Volume 43, No. 1 March, 1960
Peterson, Alvah-Photographing Eggs of Insects ................... 1
Walker, T. J., and Ashley B. Gurney-A New Species of
Oecanthus from the West Indies (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) 9
Burden, G. S., and J. L. Eastin-Field Tests of Dusts and
Sprays Against German Cockroaches................ ............- 15
Wilson, H. G., and G. C. LaBrecque-Tests with Larvicides
for the Control of House Flies in Poultry Houses ............. 19
Beer, Robert E.-A New Species of Xenotarsonemus from
F lorida -----------------------------......................... ............. .... ....... 23
Griffiths, J. T.-Field Experience on Some New Miticides
During the Past Twelve Months on Citrus in Florida .... 29
Du Chanois, F. Robert-Some Notes on the Recently Enacted
Florida Structural Pest Control Act of 1959.................... 37
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
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PHOTOGRAPHING EGGS OF INSECTS1
Eggs of insects are excellent subjects for unique and beautiful colored
transparencies or photographs. To obtain satisfactory results, one should
have access to a camera that will take photographs through a microscope,
or possess comparable equipment which will magnify small objects 3 to
25 times or more.
The major problem in photographing a wide variety of eggs is the avail-
ableness of subject matter. To obtain eggs one may visit the natural habi-
tats of various insects and collect those that may be present, or one may
capture living females and confine them in containers where some or many
may deposit eggs.
COLLECTING EGGS.-If one goes to the field to look for eggs much dili-
gent searching is required. When eggs are found, that portion of the plant
or object bearing eggs should be cut off and placed in a tin salve box or a
similar container where they will not be crushed or dry out before they
are photographed, reared or preserved.
In case one does not know the species of the insect that produced the
eggs, it is well to take careful notes on their location. Also, one should
look for similar eggs that may have hatched. Young larvae or nymphs may
be present on or near the hatched eggs. If these are found they should
be collected and saved for identification. One should also collect any
female insects that may be in the vicinity of the unknown eggs. Under field
conditions, one may see female insects, especially butterflies, depositing
eggs on foliage and flowers. If one will collect these eggs and the female
that deposited them, then one will possess the female for identification.
The author has determined eggs of Pieridae and other Lepidoptera in this
A more certain method of identifying unknown eggs is to rear the in-
sects that hatch from them. Be sure to use host tissue similar to that on
which the eggs were found. Upon hatching, the first instar larva or nymph
can be identified to order and, in many cases, to family. When a larva is
nearly full-grown it is possible to determine many individuals to species.
One may have to rear many nymphs and some larvae to the adult stage for
The identification of immature stages and rearing procedures usually
requires experience, time, equipment and frequently an air conditioned
environment; consequently, collecting insects for egg deposition may be an
easier way to obtain known eggs.
COLLECTING INSECTS FOR EGG DEPOSITION.-A simple and direct way to
obtain known eggs is to capture living gravid females found on plants or
elsewhere in the field, or at blacklightt" lures at night, or at fermenting
baits during the day or at night. Place one or more individuals of a given
species in a container prepared for egg deposition. The author has used
this method with many species of moths and sucking bugs and a few beetles,
flies, mantispids and other insects with considerable success.
1 Contribution No. 1, Entomology Department, State Plant Board of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Figure A.-Single, slightly adhesive, near-black eggs of a thread-legged
bug. Reduviidae Emesaya brevipennis (Say). 20+ X.
Figure B.-Single, nonadhesive, near-black eggs of the two-striped walking
stick. Phasmatidae, Anismorpha buprestoides (Stoll).
Figure C.-A cluster of white io moth eggs, each possessing a dark spot
and light brown bands. Saturniidae, Automeris io (Fab.).
Figure D.-Small portion of a mass of near-white, stalked, mantidfly eggs.
Mantispidae, Mantispa interrupta Say. 20 X.
Figure E.-Single, bright green, nonadhesive eggs of a noctuid showing
Peterson: Photographing Eggs of Insects
After a confined female has deposited many or all of her eggs, she is
killed or permitted to die and then preserved for identification. Usually
unknown moths are killed after the female has deposited some of her eggs,
especially species that do not place all of their eggs in one large cluster.
This early killing usually produces satisfactory specimens for identifica-
tion to species.
Meloid, chrysomelid and other beetles that visit and feed on flowers and
plant parts in the field may produce eggs in confinement, especially if fe-
male beetles with distended abdomens are selected. Place one or more
specimens of a given species in a medium to large sized salve tin possess-
ing paper or plastic, or in a large, glass, cork-stoppered or cloth covered
tube, 1" x 5", containing an inner plastic lining and plant parts, including
flowers. Most of the eggs will be deposited on the paper, plastic lining
or plant parts.
To avoid excessive condensation of moisture within the containers they
should be kept in an environment where the daily temperature does not
vary more than 50 F. This is also true for insects confined in plastic (poly-
ethylene) bags. Confining beetles in plastic bags is unsatisfactory for
many species will chew exit holes in the plastic.
Phytophagous species of Hemiptera, especially Pentatomidae, collected
in spring or early summer are more apt to produce eggs in confinement than
in the fall of the year. In Florida many terrestrial Hemiptera also pro-
duce eggs in the fall.
Females of many phytophagous and predacious terrestrial Hemiptera
can be found on the host plants they infest, especially on growing ter-
minals or flowers and fruits that are present. These may be collected by
hand, in a large vial or with an aerial net. A sweeping net is also a use-
ful tool for picking up inconspicuous sucking bugs on low-growing vege-
tation. Insects captured in the field may be sorted to species and placed
immediately in oviposition containers. The author prefers to collect many
kinds in a sweeping net and then transfer them to a screened, 12" x 12" x
12", transporting container possessing a glass top and a long cloth sleeve
attached to a large opening on one side. Upon returning to the laboratory,
individuals of a given species are chosen and placed in deposition containers.
A pint or quart, glass, mason jar covered with gauze or paper toweling
held in place by a metal screw ring, is a satisfactory oviposition container
provided it possesses some white paper toweling, a piece of plastic and
host plant material inserted in a vial containing water. Many pentatomids
will live and produce eggs if the jar contains green or wax bean pods. The
characteristic vertical and horizontal ridges. Noctuidae. Leu-
cania latiuscula H.-S. 20 X.
Figure F.-A cluster of semi-transparent, flattened, disc-like, adhesive eggs
on plastic showing embryos within. Pyralidae, species unde-
termined. 20 X.
Figure G.-A cluster of rose-colored, adhesive eggs of a pentatomid.
Pentatomidae, Mormidea pectiventris Stal. 20- X.
Figure H.-A cluster of reddish-brown, adhesive, assassin bug eggs, pos-
sessing near-white fringes about their tops. Reduviidae, Api-
omerus crassipes (Fab.). 20- X.
The Florida Entomologist
jars should be examined daily for eggs and fresh food replenished if
Another useful cage for egg production by Hemiptera, especially ter-
restrial species, is a small flexible plastic bag, approximating 2.5" x 4" x
10". Several bugs of a given species, plus one or two small pieces of white
paper toweling and plant parts, are placed in an inflated bag and then the
end is closed with a rubber band. Some terrestrial Hemiptera deposit more
freely if they have access to special depository media. For example, spe-
cies of Leptocorixa and spittle bugs deposit readily on or in dry grass and
grain stems, Zelus cervicalis Stal. deposits on goldenrod flower parts, while
milkweed bugs deposit in tight rolls of cellucotton or between compact lay-
ers of coarse cotton gauze.
An easy way to collect many night-flying moths and other insects is
to use a blacklightt" lure adjacent to a vertical sheet of white canvas
where the insects will assemble, or to use fermenting (sugaring) baits
painted on tree trunks, fence posts and elsewhere which moths will visit
at night and other insects during daylight hours.
Many large saturniid, citheronid and sphingid female moths caught
outdoors will deposit some to many eggs if they are confined individually
in glass quart jars resting on their sides and partially lined with paper
toweling and closed with paper or cotton gauze. Some species deposit
more abundantly if the jars contain host plant foliage and a water source.
Before large females are introduced, their wings are cut off near their
points of attachment. The absence of complete wings reduces decidedly
the accumulation of scales on the eggs and the interior of the jar. Appar-
ently lack of wings does not influence egg deposition.
Numberous medium-sized moths with wing lengths between three-
fourths of an inch and one and one-half inches that come to lights or
baits will produce eggs if they are enclosed individually in inflated small
plastic bags approximating 2.5" x 4" x 10" in size. In each bag include a
small piece of white paper toweling and the foliage from some plant which
will not curl upon drying. Laurel oak, live oak, magnolia and other leaves
do not curl when dry. When leaves curl decidedly it is difficult to photo-
graph the eggs deposited upon them. This method has produced eggs from
several to many species among the Amatidae, Arctiidae, Geometridae, Lasi-
ocampidae, Noctuidae, Olethreutidae, Pterophoridae, Pyralidae, Tortricidae
and other families. Most of the confined females will deposit some or all
of their eggs within forty-eight hours on the foliage, plastic bag or paper
toweling, named in the usual order of preference. A few species deposit
on leaves only, or plastic only.
