Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1961
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 44, No. 2 June, 1961




CONTENTS
Page

Muma, Martin H.-The Influence of Cover Crop Cultivation
on Populations of Injurious Insects and Mites in
Florida Citrus Grove .--..-------..-------------- 61

Arata, Andrew, A., and Lewis Berner-
Myiasis in an Aquatic Turtle ------------.......---.....-------. 68

Bargren, William C.-An Annotated List of the Horse Flies
of Florida and an Illustrated Key to the Genera
(Diptera: Tabanidae) ..-----..............-----------. 69

De Leon, Donald-Eight New Amblyseius from Mexico
with Collection Notes on Two Other Species
(Acarina: Phytoseiidae) ---.........- ------..---.--.---. 85

De Leon, Donald-A New False Spider Mite Genus from
Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) ......----------...-.------. 93

Bell, R., and W. H. Whitcomb-Erythemis Simplicicollis
(Say), A Dragonfly Predator of the Bollworm Moth .--. 95

Porter, John E., and Nancy M. Porter-A Method for
Collecting and Preserving Spider Webs .---.-.-.----------- 99


Published by The Florida Entomological Society
















THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


OFFICERS FOR 1960-1961

President...--.... -------------.--.---.--Lewis Berner
Vice-President -------....-........... -.... .................-..........W. C. Rhoades
Secretary.......... ------------------ .----Lawrence A. Hetrick
Treasurer .-.....-......-......... .......---. --- ----Robert E. Waites
SJohn R. King
Other Members of Executive Committee R. W. Baranowski
Andrew J. Rogers

Editorial Board
Lewis Berner ---........-....-............--- --- ..----- Editor
Norman C. Hayslip--.....................-- Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites........-- ...........-----Business Manager



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TOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Suggestions for the prepara-
tion of papers submitted for publication in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST."
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THE INFLUENCE OF COVER CROP CULTIVATION ON
POPULATIONS OF INJURIOUS INSECTS AND
MITES IN FLORIDA CITRUS GROVES 1

MARTIN H. MUMA
Entomologist, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida

Cultural practices involving the natural ground cover or cover crop vary
considerably from area to area and grove to grove in Florida. This vari-
ation is, in some instances, governed by the level of the water table or the
type of soil involved. More frequently, however, cultivation is modified by
the opinions of the grower. Some growers maintain weed-free groves by
frequent disking, harrowing or chopping. Others permit cover crop de-
velopment during the summer months but practice clean cultivation in the
fall, winter and spring. Still others allow weeds and wild grasses to grow
unhampered from one picking season to the next. Horticultural and agro-
nomic reasons cited for such variations in practices include moisture conser-
vation, soil conservation, fire protection, soil protection, tree stimulation
and efficient grove management. Furthermore, many growers believe that
such practices cause increases or decreases in insect and mite abundance.
To date only two studies have been conducted on the influence of cover
crop cultivation on insect and mite infestations. The first was an investi-
gation by Osburn and Mathis (1944) concerning the citrus rust mite, Phyl-
locoptruta oleivora (Ashmead). These workers concluded that there was
no difference between rust mite infestations on trees in clean cultivated
plots and on trees grown in plots having a cover crop. They did, however,
record stimulation of the trees in the clean cultivation plots. Two years
later the same workers (Oshurn and Mathis, 1946) reported markedly great-
er infestations of Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), on trees
growing in cultivated plots than on trees in uncultivated plots. They were
unable, however, to demonstrate striking differences in the percentages of
parasitized scales or fungi-affected scales and concluded that tree stimula-
tion, a result of cultivation, was the important factor in the development
of larger scale infestations.
The present study was conducted to obtain preliminary cultivation data
on the major injurious insects and mites attacking Florida citrus and to
correlate, if possible, any differences recorded with changes in the rates of
parasitism or predation.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
PLOT DESIGN.-This study of the effects of cover crop cultivation on
insect and mite populations was based on three grove experiments: one on
the east coast at Fort Pierce, one on the west coast at Tarpon Springs, and
one in the north at Weirsdale. A fourth grove located in the central dis-
trict at Dundee had to be abandoned after the first year because of an in-
festation of burrowing nematode. The experiment was conducted for six
years at Fort Pierce, five years at Weirsdale, and four years at Tarpon
Springs. Each grove was divided into three approximately equal sections.
At Fort Pierce, the sections were about ten acres in size, at Weirsdale
about seven acres and at Tarpon Springs about three. One section was
cultivated frequently to keep cover crop growth to a minimum (over culti-
vated), one section was cultivated as infrequently as was practical (under
cultivated), and the third section was occasionally cultivated at the dis-
cretion of the grove owner (moderately cultivated). Several types of culti-
vation were employed: the grove at Fort Pierce was ridged, the ditches were
plowed out and disked down in the spring and the cover crop was mowed
and vines hooked out of the trees in the summer, fall, and winter. Cultiva-
tion practices at Weirsdale included spring plowing and disking, and sum-

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series, No. 1231.













