the level of the mandibular cheek and with the usual
narrow margin. Lateral lobes of second segment extend well be'ow the
collum and are acutely triangular. Segmental furrows continue fai-tly
across the dorsum of all except the last three or four segments, where they
are absent. Caudal tergite triangular, the apex thin and flat and narrowly
rounded; ratio of length of caudal tergite to length of anal valves, as
viewed from above, about 5/1. Mesial margin of anal valves (Figure 1)
not raised. Anal scale with both margins rounded, the ratio of the width
to the length about 4.5/1.
Coxal lobes of legpairs 3, 4, and 5 are similarly and conspicuously
elongated and different from any others in the genus in that all three
pairs are broad, subrectangular, and flattened (Figure 2); the coxal lobes
of legpair 5 are a little shorter, broader, thinner, and the mesial angle
is a little less rounded than the others. The ratio of the length of the
coxal lobes of legpairs 3, 4, and 5 to the length of the second segments
of those legs is, respectively 5/3, 5/3, and 4/3. Coxae of legpairs 6 and 7
are not elongated.
Anterior gonopods with the medio-ventral projection of the sternum
rounded at the apex, about as long as broad, and relatively small; coxal
endite lobes broadly and evenly rounded along the ventral margin. Pos-


Vol. 42, No. 3


136













Causey: New Species, a Florida Milliped


terior gonopods with the apex of the distal joint rectangular as in Narceus
keysi Loomis.
FEMALE PARATYPES: Somatic characters are almost as in the male,
except that the body surface is duller, the puncta on the body surface
are more scattered, and there is a horizontal depression across the anal
tergite. One female specimen, apparently mature, has a body width of
4.7 mm. and 46 segments, the last one legless. The other female, which
lacks at least one molt of maturity, has a body width of 3.5 mm. and 49
body segments, the last one legless.
RECORDS: Florida: Alachua Co.: Exact site unknown, 2 9, June 16-19,
1949, collected by "Oliver" at "Trap 4", collection of the Florida State
Plant Board. Putnam Co.: Hawthorn, 1 $, Jan. 17, 1959, R. E. Woodruff,
collection of the Florida State Plant Board.

LITERATURE CITED
Causey, Nell B. 1955. Spirobolidae (Spirobolida: Diplopoda) east of the
Rocky Mountains. Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc., 28: 69-80, figs. 1-5.
Causey, Nell B. 1957. Floridobolus, a new milliped genus (Spirobolidae).
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 70:205-208, 3 figs.
Keeton, William T. 1959. A new family for the diplopod genus Florido-
bolus (Spirobolida, Spirobolidea). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., 54(1):
1-7, 2 pls.


137













The Florida Entomologist


Book Review

MITES, OR THE ACARI, by T. E. Hughes. vii + 225 pp. Athlone Press,
London (distr. by Essential Books, Fair Lawn, N. J.). 1959. Price
$6.75.
Either directly or indirectly American Acarologists, like the Ento-
mologists before them, give the impression that the need for purely descrip-
tive and economic work makes studies of comparative zoology a luxury
we can do without. But in the last 75 years a great deal of very important
information on life histories, behavior, structure, and physiology of mites
has been accumulated, especially in Europe. H. Graf Vitzthum reviewed
some of the literature but a small war-time printing made his volume an
exhorbitantly priced rarety. With the publication of Mites, or the Acari
we have a survey of this literature that is abundantly illustrated with
freshly executed drawings. (Both the legends and the labels of the plates
are very poorly planned and difficult to use.)
The early chapters discuss life cycles, behavior, and feeding habits
and are followed by a detailed survey of anatomy (both internal and ex-
ternal) and development. Happily, function is discussed in these sections
and anatomy is shown to involve more than a superficial survey of exo-
skeletal geography.
Hughes' terse, factual treatment is so arranged as to enable one to
easily search out information as it is needed and the sources are generally
cited. Much of the data on mite biology and structure is so widely scattered
and unorganized that assembling information is a formidable task. A
book of these modest proportions could not cover the field in great detail
and probably many specialists will find lapses and omissions that appear
serious (e.g. hardly any of the excellent works on water-mite biology and
structure are mentioned and what is given is deficient). Any sins of
omission are outweighed by the demonstration of the kind of information
that will lead to an understanding of mites as functioning organisms. Not
only is this understanding important in itself but it will give depth to
one's understanding of systematics through a genuine appreciation of
adaptations and the evolution producing them.
The perceptive biologist will find much in this volume that is interest-
ing and worthy of thought. Entomologists and Acarologists will find it a
useful reference and, perhaps, a refreshing stimulus to further work on
the comparative zoology of mites.-Rodger Mitchell.


138


Vol. 42, No. 3




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