Very small moths belonging to the above families and others with wing
lengths under three-fourths of an inch will deposit eggs when confined indi-
vidually in small 4- to 6-dram patent-lip vials. Each vial should contain
an inner clear plastic lining on the side walls, a small leaf or a portion of
a stiff leaf and a cork stopper. Most of the eggs will be deposited on the
leaf or plastic lining.
During the course of an evening between 7 to 10 p.m. when the tempera-
ture is above 70' F., one may collect 25 or more species of moths at a
blacklightt" lure. When a given species is abundant, a maximum of five
vials is used with one moth in each vial. Within forty-eight hours one may
Vol. 43, N~o. 1
Peterson: Photographing Eggs of Insects
find no eggs in any of the five vials, or one vial with eggs, or two vials
with eggs and occasionally all of the five vials with eggs. Complete ab-
sence of eggs may be due to the fact that a given species will not deposit
eggs under the environment offered, or the females have already deposited
their eggs, or copulation has not occurred, or the moths may be males.
Sexes are not easy to determine, especially when they are placed in the
vials under a weak light producing low visibility. Repeated tests with
females of some species in vials or plastic bags have not produced eggs
to date. An average night of collecting will produce 50 to 75 individual
deposition containers. Usually within forty-eight hours one-third or more
will show some to many eggs.
Mantispids will come to a white vertical cloth adjacent to a "black-
light" lure. The adults are sluggish and easy to capture in vials or plastic
bags. Late in September and early in October 1959 at Gainesville, Florida,
many adults, including representatives of three species, came to a white
sheet adjacent to a blacklightt" which was located on the outskirts of
town on the edge of an open field adjacent to a lot containing large decidu-
ous trees. One night forty-five mantispids were captured and each was
placed in an individual plastic bag containing a piece of moist paper towel-
ing. Two of the three species captured deposited eggs on the interior of
the plastic bag. All told, only five of the forty-five confined mantispids
produced eggs. The mass distribution of these eggs closely resembled
those found on foliage outdoors.
EGG PRESERVATION.-Occasionally one is unable to photograph eggs im-
mediately or before they hatch; consequently, it is desirable to preserve
them for future use. If the eggs have a very firm outer covering which
will not collapse or wrinkle after the embryo is dead and dry, then one may
use heat to kill the eggs. The author has killed the embryos within eggs
of mantids, katydids and walking sticks by placing them for a few minutes
under an electric light located in a goose-neck lamp. The temperature
range was 125 to 1350 F. These eggs were killed without distorting the
egg coat. This procedure for eggs of most insects produces collapsed and
Eggs of insects may be killed and preserved in alcohol or formaldehyde
solutions. In most solutions the inner tissues pull away from the outer
covering and produce an abnormal appearance. The author has had good
to fair results with the following mixtures for killing and preserving eggs.
He uses most extensively a standard K.A.A. mixture diluted four or five
times with ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. A standard K.A.A. mixture consists
of commercial kerosene 1 part, acetic acid 2 parts, and ethyl or isopropyl
alcohol 10 parts. For many eggs isopropyl alcohol in the K.A.A. solution
produces the most satisfactory results. He also uses Kahle's fixing solu-
tion made with isopropyl alcohol in place of ethyl alcohol. Kahle's solution
as used consists of isopropyl alcohol, 98 per cent-17 parts, formalin, 40
per cent-6 parts, glacial acetic acid-2 parts and distilled water-28 parts.
These solutions are not satisfactory for all eggs. Bright colors, waxy
coatings and other surface characteristics of some eggs are apt to change
upon standing in liquid preservatives. For most insect eggs it is best to
photograph them when they are in a living state; however, some eggs when
The Florida Entomologist
killed and preserved in the above solutions will show external and internal
features that cannot be seen in living eggs.
Eggs of different insects vary greatly in size, shape, color, adhesiveness
and distribution. No attempt will be made to discuss these interesting
facts. The illustrations present a few of them among common and un-
usual species. Eggs may be deposited singly and often in isolated places
(Figures A and B)2, while others occur in loose or dense clusters (Figures
C, D, G and H). Most eggs have an adhesive coating on their exterior
(Figures C, G and H). This seals them to their substrate and together
when they are laid adjacent to each other. A few species produce eggs
that are dry and usually nonadhesive (Figures B and E).
PHOTOGRAPHY.-The pictures of the eggs shown were taken on 35 mm.
Kodachrome daylight or floodlight color film and transferred to black and
white film to produce the illustrations. All of the illustrations on Plate I
were made through one-half of a Bausch and Lomb stereoscopic microscope
using the objective .66, 3.0 and 7.5 only. The camera used was a 35 mm.
Kodak attached to a Leitz-Wetzler conical extension tube provided with a
shutter, a side arm viewer and a 1/ X magnifier which fitted into one ocular
sleeve of a stereoscopic microscope. A Contax-D single lens reflex camera
with a Kilfitt-Makro-Kilar D 1:2 lens was used when magnifications no
greater than natural size were desired.
The requirements for taking photographs of insect eggs for the most
part are the same as those required for good photography, especially por-
trait photography, namely, correct exposure, proper lighting, sharp focus-
ing, position of the eggs and background color.
For correct exposure when using a Contax-D camera the author de-
pended upon a Norwood Director Exposure Meter, Model M 2. To deter-
mine the correct exposure when taking pictures through a microscope with
a fixed aperture camera a trial run was made on Kodachrome A film. The
light source was a number 2 photoflood electric lamp located within a coni-
cal aluminum reflector placed ten inches above the object at approximately
a 450 angle. The best exposures proved to be 1/ to % second through a
.66 X objective, 1 to 11/ seconds through a 3.0 X objective and 3 to 5 seconds
through a 7.5 objective. Dark-colored eggs usually required 50 percent
more light than white or light-colored eggs.
An American Optical microscope spotlight was used for focusing. A
few shots were taken with a spotlight alone, time 10 to 20+ seconds. The
results were often very good except for color value. Most exposures tended
to be somewhat red.
To obtain sharp focus when using the Leitz-Wetzler microscope camera
requires considerable patience and repeated checking. Before focusing
one must be certain that the cross-lines in the side arm viewer are equally
black when using a specific eye. Your two eyes may vary in this respect.
After this is established then one must proceed to focus on the object. Egg
masses are not always perfectly level; also, when using objectives that give
10 X to 25 X magnification all parts of a given egg of most any size are not
completely in focus. In other words the depth of focus is very narrow;
2 These photographs were transferred from Kodachrome to black and
white films by J. L. Messec.
Vol. 43, No. I
Peterson: Photographing Eggs of Insects
consequently, one must decide what portion of an egg mass or a given egg
is to be portrayed.
Position and background color are often very important for superior
photographs. These can be determined by viewing and adjusting the eggs
through both lenses of the steroscopic microscope before attaching the
camera. The camera reveals what is seen, so it is up to the operator to
make critical adjustments. In general, light-colored eggs should have a
dark opaque background-black, deep green, blue or brown; while dark
eggs show up best with a light opaque background-white, yellow or some
other pale color. If black and white films are to be made from color trans-
parencies it is best to confine background colors to white, greys or black.
Background colors can be attained by placing opaque-colored paper on the
Shadows can be eliminated by placing the eggs on glass about one-inch
above the background. The author uses the bottom side of a Syracuse
watch glass stacked above another watch glass or on an inverted Petri
dish. Reflections can usually be avoided by orienting the object or the
In general, many eggs deposited on plastic or similar flexible products
yield sharper and better photographs than those deposited on foliage, bark
and elsewhere, chiefly because one may choose a suitable background. Re-
flections may be present when eggs are on plastic, especially if the plastic
is old and wrinkled. For this reason it is best to use smooth plastic linings
or new bags for oviposition. In case wrinkles occur in the plastic one can
reduce or eliminate these by attaching one side of the cut piece of plastic
bearing the eggs to the underside of a glass dish by Scotch tape and then
sealing the other edges of the plastic piece to the glass dish after the sur-
face is made smooth and taut. When eggs are deposited on plastic one can
photograph their manner of attachment to the substrate by reversing the
piece of plastic bearing the eggs. Also, when eggs are on plastic the de-
veloping embryos within the eggs can be seen, especially if one chooses
transluscent, flat, disc- or scale-like eggs common among many species of
the Olethreutidate, Tortricidae and Pyralidae. By using light reflected
from a mirror below the eggs the embryos within stand out as u- or s-
CONCLUSION.-When eggs of insects are available from field collecting
or from captured females one can produce beautiful colored slides with a
35 mm. camera attached to a microscope. If the colored films are distinctly
contrasty and have the necessary color combinations, they will produce
good black and white negatives provided fine grained film is employed and
developed in a suitable solution. These negatives, in turn, will yield ex-
cellent black and white pictures.