The Florida Entomologist


mer, fall and winter chopping. At Tarpon Springs the cover crop was
disked in the spring and harrowed in the summer, fall and winter. The
Fort Pierce grove was sulfur-dusted except during 1957 and 1958, the
Weirsdale grove was untreated, and the Tarpon Springs grove was sprayed
regularly.
COUNT METHODS.-Each plot was sampled monthly and population counts
were made in the laboratory with a dissecting microscope. Each sample
consisted of 20 inside and 20 outside leaves collected from four trees. Adult
female host insects and mites were counted on the total surface of each
leaf in most instances as it was felt that this stage, the final egg producing
stage of a generation, best exemplified the population trend. Citrus rust
mites, however, were counted in four lens fields to the leaf while six-spotted
mite and citrus flat mite populations were based on total number of moving
mites per sample. All feeding stages of predators and all stages of para-
sites were counted.
EVALUATION METHODS.-Resultant count data were evaluated with pop-
ulation trend-line graphs, yearly total and mean population tables, hosts
per natural control factor comparisons, and percent parasitism figures.
The results, discussed and tabulated below, were obtained by analyses with
two or more of these methods.
"Grove years," referred to in the text and tables represents an accumu-
lation of years and groves into a single total figure. For example purple
scale was found in every grove during every year, "15 grove years."

RESULTS

When the accumulated data were analyzed it was discovered that mod-
erate cultivation produced results that varied from year to year, season to
season, month to month, and grove to grove. Therefore, the following dis-
cussions are based entirely on the over and under cultivated plots.
PURPLE SCALE, LEPIDOSAPHES BECKII (NEWM.).-Populations of this in-
sect exhibited a remarkably consistent reaction to cultivation. For 11 of
the 15 grove years, populations were slightly to strikingly lower in under
cultivated plots. The following exceptions occurred during the remaining
four years: there was no difference in one year at Fort Pierce, but popula-
tions were slightly lower in over cultivated plots for two years at Fort
Pierce and one year at Palm Harbor. Mean populations of this insect over
the entire experimental period are shown in Table 1.
Analyses of predator and parasite data were made in an effort to de-
termine the cause of lower populations in under cultivated plots. It was
found that the common fungus disease, chytridiosis, was consistently host-
density dependent, causing the least mortality in the lower scale popula-
tions in the under cultivated plots. Parasitism of young female scales by
Aspidiotiphagus spp. and of mature female scales by Aphytis lepidosaphes
Compere was not, on the other hand, consistently higher in either under
or over cultivated plots. Also, no consistent relationship between scale
populations and populations of the predatory thrips, Aleurodothrips fascia-
pennis Franklin, existed in the data. Summary figures of these relation-
ships are given in Table 3.
FLORIDA RED SCALE, CHRYSOMPHALUS AONIDUM (L.).-Populations of
this scale were very low (Table 1). It is interesting to note, however, that


Vol. 44, No. 2



















Mu.ma: Insects and Mites in Florida Citrus Groves 63


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lower populations of this insect occurred in the under cultivated plots.
For nine of the 15 grove years, populations were lower in the under culti-
vated plots, for two years they were equal in the under and over cultivated
plots, and for four years lower in the over cultivated plots. Mean popula-
tions are summarized in Table 1. These results parallel those of Osburn
and Mathis (1946).
Counts were made on the only two natural control factors known to
cause heavy mortality of this insect, one the critical parasite Pseudhoma-
lopoda prima Gir., the other a complex of parasitic wasps that attacks im-
mature scales. No consistent relationship was found to exist between
Pseudhomalopoda and Florida red scale (Table 3). Although the figures
are not included here, the same was true with the parasite complex attack-
ing immature scales.
CHAFF SCALE, PARLATORIA PERGANDII COMST.-This scale occurred in the
test plots 14 out of 15 grove years. Mean population figures given in
Table 1 show that populations were lower in under cultivated plots. Yearly
data exhibited a high degree of consistency, with populations lower in the
under cultivated plots in thirteen years and equal one year.
Evaluation of a complex of Prospaltella fasciata Mal. and Aphytis his-
panicus Mercet indicated that parasitism was higher in under cultivated
plots (Table 3). The consistency of this phenomenon was, however, some-
what less than that exhibited by the scale population.
GLOVER'S SCALE, LEPIDOSAPHES GLOVERI (PACK).-This scale was counted
only five grove years, but populations were lower in over cultivated plots
in four of the five years and equal in one year (Table 1).
The common parasite, Prospaltella elongata Doz., was not consistently
associated with the lower populations (Table 3).
YELLOW SCALE, AONIDIELLA CITRINA (COQ.).-This potentially important
scale insect occurred in significant numbers only in the Palm Harbor grove.
Mean population data for four years indicate strikingly lower populations
in the under cultivated plot (Table 1). This phenomenon occurred every
year.
Although the common parasite, Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet), was not
consistently more numerous in the under cultivated plot, trend-line graphs
demonstrated a consistent parasite lag phenomenon. This indicated that
the parasite was probably the controlling factor and was somewhat density
independent during the test period. The number of scales per parasite
given in Table 3 also indicated a certain degree of density independency.
CITRUS RUST MITE, PHYLLOCOPTRUTA OLEIVORA (ASHM.).-Populations
of this mite did not react to intensity of cultivation. Although the sum-
mary data given in Table 2 indicated that populations might be lower in
over cultivated plots, analyses of yearly means and trend line graphs
showed no consistency. These data agree with the findings of Osburn and
Mathis (1944).
Although no data are presented here, the incidence of Hirsutella thomp-
sonii Fisher was consistently higher in the heavier populations, indicating
a strong host-density dependency.
CITRUS RED MITE, PANONYCHUS CITRI (McG.).-This spider mite was
not present in large numbers except at Fort Pierce during 1954. Popula-
tions were lowest in under cultivated plots, but the data were not strikingly


