Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00186
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1961
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00186
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text



Volume 44, No. 1 March, 1961

Tissot, A. N., L. A. Hetrick, and Andrew J. Rogers-
History of The Florida Entomological Society ........---........ 1

Davis, A. N., and J. B. Gahan-New Insecticides for the
Control of Salt-Marsh Mosquitoes --.................................... 11

Brooks, Andrew J., and Harold George Scott-Preliminary
Studies of Insect and Mold Infestations of Anticoag-
ulant Rodenticide Baits --... ----... ---................. .................. 15

Harris, Emmett D., Jr.-Control of Some Insects Attacking
Celery in the Everglades ......-----...-.... --.. -----............ 25

Causey, Nell B.-Three New Millipeds of the Genus
Cleidogona (Cleidogonidae: Chordeumida) from
the Southern States-------....-.... -.......-.... ..... -............................. 35

De Leon, Donald-The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico,
Part II (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) -....................................... 41

Hetrick, L. A.-Kalotermes Approximatus Snyder Infests
Roseaceous Trees (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) -..-........... 53

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


OFFICERS FOR 1960-1961
President... .-------------........-......-..-................................... Lewis Berner
Vice-President..- .........-..-----------------........ ..................... W. C. Rhoades
Secretary -----------....................-........................... Lawrence A. Hetrick
Treasurer ---------..................................................-- R.obert E. Waites
SJohn R. King
Other Members of Executive Committee R. W. Baranowski
Andrew J. Rogers

Editorial Board
Lewis Berner-..--................. ..---............Editor
Norman C. Hayslip ..---............--- ....Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites-.....- --...............- Business Manager

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post
office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and
orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 2425,
University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
TOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Suggestions for the prepara-
tion of papers submitted for publication in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST."
FLA. ENT. 41(4): 193-194. 1958.
One zinc etching, not to exceed one-half page in size, or the equivalent
thereof, will be allowed free. The actual cost of all additional illustrations
must be borne by contributors. In general, the cost of a full page zinc
etching is $7.90. Reprints of articles may be secured by authors if they
are ordered before, or at the time proofs are received for correcting; 25
copies furnished free to authors.

Each additional
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ........................................ $ 5.25 $ 6.25 $ .98
5-8 ........................................ 8.75 10.75 2.10
9-16 ........................................ 13.00 17.10 3.00
17-20 ...... -----.................................. 19.25 23.50 4.00
More than 20 pages,
per page ............................ .98 .88 .19
Additional for covers with title and author's name,
First 50 ......... ----...........$5.25 Additional, each...........$ .02



Eleven men interested in entomology and related subjects met in Science
Hall on the campus of the University of Florida, the afternoon of January
5, 1916. The group gathered for the expressed purpose of organizing an
entomological society and they proceeded in a businesslike manner. The
name Florida Entomological Society must have seemed so appropriate for
the new organization that it was adopted without consideration of any other
name. J. R. Watson, who was so intimately associated with the Society
until his death in 1946, was selected as temporary chairman, and E. W.
Berger as temporary secretary. A committee of three was appointed to
draw up a constitution which was adopted at the first regular meeting on
January 17, 1916. At that meeting the first permanent officers of the
Society were elected. They were: President, J. R. Watson; Vice-President,
Wilmon Newell; Secretary-Treasurer, R. N. Wilson; and Member of the
Executive Committee, H. S. Davis.
The records and proceedings of the Society are not clear on the matter
of charter members, but apparently all persons who affiliated with the
Society during the first five meetings in 1916 were considered as charter
members. These included E. W. Berger, T. N. Bradford, K. E. Bragdon,
H. S. Davis, H. L. Dozier, J. C. Goodwin, Fritz Hatcher, S. P. Harn, A. C.
Mason, Wilmon Newell, F. M. O'Byrne, W. E. Pennington, Frank Stirling,
T. Van Hyning, Shirley B. Walker, J. R. Watson, and R. N. Wilson.
The Florida Entomological Society has the distinction of being the first
entomological society organized in the South and it is among the twelve
oldest in the United States. Notices of its establishment appeared in the
February 4, 1916, issue of Science, the February number of Journal of Eco-
nomic Entomology and in the March, 1916, number of Entomological News.
Each of these reports named the. officers of the new society and the item
in Science gave the titles of papers read at the first meeting. Entomological
News wished the Society "a long and useful life."
Few scientific organizations have enjoyed the rapid growth achieved by
the Florida Entomological Society. During the first year its membership
quadrupled and by the end of 1917 the Society had 100 active members and
20 associate members. However, as so often happens with individuals and
organizations, the period of healthy growth and active interest enjoyed by
the Society during its formative years, at times gave way to apathy and
loss of interest, as well as a reduction in members.
In the beginning, monthly meetings were held except during summer,
when many of the members were away on vacation. Occasionally special
meetings were called when distinguished entomologists such as Doctors
Herbert Osborn, H. T. Fernald, O. A. Johannsen, W. S. Blatchley, and others
visited the University of Florida campus. Sometimes the Society held

SPrepared at request of Dr. Ellwood C. Nance, former President Uni-
versity of Tampa, for use in his three volume history of Florida.
SEntomologist, Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida.
3 Professor, Entomology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Entomologist, Florida State Board of Health, Entomological Research
Center, Vero Beach, Florida.

The Florida Entomologist

joint sessions with other organizations, such as Florida Academy of Sciences
and the Horticultural Seminar, when these met in Gainesville. In spite
of the increasing membership, attendance at the monthly meetings remained
about the same. Minutes of the meetings show that eight to twelve persons
usually were present and for the most part these faithful few were the
men who founded the Society. In the early nineteen-twenties, meetings be-
came less regular and attendance poorer. This condition persisted until the
mid-thirties, and in some years only one meeting was held. The financial
condition of the Society suffered similar deterioration and it seemed doubt-
ful that the organization could long survive.
A handful of staunch members, led by Professor J. R. Watson, kept the
Society alive through these years of adversity. There are no published
reports, and no minutes can be found, so it seems fairly certain that no
business meeting was held in 1934 and it may be assumed that the officers
of the previous year continued to serve. On May 24, 1935, a meeting was
held, at which time the following officers were elected: President, W. L.
Thompson; Vice-President, A. N. Tissot; Secretary, G. B. Merrill; Editor,
J. R. Watson; and Business Manager, H. E. Bratley. At that meeting, on
.the recommendation of Professor Watson, the Society voted to hold annual
meetings in lieu of the nominal monthly ones. The first in the series of
.annual meetings was held in Gainesville, October 30-31, 1936. Fifteen
papers were presented at this meeting. There was a good attendance of
members and guests and everyone enthusiastically acclaimed the plan to
hold annual meetings rather than more frequent ones. Since 1936, meet-
ings have been held yearly, except in 1945 when the meeting was canceled
because of war-imposed, travel restrictions which would have held attend-
ance to a very small number. In that year election of officers was held by
mail ballot. In spite of the success of the 1936 Annual Meeting it was felt
that further stimulation of interest was desirable so President R. L. Miller
called a general meeting to be held in Gainesville, March 20, 1937, for the
purpose of reorganizing and revitalizing the Society. At that time the
group authorized the president to appoint a committee to prepare a new
constitution and by-laws. J. W. Wilson, J. R. Watson, E. W. Berger, and
J. T. Creighton were named to serve on this committee. The committee
functioned promptly and well and at the 1937 Annual Meeting a proposed
constitution and by-laws was presented by Dr. Creighton. The Society
voted to accept this as a temporary working guide for one year. It was
formally adopted at the 1939 Annual Meeting. This document, patterned
after the constitution of the American Association of Economic Entomol-
ogists, gave the Society excellent guidance for its various activities, and
specifically defined and provided for all normal functions of the organization.
With only minor amendments the constitution has served the Society well
through the intervening years.
The 1948 meeting was historically significant for two reasons. Each
of the previous annual meetings had been designated by the year in which
it was held. The 1948 meeting was known as the Thirty-first Annual Meet-
ing, as it occurred thirty-one years after the founding of the Society. Sub-
sequent meetings have been designated in ordinal sequence. This meeting
was held at the San Juan Hotel in Orlando and it thus had the distinction
of being the first meeting of the Society away from Gainesville. All phases
of entomology had flourished and expanded in recent years and entomologists

Vol. 44, No. 1

Tissot: History of Florida Entomological Society 3

were stationed in all sections of Florida. It thus was thought desirable to
hold subsequent meetings in other parts of the State where suitable facili-
ties and accommodations were available. Meetings were held at Tampa,
1949; Sanford, 1950; Winter Haven, 1951; Fort Pierce, 1952; Miami, 1953;
Bradenton, 1954; Jacksonville, 1955; Tallahassee, 1956; Orlando, 1957;
Tampa, 1958; and Miami, 1959.
Other factors undoubtedly entered the picture and it would be difficult
to determine how much of the improvement could be attributed to the
change in meeting plans; but the Society certainly has flourished since the
system of annual meetings was inaugurated. In 1938, one year after the
annual meetings were started, the Society had a membership of 79. Nine
members lived in other states and the District of Columbia and the others
were residents of Florida. Since then the scope of influence of the Society
has widened greatly and now reaches to other parts of the world. It was
reported at the 1959 annual meeting that the Society then had 289 mem-
bers. Reference to the membership roll shows that 61 of the members lived
outside the borders of Florida. Fifty of these were residents of other
states, the District of Columbia, the Canal Zone, and Puerto Rico. At least
one member of the Society lived in each of the following foreign lands:
Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and Nicaragua.
The astonishing early growth of the Society attests to the enthusiasm
and interest of its founders. These men were keenly aware of the great
importance of entomology and they were imbued with a missionary spirit
which made them want to share their interest and knowledge with others.
The purposes and ideals of the group were clearly stated as follows: "The
aim of the Society is to stimulate an active interest in entomology on the
part of Floridians. There is at the present time a marked dearth of ama-
teur entomologists in the State. Membership in the Society is by no means
limited to professional entomologists. Anyone who is interested in, or de-
sires information on 'bugs' may became a member."
A spirit of willing cooperation is good for any organization and the
Florida Entomological Society showed this trait, early in its history. With-
in months of its founding the Society considered the possibility of affiliating
with the Florida Academy of Sciences. Negotiations were finally completed
and in April, 1917, the Society became Section B of the Academy. It de-
veloped later that the constitution of the Academy required members of
sections to be full members of the Academy and pay membership dues.
This caused dissatisfaction among the entomologists and in April, 1918,
the Society voted to sever its relations with the Academy.
Late in 1917 the Lee County Entomological Society presented a petition
requesting permission to become a Branch of the Florida Entomological
Society. The constitution of the Society did not provide for branches but it
was amended and on January 15, 1918, the Lee County Society was accepted
as a Branch of the Florida Entomological Society. At the time of appli-
cation, the new Branch had twelve members. Five of these men were mem-
bers of the parent society and their President was a charter member.
Professor Watson visited the Lee County group and later wrote "A more
wide-awake and earnest group of men would be hard to find. Men who will
spend the whole of a summer day in Florida in a grove looking for citrus
canker and then spend the evening studying entomology will be heard from.
May the branch grow as has the parent." Unfortunately these fond hopes

The Florida Entomologist

were not realized and there is no further information on the Branch. A
vegetable insect laboratory at Fort Myers was closed early in 1920 and this
may have contributed to the early death of the Lee County Branch of the
The Society cooperated with various other organizations in activities of
scientific or public interest. Thus, in February, 1923, a resolution addressed
to the Gainesville City Board of Health expressed the hope that "a thor-
oughly effective anti-mosquito campaign be staged in Gainesville and vi-
cinity." Members of the Society residing in Gainesville pledged them-
selves to aid in an educational campaign and they offered to help in locating
breeding places of mosquitoes or in directing control measures. A few
months later it was reported that a mosquito control program had been set
up in Gainesville, that the Board of Health had appropriated $500 for the
work and that destruction or oiling of mosquito breeding places was in
At the 1938 Annual Meeting, the Society authorized the Executive Com-
mittee to petition the American Association of Economic Entomologists for
affiliate membership in that organization for the Florida Entomological
Society. A petition signed by the President and Secretary was sent to
the Secretary of A.A.E.E. in December, 1938. The petition was published
in the Proceedings of the Fifty-first Annual Meeting of A.A.E.E., in the
February, 1939, number of the Journal of Economic Entomology, with the
following comment: "This petition, presented at the first Executive Com-
mittee meeting, was accepted, referred to the Association and confirmed at
the final business session." The Florida Entomological Society thus be-
came the first state society to affiliate with the national group of profes-
sional entomologists.
The Florida Entomological Society and the Newell Entomological So-
ciety, a student organization at the University of Florida, were hosts to
the Cotton States Branch of the American Association of Economic En-
tomologists at the Branch meeting in Tampa, February 21-23, 1939. Once
again, in December, 1949, the Florida Entomological Society served as host
to visiting entomologists, when it met in Tampa in conjunction with the
annual meetings of the Entomological Society of America and the Ameri-
can Association of Economic Entomologists. In addition to helping with
the general arrangements for the meetings, the Society sponsored and con-
ducted a two day field trip to the Everglades National Park for about a
dozen visitors from the North.
The 1940 annual meeting was of particular significance as it marked
the completion of a quarter century of useful service by the"'Society. On
the evening of December 13, the Silver Anniversary Dinner of the Florida
Entomological Society was held in honor of Professor J. R. Watson, charter
member, first president, and Editor of the Florida Entomologist since the
first issue appeared in June, 1917. Three other charter members, Dr. Wil-
mon Newell, Dr. E. W. Berger and Mr. J. C. Goodwin also were present at
the dinner. They and several others gave acclaim to the wonderful service
rendered by Professor Watson who unquestionably had done more for the
Society than any other member.
Nearly forty years after the Lee County Branch of the Society was ad-
mitted, another group of entomologists expressed a desire to unite with the
Florida Entomological Society. At the 39th Annual Meeting in Tallahassee