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A NEW SPECIES OF OECANTHUS FROM THE WEST
INDIES (ORTHOPTERA, GRYLLIDAE)
T. J. WALKER
ASHLEY B. GURNEY
Because of similarities in the antennal markings, the only species of
Oecanthus known from the West Indies is generally thought to be the
snowy tree cricket (Oecanthus niveus of authors, not of De Geer).3 Studies
of the body and tegminal proportions, genitalia, and file, and descriptions
of the song have convinced us that West Indian Oecanthus represent a
species distinct from the snowy tree cricket. This new species is known
only from the West Indies and has been collected on at least seven of the
islands in the group.
Oecanthus allardi, new species
HOLOTYPE: Male; Christiansted, St. Croix, Virgin Islands, Oct. 1940,
Harry A. Beatty, collector. Type No. 64826, U. S. National Museum.
Size, form, and background color (of dried specimens) similar to O.
Basal segment of antenna with white swelling on inner edge of ven-
tral face; swelling marked with black dot .16 mm. in diameter; slight infus-
cation at distal edge of swelling. Second antennal segment with ventral
white swelling marked with a black ellipse .13 mm. long and .11 mm. wide.
Except for tips of tibial spines, remainder of cricket without dark markings.
Sensory area on terminal segment of maxillary palpus slightly more than
half length of segment. Notch at apex of male genitalia as wide as deep
(Fig. 1). Length of body 12.0, length of pronotum 2.0, caudal width
of pronotal disk 2.0, length of tegmen 11.1, greatest tegminal width 4.7,
length of hind femur 7.2 mm.
A B C
Fig. 1. Ventral view of apex of male genitalia. A. Holotype of Oecan-
thus allardi. B. Snowy tree cricket (0. niveus of authors), 8 mi. E. Padilla,
Tamaulipas, Mexico. C. Snowy tree cricket, Erie County, Ohio.
ALLOTYPIC FEMALE: Same data and disposition as holotype. Color and
markings as in holotype. Length of body 11.1, length of pronotum 2.0,
1Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
2Entomology Research Division, ARS, Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.
The Florida Entomologist
caudal width of pronotal disk 1.8, length of tegmen 11.2, length of hind
femur 7.6, length of ovipositor from bottom of mesal notch in subgenital
plate 4.5 mm.
PARATYPES: 52 &$ 54 9 9, 5 juv., as follows: Museum of Zoology,
University of Michigan (75)-St. Croix, Virgin Islands: CHRISTIANSTED,
Harry A. Beatty, Oct. 1940, 14 &$ 9 9 9; Nov. 1940, 8 $ 8, 4 9 9; Dec.
1940, 1 9; 1940, 3 S& 4 9 9; May 20, 1941, 4 &$ 5 9 9. St. Thomas,
Virgin Islands: s. side of island, Chester Roys, May 16, 1937, 1 9. St.
Kitts, British West Indies: BASSETERRE, Chester Roys, May 24, 1937, 12
& &, 8 9 9. Jamaica: LIGUANEA PLAIN, C. T. Brues, Nov.-Dec. 1911,
1 9. Puerto Rico: AGUIRRE, H. Osborn, Feb. 18, 1929, 1 9.
U. S. National Museum (33)-St. Croix, V. I.: C. E. Wilson, Feb. 1921,
1 9; near CHRISTIANSTED, Feb. 28, 1941, 1 9; H. A. Beatty, Sept. 1936, 2
8 8, 2 9 9, 2 juv. Puerto Rico: TALLABOA, July 23, 1914, 1 9; ENSENADA,
June 14-19, 1915, 1 juv.; BOQUERON, L. C. Fife, Sept. 26, 1935, 1 8, 2 9 9;
AGUIRRE, H. E. Box, Apr.-May, 1925, 3 $& Jamaica: 1 9; Jan. 25, 1920,
3 9 9; ST. ANDREW, Nov. 22, 1919, 1 9, Jan. 4-24, 1920, 1 9. Dominican
Republic: CIUDAD TRUJILLO, H. A. Allard, Dec. 9, 1945, 1 9, Dec. 10, 1945,
1 9. Cuba: March 10, 1912, 2 9 9; CRISTO, ORIENTE, Oct. 3, 1913, 3 9 9;
near VINALES, Sept. 16-22, 1913, 1 juv.; BARACOA, Aug. Busck, Sept. 1901,
1 8, Oct. 4, 1901, 2 & 8.
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (3)-Jamaica: KINGSTON,
Rehn & Hebard, July 4, 1920, 2 8& 1 juv.
There are several other West Indian records under the name niveus, as
given in part by Ramos (1947, p. 11) for Mona Island, and by Rehn (1909,
p. 222) for Cuba, which probably apply to allardi.
Two West Indian species questionably placed in Oecanthus by Kirby
(1906, p. 75) were described as Acheta icrucis Fabricius (1787, p. 232) from
St. Croix, and Acheta flavipes Fabricius (1793, p. 30) from St. Thomas. It
appears that neither of these species is correctly referred to Oecanthus.
This species is named in honor of Dr. Harry A. Allard, who suggested
(1957) on the basis of the song that it might be distinct from the snowy
0. allardi is closely related to the snowy tree cricket and cannot be dis-
tinguished from it by the antennal markings. The males of allardi are
distinct from those of the snowy tree cricket in their smaller size and more
slender tegmina (Table 1). The apical lobes of the genitalia are separated
by a notch with a depth of no more than one and one-half times the width.
The males of the snowy tree cricket generally have a much deeper notch,
but some Mexican specimens approach allardi in this respect (Fig. 1).
The structure of the stridulating file will separate allardi from most
populations of snowy tree crickets. The file was examined by removing
3 The types of Oecanthus niveus (De Geer, 1773) (property of the
Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm; examined by T. J. W.) belong to
the species which previously has been called Oecanthus angustipennis Fitch,
1856, so that we regard angustipennis as a synonym of niveus (new synony-
my). Therefore, the snowy tree cricket cannot correctly be called niveus.
There are evidently at least two species of snowy tree crickets in the
United States, and until the status of the West Coast species 0. rileyi
Baker, 1905, is clarified, no population of snowy tree cricket can be named
Vol. 43, No. 1
Walker: A New Species of Oecanthus
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The Florida Entomologist
the right tegmen and mounting it in Hoyer's medium, ventral surface up,
on a microscope slide. The teeth were counted with the aid of a compound
microscope, and the length of the file was measured from the mesal surface
of the knob which is at the lateral end of the file to the mesal edge of the
last file tooth. The file is usually gently curved at one or both ends, but
the length was determined along a straight line parallel to the central por-
tion of the file. In ten specimens of allardi from St. Croix and St. Kitts the
file teeth numbered 40-44 (av. 42.0); the file length measured 1.56-1.78 (av.
1.66); the teeth/mm. (number of teeth/file length) figured 24.1-27.3 (av.
25.3). Snowy tree crickets from Honduras (4 specimens), Tamaulipas,
Mexico (5 specimens), and eastern United States (13) had similar numbers
of teeth, but the maximum teeth/mm. figure was 23.9. Only in snowy tree
crickets from Oregon and California did all file characters overlap with
those given for allardi. A series of five snowy tree crickets from Michoa-
can, Mexico, had only 29-33 file teeth.
The females of allardi usually may be separated from those of the snowy
tree cricket by their smaller size. The lengths of the tegmina and of the
hind femur are the most helpful measurements. The maximum length of
the tegmina for allardi in the specimens at hand is 11.9, of the femur, 7.7
mm. Almost all females of the snowy tree cricket exceed these measure-
Little has been reported of the biology of allardi. The holotype and
allotype were collected "on bush." C. E. Wilson (1923a) recorded allardi
(as niveus) on tobacco and stated that although individuals sometimes fed
upon the leaves they were considered beneficial because they also fed upon
plant lice. Wilson (1923b, p. 10) recorded allardi on cotton and described
its eggs as laid in rows in the cotton stalk, "forming long scars." The
snowy tree cricket of eastern United States lays eggs singly in the bark
of trees, but Fulton's (1925) Race B of the West Coast deposits eggs in a
manner similar to allardi. Allard (1957) found the species in weeds and
stated that singing individuals were not localized in colonies as snowy tree
crickets often are, but they were scattered.
Allard described the song of allardi as a "high-pitched, clear, tinkling
chirp." It is a nighttime singer as is the snowy tree cricket, but its rate
of chirping is much slower. At 700 F. it produces about 18 chirps per
minute as compared to 135 chirps per minute for Ohio specimens of snowy
tree cricket and 91 chirps per minute for Oregon specimens of Race B of
the snowy tree cricket. In Allard's observations, the chirp rate of allardi
varied from 16 at 660 to 22 at 77.