Vol. 44, No. 2













Muma: Insects and Mites in Florida Citrus Groves


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Muma: Insects and Mites in Florida Citrus Grove 67

consistent. This tendency toward lower populations in under cultivated
plots has been observed but not reported by other workers.
No correlations could be demonstrated for Entomophthora, the common
fungus disease, and citrus red mite population levels (Table 3).
TEXAS CITRUS MITE, EUTETRANYCHUS BANKSI (McG.).-This mite oc-
curred in the plots a total of seven grove years. Mean population data,
shown in Table 2, indicate lower populations in over cultivated plots. How-
ever, yearly populations and means for each grove were inconsistent and
therefore results were inconclusive.
SIX-SPOTTED MITE, EOTETRANYCHUS SEXMACULATUS (RILEY).-This spider
mite occurred in the Weirsdale and Palm Harbor groves a total of eight
grove years. Lower populations occurred in the under cultivated plots
every year. Table 2 gives the grove means for the test period.
Although no special counts were made on Typhlodromus floridanus
Muma, the known mite predator, it is interesting to note that the over-
all populations of several species of typhlodromids were higher in the
under cultivated plots in these two groves.
CITRUS FLAT MITE, BREVIPALPUS PHOENECIS (GEIJSKES).-Populations
of this false-spider mite occurred during the entire experimental period
only in the Fort Pierce grove. Table 2 shows that populations were lower
in the over cultivated plot. The yearly means were lower in the over culti-
vated plot in five out of six years.
Analysis of predator data showed that certain species of typhlodromids
were consistently higher in-the over cultivated plots and to some extent
were inversely related to flat mite populations on a year to year basis.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Six major injurious insects and mites, purple scale, Florida red scale,
chaff scale, yellow scale, citrus red mite, and six-spotted mite, may be
reduced in number or partially controlled by reducing cover crop cultiva-
tion to the minimum, consistent with good moisture conservation, fire pro-
tection, and efficient grove management. Exceptions to this generalization
are the citrus rust mite which seems to be unaffected by cultivation prac-
tices, and Glover's scale and the citrus flat mite which may be more abundant
under such conditions. Texas citrus mite populations were too low and in-
consistent for evaluation.
Data on common and limiting predators, parasites, or diseases were in-
conclusive in many instances. On the other hand, incidence of chytridiosis
in purple scale and H. thompsonii in citrus rust mite show that these two
factors are strongly host density dependent, and specifically different typhlo-
dromid populations were shown to be inversely proportionate to both six-
spotted and citrus flat mite infestations. Hymenopterous parasites, in gen-
eral, exhibited less dependence on host density in their relatively uniform
rates of attack.
The general lack of a relationship between cultivation practices and
abundance or rate of attack by natural control agents indicates that some
as yet unknown factor governs the level of citrus insect and mite infesta-
tions under different cultural conditions. This factor may well be a "tree
stimulation" as indicated by Osburn and Mathis (1944, 1946), but this













The Florida Entomologist


phenomenon was not observable on the mature trees utilized in these ex-
periments.
LITERATURE CITED
Osburn, Max R., and Willis Mathis. 1944. Effect of cultural practices
on the citrus rust mite. Jour. Econ. Ent. 37(6): 767.
Osburn, Max R., and Willis Mathis. 1946. Effect of cultivation on Florida
red scale populations. 39(5): 571.








MYIASIS IN AN AQUATIC TURTLE.-A case of apparently accidental par-
asitism was recently found in a common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpen-
tina serpentina (L.) involving the common drain fly, Telmatoscopus albi-
punctatus (Will.) .
Two young turtles, when bought at a reptile farm in Laplace, Louisiana,
in September, 1960, were one or two months old (carapace length 33 mm.)
and appeared to be in good health. They were brought to the laboratory
at the University of Florida, Gainesville, and within two weeks fungal in-
fections, concentrated on the head, lower jaw, and the neck region, were
noted on one of the individuals. Several larvae were found when infected
skin and areas adjacent to the infection were removed. The turtles were
treated with liberal doses of gentian violet and the next day several more
larvae were found. In all, 11 larvae were recovered from this turtle; how-
ever, the other turtle had no fungus infection and no larvae were found on
or in its skin. The infected individual seemed to be in poor health and was,
therefore, preserved and added to the collections of the University of
Florida (UF 11692). Attempts to rear the larvae after they were re-
moved from the turtle failed.
The larvae of this fly are not believed to be parasitic. Considering the
nature of the infection, it seems probable that the sore on the neck of the
turtle provided an attractive place for oviposition, which likely occurred
in the laboratory. Such a ready adaptability to a parasitic situation may
indicate that T. albipunctatus uses this method under natural situations
as well. As aquatic reptiles are often infected with fungi, it is possible that
myiatic infections of this type, though not reported, may occur frequently.-
Andrew A. Arata and Lewis Berner, Department of Biology, University
of Florida.