Vol. 44, No. 1

Tissot: History of Florida Entomological Society

the Sub-Tropical Entomologists of Florida presented a petition requesting
affiliation as a Branch of the Society. This group came into being in Sep-
tember, 1955, when Dr. John E. Porter, U.S. Public Health Service Entom-
ologist, called together 13 persons interested in entomology, in an informal
meeting at the University of Miami to discuss the desirability of forming an
Entomological Society in the Miami area. After three more informal
monthly meetings with an average attendance of 22 persons, the group
voted to organize as the Sub-Tropical Entomologists of Florida. Meetings
are held monthly and varied phases of entomology are studied and dis-
cussed. In addition, the group plans and develops special projects designed
to stimulate interest in entomology and to "distribute widely knowledge
pertaining to insects." The petition of the group was favorably accepted,
and at the 40th annual meeting in Orlando on September 13, 1957, the Sub-
Tropical Branch in Miami was formally received into the Florida Entomo-
logical Society. This affiliation should prove highly profitable for the par-
ent society and the Branch as well as to the science of Entomology in gen-
An account of the service activities of the Florida Entomological Society
would be far from complete without some mention of the "Entomology in
Action" program. This began with the preparation, by Lewis M. Wright,
of a short talk illustrated with a series of 35 mm. color slides depicting en-
tomology in action. Mr. Wright gave the talk at the 1957 annual meeting
and stated that it and the slides were available to members of the Society
who wished to give them before service clubs, 4-H clubs, and other groups.
At that same meeting an Entomology in Action committee was named.
From Mr. Wright's slides and other sources the committee assembled thirty
8 x 10 color prints of pictures to "catch the eye of the student and possibly
cause him to consider entomology as a career." These prints were framed
and mounted on five plywood panels which form an exhibit 11 feet long.
The display was designed especially for use with 4-H groups but it has
been exhibited on many other occasions.
Several entomological events and numerous insect related activities in
Florida have greatly influenced the Florida Entomological Society through
the years. Many of the early members were State Plant Board personnel
engaged in the citrus canker eradication program. Plant Commissioner
Wilmon Newell led in this campaign and he also directed both State and
Federal forces in the successful eradication of the Mediterranean fruit fly
in 1929-30. The Plant Board played a major role in the eradication of
the second "Med fly" invasion in 1956-57 and participated in the programs
involving the citrus blackfly, the white-fringed beetles, the imported fire
ant, the screw-worm fly, and other pests.
Much entomological work is done in various divisions of the University
of Florida and other educational institutions in the State. The Department
of Entomology in the College of Agriculture has trained many of the en-
tomologists in Florida, and its staff and students established the Newell
Entomological Society. This organization joined the Florida Entomological
Society in various activities and functions. Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion entomologists in Gainesville and at the branch stations and field labo-
ratories have made worthwhile contributions to the agricultural economy of
Florida. Mention should also be made of the work of Extension Service

6 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 1

.entomologists and of naturalists in the Biology Departments of universi-
ties and colleges in Florida.
The State Board of Health was created in 1889 after an epidemic of
yellow fever in 1888. The scope of its activities gradually broadened and
in recent years this Board has had a phenomenal growth. In 1946 the Bu-
reau of Malaria Control was established and this has now become the
Division of Entomology, State Health Board. The Division established a
Research Center at Vero Beach which works on all phases of mosquito and
sand fly problems and their control. This modern laboratory is unique in
many respects and it has few equals anywhere in the world.
Federal entomologists stationed in various parts of Florida have partici-
pated in many entomological activities. Special mention should be made
of the Orlando Laboratory of the Division of Insects Affecting Man and
Animals, which did such valuable work during World War II and is still
continuing its activities. Also in Orlando, the Fruit Insects Laboratory is
doing research on pests of citrus and other subtropical fruits. Federal
entomologists also have taken part in control or eradication campaigns on
several introduced insect pests.
The phenomenal growth of agriculture in Florida brought a correspond-
ing increase in insect pest problems. This in turn produced a great need
for all sorts of pest control chemicals and application machinery, as well
as the services of workers to make, sell, and apply these products. There
has been a tremendous expansion of the insecticide industry in Florida, par-
ticularly in the past decade. Florida residents have demanded more and
more help with pest control problems in and about their homes. This has
brought a rapid increase in the number of commercial pest control agencies
in the State.
Entomologists associated with the various State, Federal, and commer-
cial organizations have formed the backbone of the Florida Entomological
Society and from their ranks have come its officers and committee mem-
bers. Many of these men later went to other assignments and the influence
of the Society thus has been carried to many parts of the world.
The original constitution of the Florida Entomological Society made
provision for certain functions and activities including publication of a
periodical. Taking advantage of this privilege, the Society, at the meeting
of April 23, 1917, voted "that a committee of three with the President as
chairman be formed to make arrangements for a publication to be issued
by this Society and to report at the next monthly meeting." The President,
Dr. E. W. Berger, appointed Professor J. R. Watson and Mr. H. S. Davis
to serve with him on the committee. At the next meeting on May 21, 1917,
the committee made its report and the Society voted to "arrange for the
publication of a periodical at intervals to be decided by the editorial staff
entitled The Florida Buggist, with the subtitle, The Official Organ of the
Florida Entomological Society. J. R. Watson was elected Editor, E. W.
Berger, Associate Editor, and K. E. Bragdon, Business Manager. It also
was provided that in so far as possible all papers presented before the
Society and all the Brief and Timely notes given at the meetings be pub-
lished either complete or in condensed form in The Florida Buggist. The
Society authorized the Business Manager "to solicit advertisements of the
proper kind to assist in financing publication; accepting advertising matter

Tissot: History of Florida Entomological Society

only from those companies who deal in articles concerning insect control,
the study of entomology, etc., and whose reliability can be guaranteed."
Volume 1, Number 1, of the Florida Buggist, designated "Summer Num-
ber", was dated June 21, 1917. This was a twelve-page issue and its size
set the pattern for the next three numbers. Later issues varied somewhat
in size but for the next several years they generally contained 16 or 20
pages. The original plan to publish one volume of four numbers per year
has been followed through the years with only slight deviation. In 1918
and again in 1924 and 1947 two numbers were combined in one issue.
During the difficult middle thirties publication became somewhat irregular,
a situation common to most entomological journals, but it never was dis-
continued. Pages in the first two volumes were numbered consecutively
through both volumes but thereafter each volume began a new page series.
Volume 42, published in 1959, contained 194 pages. The largest volume to
date, Vol. 37, published in 1954, contained 220 pages. Number 2 of this
volume was a commemorative issue for the Centennial of Professional En-
tomology and it contained 72 pages.
The name The Florida Buggist was used for only three volumes of the
periodical. With Number 1 of Volume 4 the name was changed to The
Florida Entomologist and thereby hangs a tale of one of the few serious
controversies among members of the Florida Entomological Society. The
first evidence of dissatisfaction with the name of the periodical is an item
in the minutes of the meeting of November 19, 1917, which reads: "The
matter of a suitable heading for 'The Florida Buggist' was discussed and
it was voted that this be left to the discretion of the editors." Apparently
nothing was done about this until the meeting of February 23, 1920. The
minutes for that meeting show that President G. B. Merrill, Vice President
C. M. Hunt, Secretary J. H. Montgomery and eight other members were
present and they also include this item: "Under the head of new business
Dr. Montgomery presented for consideration of the Society a proposition to
change the name of the official organ of the Society. There was consider-
able discussion which was participated in by practically all members pres-
ent, and after considering various suggestions decision was finally arrived
at that the name of the publication be changed from 'The Florida Buggist'
to 'The Florida Entomologist', this upon motion of Mr. O'Byrne seconded
by Montgomery." Obviously the decision to change the name was not
unanimous for on the editorial page of The Florida Buggist, Volume 3,
No. 4, March, 1920, we find the following: "In accordance with a vote of
the Society at its February meeting, The Florida Buggist will, with the
new volume, become The Florida Entomologist.
"Yes, and the Business Manager regrets that this change of name was
made without at least a month's previous notice, and without getting the
vote of the non-resident members. It is the writer's belief that changes of
name of a publication should not be hastily made; especially when it is
considered that The Buggist has completed three years of an honorable rec-
ord, being successful far beyond the anticipation of its originators. A few
people, somewhere in the United States, have been critical of the name
Buggist, and so the movers, for a change, Buggists who visited the En-
tomological meetings at St. Louis in December, rushed home and ology it
must be with 'all other ologies whatsoever.' Verily, like a rush to cover
of chickens from a shadow.

The Florida Entomologist

"If those who are similarly minded will voice their sentiments by writing
at once to the Secretary, there is still time for reconsideration, If the name
must be changed, the writer would suggest The Florida Insectist-a name
that is new and different and not stale. E. W. B."
Eighteen non-resident members did write as suggested. All favored the
name Florida Entomologist, so it was retained and used without further
question. The four issues of Volume 4 had "(Formerly The Florida Bug-
gist)" under the name The Florida Entomologist but thereafter even this
reminder of the old name ceased to appear.
Many persons and organizations have helped in numerous ways to make
The Florida Entomologist a successful and respected publication. Some
have made outstanding contributions that deserve special recognition. Fore-
most acclaim must go to Professor J. R. Watson who was editor of the
first issue in 1917 and who continued to serve in this capacity until his death
in 1946. He did much more than edit manuscripts and send them to the
publisher. On several occasions, particularly during the 1930's, Professor
Watson came to the rescue of the Society and advanced money from his per-
sonal funds to make publication of the Florida Entomologist possible. The
Pepper Printing Company of Gainesville has printed every issue of The
Florida Entomologist. During periods of austerity this company extended
credit much beyond reasonable demands and allowed accumulated bills to
be paid gradually. Several concerns have helped the Society through the
years by taking advertising space in The Florida Entomologist and two of
these merit special acknowledgment. The Pepper Printing Company has
carried a quarter or half page ad in every issue of the Journal. Tobacco
By-Products and Chemical Corporation placed a full page advertisement
of their products in the April, 1923, number of The Florida Entomologist
and this was continued without breaks until March, 1955, when the com-
pany was sold to another concern. Without these benefactors the publica-
tion very likely would have gone into oblivion as several entomological
journals have done.
With the death of Professor Watson, Associate Editor G. B. Merrill
assumed the responsibility of publication of The Florida Entomologist for
the remainder of 1946. He was succeeded by Dr. H. K. Wallace who served
as editor for three years. The present editor, Dr. Lewis Berner, assumed
the position with the first issue of 1950. Under his guidance the Journal
has grown in size and increased in quality and prestige. The publication
now is received on subscription by 55 libraries in the United States and
29 in foreign countries. In addition there are both domestic and foreign
On January 21, 1921, The Florida Entomological Society conferred Hon-
orary Membership upon Doctor Herbert Osborn, Professor Emeritus from
Ohio State University, who was loved by all his former students and re-
spected by entomologists everywhere. In following this custom the Society
gave like recognition to other distinguished entomologists. These are:
Dr. W. M. Barrows, 1927 Mr. W. W. Others, 1952
Dr. H. T. Fernald, 1927 Dr. O. A. Johannsen, 1952
Dr. L. O. Howard, 1928 Mr. K. E. Bragdon, 1954
Dr. Edith M. Patch, 1940 Mr. A. C. Brown, 1954
Dr. Charles T. Brues, 1948 Dr. W. V. King, 1954
Dr. James G. Needham, 1948 Mr. G. B. Merrill, 1957

Vol. 44, No. 1

Tissot: History of Florida Entomological Society

At the 1959 annual meeting it was announced that the newly instituted
Certificates of Honorary Membership had been presented to the five living
honorary members, K. E. Bragdon, A. C. Brown, W. V. King, G. B. Merrill
and W. W. Others.