Allard, H. A. 1957. The stridulations of some crickets in the Dominican
Republic. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 47: 150-152.
Fabricius, J. C. 1787. Mantissa insectorum, etc., 1 (Orthoptera, pp. 224-
Fabricius, J. C. 1793. Entomologia systematic, etc., 2 (Orthoptera, pp.
Fulton, B. B. 1925. Physiological variation in the snowy tree cricket,
Oecanthus niveus De Geer. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 18: 363-383.
Kirby, W. F. 1906. A synonymic catalogue of Orthoptera, 2: 1-562.
Vol. 43, No. 1
Walker: A New Species of Oecanthus 13
Ramos, J. A. 1947. The insects of Mona Island (West Indies). Jour.
Agric., Univ. Puerto Rico, 30: 1-74, 20 figs,. (1946).
Rehn, J. A. G. 1909. A catalogue of the Orthoptera of Cuba and the Isle
of Pines. Estacion Cent. Agron., Havana, 2nd Rept., pt. 2 (English
Wilson, C. E. 1923a. Report of the Entomologist. Rept. Virgin Islands
Agric. Expt. Sta. 1922: 15-18.
Wilson, C. E. 1923b. Insect pests of cotton in St. Croix and means of
combating them. Virgin Islands Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 3: 1-20.
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FIELD TESTS OF DUSTS AND SPRAYS
AGAINST GERMAN COCKROACHES
G. S. BURDEN and J. L. EASTIN
The German cockroach [Blattella germanica (L.)] is becoming of in-
creased concern because of its resistance to various chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticides as well as to pyrethrum (Heal et al., 1953; Keller et al., 1956a,
b; Brown, 1958). Currently control is being achieved with several of the
organophosphorus insecticides; however, this control is not equal to that
experienced with chlordane, which at one time was the principal insecticide
for combating this pest. Field strains of German cockroaches have not yet
shown resistance to the organophosphorus insecticides, although there have
been reports of unsatisfactory control in various localities. In recent lab-
oratory experiments a colony was established that showed 4- to 11-fold
resistance to malathion after selection with this material for 5 to 10 gen-
erations (Burden et al., 1959). This resistance in a laboratory strain in-
dicates that resistance is likely to develop in field strains.
During the last two years tests were conducted with dust and sprays
against natural infestations in homes in Florida to evaluate the efficacy
of several promising insecticides. In conjunction with these tests, and to
survey the possible occurrence of resistance to organophosphorus insecti-
cides, field strains of cockroaches were collected and tested in the laboratory
by a standard technique on residues of malathion and Diazinon. Tests were
also made on chlordane residues to ascertain the prevalence of resistance to
TESTS IN HOMES
The following insecticides were tested in residual sprays against natural
infestations in homes; 0.5% of Diazinon [O,O-diethyl O-(2-isopropyl-4-
methyl-6-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothiate], or Thiodan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexa-
2% of dicapthon, Dipterex (O,O-dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-l-hydroxyethyl-
phosphonate), malathion, or ronnel, and 5% of barthrin. With the excep-
tion of Dipterex, which was formulated with technical material, all the
sprays were formulated with emulsifiable concentrates diluted with water.
The insecticides that showed promise as residual sprays were also tested
as dusts: 1% of Diazinon, and 4% of dicapthon, malathion, or ronnel in
pyrophyllite. The sprays were applied as spot treatments with 2-gallon
pressure sprayers fitted with Teejet No. 8002 flat spray tips and 1-quart
pistol-type sprayers, and the dusts with plunger-type dusters and with poly-
ethylene squeeze-bottle dusters fitted with extension nozzles. To eliminate
as much variability as possible all treatments were made in a housing
project consisting of ground-level duplexes of similar design that were
constructed of concrete blocks. Pretreatment counts were made in the
homes, noting all areas of cockroach infestations, and the percent reduction
in live cockroaches was based on post-treatment counts made throughout a
period of 89 to 90 days.
1 Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A.
The Florida Entomologist
As indicated in Table 1, the best reduction was obtained with sprays
of Diazinon, malathion, dicapthon, and ronnel. For the first 2 months
the reduction was high with all four materials and after 3 months Diazinon
was giving 99% and malathion 95% control. Dipterex, Thiodan, and
barthrin were the least effective. The poor control with Thiodan, a chlori-
nated hydrocarbon, may have been due to cross-resistance, as laboratory
tests indicated the cockroaches were moderately to highly resistant to chlor-
dane. Diazinon dust gave good to fair control for 2 months, but was un-
satisfactory after 3 months. The dicapthon and ronnel dusts gave good
reductions the first 12 to 13 days, but gradually diminished in effectiveness,
after that time. Control with malathion dust was never satisfactory.
TABLE 1.-CONTROL OF GERMAN COCKROACHES IN HOMES WITH SEVERAL
INSECTICIDES APPLIED AS WATER-BASE SPRAYS OR DUSTS.
Ronnel 2 7 296
Percent reduction after indicated days
5-6 13 22-23
36- 43- 61-
29-30 37 44 62 89-90
99 99 97 98 98 97 95 99
97 94 95 99 95 93 99 95
97 94 99 99 99 97 96 82
94 90 94 95 93 97 94 86
75 87 91
93 92 93 82 76
87 81 80 81 88 92 94 85
84 95 53 41 27 3
Diazinon 1 3 463 94 92 94 91 89 92 87 77
Dicapthon 4 3 502 97 93 71 75 55 50 24 24
Ronnel 4 2 225 90 92 80 59 59 49 20 -
Malathion 4 3 217 53 26 -
A comparison of the results with these dusts and water-base sprays and
those obtained with oil sprays by Lofgren et al. (1957) under similar con-
ditions shows that the dusts were inferior to the sprays. The oil sprays,
as well as the water sprays, exhibited a high degree of control at all times.
In the homes treated with dusts it was observed that the cockroaches were
Vol. 43, No. 1
Burden: Field Tests of Dusts and Sprays
a- ~F, S 3 0
Ue | t; oo 5D c
1 O c^^ d
IU 0 I
The Florida Entomologist
avoiding the dusted areas and seeking areas where a dust could not be
applied or would not adhere. This single factor could contribute to the in-
adequacy of the dusts as it is impossible to apply a dust to as many areas
or surfaces as a residual spray. Certainly the more areas that can be
treated, the greater the possibility of the cockroaches coming in contact
with the treatment; consequently, better control will be obtained. Dusts
drift well, however, and may be more effective than sprays for the treat-
ment of hard-to-reach places such as the interiors of hollow walls.
RESISTANCE TESTS WITH FIELD STRAINS
To survey the level of resistance, male cockroaches from each field col-
lection, or from small laboratory colonies established therefrom, were ex-
posed continuously to residues of 10 mg. of chlordane, malathion, or Diaz-
inon per square foot in pint glass jars by the method of Keller et al.
(1956b). From the number dead or knocked down after various periods of
exposure the time required to give 50% or 90% kill or knockdown (LT-50
or LT-90) was computed (Table 2). On the assumption that cockroaches
exhibiting an LT-50 three times as great as normal are resistant, none of
the field strains exhibited resistance to Diazinon or malathion, but 75%
of the strains were moderately to highly resistant to chlordane, with LT-
50's ranging up to 132 hours compared with 3.8 hours for the normal colony.
Brown, A. W. A. 1958. Insecticide resistance in arthropods. World
Health Organ. Monog. Ser. No. 38.
Burden, G. S., C. S. Lofgren, and J. L. Eastin. 1959. Malathion resistance
in a laboratory strain of the German cockroach. Pest Control.
Heal, R. E., K. B. Nash, and Michele Williams. 1953. An insecticide-
resistant strain of German cockroach from Corpus Christi, Texas.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 46(2): 385-6.
Keller, J. C., P. H. Clark, and C. S. Lofgren. 1956a. Susceptibility of in-
secticide-resistant cockroaches to pyrethrins. Pest Control. 24(11):
Keller, J. C., P. H. Clark, C. S. Lofgren, and H. G. Wilson. 1956b. Cock-
roach control. Pest Control. 24(9): 12, 14, 17, 19-20.
Lofgren, Clifford, G. S. Burden, and P. H. Clark. 1957. Experiments
with insecticides for the control of German roaches. Pest Control.
25(7): 9-10, 12, 47.
Vol. 43, No. 1
TESTS WITH LARVICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF
HOUSE FLIES IN POULTRY HOUSES
H. G. WILSON and G. C. LABRECQUE1
The problem of house fly control in poultry establishments has become
more pressing in recent years, owing chiefly to two factors-the wide-
spread development of resistance to nearly all insecticides, and the erection
of large numbers of homes in the vicinity of many poultry establishments,
resulting in demands from the occupants that adult flies, as well as ob-
jectionable odors, be eliminated. The problem is intensified in poultry
houses where the laying flock, as well as the young chickens, are confined
in individual screen cages about three feet above the ground. It is cus-
tomary to allow the manure to collect for several months, and the cones
that are formed under each cage soon reach a height of two or more feet.