1 Dr. Alan Stone, Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Re-
search Branch, U.S.D.A., U. S. National Museum, kindly identified these
specimens.


Vol. 44, No. 2
















AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE HORSE FLIES OF FLORIDA
AND AN ILLUSTRATED KEY TO THE GENERA
(DIPTERA: TABANIDAE)

WILLIAM C. BARGREN 1

This paper summarizes, briefly, the nomenclatural status of horse flies
from Florida. Following each name in the list of species are annotations
relating to the papers published, since Philip's catalog (1947), which deal
either directly or indirectly with Florida forms. If no annotations follow
a species name, it means that no references subsequent to 1947 have been
found in available literature, pertaining to that species. Full titles and
sources are given in the bibliography. At the present time there are at
least 120 names, exclusive of synonyms, applicable to the horse flies of
Florida.
The generic key is designed to identify specimens of adult flies repre-
senting species known to occur in the State, and is a colligation and modifi-
cation of keys published by Stone (1938), Fairchild (1942, 1950), Bequaert
and Renjifo-Salcedo (1946), Philip (1941, 1947, 1954c, 1955), Steyskal
(1953), and Philip and Fairchild (1956). Tribal and subfamilial separation
of genera have been omitted for reasons of relevancy and brevity. Classifi-
catory matters within the family are largely unsettled. Details of supra-
generic grouping are treated by Mackerras (1954, 1955a, 1955b). Specific
names mentioned, refer to either the only species of a given genus known
from Florida, or, to certain species within a given genus which have par-
ticular characteristics emphasized in the key.
Plates I & II are original, free hand drawings, meant to facilitate usage
of the key. Stylets of female Diachlorus ferrugatus, figured in Plate II,
represent the proboscidial elements common to the Brachycera and Nemato-
cera. In this species, mandibles are boomerang-shaped with scalloped cut-
ting-edge; galeae strong, their apical 1 serrate, and otherwise covered
with scattered spiculi. Males in these suborders have the same kind of
stylets as females, though they are thin, frail, without cutting edge, or
otherwise reduced. Cyclorrhaphous flies, some of which are mistaken for
horse flies by laymen, do not have mandibles.

NOMENCLATURE
The generic name Agkistrocerus Philip, 1941, transliterated from the
Greek, would read Ancistrocerus. However, a change is not likely, and
would result in preoccupation of the name by Ancistrocerus Wesmael, 1836,
in the Hymenoptera.2 The generic name Aegialomyia Philip, 1941, is
treated here as a subgeneric name, with its species psammophilus, under
Stenotabanus Lutz, 1913. Haematopota Meigen, 1803, is used as a counter-
part generic name of Chrysozona Meigen, 1800, and Chrysops Meigen, 1803,
a counterpart of Chrysops Meigen, 1800, following the report of Melville
(1960).

1Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
2 Alan Stone, U. S. National Museum, in litteris, 15 Feb., 1961.







The Florida Entomologist


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Vol. 44, No. 2


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Bargren: Annotated List of Horse Flies of Florida 71

Since Brennan's monograph (1935), the generic name Chrysops Meigen,
1803, has been used as a feminine noun. Some recent articles have treated
it as a masculine noun. Because adjectival specific names must agree
grammatically with the generic name, it is meaningful for the gender of
Chrysops to be fixed, and the name used uniformly. Analysis of the word
gives some criteria upon which an opinion may be based concerning the
gender, but this is beyond the scope of the present paper. The stems,
meaning, and genders of the adjective from which the noun form of the
generic name is derived, lead to the choice of chrysops as the original form
of the word and support the use of Chrysops Meigen, as a feminine noun.
The rule-of-thumb that a compound noun derives its gender from the suffix
used, is defended in the Copenhagen Decisions (1953).

DIAGNOSIS OF TABANIDAE
Antenna with 3 obvious segments; the flagellum with 2 or more annula-
tions, without arista or style; squamae large; empodium like the pulvilli;
venation similar to Plate II, Figure 1, with veins R4 and R5 bounding the
apex of the wing; males holoptic (except in the Australian genus Archeo-
myia Philip, 1941); females dichoptic; setitaxy not evident.