J. R. Watson
E. W. Berger
F. M. O'Byrne
G. B. Merrill
J. R. Watson
Frank Stirling
G. B. Merrill
G. B. Merrill
J. S. Rogers
John Gray
W. W. Others
E. D. Ball
E. F. Grossman
R. D. Dickey
C. F. Byers
A. N. Tissot
Paul Calhoun

W. L. Thompson
W. L. Thompson
R. L. Miller
W. V. King


J. H. Montgomery
Herbert Spencer
K. E. Bragdon
T. H. Hubbell
A. H. Madden
A. C. Brown
H. K. Wallace
M. R. Osburn
E. G. Kelsheimer
M. C. Van Horn
J. A. Mulrennan
W. G. Bruce
J. W. Wilson
J. T. Griffiths
D. O. Wolfenbarger
F. Gray Butcher
Herman S. Mayeux
Milledge Murphey, Jr.
Irwin H. Gilbert
Wm. P. Hunter
A. J. Rogers

We would like to name and recognize the many members of the Society
who through the years have served it so well, by holding office, working on
committees or rendering other necessary services. All too often their only
reward was the inner satisfaction that comes from doing a job well. Lack
of space does not permit such acknowledgement so, on behalf of the Society,
we say to all these deserving persons a grateful "Thank You."


Science N.S. 43: No. 1101 p. 167. 1916.
Journal of Economic Entomology. 9: p. 250. 1916.
Entomological News. 27: p. 133. 1916.
Florida Buggist-Florida Entomologist. Vols. 1-42, 1917-1959. (Especially
Vol. 40, pp 39-44, 1957, "A Review of the History of the Florida Entomologi-
cal Society at its Fortieth Anniversary", by J. W. Wilson).
Minutes of Meetings and other unpublished records of The Florida Entomo-
logical Society.

SThere is no evidence that an election was held and it is presumed that
the officers carried over from 1933.


CYPREX 65-W...

Cyprex's combination of eradicant and protectant prop-
erties makes it the most significant fungicide discovery in
the last 50 years. First rated "best in test" in country-
wide trials, Cyprex has now had two seasons of outstand-
ingly successful use in all major apple, pear and cherry
areas. Ask your County Agent, Technical Field Service
Man or Experiment Station about rates and timing for
all-season use of Cyprex.


There's no way to get a better insecticide deal in terms of
number of insects controlled, safety in handling, control
of DDT and DDD-resistant insects, and an extra margin
of safety to fruit and foliage of sensitive varieties. You
can spend more dollars on other insecticides, but you can't
get better value. Make malathion the backbone of your
American Cyanamid Company
Agricultural Division VA NA M.& 1
New York 20, N. Y.



Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A.

As malathion was found to be an effective adulticide for salt-marsh
mosquitoes, Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.) and A. sollicitans (Wlk.), when
dispersed in aerial sprays (Gahan et al., 1956) and ground-generated aero-
sols (Rogers et al., 1957), it has become the principal insecticide used against
these species in Florida. Although there have been no reports that it is
less effective now than when first used, efforts are being continued to find
other materials that will be even more effective. This paper reports the
results that have been obtained during 1959-1960 against these species of
salt-marsh mosquitoes with 2 new materials that appear to be superior to
malathion, are not highly toxic to warm-blooded animals, and are expected
to be commercially available in this country. Included are the results of
tests run to evaluate their effectiveness in the laboratory as larvicides and
adulticides, and in the field as adulticides.
Bayer 29493 (O,O-dimethyl O- (4-methylthio-m-tolyl) phosphorothioate,
marketed in some countries as Baytex) is a brown liquid that has a faint
odor. It is soluble in most organic solvents and insoluble in water. Dibrom
(1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl dimethyl phosphate) is a liquid that is
slightly soluble in aliphatic solvents, highly soluble in aromatic solvents,
and insoluble in water. The latter compound is stable under anhydrous
conditions, but is almost completely hydrolyzed in water within 48 hours.
LABORATORY TESTS AGAINST LARVAE: A series of laboratory tests was
conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these 2 compounds as larvicides.
They were compared with malathion and DDT against fourth-instar larvae
of a laboratory reared colony of Aedes taeniorhynchus. The chemicals were
added to 250 ml. of distilled water in glass beakers as solutions. in a small
amount of acetone. Twenty-five larvae were introduced into each beaker
and the mortalities were recorded after 24 hours. Each compound was
tested at 5 to 7 concentrations selected to produce a range of mortalities.
Two beakers were used for each concentration. The results of these tests
are shown in Table 1.


Concentration (p.p.m.)

Larvicide 1 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005

Bayer 29493 100 99 48
Malathion 92 49 3 0 0
Dibrom 100 84 27 5 0 -
DDT 54 54 32 14 11 10

12 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 1

Bayer 29493 was at least 10 times as effective as any of the other ma-
terials. Malathion was superior to Dibrom and DDT, but the differences
between malathion and Dibrom were slight. Previous field work with
malathion and DDT has shown they are not outstanding larvicides against
salt-marsh mosquitoes at the present time. Resistance to DDT has become
so extensive that the use of this chemical has been curtailed greatly, and
studies by Davis and Gahan (1957) have shown that malathion must be
used at dosages above 0.1 pound per acre to produce good control. Although
no field larvicide tests have been conducted with Bayer 29493, it appears
to be effective enough to provide satisfactory control at low application
LABORATORY TESTS AGAINST ADULTS.-Bayer 29493 and Dibrom were
evaluated as contact sprays against adult mosquitoes from the laboratory
colony of Aedes taeniorhynchus. The insects were exposed to a range of
concentrations of each insecticide in a wind tunnel. The wind tunnel con-
sisted of a cylindrical tube 4 inches in diameter through which a column
of air was moved at 4 m.p.h. by a suction fan. The mosquitoes in a cyl-
indrical screen cage were placed in the center of the tube. One-fourth
milliliter of insecticide solution was atomized at a pressure of 1 p.s.i. into
the mouth of the tunnel and the mosquitoes were exposed momentarily to
the insecticide as it was drawn through the cage. After treatment the in-
sects were transferred to untreated screen holding cages and furnished a
solution of honey in water. The mortalities were recorded after 24 hours.
The results of these and similar tests with malathion and DDT appear in
Table 2.


Concentration (percent)

Insecticide 0.5 0.25 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0025

Bayer 29493 100 93 65 23
Dibrom -- 100 78 17 2
Malathion 100 100 47 3 -
DDT 91 82 46 23 -

Bayer 29493 was slightly more effective than Dibrom, and about twice
as effective as malathion. DDT was about 1/10 as effective as malathion
at the LC-50 and 1/28 as effective at the LC-90.
FIELD TESTS AGAINST ADULTS.-Bayer 29493, Dibrom, and malathion
were applied to 50-acre plots in citrus groves that were naturally infested
with adults of Aedes taeniorhynchus. Fuel oil solutions of the insecticides
at various concentrations were sprayed from a Stearman airplane flying
100-foot swaths at a speed of 85 miles an hour and an altitude of 50 to 75
feet. All sprays were applied at the rate of 3 quarts per acre, early in
the morning under favorable meteorological conditions. Each concentra-
tion was tested 3 times.

Davis: New Insecticides for Control of Mosquitoes 13

Control was determined by making pre- and post-treatment counts of
the mosquitoes that landed on the front and back of two observers who
stood side by side facing in opposite directions at 10 different locations in
each of the treated areas. From these counts the number per man per
minute was calculated. Post-treatment counts were made after 6 hours.
Other observations were made after 24 hours, but by that time mosquitoes
had infiltrated from unsprayed areas and the control was below its maxi-
mum. The results of these tests are given in Table 3.


Insecticide Pretreatment Percent control after
(pound/acre) counts 6 hours

Bayer 29493 0.05 66 99
.025 89 87
.01 30 61
Dibrom .05 55 100
.025 25 99
.012 53 56
Malathion .1 103 97
.05 26 90
.025 112 41

Bayer 29493 and Dibrom were highly effective, producing 99% reduc-
tions at 0.025-0.05 pound per acre. Bayer 29493 also gave 87% control at
0.025 pound per acre. Malathion produced 90% control at 0.05 pound and
97% control at 0.1 pound. Neither malathion nor Dibrom was highly effec-
tive at 0.025 pound per acre.
DISCUSsION. Bayer 29493 and Dibrom appear to be safe to use around
inhabited areas. According to information furnished by their manufac-
turers they are less toxic than DDT to warm-blooded animals, but more
toxic than malathion. The acute oral LD-50 reported for rats is 310 mg./kg.
for Bayer 29493, and 430 mg./kg. for Dibrom. The acute dermal LD-50
of Dibrom on rats is 1,100 mg./kg.
No information is available on the toxicity of Dibrom to fish. The
results of this study indicate the chemical is not an outstanding larvicide,
so its effects on fish probably will be of no importance in determining
whether this insecticide will be used. However, Bayer 29493 shows promise
of being a very useful larvicide and its activity against fish is important.
Jung (1959) studied the effect of this compound on Lebistes reticulatus and
found it produced 100% mortality in 48 hours at a concentration of 10
p.p.m. but no mortality in 48 hours at 1 p.p.m. The latter concentration
is 100 times that required to kill 99% of the larvae of Aedes taeniorhynchus,
so it should be possible to select dosages that are effective against these
mosquitoes but not dangerous to fish.
If Bayer 29493 and Dibrom can be marketed at a price that will make
them competitive with malathion, both can be very useful in adult control

14 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 1

operations against salt-marsh mosquitoes. Bayer 29493 also could prove
to be a highly effective larvicide.

Bayer 29493 and Dibrom were more effective than malathion or DDT
in laboratory and field tests against adults of Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.).
In field tests both compounds produced 99% reduction within 6 hours at a
dosage of 0.05 pound per acre, and Bayer 29493 gave 87% control at 0.025
pound. Bayer 29493 was at least 10 times as effective as any of the other
materials in laboratory larvicide tests.

Davis, A. N., and J. B. Gahan. 1957. Field tests with four phosphorus
insecticides against salt-marsh mosquitoes in Florida. Mosquito
News. 17(3): 180-3.
Gahan, J. B., J. H. Bertholf, A. N. Davis, Jr., and C. N. Smith. 1956.
Field tests with two phosphorothioates against resistant salt-marsh
mosquitoes. Mosquito News. 16(2): 91-3.
Jung, H. F. 1959. A new phosphoric ester residual insecticide with a low
order of toxicity. Bull. World Health Organ. 21: 215-21.
Rogers, A. J., E. J. Beidler, and C. B. Rathburn, Jr. 1957. A progress
report on dosage tests with mosquito adulticides. Mosquito News.
17(3): 190-4.



The traditional rodenticides (arsenic, strychnine, thallium, phosphorus,
and zinc phosphide) have always presented a hazard to humans and do-
mestic animals. In addition, rodents receiving sublethal doses of these
poisons develop bait shyness. With the development of warfarin in 1947,
a less obvious, more effective rodenticide program became possible. This
rodenticide, first of the anticoagulants, is relatively safe for use around
man, and rodents never seem to develop bait shyness toward it. Other anti-
coagulants have been developed, and now pival, fumarin, tomorin, PMP,
diphacin, as well as warfarin, are widely used.
In order to be killed by an anticoagulant, the rodent must eat a little
every day for several days. One dose, accidental or purposeful, will kill
neither rodent nor man. Since death is produced by internal hemorrhage,
a human ingesting multiple doses can be treated effectively with vitamin
K and, if indicated, whole blood transfusion by the nearest physician even
when that physician does not know the cause of the hemorrhagic condition.
This makes the anticoagulants remarkably safe.
For some reason, the rodents do not seem to connect their weakened
state with the anticoagulant poisoned food and no bait shyness develops.
The rodents continue to feed at the anticoagulant bait stations until they die.
However, certain difficulties are encountered in the use of anticoagu-
lant rodenticides. Most have to do with the length of time baits must re-
main exposed to bring about effective control. For Norway rats (Rattus
norvegicus), 14 days of exposure are recommended even though the first
rats begin to die about the fifth day. For house mice (Mus musculus),
up to 30 days of exposure are recommended with the first mice dying about
the fifth day. In addition, preventive baiting, which requires constant ex-
posure, is being practiced. In preventive baiting, permanent anticoagulant
rodenticide stations are set up and maintained continuously to prevent re-
infestation of stores, warehouses, etc., previously made rodent free.