If the manure remains dry, there is little fly breeding, but when it becomes
moist from leaking roofs or watering troughs, the house fly (Musca do-
mestica L.) and a soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) become established.
In a short time the larvae, especially Hermetia, break down and liquefy
the entire cone, creating a serious fly problem and an extremely disagree-
A number of compounds, including Diazinon [O,O-diethyl O-(2-isopro-
pyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate], that have been tested for
use in poultry houses (Hoffman and Monroe, 1956; Wilson and LaBrecque,
1958) have recently shown signs of greatly decreased efficiency. Labora-
tory tests have confirmed the fact that resistance to most organic-phos-
phorus compounds, as well as chlorinated hydrocarbons, has reached such a
high level that satisfactory control with the insecticides used heretofore
is now extremely difficult.
Eight compounds were tested as larvicides against natural populations
of house flies breeding in manure under caged poultry in the Orlando, Fla.,
area. The insecticides were applied at 150 to 1,000 mg. per square foot,
in 1 to 4 gallons of spray or 2 to 3 pounds of dust or granules per 1,000
square feet. Larval density was evaluated by collecting a large spoonful
of manure from 10 locations where the infestations appeared heaviest,
spreading the material on a plywood board, and counting the larvae. The
effectiveness of the treatments was determined by the difference in total
counts made before and 1 to 14 days after treatment. The formulations
used and the results obtained are shown in table 1. The dusts were made
with pyrophyllite, except the dust of Baytex (O, O-dimethyl O-4-methylthio-
m-tolyl phosphorothioate, Bayer 29493), which was made by diluting a 20%
wettable powder with diatomaceous earth.
Baytex was effective at the lowest dosages, giving good control for 2-7
days at 150-300 mg./sq. ft. The other materials were ineffective at these
dosages, but calcium arsenate gave good control for 3-4 days at 600-1,000
SEntomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A.
The Florida Entomologist
TABLE 1.-CONTROL OF HOUSE FLY LARVAE IN POULTRY HOUSES WITH
Dosage Pretreat- after indicated days
Insecticide and (mg./ ment
Formulation sq. ft.) count 1 2 3-4 7
Kerosene solution 4%
2- (1-Naphthylmethyl) -
100 100 85 0**
100 94 100 100**
99 100 94 92**
99 100 89 85**
100 100 68 0
100 100 0 -
89 100 94 0
96 99 95 0
99 99 100 0
98 92 96 0
78 97 92 0
99 99 100 13
0 0 -
0 0 -
56 0 0 -
60 61 54 0
26 0 0 -
0 0 --
0 0 --
52 49 69 0
74 94 92 0
68 0 0 -
69 0 0 -
77 65 0 0
80 75 64 0
0 0 --
73 64 0 0
Vol. 43, No. 1
Wilson: Larvicides for Control of House Flies 21
TABLE 1.-CONTROL OF HOUSE FLY LARVAE IN POULTRY HOUSES WITH
VARIOUS INSECTICIDES.- (Continued)
after indicated days
1 2 3-4 7
Polybor 3 $
0 0 -
0 0 -
0 0 -
O, O-dimethyl O-4-methylthio-mi-tolyl phosphorothioate, Bayer 29493.
** 0-20% control after 9-14 days.
t 2, 8, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7a, 8, 8-decachloro-3a, 4, 7, 7a-tetrahydro-4, 7-methano-indene-l-one.
$ 98% disodium octaborate tetrahydrate.
Wilson, H. G., and G. C. LaBrecque. 1958. Tests with organophosphorus
compounds as house fly larvicides in poultry houses. Fla. Ent.
Hoffman, R. A., and R. E. Monroe. 1956. Control of house fly larvae in
poultry droppings. Jour. Econ. Ent. 49: 704-5.
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MEMO S ^ "*."-.,;^ ',i:;
A NEW SPECIES OF XENOTARSONEMUS FROM FLORIDA 1
ROBERT E. BEER2
At the moment of this writing, two described species of tarsonemid
mites have been assigned to the genus Xenotarsonemus Beer. The geno-
type, Tarsonemus viridis Ewing is known only from a single collection,
having been taken by F. F. Smith on strawberry in Maryland. Although
Ewing (1939) reported the species from cyclamen in California, a study by
the present writer of the single female involved has revealed its misidentifi-
cation by Ewing. Thus, host associations of this species remain restricted
to Fragaria sp. Whether or not it feeds on this host is still an unanswered
The second species in the genus is Xenotarsonemus cadeae Cromroy,
which was described (Cromroy, 1958) from specimens taken on Centrosema
virginiana (Leguminosae) in Puerto Rico. Again the host association may
be of little significance in consideration of biological relationships of the
species, since apparently only two mites (a male and a female) were col-
lected. Because of the unusual taxonomic position occupied by members of
this genus, reflecting the striking morphological modifications of the males,
it will be of great interest to learn something of the biological relationships
of members of the group. To date, such information has not come to light.
This paper describes a third species in the genus Xenotarsonemus.
Specimens were taken on old leaves of the host plant that had patches of
surface-growing fungi in considerable abundance, suggesting that it is
a fungus-feeder. This, however, is to be regarded only as circumstantial
evidence pointing to its possible feeding habits.
Xenotarsonemus denmarki, new species
MALE: Body short and robust, its greatest breadth at posterior extrem-
ities of coxae IV. Legs moderately robust, the anterior pairs largest, legs
IV smallest. Ventral apodemes conspicuous and well-defined, the anterior
margins of posterior apodemes uniting. Genital papilla large and conspicu-
ous, slightly smaller than capitulum. Propodosmal dorsum projecting for-
ward to cover only a small part of capitulum base. First three dorsal pro-
podosomal setae arranged in a linear series, the pairs of the series diverg-
ing from first to third; fourth setae lateral to and slightly behind third;
lengths of setae from one to four, 24, 19, 26, 35 microns. Anterior pair of
dorsal hysterosomal setae 29u long; inner setae of second series 42p long,
outer pair 24u long; posterior dorsal hysterosomals 17, long, the distance
between them 21/. First and second ventral propodosomal setae subequal
in length, 9A; distance between first pair, 18g; second pair 26g apart; setae
of anterior and posterior pairs 5u behind apodemes I and II respectively.
First and second ventral hysterosomal setae subequal in length, 17,; first
pair situated 5A behind transverse extension of apodemes III, second pair
situated on apodemes IV at posterior third of apodemal length. Capitulum
1Contribution No. 1065, Department of Entomology, The University of
2 Department of Entomology, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan-
Fig. 1. Xenotarsonemus denmarki male, dorsal aspect;
drawn from holotype.
Fig. 2. Leg IV of male X. denmarki, ventral aspect;
drawn from paratype.
Beer: New Species of Xenotarsonemus from Florida 25
subcordate; 29u long; greatest width at base, 31p; dorsolateral seta 10l
long. Palpi short and robust with apices slightly dilated; apex adorned with
a rounded knoblike projection and a short, blunt seta; base of palpus with
a short ventral seta. Legs I and II stout, with terminal segment of con-
spicuously reduced diameter. Leg I with coxa slightly broader than long,
without setae; femur one and one-half times as long as broad, with two
ventral and one dorsal tactile setae; genu broader than long, with two
dorsal and two ventral tactile setae; tibia slightly longer than broad, with
two dorsal and three ventral tactile setae, one dorsal sensory peg near outer
basal margin and one ventral sensory bristle near outer basal margin;
tarsus three times as long as basal width, with two long, ventral, tactile
setae near mid-segment and one stout, curved, ventral seta at outer apical
margin, one long, dorsal tactile seta near mid-segment, one stout, curved,
dorsal seta near inner margin at apical third, one stout, spikelike seta at
outer apex, one peglike sensory seta located dorsally near outer basal
margin; a stout curved claw subtended by a circular empodium and short
pedicel adorn tip of tarsus. Leg II with coxa and femur similar in size and
ornamentation to these segments in leg I; genu like genu I but with one
dorsal and two ventral setae; tibia about as broad as long, with two dorsal
and two ventral tactile setae; tarsus tapering abruptly from basal third
to apex, nearly three times as long as broad at base, with two long, ventral,
tactile setae at basal third of segment, one long, dorsal, tactile seta near
outer apical margin, one large, dorsal, sensory peg located near outer basal
margin, one small, dorsal, sensory peg near outer margin at basal third of
segment; tarsus subtends a broad empodium and two stout, hooked claws.