Plate I., Explanation
Figure 1. Right wing, frontal aspect, in Agkistrocerus megerlei, female
specimen. (a) basicostal scale adjoining costal vein; (b)
bare basicostal scale in another species; (c) epaulet, at base
of wing; (d) notopleural lobe of mesothorax.
Figure 2. Head, frontal aspect, upper portion of face, in Chrysops vittata
floridana, female specimen. (e) ocellar tubercle bearing
ocelli; (f) basal callus; (g) subcallus, showing antennal
socket.
Figure 3. Head, frontal aspect, upper portion of face, in Chlorotabanus
crepuscularis, male specimen. (h) subcallus, showing an-
tennal socket.
Figure 4. Head, dorsal aspect, in Tabanus atratus, male specimen. Verti-
cal line represents intimate junction of the compound eyes.
Horizontal arms represent hind border of compound eyes.
(i) ocellar tubercle, without ocelli.
Figure 5. Head, dorsal aspect, in Leucotabanus annulatus, female speci-
men. Same as Fig. 4, but eyes are separated. (k) ocellar
tubercle, without ocelli.
Figure 6. Left antenna, lateral aspect, in Diachlorus ferrugatus speci-
men. (m) flagellum, showing annulations on apical portion;
(n) scape; (o) pedicel. These divisions correspond to seg-
ments 3, 2, 1, respectively.
Figure 7. Left antenna, lateral aspect, in Chlorotabanus crepuscularis
specimen. Same division as in Fig. 6.
Figure 8. Left antenna, lateral aspect, in Chrysops vittata floridana
specimen. Same divisions as in Fig. 6, but the segments are
longer and narrower.
Figure 9. Head, frontal aspect, full face, in Diachlorus ferrugatus, fe-
male specimen. Eyes narrowly separated, ocellar tubercle
not present. (q) median callus; (r) basal callus; (s) sub-
callus, showing antennal socket; (t) gena; (u) clypeus;
(v) maxillary palpus; (w) labium.
Figure 10. Left antenna, lateral aspect, in Agkistrocerus megerlei speci-
men. Same divisions as in Fig. 6. (p) dorsal, forwardly
directed hook on base of segment 3, the flagellum.




































3 j !

I \










e- -g


Plate II. Identifying characters in the horse flies.
Plate II., Explanation
Figure 1. Right wing, dorsal aspect, in Diachlorus ferrugatus specimen.
Stippling represents smoky-colored areas. (C) base of
costal vein; (Rs) radial sector, beginning basad of the
discal cell; (Sc) subcostal vein; (R, 2 + 3, 4, 5) radial veins;
(dc) discal cell. Posterior veins not numbered.
Figure 2. (St) stump vein present at base of R,. Prominent in Steno-
tabanus psammophilus.
Figure 3. Stylets of the mouthparts of Diachlorus ferrugatus, female
specimen, dorsal view, slide mount. (a) salivary duct, visible
through clypeus; (b) salivary canal in hypopharynx; (c)
right maxillary galea; (d) right mandible, with scalloped
cutting edge; (e) labrum, showing central food canal; (f)
hypopharynx; (g) enlarged tip of left galea, showing cuticu-
lar, saw-toothed edge.









Bargren: Annotated List of Horse Flies in Florida 73

ANNOTATED LIST OF HORSE FLIES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN FLORIDA
Agkistrocerus finitimus (Stone), 1938
Philip, 1954a. Note on holotype; description of female, pp. 31, 32
Philip, 1960a. Note on classification, p. 365.
Agkistrocerus megerlei (Wiedemann), 1828
Philip, 1960a. Note on classification, p. 365.
Anacimas geropogon Philip, 1936
Philip, 1952a. New record
Philip, 1954a. New record, p. 32.
Anacimas limbellatus Enderlein, 1923
Philip, 1952a. Plant-trapped.
Chlorotabanus crepuscularis (Bequaert), 1926
Philip and Fairchild, 1956. Keys & distribution.
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence; larval habitat.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Chrysops abata Philip, 1941
Philip, 1952a. Plant-trapped.
Chrysops amazon Daecke, 1905
Philip, 1955, p. 87.
Chrysops amazon hubbelli Philip, 1955
Philip, 1955. New subspecies, p. 88.
Chrysops atlantica Pechuman, 1949
Pechuman, 1949. New species, p. 79.
Chrysops beameri Brennan, 1935
Chrysops bistellata Daecke, 1905
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 10
Chrysops brimleyi Hine, 1904
Chrysops brunnea Hine, 1903
Chrysops callida Osten Sacken, 1875
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 10
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, p. 180.
Chrysops cincticornis Walker, 1848
Synonym: Chrysops celer Osten Sacken, 1875
Philip, 1959, p. 201.
Chrysops cincticornis nigroptera Fairchild, 1937
Chrysops cursim Whitney, 1879
Chrysops dacne Philip, 1955
Philip, 1955. New species, p. 99.
Chrysops dimmocki Hine, 1905
Chrysops divisa Walker, 1848
Chrysops dorsovittata Hine, 1907
Chrysops flavida Wiedemann, 1821
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 12.
Philip, 1957. Southern extension in Antilles, pp. 15, 16.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.