Materials used in anticoagulant rodenticide baits to attract rodents are
also attractive to other forms of life. Exposed baits may soon become in-
fested with beetles, silverfish, ants, and other stored-food insects. If baits
become wet, or if the humidity is high, mold soon forms. Rodents do not
seem to be disturbed by insects in their food, but they tend to refuse moldy
baits. The insects, while they do not discourage acceptance by the rodents,
can destroy large quantities of bait material, particularly in permanent
preventive stations. In addition, valuable stored foods and other items
may become infested with insects introduced by anticoagulant rodenticide

1Vector Control Specialist and Scientist Officer, Training Branch, Com-
municable Disease Center, Public Health Service, U. S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta 22, Georgia.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 44, No. 1

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18 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 1

baits, and many pest control operators have lost customers because they
introduced insect infestations during rodent control operations. Also, bait
materials are often stored for a long time in rodent control storerooms be-
fore use, and economic loss from these infestations can be considerable.
Exposed grain is rapidly contaminated by airborne spores. Also, fungus
spores and insect infestations are usually already present in newly milled
grain. The material may appear insect free, but it is probable that insect
eggs are present, as widely-used modern milling processes neither remove
nor destroy all insect eggs. In addition, many grain storage warehouses
are heavily infested with insects, and freshly-cleaned grain becomes re-
infested rapidly.

Figure 1. The confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuVal.

The confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuVal (figure 1) is the
commonest pest of broken (milled or damaged) grain as well as the one
causing the greatest economic loss. Females lay 400 to 500 eggs each
during their adult life span of about 1 year with egg laying beginning
within a few days after emergence of the adults. Distinguishing features
of the different larval stages have not been worked out (Cotton, 1956, p.
40). At 71.5F., the cycle from egg to adult requires about 93 days divided
as follows: egg, 14 days; larva, 61 days; pupa, 18 days (Chapman and Baird,
1934). Type of broken grain involved causes variance in the length of the
life cycle (Sweetman and Palmer, 1928).
It has been reported (Laudani et al., 1953; Saunders and Bay, 1958)
that pival inhibits or prevents the development of flour beetles while war-
farin has little if any detrimental effect.

A study was made by the authors of (1) the effects of warfarin, pivalyn
(sodium pival), and fumarin on the development of the confused flour beetle
in rodenticide baits; (2) the effects of these rodenticides on the spontaneous
development of molds in baits; (3) the effect of 0.01% malathion on insect
infestations in the baits; and (4) the effect of 5% sugar on the development
of insect infestations in anticoagulant baits.
PROCEDURES: Thirty-six jars were prepared as shown in Table 1. In-
gredients were thoroughly mixed and 32 jars kept at room temperature
and below 50% relative humidity (conditions similar to those at which anti-
coagulant baits might be stored). The other 4 jars were kept at room
temperature, but at about 95% relative humidity in a specially devised high-

Brooks: Studies of Insect and Mold Infestations

humidity chamber (Brooks and Scott, 1958). Figure 2 shows the experi-
ment in progress.

Observations were made on (1) spontaneous development of molds, (2)
survival of adult beetles in seeded jars, (3) rate of reproduction and larval
development in seeded jars, and (4) spontaneous development of insects.
RESULTS: Mold had not developed at the end of 123 days in the 32
jars kept at less than 50% relative humidity. Mold development in the 4
jars kept at 95% relative humidity is shown in Table 2. Only a thin layer
of surface mold was visible in the pivalyn test jar after 123 days. Figure
3 shows the pivalyn jar and the control after 42 days.


Jar Musty Odor Visible Mold Mold Throughout Jar

33 (warfarin) 7th day 10th day 28th day
34 (pivalyn) 44th day 51st day
35 (fumarin). 7th day 10th day ... 28th day
36 (control) 7th day 10th day 28th day

Little mortality of adult beetles was observed in jars not containing
0.01% malathion. In the malathion jars, however, mortality was rapid and
complete (Table 3).


Number of Seeded Adult
2 days 5 days

Beetles Surviving after
29 days 45 days

* m-test jar contained

Jar No.


0.01% malathion.

The Florida Entomologist

00 NOT

with 4 jars at left.

3 4 6


Figure 3. Comparison of mold growth in jars with and
without pivalyn after 42 days.
. ;, ;. .- ':. ;-
cz .J

.-i ; ..

without pivalyn after 42 days.

Vol. 44, No. 1

Brooks: Studies of Insect and Mold Infestations

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The Florida Entomologist

No larvae developed in the 8 seeded jars containing malathion. In
the other seeded jars, speed of reproduction and development varied as
shown in Table 4. Adults appeared first in the control jars, then in the
warfarin jars, and then in the fumarin jars. One adult emerged from the
jar containing 5% pivalyn and sugar, but the other beetles in this jar were
still in the early larval instars. At the conclusion of the experiment (123
days) only early larval beetles were present in the pivalyn jar not contain-
ing sugar. It appeared that third generation adults emerged in the control
and warfarin jars before the conclusion of the experiment.
At the end of 123 days, none of the unseeded jars showed any signs of
insect infestation.
This experiment indicates: (1) that mold will develop in warfarin and
fumarin baits left under humid conditions for the 15 to 30 days recom-
mended for domestic rodent control, but that no mold problem will de-
velop with pivalyn unless baits are exposed for longer than 7 weeks; (2)
that adult Tribolium confusum feeding on anticoagulant rodenticide baits
will not be killed; (3) that development of T. confusum infestations will
occur freely in warfarin baits, will be retarded in fumarin baits, and will
occur only rarely in pivalyn baits; (4) that 0.01% malathion will keep
anticoagulant baits free of T. confusum, and (5) that addition of sugar to
fumarin and pivalyn baits decreases their insecticidal effect on T. confusum.
From the practical standpoint this indicates that neither warfarin nor
fumarin baits should be used in humid areas without the addition of a mold
retardant chemical. Pivalyn could be used under these circumstances, but
if permanent preventive baiting is used, fresh baits will be required every
7 weeks. The chance of introducing a beetle infestation with warfarin
baits is good, but such will probably not occur with fumarin or pivalyn
baits. Maintenance of insect-free baits under storage conditions will be
easier with fumarin and pivalyn than with warfarin. Addition of 0.01%
malathion to baits essentially eliminates the insect problem. Malathion
is toxic to man (U. S. Public Health Service, 1953), but the anticoagulants
are also poisonous and baits should be protected from human consumption
whether or not they contain malathion. Finally, sugar should not ordi-
narily be added to fumarin and pivalyn baits as it partially negates their
insecticidal qualities.
Experiments were conducted to determine (1) the effect of anticoagu-
lant poisons on the development of mold and confused flour beetles (Tri-
bolium confusum) in rodenticide baits; and (2) the effect of 0.01% mala-
thion and 5% sugar on T. confusum in these baits.
The results indicate that: (1) mold will develop in warfarin and fumarin
baits left under humid conditions for the 15 to 30 days recommended for
domestic rodent control, but that no mold will develop with pivalyn unless
baits are exposed for longer than 7 weeks; (2) adult T. confusum feeding
on anticoagulant rodenticide baits will not be killed; (3) development of
T. confusum will occur freely in warfarin baits, but will be greatly re-
tarded in fumarin baits, and will occur only rarely in pivalyn baits; (4)
0.01% malathion will keep baits free of T. confusum; and (5) use of sugar

Vol. 44, No. 1

Brooks: Studies of Insect and Mold Infestations 23

in baits containing fumarin and pivalyn will lessen their insecticidal ac-
Brooks, A. J., and H. G. Scott. 1958. High-humidity chamber. Med. Tech.
Bull. 9(3) : 104-105.
Chapman, R., and L. Baird. 1934. The biotic constants of Tribolium
confusum DuVal. Jour. Exp. Zool. 68: 293-304.
Cotton, R. T. 1956. Pests of stored grain and grain products. Minneap-
olis, Minn., Burgess Pub. Co. ii + 306 pp.
Laudani, H., D. Davis, R. Guy, and H. Vanderford. 1953. The compara-
tive resistance to insect infestation of anticoagulant rodenticide baits.
Modern San. 5: 35-37.
Saunders, J. Palmer, and E. C. Bay. 1958. Resistance of some rodenticidal
baits to infestation by Tribolium confusum DuVal. Jour. Econ. Ent.
51(3) : 299-302.
Sweetman, M., and L. Palmer. 1928. Insects as test animals in vitamin
research. Jour. Biol. Chem. 77: 33-52.
U. S. Public Health Service. 1956. Clinical memoranda on economic poi-
sons. Washington, D. C., Government Print. Office. vii + 78 pp.

00 NOT


At the root of a



Smaller than these dots ... the nema-
tode is destructive enough to cause
more annual damage to agriculture
than any insect known to man.
Nematodes choke off the roots of
plants so that nourishment which would
normally be gained from the soil is
severely reduced. When nematodes in-
vade a field, the plants wither, their
growth is stunted and in extreme cases
the plants die.
Shell Chemical Company, a pioneer
in the field of nematology, working
closely with federal, state and local
agricultural specialists, has developed
two outstanding soil fumigants for pro-
tecting plants from nematode damage.
They are D-D Soil Fumigant for pre-
planting application and Nemagon
Soil Fumigant, a potent soil fumigant
which can be used for treating living
plants. Both of these products have
been used by farmers all over the world
in the never-ending battle against the
This is just another example of how
Shell Chemical Company is helping the
agricultural community grow bigger,
better yields for a growing America.

110 West 51st Street, New York 20, N.Y.


Everglades Experiment Station, University of Florida, Belle Glade

The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.), and the serpentine leaf
miner, Liriomyza pusilla (Meig.), have been found more frequently than
other insect pests on celery for several years. The green celeryworm,
Platysenta sutor (Gn.), and other caterpillars are more populous in the
late spring or early summer. Wilson and Hayslip (1951) have discussed
the insects attacking celery and their control.
During cooler periods of the 1958-59 growing season many Everglades
celery growers complained about failure to get adequate control of the
green peach aphid. Investigations were conducted primarily to evaluate
several insecticides for green peach aphid control but with the secondary
purpose of evaluating these materials for effectiveness against other celery
pests. An experiment was conducted to determine if a mixture of toxa-
phene and parathion would be more effective than either chemical used
alone. Harris (1959) and Baranowski (1959) discussed reasons for evalu-
ating mixtures of insecticides.
Wolfenbarger (1960) reported that there had been frequent instances
of an insecticide being initially effective against the green peach aphid on
potatoes but with a subsequent decrease in effectiveness after a few years
of use. He reported that parathion remained effective for about 10 years,
that toxaphene was effective in many seasons, and that Thiodan was cur-
rently effective against this insect. Wolfenbarger (1958) reported that
toxaphene and certain other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides initially
had been effective against the serpentine leaf miner on potatoes but had
become ineffective after one to three seasons. He reported that there was
evidence parathion did not retain its original effectiveness after 10 years
of use, but that Diazinon was effective.
Harris (1959) reported that the systemics demeton and phosphamidon,
were more effective than non-systemic insecticides tested for green peach
aphid and serpentine leaf miner control on potatoes. Trithion was the most
effective non-systemic insecticide against the green peach aphid.
Baranowski (1959) reported that the addition of toxaphene increased
the effectiveness of parathion and Diazinon wettable powder sprays against
the green peach aphid on tomatoes. Admixture with DDT decreased the
effectiveness of both parathion and Diazinon. Harris (1959) reported that
toxaphene-parathion mixtures in emulsion gave better control of the green
peach aphid and the serpentine leaf miner on potatoes than either para-
thion or toxaphene alone.

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1114.
2 The author thanks Mr. A. B. Jimmerson and Mr. C. E. Seiler for aid
in conducting the experiments, Mr. Edward King, Jr., for preparing the
graphs and Mr. Ronald Jones for photography.
3 Aided by grants from Shell Chemical Company, Hercules Powder Com-
pany, and California Spray-Chemical Corporation.

The Florida Entomologist

SDemeton 0.375

S:Thiodan 0.5

Phosphamidon 0.5

Phosdrin 0.25

\ \ D ^Dibrom 1.0

L2; f.l'.Wo .o .; . X V.-

SOne day
(S Six days

after spraying
after spraying

ia Dinon 0 40.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Aphids per 100 Leaflets
Figure 1. Green peach aphid populations after the final application
in Experiment I.