Leg III with coxa twice as long as broad, without ornamentation; femur
nearly three times as long as broad, a slight constriction separating basi-
femur from telofemur, the latter about one half the length of the former;
basifemur with one short, ventral, tactile seta; telofemur with two short,
dorsal, tactile setae, one long and one short ventral tactile setae; genu with
two long dorsal and two long ventral tactile setae; tibiotarsus tapering
abruptly at basal third, about four times as long as broad at base, with one
long ventral and two long dorsal tactile setae, one short, ventral, spinelike
seta at apex of segment; tibiotarsus surmounted by a broad empodium and
two stout, hooked claws. Leg IV with coxa subtriangular in shape, about
one and one-half times as long as broad, with one ventral seta; femur with
outer margin slightly convex, inner margin nearly straight, segment about
three times as long as greatest breadth, the latter at mid-segment, with one
short dorsal seta near outer apical margin, one stout ventral seta near
inner margin at about mid-segment, its length slightly less than width of
segment, one long, stout, ventral seta near inner margin just before apex,
its length two and one-half times length of other ventral seta; tibiotarsus
one half as long as femur, about two and one-half times as long as broad,
inner margin slightly concave, outer margin slightly convex, apex of seg-
ment rounded and slightly dilated, with one rodlike sensory seta one half
as long as segment located dorsally near outer margin at about mid-seg-
ment, two minute dorsal setae near apex of segment, one stout lanceolate
seta projecting clawlike from tip of segment, one ventral tactile seta
slightly longer than segment near inner apical margin, one stout ventral
seta nearly three times as long as segment located near outer apical margin.
The Florida Entomologist
Fig. 3. Xenotarsonemus denmarki, ventral aspect of male;
drawn from holotype.
Measurements of mite as follows: Tips of palpi to apex of genital
papilla, 180; anterior margin of propodosomal dorsum to apex of genital
papilla, 144g; anterior margin of propodosomal dorsum to main body suture,
51i; greatest width (at coxae III), 199/; width at main body suture, 102.
Holotype male, tHillsborough River State Park, Florida, March 25,
1959, R. E. Beer, Quercus niger.
Vol. 43, No. 1
Beer: New Species of Xenotarsonemus from Florida
Paratypes: Two males with same data as holotype.
LOCATION OF TYPES: Snow Entomological Museum, The University of
Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
The most conspicuous differences between this species and the two
other members of the genus are to be found in the size and location of
the dorsal propodosomal setae, the absence of spurlike or irregular pro-
jections on the inner margin of femur IV, and the chaetotaxy of leg IV.
While collecting this species, female specimens of three different, un-
described tarsonemid mites as well as females of Fungitarsonemus pere-
grinus (Beer) were also taken. Due to the uncertainty in associating the
proper female with the male described above, a description of the female
of Xenotarsonemus denmarki has necessarily been omitted from this paper.
The above species has been named to honor Mr. Harold A. Denmark,
chief entomologist for the State Plant Board of Florida. This is a token
expression of gratitude for several years of valuable assistance rendered
to the Kansas group of acarologists by Mr. Denmark.
Cromroy, Harvey Leonard. 1958. A preliminary survey of the plant mites
of Puerto Rico. Jour. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 62(2): 39-144.
Ewing, H. E. 1939. A revision of the mites of the subfamily Tarsonemi-
nae of North America, the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands.
U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 653, 63 pp.
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FIELD EXPERIENCE ON SOME NEW MITICIDES DURING
THE PAST TWELVE MONTHS ON CITRUS IN FLORIDA
J. T. GRIFFITHS 2
The advent of several new miticides has required a re-evaluation of
how best to control rust mites and red spiders on citrus in Florida. The
problem is concerned with which program or material will be the most effec-
tive and which will be the most economical. Because of prolonged control,
the most expensive material per pound may actually be the cheapest in
terms of cost per acre.
During the past several years, Eloise Groves Association has made an
effort to compare different miticides at different rates and under different
circumstances in order to better acquaint ourselves with the most advan-
tageous way of handling these miticides in .the field. The discussion pre-
sented below is concerned with some specific experiments as well as with
results in general field practice on something over 5,000 acres of citrus
RUST MITE CONTROL
The author reported at this meeting a year ago that, although Zineb
might completely replace wettable sulfur and/or liquid lime sulfur, there
was some indication that combinations of wettable sulfur and Zineb might
be effective at certain times of the year, and that sulfur alone might still
be the miticide of choice in the fall and winter months. During the past
twelve months, most of the groves in this organization have been sprayed
only twice, at post-bloom time and again during June or July. Miticides
for red spider control were used in only about 20% of the groves during
the fall and winter months, and applications for rust mite or scale control
were made only where necessary. Wettable sulfur only, Zineb-sulfur, and
zineb only gave quite satisfactory control when applied from November
through February, and only one application was necessitated during that
period in any one grove. Many of the properties were actually unsprayed
between the time of the June or July scalicide in 1958 and the post-bloom
spray in the spring of 1959.
At the post-bloom application in 1959, most of the groves in this organi-
zation were sprayed with Zineb only, but a few groves had copper included
in the spray, and a few were sprayed with combinations of wettable sulfur
and Zineb. The only groves in which rust mites appeared in large numbers
in June, prior to the time for the application of the summer scalicide, were
those sprayed with Zineb-sulfur or copper-Zineb. In these groves the
summer spray of oil-parathion-Zineb was applied approximately a week
early, and the amount of Zineb was increased by 50%-100% in order to
compensate for the high rust mite infestations.
On bearing groves, all summer sprays contained oil, parathion, and
Zineb, and were applied at one mile per hour with a Speed Sprayer. Model
36 sprayers were used with a single head, and Model 40 sprayers with a
double head application. Zineb was used at rates of 5-6 pounds per acre
1 A paper presented at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomo-
logical Society, Miami, September 10-12, 1959.
2 General Manager, Eloise Groves Association, Winter Haven, Florida.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 43, No. 1
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Griffiths: New Miticides During Past Twelve Months 31
on most mature oranges and graepfruit, 3 pounds per acre on 10 to 15-
year-old trees, and at the rate of 3 pounds per 500 gallon tank on trees
that were sprayed by hand. In all instances where known rust mite popu-
lations were high at the time of the scalicide application, Zineb concentra-
tion was increased. As of September 1st, only 30 acres of red grapefruit
out of a total of 5,000 acres of citrus have had to be resprayed, and rust
mite populations are generally at a low level. This is a better record than
was obtained in either of the last two years. In 1958, failures in August
were related to the presence of high rust mite infestations at the time of
the summer spray. It appears that an increase in the Zineb concentration
alleviated this problem.
In December of 1958, an experiment was set up in a 3-year-old Pineapple
orange block to compare several miticide combinations. These mixtures
and the results from their use are shown in Table 1. Kelthane, Tedion,
Trithion and DN were compared. Kelthane and Tedion were used with
both wettable sulfur and Zineb; Trithion was used alone, and at half
strength with half-strength Zineb; and DN was used with Zineb. These
were compared with wettable sulfur and Zineb only. At the time of appli-
cation, during the last week of December, there was a 65% rust mite in-
festation over the block. All sprays gave excellent rust mite control and,
as late as February 25th, very few mites were present. No additional
counts were made until the 20th of May. At that time, rust mite popula-
tions were increasing in all plots, and at that date only DN-Zineb showed
a relatively low rust mite population. There was a tendency to have
fewer rust mites where Zineb was used rather than wettable sulfur, and
Kelthane showed some evidence of being better than the Tedion or the
Trithion combinations. These results are of little consequence, however.
All materials gave satisfactory commercial control and, since post-bloom
sprays should have been applied in April, all sprays would have been com-
pletely satisfactory from the standpoint of initial reduction and length of
control. The Trithion-Zineb combination is of some interest in view of
the fact that there is some evidence that, at the recommended dosage for
Trithion, rust mite control is no better than with sulfur, and initial red
spider control often is better than required. This combination is lower in
cost and apparently offers better length of rust mite control.
The Zineb recommendations, as they are given by the research organi-
zations of the State, are usually stated in terms of pounds per 100 gallons
with the suggestion that an application comparable to a scalicide spray be
made. As previously reported, this organization has had excellent results
with Zineb when applied at speeds in excess of 2 miles per hour with a
Speed Sprayer, and our recommendations have been based primarily in
terms of pounds of Zineb to be applied per acre. Neither the optimum
speed of application nor the optimum rate of Zineb has been adequately
determined under our circumstances. In order to get some information on
this, experiments were run in 1959 on 13 and 14-year-old orange trees to
study the amount of Zineb required per acre, or per tree, to accomplish
Two experiments were made in the spring; one with combinations of
Zineb and wettable sulfur and the other with Zineb only. Results of these
are presented in Tables 2 and 3. Although rust mite counts were made
The Florida Entomologist
in both experiments between the time of the application and the dates which
are shown in the tables, rust mite populations were so low during those
periods as to be of no significance.