The Florida Entomologist


Chrysops flavida reicherti Fairchild, 1937
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Chrysops fuliginosa Wiedemann, 1821
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 12.
Philip, 1952a. Plant-trapped.
Chrysops fulvistigma Hine, 1904
Philip, 1950a. New record, p. 436.
Chrysops fulvistigma dorsopuncta Fairchild, 1937
Chrysops geminata Wiedemann, 1828
Chrysops hinei Daecke, 1907
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence.
Chrysops moecha Osten Sacken, 1875
Philip, 1961 in litteris (Jan.), C. B. Philip to F. S. Blanton,
Univ. Florida. New record. To be published subsequently.
Chrysops montana Osten Sacken, 1875
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 14.
Philip, 1955. Melanistic variations, p. 110.
Chrysops montana perplexa Philip, 1955
Philip, 1955. New subspecies, p. 111.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Chrysops nigra Macquart, 1838
Philip, 1950a. New record, p. 436
Frost and Pechuman 1958. Distribution, p. 182.
Chrysops nigra taylori Philip, 1955
Philip, 1955. New subspecies, p. 112
Chrysops nigribimbo Whitney, 1879
Chrysops obsoleta Wiedemann, 1821
Synonyms: Chrysops lugens Wiedemann, 1821
Philip, 1950a, p. 431.
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, pp. 13, 14.
Chrysops trinotata Macquart, 1838
Philip, 1955, p. 100.
Chrysops obsoleta lugens Wiedemann, 1821
Philip, 1955, p. 99.
Synonym: Chrysops obsoleta ultima Whitney, 1914
Philip, 1950a. New subspecies combination,
p. 431.
Chrysops parvula Daecke, 1907
Chrysops pikei Whitney, 1904
Philip, 1950a. New record, p. 432.
Philip, 1961, in litteris (Jan.) C.B. Philip to F. S. Blanton,
Univ. Florida. New record. To be published subsequently.
Chrysops pudica Osten Sacken, 1875
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence.
Chrysops sackeni Hine, 1903


Vol. 44, No.













Bargren: Annotated List of Horse Flies in Florida 75

Chrysops univittata Macquart, 1855
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 15.
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, p. 182.
Chrysops vittata Wiedemann, 1821
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 15.
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, p. 182.
Chrysops vittata floridana Johnson, 1913
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Chrysops wiedemanni Krober, 1926
Philip, 1950a. New record, p. 432.
McAlpine, 1960. Lectotype, p. 435.
Chrysops new species.
Philip, in litteris (Jan. 1961), C. B. Philip to F. S. Blanton,
Univ. Florida. New species, to be described in Ent. News.
Diachlorus ferrugatus (Fabricius), 1805
Shewell, 1947. First male reported and described.
Fairchild, 1953a. New record for Mexico.
Anthony, 1957. Immature stages collected by soil treatment.
Blickle, 1958a. Eye color in male; males light-trapped.
Anthony, 1960. Females light-trapped.
Philip, 1960c. Lectotype, p. 174
Glaucops daedalus (Stone), 1938
Haematopota punctulata (Macquart), 1838
Philip, 1953. Key to Nearctic species of the genus, under Chrysozona.
Hamatabanus carolinensis (Macquart), 1838
Synonym: Hamatabanus scitus (Walker), 1848
Philip, 1950a, p. 433.
Philip, 1950b, p. 120.
Hamatabanus sexfasciatus (Stone), 1935
Hybomitra hinei (Johnson), 1904
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, under Tabanus.
Hybomitra hinei wright (Whitney), 1915
Philip, 1950b. Neallotype male, p. 121.
Philip, 1952a. Plant-trapped.
Hybomitra lasiophthalma (Macquart), 1838
Synonym: Hybomitra freta (Stone), 1938
Philip, 1950a, pp. 433, 434.

Hybomitra trispila trispila (Wiedemann), 1828
Pechuman, 1960. Nominate subspecies compared with H. trispila
sodalis Williston; distribution, p. 798.

Leucotabanus annulatus (Say), 1823
Jones, 1953. Larval habitat.
Fairchild, 1953b. Key to American species of the genus, pp. 274-276.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Merycomyia brunnea Stone, 1953
Stone, 1953. New species, p. 256.














The Florida Entomologist


Merycomyia whitneyi (Johnson), 1904
Philip, 1954c. Distribution and key to species of the genus, p. 60.
Microtabanus pygmaeus (Williston), 1887
Stenotabanus floridensis (Hine), 1912
Stone, 1938. New combination, p. 34.
Synonym: Tabanus floridensis Hine, 1912
Stone, 1938, p. 34.
Philip, 1950a, p. 435
Stenotabanus psammophilus (Osten Sacken), 1876
Fairchild, 1951. Eye pattern compared to Panaman species.
Blickle, 1958b. Habits & immature stages.
Philip, 1958. Occurrence in Florida; keys to other species.
Tabanus aar Philip, 1941
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus abactor Philip, 1936
Schomberg and Howell, 1955. Biology.
Tabanus abdominalis Fabricius, 1805
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 20.
Synonym: Tabanus limbatinervis Macquart, 1847
Philip, 1959, p. 208 (Tasmanian species)
Tabanus acutus (Bigot), 1892
Tabanus americanus Forster, 1071
Bonhag, 1949, 1951. Anatomy of adults.
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 21.
Bromley, 1952. Biting habits.
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus atratus, Fabricius, 1775
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 21.
Philip, 1952a. Plant-trapped.
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence.
Anthony, 1957. Immature stages collected by soil treatment.
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, p. 184.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus atratus fulvopilosus Johnson, 1919
Tabanus birdie Whitney, 1914
Tabanus bishoppi Stone, 1933
Blickle, 1959. Hovering and mating habits.
Tabanus calens Linneaus, 1767
Synonym: Tabanus giganteus Degeer, 1776
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 24.
Philip, 1952b, p. 311.
Tashiro and Schwardt, 1953. Immatures;
rearing.
Tabanus cayensis Fairchild, 1935
Tabanus cheliopterus Rondani, 1850
Tabanus cheliopterus subfronto Philip, 1936