SD 3562 0.625

SOne day after spraying
I Six days after spraying
SParathion 0.25

Toxaphene 1.125

GC 330.I215


Figure 2. Average green peach aphid populations 1 day after 3 applications
and 6 days after 4 applications in Experiment II.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Aphids per 100 Leaflets


QM: :~Un tr :'ated

Vol. 44, No. 1

Harris: Control of Some Insects Attacking Celery 27

In each experiment, Utah 52-70 celery plants were planted 6 inches
apart in rows that were 36 inches apart. A standard-size plot of 4 rows
25 feet in length was used throughout. Blocks were separated by 20 foot
alleys running across the rows. Treatments were replicated 5 times in
each experiment although 3 types of experimental design were represented:
the randomized complete block, the Latin square, and the Greco-Latin
A self-propelled, 2-row, small-plot sprayer (Harrison et al., 1959)
equipped with Spraying Systems Disc Type Teejet Hollow Cone nozzles
(D2-25 in Experiments I and V and D4-23 in Experiments II, III, and IV.)
was used. Application rates were 50 gallons per acre with 2 overhead
nozzles per row and 100 gallons per acre when a nozzle was added on each
side of the row. Spraying pressure was 250 psi in Experiments I-IV and
100 psi in Experiment V. Sprayer speed was 2.4 mph in Experiments I-IV
and 1.8 mph in Experiment V. The pounds of actual toxicant per 100 gal-
lons of spray are shown for each insecticide in each figure.
Serpentine leaf miner control was evaluated by counting total mines
and active mines on leaflets from the tops of plants. An active mine was
considered to be one that contained a clear area indicating the destruction
of the mesophyll layer in the leaflets. A non-active mine was one which con-
sisted of a' small brown spiral; it appeared that the insect had been de-
stroyed early in its development.
In each experiment, plots were separated by unplanted buffer rows
along which the sprayer traveled. All insecticides were applied in emul-
Experiment I. The object of this experiment was to compare demeton,
Thiodan, phosphamidon, Phosdrin, parathion, Diazinon, and 2 rates of Di-
brom. Celery was planted on February 17, 1959. Treatments and the un-
treated check were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Sprays
were applied on March 2, 16, and 29, April 17 and 27, and May 11. The first
two applications were made with 2 overhead nozzles per row; a single
nozzle was added on each side of each row for the remaining 4 sprays.
The green peach aphid was the only insect that was numerous enough to
evaluate the insecticides and then only after the final spray. Three leaflets
from 10 plants in each of the 2 middle rows of the plots were examined.
When compared as classes, the systemic insecticides, phosphamidon and
demeton, were significantly more effective than the non-systemic 1 day
after application. Six days following the final application, this difference
was highly significant. Thiodan, the non-systemic insecticide resulting in
the lowest aphid population, was not significantly better than parathion.
The population in the untreated check, which was not included in the
analysis of variance, was 126 and 214 aphids per 100 leaflets at 1 and 6
days after application, respectively.
Experiment II. Parathion, toxaphene, SD 3562 ', GC 3583 5 and an un-

S3-(dimethoxyphosphinyloxy)-N, N-dimethylcrotonamide (Shell Devel-
opment Company).
SDiethyl-l-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-2, 2-dichloro-vinyl phosphate (General
Chemical Division, Allied Chemical Company).


The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 1

^ Total
3562 0.625 Total

Parathion 0 25

T x phene I. 1 2`I I 5I-

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
Mines per 100 Leaflets
Figure 3. Serpentine leaf miner populations 5 days after the
final application in Experiment II.

Thiodan 0.5

One day after spraying
Six days after spraying

Dibrom 1.0

Parathion 0.25

9 Dimethoate 0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Aphids per 100 Leaflets
Figure 4. Green peach aphid populations after the first application
in Experiment III.

Harris: Control of Some Insects Attacking Celery 29

treated check were compared in an experiment of Latin square design on
celery that was planted on October 15, 1959. Sprays were applied on
November 17 and December 1, 8, and 15.
The number of aphids on 1 top leaflet from each of 10 plants in each of
the 2 middle plot rows was taken at intervals of 1 and 6 days after each
application with the exception of the one-day count following the first ap-
plication. The averages of the 3 one-day counts and the 4 six-day counts
are shown in Figure 2.
Among the counts made 1 day after applications, SD 3562, parathion,
and toxaphene were not significantly different from each other but each
resulted in an aphid population that was significantly lower than GC 3583
or the untreated check. For the 6-day counts, SD 3562 was the only treat-
ment that significantly reduced the green peach aphid population below
that in the untreated check.
A single leaflet was taken from the top of 5 plants in each row 5 days
after the final application and examined to evaluate the efficacy of the
insecticides against the serpentine leaf miner. SD 3562 resulted in signifi-
cantly fewer total mines per 100 leaflets than parathion, toxaphene, GC
3583, or the untreated check (Figure 3) and significantly fewer active
mines than GC 3583, taxaphene, or the untreated check.
Experiment III. Thiodan, Dibrom, parathion, and Dimethoate were
compared on the same celery following Experiment II. Any bias resulting
from the preceding experiment was minimized by using a Greco-Latin square
design so that each treatment in Experiment III followed each treatment
in Experiment II once. Sprays were applied through 4 nozzles per row
on December 29, January 5, and 12.
The only insect appearing in this experiment in sufficient numbers to
compare treatments was the green peach aphid. A single leaflet from the
top of 10 plants in each of the 2 middle rows was examined on each ob-
servation date, but because of low populations after the second and third
spray, data from only the first spray were used to make comparisons. One
day after application, insecticides were not significantly different and each
resulted in an aphid population that was significantly less than that in the
untreated check but on the sixth day no insecticide treatment was signifi-
cantly different from the untreated check (Figure 4).
Experiment IV. Demeton, parathion, Trithion, and Methyl Trithion
were compared on celery that was planted on October 15, 1959.
Sprays were applied on December 29, January 5, and January 12 using
4 nozzles per row. Demeton was not applied on January 5 because it was
felt that its systemic nature would cause it to remain effective longer than
the other insecticides. Counts following the final spray were not used in
treatment comparisons because of extremely low populations. Results of
the first 2 sprays were combined for the purpose of making treatment com-
parisons (Figure 5). One day after application, Trithion had significantly
fewer aphids than Methyl Trithion. Parathion, demeton, and Trithion were
not significantly different. Demeton resulted in a significantly lower popu-
lation than the average of the other insecticides. The average population
among treated plots was significantly less than that in the untreated checks.
Six days after applications there were no significant differences among
treatments or between treatments and the untreated check.

The Florida Ent

Demeton 0 375

Parathion 0 25

omologist Vol. 44, No. 1

g One day ofter spraying
Six days after spraying

Trithion 0 25

0 10 20 30 40 50
Aphids per 100 Leaflets
Figure 5. Average green peach aphid populations after 2 applications
in Experiment IV.

One day after spraying
SSix days after spraying

Ib./lO0 gals.

Ib./lO0 gals


o. oJ

0 o





0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Aphids per 100 Leaflets
Figure 6. Average green peach aphid populations 1 day after 4 applica-
tions and 6 days after 3 applications in the experiment on parathion-toxa-
phene mixtures for insect control on celery.

I `_ 1`_


Harris: Control of Some Insects Attacking Celery 31

Experiment V. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if a
mixture of parathion and toxaphene would differ from parathion or toxa-
phene alone in effectiveness against celery insects.
Celery was planted on March 14, 1960. Plots were separated by 2 rows
planted to sweet corn and okra that were not treated with insecticide in an
effort to maintain a heavier insect population in the experiment.
Toxaphene 65 percent WP and parathion 15 percent WP were used alone
and in combination at dosages shown in Figures 6-8. Sprays were applied
on April 20, May 4, 11, 18, and 25, and June 1 through 4 nozzles per row.
The number of aphids on single leaflets from the tops of 5 plants in
each row was recorded 1 day after the first, second, third, and fifth sprays
and 6 days after the first, second, and fourth sprays. Results shown in
Fig. 6 are the averages for all 1-day and 6-day examinations. One day
after applications, toxaphene highly significantly reduced the green peach
aphid population when used alone and when mixed with 0.15 pound of par-
athion per 100 gallons (Figure 6). Toxaphene significantly increased the
control obtained with 0.30 pound of parathion per 100 gallons. Differences
between 0.15 pound and 0.30 pound of parathion and between 0.5 pound
and 1.0 pound of toxaphene were not significant. Parathion highly signifi-
cantly reduced the green peach aphid population when averaged over all
levels of toxaphene (including no toxaphene). For the average of the
6-day counts there were no significant differences among treatments.
One day after the final spray, a single leaflet from the top of each of
10 plants in every row was examined for leaf mines. The total number
of mines differed little from the number of active mines, thus only the
numbers of active mines are presented (Figure 7). Parathion significantly
decreased the number of active mines but 0.15 and 0.30 pound were not sig-
nificantly different. Toxaphene did not significantly affect the leaf miner
population. No treatment provided satisfactory control.
The green celeryworm was present in large numbers at the time of the
last application. Parathion was significantly more effective than toxa-
phene in reducing the number of plants that were contaminated with fecal
pellets (Figure 8). Parathion, alone and at each toxaphene dosage, signifi-
cantly reduced fecal contamination. Toxaphene did not significantly in-
fluence the effectiveness of parathion in mixtures. There was no significant
difference between 0.15 and 0.30 pound of parathion or between 0.5 and 1.0
pound of toxaphene.

Although it was not significantly different from all of the other treat-
ments with which it was compared, demeton resulted in the lowest aphid
populations in both of the experiments in which it was tested. Thiodan
resulted in a lower population of aphids than other non-systemic insecticides
in the 2 experiments in which it was evaluated, but it failed to be signifi-
cantly different from them. SD 3562 resulted in an aphid population that
was less (not significant) than parathion and toxaphene. Toxaphene sig-
nificantly increased the efficacy of parathion against the green peach aphid
in insecticide mixtures. Differences between 0.5 and 1.0 pound of toxa-
phene and between 0.15 and 0.30 pound of parathion were not significant.

The Florida Entomologist

Toxaphene Parathion
Ib./100 gals. Ib./lO gals.

0.5 0.30





0 100 200 300 400
Active Mines per 100 Leaflets
Figure 7. Serpentine leaf miner populations 1 day after the final appli-
cation in the experiment on parathion-toxaphene mixtures for insect con-
trol on celery.

Toxaphene Parathion
Ib./l0 gals. Ib./100 gals.

0.5 0.30

0.5 0.1 5

0.5 0.00
I o.0

0 20 40 60 80 100
% Caterpillar Infested Plants
Figure 8. Fecal contamination by the green celeryworm 1 day after
the final application in the experiment on parathion-toxaphene mixtures
for insect control on celery.

Vol. 44, No. 1

Harris: Control of Some Insects Attacking Celery 33

SD 3562 was significantly more effective than parathion or toxaphene
for serpentine leaf miner control. Toxaphene did not significantly affect
the leaf miner population alone or when combined with parathion. Para-
thion significantly decreased the leaf miner population but there was not
a significant difference between 0.15 and 0.30 pound per acre, and the level
of control was not satisfactory.
Parathion was significantly more effective than toxaphene in controlling
the green celeryworm. Toxaphene significantly reduced the population but
did not significantly affect the efficacy of parathion.

Baranowski, R. M. 1959. Effects of combining hydrocarbon insecticides
with parathion or Diazinon for leaf miner control on tomatoes.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 155-158.
Harris, Emmett D., Jr. 1959. Phosphatic insecticides and parathion-tox-
aphene combinations for the control of the green peach aphid and
the serpentine leaf miner on potatoes. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
72: 167-171.
Harrison, Dalton S., William G. Genung, and Emmett D. Harris, Jr. 1959.
A Small self-propelled sprayer for agricultural research. Fla. Ent.
42(4): 169-174.
Wilson, J. W., and N. C. Hayslip. 1951. Insects attacking celery in Flor-
ida. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 486: 1-37.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1958. Serpentine leaf miner: brief history and sum-
mary of a decade of control measures in South Florida. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 51(3): 357-359.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1960. Brief history of aphid control on potatoes in
South Florida, 1946-59. Jour. Econ. Ent. 53(3): 403-405.


First Step toward Improved Pesticides

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of products that contribute to more productive farming
and increased comfort for leisure hours. Here are the
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agricultural insecticide; Thanite for oil base and aerosol
insecticides; Delnav* phosphate pesticide; meta Delphene
insect repellent.
Today in the laboratories, research continues on the
products that will join them in the future. But before they
become available you can be sure that thousands of
compounds have been carefully screened and extensive
tests conducted in the field because only the best is good .I1
enough to meet the standards of Hercules research.
That's why you can look to Hercules for leadership in 11
the development of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. 'i
Agricultural Chemicals Division, Naval Stores Department
900 Market Street, Wilmington 99, Delaware 0 :.


Fayetteville, Arkansas

The three species of Cleidogona described here bring the number from
the United States to 22. There probably are others in the Southeastern
States. Thorough collection, especially during the fall and winter months
in the South, and revision of the genus are needed.
The southernmost record for the genus in Florida is Lake County.

Mr. W. E. Tarpley and Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., generously con-
tributed the specimens that are mentioned in this paper.
The holotypes of the forms described here will be deposited in the
American Museum of Natural History. A male paratype of Cleidogona
alata will be deposited in the United States National Museum.
The holotype of Cleidogona moderate Causey was previously stated to
be in the American Museum of Natural History (Causey, 1957); the cor-
rect deposition is the California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park,
San Francisco, California.