On this size tree, the practice in the field has been to use 3 pounds of
Zineb per 65 trees or on one 1320-foot row across 40 acres. In the Zineb
experiment dosages were varied from as low as 2 pounds to as high as 4
pounds per 65 trees, and were applied on both Valencia and Jaffa oranges
TABLE 2.-PER CENT OF RUST MITES FOUND ON JUNE 12 IN 80 ACRES OF
13-YEAR-OLD VALENCIA AND JAFFA ORANGES AFTER DIFFERENTIAL RATES
OF ZINEB WERE APPLIED ON APRIL 8, 1959.
Lbs. Zineb per 65 Trees
% Rust Mites
2 3 10 6
21/ 3 3 3
3 0 8 4
31/ 0 3 1
4 0 3 1
TABLE 3.-PER CENT RUST MITES FOUND ON TWO DATES ON 14-YEAR-OLD
VALENCIA TREES AFTER DIFFERENTIAL RATES OF WETTABLE SULFUR AND
ZINEB WERE APPLIED ON APRIL 9, 1959.
Lbs. per 65 Trees % Rust Mites
Zineb Wet. Sul. June 12 July 9
0 33 14 53
33 26 48
5/6 33 13 27
1% 17 8 21
1% 17 8 18
212 0 8 10
33 0 3 7
TABLE 4.-PER CENT RUST MITES FOUND ON AUGUST 27, 1959, ON 13-YEAR-
OLD VALENCIA ORANGES AFTER DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENTS OF ZINEB
WERE APPLIED ON JULY 10, 1959.
% Rust Mites
Lbs. Zineb per 65 Trees Block 18 Block 21 Avg.
2 70* 16 16
212 80* 7 7
3 3 7 5
32 3 4 4
4 1 3 2
Counts made on Aug. 12 and plots resprayed with same rate of Zineb. Not included
Vol. 43, No. 1
Griffiths: New Miticides During Past Twelve Months 33
by a Speed Sprayer driven at 2 miles per hour. All treatments were in
duplicate. It will be noted that, during the period from the time of appli-
cation on April 8th until the time that the summer scalicide was made
shortly after June 12th, satisfactory control was obtained in all blocks,
but there was a tendency for a few more mites to be found on the lower
The companion experiment which tested combinations of Zineb and wet-
table sulfur is shown in Table 3. Here, the scalicide was delayed until
July, and higher rust mite infestations occurred. The results are sugges-
tive that the most important factor was the amount of Zineb, but more
results are essential for proper evaluation. Control was generally satis-
factory until mid-June, but there were too many mites by early July in
the lower Zineb levels. Although control with wettable sulfur-Zineb com-
binations was still satisfactory in mid-June in this experiment and they
represent a means of saving money in the post-bloom application, the re-
sults here as well as in field trials, are suggestive that control should not
be expected to be as long as with full strength Zineb sprays. However,
Zineb-sulfur combinations may be satisfactory if it be anticipated that an
early scalicide spray can be applied.
In July of 1959, another Zineb rate experiment was set up in two 40-acre
blocks of 13-year-old Valencia oranges. These were applied in combina-
tion with oil and parathion by a Model 40 Speed Sprayer driven double-
headed at 1 mile per hour. All plots were in quadruplicate, and the results
are shown in Table 4. In early August, the two low rates of Zineb in one
of the two 40-acre blocks had entirely too many rust mites and it was nec-
essary for them to be resprayed. The results of this experiment, as well
as those shown in Tables 2 and 3, seem to indicate that rates, below 3
pounds per 65 trees of this size, are very apt to be too low. They further
suggest that additional amounts of Zineb are of no particular value when
low infestations are sprayed. Additional work is essential in order to work
out the exact amounts that are required on a given-sized tree.
RED SPIDER CONTROL
As noted above, this organization did not apply materials for red spider
control in most groves during the winter of 1958-59. In those Valencia
orange blocks where heaters or firewood were placed in the middles for frost
protection, it was believed to be desirable to apply a miticide in November
so that there would be no need for disturbing the frost protection equip-
ment during the remainder of the winter. Both Tedion and Trithion were
tried out in this manner. Results were inconclusive in view of the fact that
mites did not develop either on the sprayed blocks or in unsprayed oranges
which were adjacent and under similar cultural practice. Although miti-
cides were not applied on grapefruit, six-spotted mite populations did not
develop in the Spring.
Two experiments comparing levels of Tedion and Trithion were tried on
15-year-old Parson Brown oranges, and were applied in October and No-
vember. Red spiders never developed in either of these two blocks even
during the relatively late spring of 1959, so that no information on dosage
was obtained. Although numerous field trials were made in one 1,000-
acre grove where individual 40-acre blocks were divided into two parts
The Florida Entomologist
with different levels of Tedion or Trithion being applied, red spiders did
not develop and no information on their control was obtained.
It was noted, however, that Trithion as compared with Tedion-Zineb
was not satisfactory for prolonged rust mite control at the rates used, and
there were some places where an additional sulfur and/or Zineb was re-
quired for rust mite control. This was not true where Tedion-Zineb or
where wettable sulfur only was applied. While some blocks were satis-
factory where Trithion was used, it is suggestive that this material should
not be considered as a primary control for rust mites if control is desired
from early November until post-bloom time. It will give satisfactory
results for a shorter period, and there are many times when only a short
period of control is required.
Comparison of control of red spiders was made between Kelthane,
Tedion and Trithion and the results are shown in Table 1. As indicated
in the table, the material was applied at approximately 21/2 gallons per
tree on 3-year-old Pineapple trees. The applications were made on De-
cember 26th and treatments were in triplicate. Counts were made at
periodic intervals throughout the winter and spring, but no counts were
made between February 25th and May 20th. By that time, purple mite pop-
ulations had reached high levels in the wettable sulfur and Zineb plots;
and in the DN-Zineb plots had already reached a high level and were then
declining. In the other experimental treatments, populations were only
beginning to increase on May 20th when an additional spray was applied.
At this late date, there was very little to choose between the Kelthane,
Tedion and Trithion for red spider control. It should not be concluded
from these results, however, that the three materials will be comparable
under the conditions of greater population stress. There were practically
no citrus red mites and only a 30% Texas citrus mite infestation when
the experiment started. The Texas mites were killed easily and never
became a problem thereafter.
On May 20th, tree condition was graded in each plot. This was an
effort to note the amount of etching, or stippling, from the result of either
purple mite or Texas citrus mite feeding on the foliage. Results are shown
in Table 1. The plots sprayed with wettable sulfur, Zineb, or DN-Zineb
looked hungry, and the leaves were heavily etched as the result of feeding.
These plots were outstanding from this standpoint and were easily noted
in driving across the plots. All other treatments were in reasonably good
condition. It will be noted that there is a tendency for the treatments
with Zineb and a purple miticide to look just a little better than the other
treatments. This perhaps is correlated with the fact that, at the time of
grading, rust mite populations were somewhat lower on the Zineb treat-
ments, and it is the opinion of the author that heavy rust mite infestations
contributed to the look of malnutrition.
It is recognized that the results recorded here are fragmentary, and in
themselves are insufficient for making general recommendations for control
of mites on citrus. As a result of observations in the field, it is believed
that Zineb is the material of choice for the control of rust mites in the
spring and summer. It may be combined with sulfur satisfactorily during
Vol. 43, No. I
Griffiths: New Miticides During Past Twelve Months 35
the early fall, and sulfur alone will probably be a satisfactory material
during the period from mid-November through February. During the post-
bloom period this organization will continue to use Zineb in all locations,
but additional trials in combination with sulfur will be made at post-bloom
time. Until more information concerning the prevalence of broad mites
and Brevipalpus mites following the use of Zineb alone is made, this type
of combination should still be considered.
For prolonged control of citrus red mite or Texas mite, results from
all sources seem to indicate that Tedion is the material of choice. If this
material is released by the Federal authorities, it will be the one which
this organization will use in blocks where spider control is desired from
October or November through the winter months, but we will continue to
test other materials since prices and results may change somewhat. It
is the present plan to apply Tedion on all blocks in October which are on
sour orange, sweet orange or Cleopatra root stock, but bearing groves on
rough lemon will receive no miticide until spider populations have built to
proportions to justify such an application. Non-bearing groves may re-
ceive materials for red spider control under either of two conditions: if
rust mites become prevalent and an application is indicated for this mite,
or if red spiders become a problem. Materials for both spider and rust mite
control will be applied in those Valencia blocks where it is undesirable to
have to use any spray equipment during the period when frost protection
Whether or not the low citrus red mite population during the winter
of 1958-59 was due to weather conditions, or whether it was due to the gen-
eral use of Zineb or a combination of both, cannot be ascertained at the
present time. It is anticipated that the general reduction in the use of
sulfur will materially reduce the necessity for applying materials for the
control of citrus red mites. This offers sufficient justification to refrain
from the use of any miticide until such times as populations warrant it.
This means that adequate checks must be made periodically in all groves.