Vol. 44, No. 2













Bargren: Annotated List of Horse Flies in Florida 7'

Tabanus coarctatus Stone, 1935
Tabanus endymion Osten Sacken, 1878
Jones, 1953. Life cycle.
Tabanus equalis Hine, 1923
Philip, 1950a. New record, p. 436.
Schomberg and Howell, 1955. Biology.
Philip, 1959. New record, p. 215
Tabayus exilipalpis Stone, 1938
Tabanus fulvulus Wiedemann, 1828
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, pp. 176, 178.
Tabanus fulvulus pallidescens Philip, 1936
Tabanus fumipennis Wiedemann, 1828
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence; life cycle.
Anthony, 1957. Immature stages collected by soil treatment.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine, 1906
Pechuman, 1949. New record, p. 83
Tabanus gladiator Stone, 1935
Anthony, 1957. Immature stages collected by soil treatment.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus gracilis Wiedemann, 1828
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus imitans var. imitans Walker, 1848
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Philip, 1960b. Varieties of the species.
Tabanus imitans var. excesses Stone, 1938
Philip, 1954a. Allotype male, p. 26.
Pechuman, 1955. Redescription of male.
Anthony, 1957, 1960.
Philip, 1960b. Compared with other varieties of the species.
Tabanus imitans var. pechumani Philip, 1960
Philip, 1960b. New variety, p. 171.
Tabanus johnsoni Hine, 1907
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus kisliuki Stone, 1940
Philip, 1950a. New record, p. 436.
Tabanus lineola Fabricius, 1794
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 25.
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence; larval habitat; pupal parasites.
Anthony, 1957, 1960.
Philip, 1957. Atypical specimens from Florida, p. 8.

Tabanus longiusculus Hine, 1907
Pechuman, 1958. Variations in specimens from Florida.
Tabanus melanocerus Wiedemann, 1828
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 25.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.













78 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 2

Tabanus melanocerus lacustris Stone, 1935
Philip, 1950a. New subspecies combination, p. 435.
Tabanus molestus mixis Philip, 1950
Philip, 1950c. New subspecies, p. 241.
Tabanus mularis Stone, 1935
Tabanus nigrescens Palisot de Beauvois, 1809
Tabanus nigresicens atripennis Stone, 1935
Tabanus nigripes Wiedemann, 1821
Anthony, 1957, 1960.
Synonym: Tabanus, coffeatus Macquart, 1847
Philip, 1950a, p. 434.
Philip, 1959, p. 206.
Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, 1847
Bailey, 1947a. Parasites of pupae.
Bailey, 1947b. Mating habits.
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 26.
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence.
Synonym: Tabanus vicarius Walker, 1848 ex parte
Philip, 1960c, p. 174. Lectotype designated for
T. nigrovittatus.
Tabanus nigrovittatus fulvilineis Philip, 1957
Philip, 1957. New subspecies, pp. 3-6.
Tabanus petiolatus Hine, 1917
Anthony, 1957. Immature stages collected by soil treatment.
Tabanus proximus Walker, 1848
Tabanus pumilus Macquart, 1838
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, p. 185.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus quinquevittatus Wiedemann, 1821
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 27.
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, p. 184.
Synonym: Tabanus manifestus Walker, 1850
Philip, 1959, p. 209.
Tabanus quirinus Philip, 1950
Philip, 1950b. New species, p. 120.
Tabanus recedens Walker, 1848
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 27.
Tabanus rufofrater Walker, 1850
Jones, 1953. Life cycle.
Tabanus similis Macquart, 1849
Synonym: Tabanus lineola var. scutellaris Walker, 1850
Philip, 1959, p. 208.
Philip, 1960c, p. 174.
Tabanus sparus Whitney, 1879
Tabanus sparus miller Whitney, 1914
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, pp. 176, 178.













Bargren: Annotated List of Horse Flies in Florida 79

Tabanus stygius Say, 1823
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 28.
Anthony, 1957, 1960.
Tabanus sulcifrons Macquart, 1855
Bonhag, 1949, 1951. Anatomy of adults.
Tashiro and Schwardt, 1953. Larvae compared with T. giganteus
(= calens)
Frost and Pechuman, 1958. Distribution, p. 183.
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Tabanus trijunctus Walker, 1854
Jones, 1953. Seasonal occurrence.
Tabanus trimaculatus Palisot de Beauvois, 1807
Fairchild, 1950. Distribution, p. 29.
Tabanus turbidus Wiedemann, 1828
Tabanus vittiger guatemalanus Hine, 1906
Fairchild and Aitken, 1960. Recorded from Trinidad, p. 7
Synonyms: Tabanus lineola var. carneus Bellardi, 1859
Tabanus lineola var. scutellaris Philip, 1949
Tabanus truquii Bequaert, 1940
Tabanus vittiger var. bellardi Szilady, 1926
Tabanus vittiger var. caymanicus Fairchild, 1942
Philip, 1954b, 1957, 1960a.
Pechuman, 1957.
Tabanus vittiger schwardti Philip, 1942
Philip, 1952a. Plant-trapped.
Tabanus wiedemanni Osten Sacken, 1876
Tabanus zythicolor Philip, 1936
Anthony, 1960. Light-trapped.
Whitneyomyia beatifica (Whitney), 1914
Whitneyomyia beatifica atricorpus Philip, 1950
Philip, 1950b. New subspecies, p. 122.