Genus Cleidogona Cook and Collins

Cleidogona, Chamberlin and Hoffman, 1958, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 212,
p. 89, cum synon.
The anterior gonopods of Cleidogona are relatively simple. The ster-
num is a weak rodlike piece; laterad, where it is expanded, it articulates
freely with a small, triangular sclerite and the coxal skeleton. There is no
cheirite. The coxal skeleton is entirely free from its homologue, but the
two approach or touch each other in the midline. Laterad the coxa extends
distad as a triangularly shaped piece that bears a few stiff setae. The
seminal canal opens at the apex of the most conspicuous part of the anterior
gonopod, the ventral or anterior branch. The two less conspicuous dorsal
or posterior branches (the bifidd plate" of the genus Pseudotremia) have
been incorrectly referred to as the posterior gonopods by recent authors.
The posterior gonopods, or ninth legs, are composed of 5 segments.
The first is an elongated coxoprefemur, the second is an elongated and
thickened femur, the third and fourth, which are short and subequal, are
the postfemur and the tibia, and the last segment, the tarsus, is about equal
to the preceding two. There is a tarsal claw.
The legs anterior to the gonopods show little modification; occasionally
the coxae of the seventh pair bear a small protuberance on the caudal sur-
face. The coxae of the tenth and eleventh legs have conspicuous gland
openings and usually from 1 to 3 small ridges, lobes, or protuberances; the
second segments sometimes bear a rounded protuberance on the mesial sur-
face; and the third segments usually protrude on the lateral surface. The
sternal peg between the twelfth legs is the largest in the family.

36 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 1

Cleidogona saripa, new species
Figures 1 and 2
DIAGNOSIS: A small species closely related to C. hadena, from which
it is distinguished by details of the apical region of the ventral branch of
the anterior gonopods.
TYPE LOCALITY: Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., South Carolina, 1
&, Dec. 21, 1957, W. A. Tarpley.
RANGE: Known only from the type locality.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MALE HOLOTYPE: Length about 16 mm., greatest
width 1.5 mm. Body brown above, shading to white below the segmental
state. Metazonites darker than prozonites. Metazonites of typical body
segments with six small, light colored oval spots on which the segmental
setae are set; a larger light colored oval area is between the outer two
spots and confluent with them; prozonites with a large light colored spot
contiguous with the large spot on the metazonites. Antennae and top of
head brown. Eyes black, the ocelli in series of 1, 7, 6, 5, 4, 1. Legs white
at base, shading to light brown distad.
Legpairs 1 and 2 shorter, as usual. Legpairs 3 and 4 slightly shorter.
First 4 segments of legpairs 3 through 7 slightly swollen. Mesodistal mar-
gin of segments 3 of legpairs 5, 6, and 7 produced in a short, acute angle.
Caudal surface of coxae of legpair 7 with a small, rounded protuberance;
much of the mesial surface of the coxae is finely granular. Coxae of leg-
pairs 10 and 11 with the usual cylindrical lobe through which the coxal
gland opens. Coxae of legpair 10 with 2 small lobes on the distal margin,
one laterad and the other mesiad; the dorsal surface of the mesial lobe is
granular. Caudal surface of coxae of legpair 11 with a small triangular
lobe and a longitudinal ridge. Sternal peg between legpair 12 rectangular,
the anterioventral angle with a minute knot at the apex.
The anterior gonopods are as shown in figures 1 and 2. The ventral
branch is slightly bowed toward its homologue and perhaps touches it at
the apex. The bifid condition of the apical region of the anterior gonopod
is best seen from the lateral view; the ventral apical lobe is flattened and
broadly rounded at the apex; the dorsal apical lobe is longer than the ven-
tral lobe, its apex is narrowly acute, and it is membranous and fringed
along the mesial margin. The seminal canal opens on the fringed margin
of the dorsal apical lobe.
The dorsal branches of the anterior gonopods are sharply bent; the
apical region is bifid and larger than in C. hadena but not as large as in
C. carolina Causey 1957.
The posterior gonopods, or ninth legs, are without any distinctive
characters, as shown in the figure of C. wrayi Causey, 1957. The mesial

Cleidogona saripa, n. sp. Fig. 1. Left anterior gonopod, ventral view.
Fig. 2. Left anterior gonopod, lateral view.
Cleidogona hadena, n. sp. Fig. 3. Left anterior gonopod, ventral view.
Fig. 4. Left anterior gonopod, lateral view.
Cleidogona alata, n. sp. Fig. 5. Sternal peg between twelfth legs. Fig.
6. Left anterior gonopod, ventral view. Fig. 7. Left anterior gonopod,
lateral view. C, coxa. D, dorsal branch. L, lateral sclerite. V, ventral
branch. S, sternum.

Causey: New Millipeds of the Genus Cleidogona 37

The Florida Entomologist

surface of the coxoprefemur is divided into two unequal parts, of which
the distal part is rounded and about twice the length of the proximal part,
which is squarish but in life is probably rounded. The ratio of the length
to the thickness of the femur is about 3/1.
The female is unknown.

Cleidogona hadena, new species
Figures 3 and 4
DIAGNOSIS: Nearest C. saripa, from which it is distinguished by de-
tails of the apical region of the ventral branch of the anterior gonopods.
TYPE LOCALITY: Juniper Springs, Marion Co., Florida, 1 3, Oct. 30,
1959, R. E. Woodruff.
RANGE: Known only from the type locality.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MALE HOLOTYPE: Length 17 mm., greatest width
1.6 mm. Body brown above, shading abruptly to white below the segmental
setae. Metazonites and prozonites about the same color. Arrangement
of light colored oval spots as in C. saripa. Antennae and top of head brown.
Eyes black, the ocelli arranged in series of 1, 7, 6, 5, 4, 2.
Legpairs 1 through 7 as in C. saripa. Coxal gland lobes of legpairs 10
and 11 longer than they are wide. Legpair 10 with a rounded, warty pro-
tuberance on the mesodistal surface of the coxae, a warty protuberance on
the mesial surface of segment 2, and a protuberance without warts on the
distolateral surface of the coxae. Caudal surface of the coxae of legpair
11 with a small triangular lobe and a longitudinal ridge. Sternal peg be-
tween legpair 12 with a minute knot at the anterioventral angle and the
margin above it rounded.
The anterior gonopods are as shown in figures 3 and 4. In situ the
ventral branches are well separated, subparallel, and the mesial setose pieces
are nearly contiguous in the midline; the apical region is divided into a
shorter, stouter, simple ventral piece that is broadly angular at the apex
and a longer membranous piece that is finely setose along its mesial margin.
The opening of the seminal canal is at the acute apex of the setose piece.
The dorsal branches of the anterior gonopods are arched. Their apical
region is small and bifid (figure 4).
The posterior gonopods, or ninth legs, are without any distinctive char-
acters. Details are approximately as described for C. saripa.
The female is unknown.

Cleidogona alata, new species
Figures 5-7
DIAGNOSIS: In the saripa series; distinguished by the large lateral
lobes at the base of the dorsal branches of the anterior gonopods.
TYPE LOCALITY: 1 mile south of Ila, Madison Co., Georgia, pine-hard-
wood forest, 2 $, Jan. 17, 1953, E. J. Kuenzler.
RANGE: Known only from the type locality.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MALE HOLOTYPE: Length about 17.5 mm., greatest
width 1.8 mm. After 7 years in alcohol, the color of the dorsum is light
brown, shading to cream color below the segmental setae. Metazonites

Vol. 44, No. 1

Causey: New Millipeds of the Genus Cleidogona

darker than the prozonites. Arrangement of the light colored spots as in
C. saripa. Antennae and top of head brown. Eyes black, the ocelli ar-
ranged in series of 1, 7, 6, 5, 3, 2, 1.
Legpairs 1 through 7 as in C. saripa. Coxae of legpairs 10 and 11 with
thick, cylindrical lobes approximately twice as long as broad through which
the coxal glands open. Legpair 10 with lateral and mesial protuberances on
the distal margin of the coxal segments and on the mesial surface of seg-
ments 2; the mesial lobes are granular. Legpair 11 with the coxal seg-
ments enlarged distad and with a shallow transverse furrow across the
caudal surface. Anterioventral angle of the sternal peg between legpair
12 with a rounded lobe (figure 5).
The anterior gonopods are as shown in figures 6 and 7. In situ the
ventral branches are subparallel and contiguous only along the mesial mar-
gin of the fringed membrane. The apical region bears 2 membranous
pieces; the smaller one is subapical and mesiad; the other one is much
larger, the position is mesodorsal, and its margin is partly fringed and
partly setose.
The dorsal branches of the anterior gonopods are much less curved than
in related species. At the apex they are bifid and relatively small. Laterad
and near the base each dorsal branch bears a large bilobed piece that with
its homologue forms a basinlike structure.
The posterior gonopods are without any distinctive characters. Details
are approximately as described for C. saripa.
The male paratype has the distal region of the ventral branches of the
anterior gonopods damaged. In all other important characters it corre-
sponds to the holotype.
The female is unknown.


Causey, Nell B. 1957 New records and descriptions of the family Cleido-
gonidae (Order Chordeumida). Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc., 30(3) : 114-
120, figs. 1-16.
Chamberlin, R. V., and Richard L. Hoffman. 1958. Checklist of the milli-
peds of North America. U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 212, pp. 1-236.

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Erwin, Tennessee

Part I of this paper dealt with the species group having 6 pairs of dor-
solateral hysterosomal setae, palpus with 2 setae and a sensory rod at
distal end, and tarsus II of the female with 1 sensory rod; Part II deals
with the other species groups known to occur in Mexico and includes a
key to the species of all the groups.
All measurements are in microns and body length includes the rostrum.
The following 12 species belong to the species group having 6 pairs
of dorsolateral hysterosomals, palpus with 2 setae and a sensory rod at
distal end, tarsus II of the female with 2 sensory rods, and the posterior
metapodosomals very much longer than the anterior pair:

Brevipalpus proboscidius, n. sp.
(Figure 25)
Brevipalpus proboscidius is distinct in having the rostrum extending
about to the distal end of tibia I. The male and nymph are unknown.
FEMALE: Body bright scarlet; length 340, width 154. Markings of
dorsum and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 25. Metapodosoma
medially practically smooth; ventral plate with areolae somewhat wider
than long; genital plate with areolae much wider than long.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 15, 1957, (D.
De Leon), on Liabum glabrum var. hypoleucum. Paratypes:3 females,
collection data same as for holotype.

Brevipalpus rostratus, n. sp.
(Figures 26A and 26B)
Brevipalpus rostratus differs from others in this species group by hav-
ing the rostrum reaching about to the middle of genu I. The male is un-
FEMALE: Body bright scarlet; length 307-325, width 167. Markings
of dorsum and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 26A. Venter
smooth medially anterior of posterior metapodosomals, with small rounded
areolae between these setae and anterior part of frame of ventral plate;
ventral plate with small rounded areolae; genital plate with areolae much
wider than long. Tarsal claws with large hooks.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 26B.
Holotype: Female, San Cristobal, Chiapas, January 22, 1957, (D. De
Leon), on Myrica mexicana. Paratypes: 3 females, 6 nymphs, collection
data same as for holotype.

1This work has been aided by a grant from the Sigma Xi-RESA Re-
search Fund.

The Florida Entomologist

Brevipalpus encinarius, n. sp.
(Figures 27A and 27B)

Brevipalpus encinarius is distinguished from other members of this
species group by having propodosomal 1 large and the hysterosoma smooth
FEMALE: Body bright red; length 266, width 154. Markings of dorsum
and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 27A. Metapodosoma practi-
cally smooth medially; ventral and genital plates with areolae wider than
long. Tarsal claws with large hooks.
MALE: Resembles female, but dorsum covered with small rounded
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 27B.
Holotype: Female, east of Morelia, Mich. (km post 292, Route 15),
June 5, 1957, (D. De Leon), on Quercus sp. (near castanea). Paratypes:
1 male, 1 nymph, collection data same as for holotype; 3 females, Quiroga,
Mich., March 11, 1957, from same host species. A single female was taken
from oak at Ocozocoatla, Chiapas, January 1957.

Brevipalpus cordiae, n. sp.
(Figure 28)

Brevipalpus cordiae is distinguished from other members of this species
group by having rather regular polygonal reticulations mediodorsally on
the propodosoma, long narrow areolae in the lateral area of the hystero-
soma, and the dorsolateral setae rather long and filiform. The male and
nymph are unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 237, width 129; markings of dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 28. Venter with both rounded and elon-
gate areolae between posterior metapodosomals and anterior part of frame
of ventral plate; ventral and genital plates with most areolae wider than
Holotype: Female, Reynosa, Tam., December 18, 1956, (D. De Leon),
on Cordia boissieri. Paratypes: 6 females, collection data same as for
Brevipalpus ardesiae, n. sp.
(Figures 29A and 29B)

The female of Brevipalpus ardesiae is similar to that of B. californicus,
differing most noticeably in having somewhat longer dorsolaterals; the
nymph is distinct in having all the dorsal setae large. The male is un-
FEMALE: Body length 278, width 152; markings of dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 29A. Venter smooth medially forward
of posterior metapodosomals, area between these setae and anterior part
of frame of ventral plate with mostly small rounded areolae; ventral plate
with small rounded areolae; genital plate with areolae of anterior part
somewhat wider than long, those of posterior part much wider than long.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 29B.
Holotype: Female, west of Tepic, Nay. (Mirador del Aguila), March

Vol. 44, No. 1

De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico, Part II 43

29, 1957, (D. De Leon), on Ardesia revoluta. Paratypes: 2 females, 2
nymphs, collection data same as for holotype.