This is considerably more economical than applying materials as a prevent-
The results of the use of miticides on 5,000 acres of citrus suggest that,
although Zineb gives the best rust mite control, combinations with sulfur
may be satisfactory in the fall, winter and spring. Experiments on dosage
indicate that Zineb at the rate of 3 pounds on 65 13-year-old orange trees
is a satisfactory level, that more is not indicated, and that less will not
always give good results. This appears to be true whether applied at 21/2
or at 1 mile per hour with a Speed Sprayer. Because of low infestations,
test with miticides for the control of red spiders was generally inconclusive
The author wishes to express his appreciation for cooperation from Mr.
Ted Stelter, of the Rohm & Haas Company; Mr. G. H. Beanes of the Gen-
eral Chemical Division; Mr. Bradley Hogg of Chemical Sales; Mr. Joseph
Murphy of California Spray Chemical Company, and Mr. Robert Lassiter
of Lyons Fertilizer Company, for help in making counts, furnishing ma-
terials, and planning some of the experiments.
FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service
to Florida Farmers through the facilities of its 14 Stores, Lab-
oratory and technically trained Field Staff.
THE KILGORE SEED COMPANY
GENERAL OFFICES AND LABORATORY
PLANT CITY, FLORIDA
Stores located at
BELLE GLADE, FT. MYERS, GAINESVILLE, HOMESTEAD,
MIAMI, OCALA, PAHOKEE, PALMETTO, PLANT CITY,
POMPANO, SANFORD, VERO BEACH, WAUCHULA,
WEST PALM BEACH
_ __ __
SOME NOTES ON THE RECENTLY ENACTED FLORIDA
STRUCTURAL PEST CONTROL ACT OF 19591
F. ROBERT DU CHANOIS 2
The 37th Legislature of the State of Florida meeting in biennial session
enacted the new Florida Structural Pest Control Act in June, 1959. The
Act was approved by the Governor on June 19, 1959, and took effect on
October 1, 1959. This Act repeals and supersedes the Florida Structural
Pest Control Act of 1947, which was amended in 1955. The Florida Pest
Control Association, working through its special Legislative Committeee
with the assistance of the Special Assistant Attorney General, is largely
responsible for instigating the newly enacted Law. This Legislative Com-
mittee composed of prominent representatives of the structural pest con-
trol industry held several public hearings to consider the new legislation
and was instrumental in passage of the Law. In this discussion I will
refer to the Structural Pest Control Act of 1947 as the "old law" and the
Structural Pest Control Act of 1959 as the "new law."
Certain features of the new law reflect significant changes in, additions
to, or deletions from, the old law and need some comment.
DEFINITIONS. The new law defines structure as "any type of edifice
or building, together with the land thereunder and within two feet thereof,
together with the contents thereof, together with any patio or terrace
thereof; also, that portion of land upon which work has commenced for
the erection of an edifice or building; also, every railway car, box car,
truck, trailer, ship, boat, airplane, common carrier, dock or wharf." The
old law has no definition of this term.
The new law deletes definitions for fumigants, insecticides, rodenticides,
and repellents found in the old law.
COMMISSION. The old Structural Pest Control Board is now known in
the new law as the Structural Pest Control Commission of Florida.
ENFORCEMENT. The State Board of Health is now empowered to pro-
ceed in the courts of the State by mandamus, injunction, or other actions
for the enforcement of this measure or against any unauthorized person
engaging in structural pest control. This feature was not clearly stated
in the old law. One of the apparent salient features of the new law is its
greater ease of enforceability.
RULES.3 The State Board of Health is now required to obtain the ad-
vice of the Commission before its Rules and Regulations become effective,
SA paper presented at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomo-
logical Society, Miami, Sept. 10-12, 1959.
SEntomologist, Bureau of Entomology, Florida State Board of Health,
3 Any person who violates any Structural Pest Control Rule of the State
Board of Health is guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be
punished by a fine of not more than $100.00 or by imprisonment not exceed-
ing five days or both in the discretion of the Court having jurisdiction.
The Florida Entomologist
and the Commission may make written recommendations to the State
Board of Health concerning Board Rules. To formulate these recommenda-
tions, the Commission may appoint a supervisory committee or may hold
public hearings or may counsel with the certified operators or the Florida
Pest Control Association.
INSPECTION. As in the old law the State Inspectors enforce the meas-
ure and report all violations to the Board and Commission. As all the
State Board of Health Regional Entomologists are appointed as Inspectors,
they can also report violations, if necessary.
LICENSES. The fee for business license and for annual renewals there-
of paid to the State Board of Health, which was formerly $25.00, has been
reduced to $5.00 in the new law. The difference of $20.00 is now transferred
to the fee for the renewal of structural pest control certificates, so that
now the fee for the latter is $25.00 payable to the Commission. This change
in the recipient of the larger revenue will enable the Structural Pest Con-
trol Commission to operate more effectively and freely in carrying out the
provisions of the measure and in promoting structural pest control.
In the event of death, loss of certified operator or other emergency,
the new law enables any one Commissioner to issue emergency certifi-
cates or special I D cards for a period of ten days upon request of the
licensee. The Commission itself may renew these for additional periods
of 90 days up to a maximum of one year, as in the old law.
OCCUPATIONAL LICENSE. The new law provides that no municipality
or county shall issue an occupational license to any structural pest con-
trol business coming under the provisions of the Act, unless a license has
first been procured for each business location from the State Board of
Health. There is no such provision in the old law.
STRUCTURAL PEST CONTROL COMMISSION OF FLORIDA. The new law gives
the Commission more latitude in discharging its dues, such as meeting from
time to time and from place to place and the power to establish and re-
establish executive offices in any county. The Commission may also employ
and at its pleasure discharge such employees as may be necessary. The
Commission is enabled under the new law to obtain subpoenas through the
courts for witnesses to appear before it.
CERTIFICATE. The annual renewal fee for the structural pest control
certificate is now changed from $5.00 to $25.00 as referred to previously.
QUALIFICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATION. Under the new law, each applicant
for certification must possess the following basic qualifications:
1. Three years as a service employee in structural pest control, one
year of which must have been in this state immediately preceding applica-
tion for certification.
2. A degree with advanced training or major in Entomology from a
recognized college or university, together with six months practical experi-
ence in structural pest control in this state under proper supervision of a
3. Each applicant must have knowledge of practical and scientific facts
of structural pest control.
In view of the power of the Commission to make necessary rules which
are not inconsistent with those of the State Board of Health, it is very
Vol. 43, No. 1
Du Chanois: Florida Pest Control Act of 1959
probable that the Commission will relax these qualifications to require an
applicant to possess either the first or the second prerequisites, in addition
to passing a written examination. As the law now reads, it can be seen
that the acquisition of a structural pest control certificate becomes very
SPECIAL I D CARDS. The new law differs from the old in providing for
the issuance by the Commission of special I D cards in one or more catego-
ries of work to individuals who qualify under the measure. The Commis-
sion will give written examination to those who wish to qualify for these
special "junior certificates." The State Board of Health will provide for
privileges, duties, and limitations regarding holders of special I. D. cards,
in its rules.
LIENS ON REAL AND PERSONAL PROPERTY. The new law differs from
the old by enabling a structural pest control licensee to enforce a lien on
real and personal property for any money that shall be owing it for labor
or services performed or materials furnished.
EXEMPTIONS. The new law does not apply to the use of wood preserva-
tives used only on wood, properly pretreated timber, properly pretreated
lumber, or metal shields, when used in construction on structures. In ad-
dition, the Act does not apply to structural pest control, other than fumi-
gation, performed by a person upon his own individual residence or property.
THERMAL-AEROSOL LAW. The provisions of the Thermal-Aerosol Act of
1949 will terminate as of January 1, 1965, at which time each thermal-
aerosol certificate shall become void. The holders of these certificates are
entitled to apply for examination in the category of general household
GRANDFATHER CLAUSE. The new law in effect prescribes three catego-
ries of work as opposed to four in the old law, viz. termites and wood-de-
stroying organisms, fumigation and general household pests (includes ro-
The Florida Structural Pest Control Act of 1959 would appear to be
more enforceable, thus enabling the State Board of Health to fulfill its
duties and responsibilities more effectively and expeditiously; it facilitates
and strengthens the functions of the Structural Pest Control Commission;
and it liberalizes certain provisions of the law in certain respects favoring
the structural pest control industry itself. It would surely seem to be the
duty and obligation of every Entomologist, irrespective of specialization,
to encourage, assist, and counsel the structural pest control industry to
the end that it may some day become a universally self-regulating segment
of commerce. The services offered by the pest control industry are based
upon fundamental principles of applied entomology. The intrinsic value of
applied entomology to man in modern day-to-day living should stand out,
in part, in bold relief in the work performed by the pest control operator.
By the same token the pest control industry is soundly indebted to the
science of Entomology for its origin and present stature and has an obli-
gation to support the science in every way possible.