Brevipalpus aepi, n. sp.
(Figures 30A and 30B)
Brevipalpus aepi is distinguished by having the propodosoma dorso-
medially with large areolae and the mediolateral area with areolae much
longer than wide; the nymph is also distinctive. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Body reddish yellow, length 253-271, width 147. Markings
of dorsum and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 30A. Venter
smooth medially forward of a line about halfway between anterior and
posterior metapodosomals, between this line and anterior part of frame of
ventral plate area covered with small more or less round areolae; ventral
and genital plates with large areolae much wider than long.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 30B.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Ch., January 15, 1957, (D. De
Leon), on Eupatorium hemiteropodum. Paratypes: 1 female, collection
data same as for holotype; 3 females, 1 nymph, Lippia hypoleia, other data
same as for holotype; 2 females, Cordoba, Ver., February 4, 1957, on
Heliocarpus tomentosa; 4 females, Tepic, Nay., March 25, 1957, on Verbe-
sina sp.
Brevipalpus cochlospermi, n. sp.
(Figures 31A and 31B)
Brevipalpus cochlospermi is distinguished from other members of this
group by the lack of reticulations on the dorsum of the prodosoma of the
female, by the narrow dorsal seta of femur I, and by the sequence of the
large dorsolateral setae of the nymph. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 267-281, width 139-148. Markings of dorsum
and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 31A. Venter smooth medially
forward of a line about halfway between anterior and posterior metapodo-
somals, between this line and anterior part of frame of ventral plate areolae
rather large and polygonal; ventral plate with areolae indistinct, but
rather large and wider than long; genital plate with areolae large and
wider than long.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 31B.
Holotype: Female, San Bias, Nay., May 21, 1957, (D. De Leon), on
Cochlospermum sp. Paratypes: 8 females, 3 nymphs, collection data same
as for holotype.
Brevipalpus gliricidiae, n. sp.
(Figures 32A and 32B)
The female Brevipalpus gliricidiae resembles that of B. cochlospermi,
but is distinguished in the nymphal stage by having the humeral and first
dorsolateral setae rather large and oval. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Body cream to apricot; length 279, width 153. Markings of
dorsum and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 32A. Metapodosoma
medially with rounded areolae between anterior part of frame of ventral
plate and posterior metapodosomals, areolate area in some specimens
extending forward almost to anterior pair of metapodosomals. Ventral

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 44, No. 1

The paired drawings are of the dorsal half of the female, indicated
by the letter A and of the dorsal half of the nymph, indicated by the let-
ter B.

25, Female.
26A and 26B.
27A and 27B.
28, Female.
29A and 29B.
30A and 30B.
31A and 31B.
32A and 32B.
33A and 33B.
34A and 34B.
35, Female.
36, Female.
37A and 37B.
38, Nymph.

Brevipalpus proboscidius, n. sp.
Brevipalpus rostratus, n. sp.
Brevipalpus encinarius, n. sp.
Brevipalpus cordiae, n. sp.
Brevipalpus ardesiae, n. sp.
Brevipalpus aepi, n. sp.
Brevipalpus cochlospermi, n. sp.
Brevipalpus gliricidiae, n. sp.
Brevipalpus alternatus, n. sp.
Brevipalpus combreti, n. sp.
Brevipalpus physali, n. sp.
Brevipalpus pocillator, n. sp.
Brevipalpus edax, n. sp.
Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geij.)


The Florida Entomologist

plate with areolae rounded to somewhat wider than long; genital plate with
areolae much wider than long.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 32B.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, January 18, 1957, (D. De Leon),
on Gliricidia sepium. Paratypes: 5 females, 1 nymph, collection data as
for holotype; 5 females, 1 nymph, Veracruz, January 1, 1957, same host
Brevipalpus alternatus, n. sp.
(Figures 33A and 33B)
Brevipalpus alternatus is distinguished by having the dorsum covered
with very irregularly shaped areolae, and by the deutonymph having 2
pairs of flagelliform setae. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 278, width 154. Markings of dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 33A. Venter smooth medially anterior
of ventral plate; ventral plate with indistinct large, regular polygonal
areolae; genital plate with narrow areolae wider than long. Tarsal claws
with large hooks.
Holotype: Female, San Bias, Nay., March 28, 1957, (D. De Leon), on
Conocarpus erecta. Paratypes: 2 females, 2 nymphs, collection data same
as for holotype.
Brevipalpus californicus (Banks)
Brevipalpus californicus, reported by Baker (1949) as having been in-
tercepted on geraniums from Mexico, was collected on many hosts. Some
representative collections follow: Citrus, Montemorelos, Neuvo Leon;
Ehretia, Psychotria, and Swietenia, Tuxtla Gutierrez; Ficus carica, Guad-
alajara; Casearia and Musa sapientum, San Bias.
Brevipalpus lilium Baker (from Psychotria, Tuxtla) was not listed in
the previous group because at present I consider it a variant B. californicus.
The only character separating these 2 species is the presence of 1 or 2
sensory rods on tarsus II of the female; from one plant I have taken lilium,
californicus and specimens with 2 sensory rods on one side and 1 sensory
rod on the opposite tarsus. Furthermore the male and the nymph of lilium
cannot be distinguished from the male and the nymph of californicus.

Brevipalpus trinidadensis Baker
Females and nymphs of this species, described from specimens taken
on Lantana, Trinidad, B. W. I., were common in San Blas on a cultivated
shrub-like tree called "agualama" by the inhabitants.

Brevipalpus longisetosus Baker
B. longisetosus was described from specimens collected in Puerto Rico
from on unknown host and has not been reported since. Specimens appear-
ing to be this species were collected from mango, Tuxtla Guterriez, and
from Annona, Veracruz.
The following two species belong to the species group having 6 pairs
of dorsolateral hysterosomals, palpus with 1 seta and a sensory rod at
distal end, tarsus II of the female with 1 sensory rod, and the posterior
metapodosomals very much longer than the anterior pair:

Vol. 44, No. 1

De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico, Part II 47

Brevipalpus combreti, n. sp.
(Figures 34A and 34B)
The female of Brevipalpus combreti is distinguished from other mem-
bers of this group by having the mediodorsal and mediolateral areas of the
propodosoma evenly covered with small, round areolae; the nymph by
having the dorsolaterals large and lanceolate, and the dorsocentrals minute.
FEMALE: Body length 281, width 154; markings of dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 34A. Venter smooth medially anterior
of posterior metapodosomals, between these setae and anterior part of
frame of genital plate the surface is more or less transversely striate;
genital plate with areolae wider than long. Tarsal claws with large hooks.
MALE: Resembles female, but tarsus II with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 34B.
Holotype: Female, Cuitlahuac, Ver., February 5, 1957, (D. De Leon),
on Combretum farinosum. Paratypes: 1 male, 5 nymphs, collection data
same as for holotype; 2 females, 1 male, 1 nymph, about 15 miles north
of Tehuantepec, Oax., January 31, 1957, on same host species.

Brevipalpus physali, n. sp.
(Figure 35)
Brevipalpus physali resembles B. selas Pritchard and Baker (1952), but
differs from that species by the rostral shield not being pebbled, by the
dorsolateral setae being setiform, and by other characters. The male and
nymph are unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 313, width 254; markings of dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 35. Ventral plate and metapodosoma
medially at least as far forward as anterior metapodosomals covered with
small, round areolae; genital plate with areolae wider than long. Tarsal
claws with large hooks.
Holotype: Female, Veracruz, Ver., December 28, 1956, (D. De Leon),
on Tridax procumbens. Paratype: 1 female on Physalus sp., other data
as for holotype.
The following 4 species belong to the species group having 5 pairs of
dorsolateral hysterosomals, the palpus with 2 setae and a sensory rod at
distal end, tarsus II of the female with 1 sensory rod, and the posterior
metapodosomals very much longer than the anterior pair:

Brevipalpus pocillator, n. sp.
(Figure 36)
Brevipalpus pocillator is distinguished by having the rostrum reaching
practically to the distal end of femur I and the mediodorsal area of the
body almost entirely smooth. The male and nymph are unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 277, width 150; markings of dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 36. Ventral plate and metapodosoma
almost fully covered with small, mostly round areolae set about their own
diameters apart; genital plate with round and with oval areolae. Tarsal
claws without hooks.

The Florida Entomologist

Holotype: Female, Jacotepec, Jalisco, March 22, 1957, (D. De Leon), on
Verbesina? Paratypes: 9 females, Chapala, Jal., on Ficus?, other data same
as for holotype.
Brevipalpus edax, n. sp.
(Figures 37A and 37B)
Brevipalpus edax is distinguished by having the mediolateral area of
the propodosoma with rather regular polygonal areolae, the rostrum reach-
ing nearly to the distal end of femur I and the nymph having rather long,
distinctly serrate dorsocentrals. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 281, width 210; markings of dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 37A. Venter smooth medially forward
of a line somewhat caudal of anterior metapodosomals, posterior of this
line areolae wider than long.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 37B.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Ch., January 10, 1957, (D. De
Leon), on Cordia eleagnoides. Paratypes: 4 females, 4 nymphs, collection
data same as for holotype.

Brevipalpus edwinae Baker
This species, described from Cuernavaca, Morelos, on Eupatorium was
not collected by the writer.

Brevipalpus obovatus (Donnadieu)
Brevipalpus obovatus is not listed by Pritchard and Baker (1958) as
occurring in Mexico. It was collected from a potted palm in Guadalajara,
Jal., in March and from a cultivated composite in Puerto Vallarta, Jal., in
May, 1957.
The following species is the only one with 5 pairs of dorsolateral hyster-
osomals and 2 sensory rods on tarsus II of the female:

Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes)
Brevipalpus phoenicis is not listed by Pritchard and Baker (1958) as
occurring in Mexico. It was collected from 16 different hosts. Some of
the hosts and collection localities follow: Guazuma, Valles, S. L. P.; Ter-
minalia, and coconut, Veracruz; Coffea, Cordoba, Ver.; Curatella, Minatit-
lan, Ver.; Cordia, Fraxinus, and Citrus, Tuxtla Guiterrez; Psidium and
Byrsonima, Tepic, Nay., and Anthurium, San Blas, Nay.
There is considerable variation in the size and shape of the dorsal setae
of the nymphs of what appears to be this 1 species; dorsolateral hystero-
somals 1 and 2 of the nymphs of most of the Mexican specimens are rather
similar in shape to and of about the same size as dorsolateral hysterosomals
3-5 and in 3 collections from Tuxtla and one from Tepic the dorsocentrals
are also nearly as large as the dorsolaterals as is shown in figure 38 of a
deutonymph taken from Fraximus at Tuxtla.

1. Hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae..............................2
Hysterosoma with 5 pairs of dorsolateral setae................................42

Vol. 44, No. 1

De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico, Part II 49

2(1). Palpus with 2 setae and a sensory rod at distal end........................3
Palpus with 1 setae and a sensory rod at distal end........................41
3(2). Tarsus II with 1 sensory rod............................. .. ................... ...4
Tarsus II with 2 sensory rods......................---------......---------29
4(3). Rostrum extending beyond distal end of femur I-----..............................--
Rostrum not extending beyond distal end of femur I------...... --........ 10
5(4). Dorsal setae long and plumose------.....................---............ypti
Dorsal setae short (less than 25 microns) and smooth or serrate....6
6(5). Body elongate, at least twice as long as wide..............pseudoleptoides
Body of usual proportions, less than twice as long as wide..----............7
7(6). Propodosoma medially with many coalesced areolae............serratus
Propodosoma medially reticulate, with few or no coalesced areolae..8
8(7). Propodosoma medially with small areolae (8-11 per 30 microns);
claws without hooks......................-- ...... .............quercicolus
Propodosoma medially with large areolae (3-6 per 30 microns);
claw s w ith hooks................................. ... ............................ ....9
9(8). Dorsolateral setae oval, strongly serrate; both setae of
palptarsus about equal in length..................................lagasceae
Dorsolateral setae setiform, not or only weakly serrate; one
seta of palptarsus much shorter than the other.................. crotoni
10(4). Dorsocentral hysterosomals long and broadly oval---...........----..............11
Dorsocentral hysterosomals not long and broadly oval---..................12
11(10). Seta of second segment of palpus setiform, long..................tuberellus
Seta of second segment of palpus palmate......................----- formosus
12(10). Propodosoma medially completely or almost completely
reticulate........................................... .... .. ........................ .... 13
Propodosoma medially not reticulate-------------....................... --....... ........22
13(12). Propodosomal seta 1 long (over 25 microns) and elliptic;
nymph with some dorsal setae flagelliform............................perseae
Propodosomal seta 1 setiform, filiform or short and elliptic;
nymph without flagelliform dorsal setae...................... ------............. 14
14(13). Propodosoma medially with small areolae (7-11 per 30 microns)....15
Propodosoma medially with large areolae (3-6 per 30 microns)....19
15(14). Hysterosoma with a mediolateral groove; dorsolateral hystero-
somals not or only weakly serrate..-----......................... .......16
Hysterosoma without a mediolateral groove; dorsolateral
hysterosomals strongly serrate-----......................-- ... ...---- 18
16(15). Ventral plate practically smooth....-.----- .----..--.....----albus
Ventral plate distinctly areolate ------..................... --...... .....................17
17(16). Propodosomal 1 reaching more than halfway to opposite member;
nymph with hysterosomals 1 and 2 long and elliptic-.....insinuatus
Propodosomal 1 not reaching halfway to opposite member;
nymph with hysterosomals 1 and 2 minute and setiform......alni
18(15). Rostral shield areolate about to anterior edge; hysterosoma with-
out coalesced areolae medially; nymph with dorsocentral .3
long and serrate .........---------.. -------.... ----.....-chucumayi

The Florida Entomologist

Rostral shield areolate at base only; hysterosoma with coalesced
areolae medially; nymph with dorsocentral 3 short and
sm ooth............ ......................... ...................................oreopanacis
19(14). Hysterosoma evenly reticulate medially or with only a few
coalesced areolae-......................-- ............-------................ ..-. 20
Hysterosoma with numerous transversely coalesced areolae
m edially................................ ................. ..........................21
20(19). Venter of propodosoma almost fully covered with areolae;
nymph with most dorsolateral hysterosomals rather long
and strongly serrate.........---.......................--........-ewpristori
Venter of propodosoma with scattered transverse striae medially;
nymph with dorsolateral hysterosomals minute or short and
weakly serrate................. ... ...........................essigi Baker
21(19). Ventral plate practically smooth.......... ---------..............oaxacensis
Ventral plate distinctly areolate--.............- ------.......- ..-..filifer
22(12). Hysterosoma with a mediolateral groove and usually with
elongate areolae in mediolateral area----..................................23
Hysterosoma without a mediolateral groove and with rather
regular polygonal or rounded areolae in mediolateral area......27
23(22). Propodosoma in mediolateral area with numerous longitudinal
striae........................ ...........------- ..........-----------...............striatus
Propodosoma in mediolateral area nearly smooth or with
elongate areolae ....---------......-........ ----- ----------.24
24(23). Hysterosoma medially smooth or with a few transverse
depressions..................................................................................... levis
Hysterosoma medially with convoluted areolae................................25
25(24). Dorsal propodosomal 1 reaching much less than halfway to
base of opposite member......------........ ......--- ......---...... mori
Dorsal propodosomal 1 reaching more than halfway to base
of opposite member---.....................-- --- .....--............. 26
26(25).- Anterior dorsolaterals slender; area bordering inner edge of
posterior apodeme of coxa II with a few striae; tarsal
claws with strong hooks.........-....-.........-----------.. variolatus
Anterior dorsolaterals narrow elliptic; area bordering inner
edge of posterior apodeme of coxa II with small round
areolae; tarsal claws with rather small, indistinct hooks....rugosus

27(22). Propodosoma and hysterosoma bordered by a slight crest or
ridge near lateral margin.......................-----------..........................testudinalis
Propodosoma and hysterosoma without a crest or ridge laterad....28
28(27). Ventral plate and area anterior of it with small rounded areolae;
nymph with all dorsolaterals elliptic and rather large..religiosae
Ventral plate and area anterior of it with areolae wider than long;
nymph with some dorsolaterals minute -... russulus (Boisduval)
29(3). Rostrum extending beyond distal end of femur I---.....................30
Rostrum not extending beyond distal end of femur I---.....................31

30(29). Rostrum extending about to distal end of tibia I............proboscidius
Rostrum not reaching distal end of genu I.....--.....................-- rostratus

31(29). Propodosomal 1 elliptic, over 18 microns long................. --encinarius
Propodosomal 1 setiform or elliptic, less than 15 microns long......32

Vol. 44, No. 1

De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico, Part II 51

32(31). Propodosoma medially with regular polygonal reticulations..........33
Propodosoma medially without regular polygonal reticulations......35
33(32). Mediolateral area of dorsum of hysterosoma with areolae much
longer than wide ----------..........------.........................cordie
Mediolateral area of dorsum of hysterosoma with rather regular
reticulations or areolae not much longer than wide..................34
34(33). Nymph with dorsolateral hysterosomals 3-6 narrow elliptic
and of about the same lengths----.......---..........---.....californicus (Banks)
Nymph with dorsolateral hysterosomals 3 and 5 minute and
setiform................-............. ............................ trinadadensis Baker
35(32). Mediolateral area of propodosoma with rather regular poly-
gonal reticulations......................................... ........... ...... .................. 36
Mediolateral area of propodosoma not as above-..............................37
36(35). Deutonymph with dorsocentrals short and setiform....................
-------.. .---------------... californicus (Banks)
Deutonymph with dorsocentrals long (over 20 microns)
and elliptic......... ........ ... .......... ...................ardesiae
37(35). Propodosoma medially with large, irregularly shaped areolae. ..aepi
Propodosoma medially smooth or with scattered pits or de-
pressions and/or narrow longitudinal areolae.............................38
38(37). Mediodorsal seta of femur I very narrow elliptic (almost seti-
form in some specimens); nymph with dorsolateral propodo-
somals 2 and 3 and hysterosomals 4 and 6 elliptic, the others
setiform and minute....... ...........................................cochlospermi
Mediodorsal setae of femur I elliptic; nymph with some dorsal
setae flagelliform or with at least 6 pairs of elliptic dorso-
laterals...---------....-- ---........-- ..---- -----.. ----39
39(38). Nymph without flagelliform dorsal setae------...... --..............gliricidiae
Nymph with some dorsal setae flagelliform............................-----------40
40(39). Deutonymph with 3 pairs of flagelliform dorsal setae............
--..- -- -----------....... ......... longisetosus Baker
Deutonymph with 2 pairs of flagelliform dorsal setae........alternatus
41(2). Hysterosoma with a distinct mediolateral groove................combreti
Hysterosoma without a mediolateral groove..............................physali
42(1). Tarsus II with 2 sensory rods....................................phoenicis (Geij.)
Tarsus II with 1 sensory rod......................... ........................ 43
43(42). Hysterosoma smooth medially............................................................44
Hysterosoma medially with irregularly shaped areolae ----...............45
44(43). Rostrum reaching nearly to end of femur I........................pocillator
Rostrum reaching about to middle of femur I..............edwinae Baker
45(43). Dorsolaterals elongate; nymph with dorsocentrals short and
strongly serrate -..--.....----..-..-- ----..........-----------........... edax
Dorsolaterals short; nymph with dorsocentrals minute and
sm ooth..................................... .................. ..... obovatus (Donnadieu)

The types of the new species are in the author's collection; paratypes
will be deposited in the University of Florida Collections, Gainesville.

52 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 1


I wish to thank the following botanists for the identification of plants:
Mr. Miguel Angel Palacios Rinc6n, Institute de Historia Natural de Chiapas,
for those in the region round Tuxtla Gutierrez; Dr. Rogers McVaugh,
University of Michigan, for those of Jalisco and Nayarit, and Dr. Faustino
Miranda, Instituto de Biologia, Casa del Lago, Mexico, D. F., for those
from other parts of Mexico.


Baker, E. W. 1949. The genus Brevipalpus (Acarina: Pseudoleptidae).
Amer. Mid. Nat. 42(2) : 350-402.
Pritchard, A. E., and E. W. Baker. 1952. The false spider mites of Cali-
fornia (Acarina: Phytoptipalpidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 9(1):
Pritchard, A. E., and E. W. Baker. 1958. The false spider mites (Acarina:
Tenuipalpidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 14(3):175-274.


College of Agriculture, University of Florida

On April 10, 1960, I was awakened by the sounds of a falling tree. This
tree was a wild or black cherry, Prunus serotine Ehrh., approximately 50
feet tall and 11 inches D.B.H. The top of the tree was heavy with new
foliage and maturing green fruit. The air was still at the time of breakage
and wind was not a contributing factor. The point of breakage was 14
feet above ground level.
Since this tree was in my own back yard, observations were made both
before and after breakage. On its relatively clean trunk, I had noted that
a slight fusiform swelling started about 11 feet above ground and extended
about 6 feet up from this point. The degree of swelling was an increase
of about 1 inch, or from 11 inches to 12 inches diam., at the 14 foot level
where break occurred. Several years before breakage, it was noted that
numerous adventitious buds were being produced on the trunk below this
slight swelling. The reason for such buds was not apparent at the time
they were first observed.
In clearing the fallen portion of this tree, it was readily apparent that
the break had been caused by the presence of a colony of the drywood
termite, Kalotermes approximatus Snyder. At the point of breakage, the
heartwood cylinder had been approximately 10 inches in diameter. This
left a ring of sapwood about 1 inch in thickness. Since the supporting
heartwood cylinder had been completely eaten away by the termites, the
ring of sapwood was providing support (both mechanically and vegeta-
tively) for the crown of the tree. As the weight of the branches, foliage,
and fruit increased with the spring season, the trunk broke like a soda
The feeding of the colony of termites in the heartwood extended 3 feet
above the breakage point. I estimated that feeding also extended 3 feet
below this point in the 14 foot "stump". The stump, with its termites and
adventitious branches, is being retained for future observations.
The colony of K. approximatus had obviously been established and
active in this tree for some years. Entrance was gained through a branch
scar, and repeated infestation of the callus tissues by larvae of an aegeriid
moth, probably Synanthedon pictipes (B. & R.)1 had prevented the closure
of this wound. Since nymphs of the reproductive caste function as "work-
ers" among the drywood termites, 2 years are required for development
from eggs to winged, reproductive adults. It must take a considerable
length of time for a colony of these termites to develop to such extensive
proportions as encountered in the wild cherry tree. Winged reproductive
of K. approximatus are most frequently encountered during the autumn
months and have been observed in flight during daylight hours. Of course,
winged adults were not present in the colony in April, 1960; identification
was made from the soldier caste.

1 Determined by H. W. Capps, U. S. National Museum.

54 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 1

It is customary to associate pellets of excrement with drywood termite
infestations and such pellets are present in building infestations where
there is little moisture in the wood. However, when plenty of moisture is
available the drywood termites do not hesitate to use it. This then results
in semifluid excrement rather than pellets. A parallel situation may be
readily observed among the fairly closely related roaches; with plenty
of available water, excrement is fluid or semifluid; with a shortage of
water, pellets of excrement result because of the need to conserve the
available moisture. In the case of the living wild cherry tree, abundant
moisture was available from rainwater entering the branch scar as well
as the high content of moisture in the heartwood of the living tree. Large
masses of carton-like excrement were present in the cavity of the wild cherry
tree and spots of excrement were common on uneaten portions of the
wood; there were very few pellets.
Kalotermes approximatus was described by Snyder 40 years ago (Banks
& Snyder, 1920) from soldiers collected from stumps of sweet gum, Liquid-
ambar styraciflua L., at Ortega, Florida (near Jacksonville). Snyder
later (1924 and 1925) described finding additional soldiers and winged
adults in dead cypress near Cape Henry, Virginia. The species is recorded
from northern Florida, southern Louisiana, southern Mississippi, and Ber-
muda (Snyder, 1949). Dr. Snyder has indicated in correspondence that a
"very few" cases of building infestation by K. approximatus have been
reported from southern Louisiana and southern Mississippi. I have also
observed infestations of this species in the heartwood of living, but decadent,
pear trees, Pyrus communis L., in several areas of northern Florida. Miller
(1949) states that this termite has been found "in dead, dry wood of oak,
sweet gum, and magnolia trees in northern and central Florida." Mr. I. W.
Hughes (personal communication), Bermuda Department of Agriculture,
has stated that this termite has increased in recent years in Bermuda in
standing trees of Bermuda juniper killed by scale insects.

Observations on this little-known, drywood termite in northern Florida
have shown colonies to be established in the heartwood of living pear and
wild cherry trees. Recent mid-trunk breakage of a large wild cherry tree
was caused by extensive feeding of a colony of these termites.


Banks, N., and T. E. Snyder. 1920. A revision of the Nearctic termites.
U.S.N.M. Bull. 108, p. 22.
Snyder, T. E. 1924. A non-subterranean termite in Virginia. Proc. Ent.
Soc. Wash. 26(8) : 207-209.
Snyder, T. E. 1925. Description of the winged adult of Kalotermes ap-
proximatus Snyder. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 27(1): 14.
Snyder, T. E. 1949. Catalog of the termites (Isoptera) of the world.
Smithsonian Misc. Coll. Vol. 112, p. 12.
Miller, E. M. 1949. Florida termites. Univ. of Miami Press. p. 18.

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