KEY TO GENERA OF FLORIDAN HORSE FLIES
1. Wing completely and lightly dappled, gray to brown;
ocelli absent ...........-.......------ ..--..--.-..--- Haematopota Meigen, 1803
Species: punctulata
W ing not dappled.............. ---- -----............................... ..2

2. Ocelli well developed; vein Sc bare on upper and lower surfaces
(P1. I, Fig. 2; P1. II, Fig. 1)..................................-- --- 3
Ocelli either absent or inconspicuous; vein Sc hairy on lower
surface, at least-------.... -............ .. ....... .. ..................4

3. Antenna conspicuously shorter than antero-posterior axis of head;
basal segment at least as wide as long .....-- Merycomyia Hine, 1912
Species: brunnea, whitneyi
Antenna conspicuously longer than antero-posterior axis of head;
basal segment at least twice as long as wide













The Florida Entomologist


(P1. I, Fig. 8) ..........--------...... ------......Chrysops Meigen, 1803
Species: 40 or more, including varieties

4. Basicostal scale with hairs as densely distributed as those on
adjoining costal vein (P1. I, Fig. 1)-..................------------------.. 5
Basicostal scale either distinctly bare, or,
with very few hairs, in a line or patch......... -... -------------...... .8

5. Antenna with a conspicuous, dorsal, forwardly directed
hook on the base of segment 3 (P1. I, Fig. 10).............-----................6
Antenna without hook on base of segment 3, though a
dorsal process may be present------..............----------...---------.. 13

6. Eye sparsely to densely hairy3 .......- .........---------------------7
Eye bare.-........................ ....-------- Tabanus Linnaeus, 1758, ex parte
Species: americanus, atratus, calens, fumipennis,
imitans var. imitans, imitans var. pechumani
7. Wing with isolated, smoky-colored patches;
eye densely hairy..........----............---- Agkistrocerus Philip, 1941
Species: finitima, megerlei
Wing clear; eye sparsely hairy........................Hamatabanus Philip, 1941
Species: carolinensis, sexfasciatus

8. Antenna with 2-3 annulations in flagellum; few
hairs on basicostal scale; small flies....... --------...... .....---...----9
Antenna with 4 annulations in flagellum.................. ...--------------10
9. Antennal flagellum with 3 annulations, 2 of which are
distinct; body blackish...----.....................Microtabanus Fairchild, 1938
Species: pygmaeus
Antennal flagellum with 3 indistinct annulations;
body yellow-brown--...........-- ...-- ..------....Glaucops Szilady, 1923
Species: daedalus

10. Ocellar tubercle present; light, submedian pattern on abdominal
tergites; basicostal scale with a few hairs
(P1. I, Fig. 4, 5)....................-..-.....Stenotabanus Lutz, 1913, ex parte
Species: floridensis
Ocellar tubercle not present; body color different.... --------....................... 11

11. Thorax, abdomen, white; rubbed areas appear reddish-brown;
legs yellowish-white; stump vein at base of R4; basicostal scale
with a few hairs (P1. II, Fig. 2) Stenotabanus Lutz 1913, ex parte
Species: psammophilus
Body not white; basicostal scale bare (P1. I, Fig. 1-B)...........-............--12
12. Body entirely pale yellow to green; proboscis moderately long;
labellum small; stout flies..........................Chlorotabanus Lutz, 1909
Species: crepuscularis

SMinute hairs on disc of eye. Seen best when insect is tilted forward,
the front edge of eye viewed against white, or sometimes black, background;
magnified 10-60 X.


Vol. 44, No. 2













Bargren: Annotated List of Horse Flies in Florida 81

Body yellowish-brown; proboscis short; labellum large; mesocutum
with distinct, greenish patch; apical 14 -% of wing between
R1 & R,, smoky-colored (P1. II, Fig. 1) Diachlorus Osten Sacken,
1876
Species: ferrugatus
13. Ocellar tubercle present (P1. I, Fig. 4, 5) -...-......-.--------........--------14
Ocellar tubercle not present............... ----------------.. ....15
14. Abdomen with sublateral-longitudinal pale areas, spots or triangles;
a median dark stripe, on the tergites. Hybomitra Enderlein, 1922
Species: hinei, hinei var. wright,
lasiophthalma, trispila trispila
Abdomen with pale, transverse, hind borders on the tergites:
without longitudinal patterns....................Leucotabanus Lutz, 1913
Species: annulatus
15. Clypeus, gena, subcallus, bare and swollen; eye bare; antennal
flagellum without hairy annulations; wing dark brown;
integument shiny black........................Whitneyomyia Bequaert, 1933
Species: beatific, beatifica atricorpus
Clypeus and gena sparsely to extensively hairy; characters in
otherways different from those mentioned above..--..-.........---....-... 16
16. Palpus with long hairs on basal segments; proboscis slender;
labellum small; antennal flagellum with short hairs on the
annulations; gena with long, white hair....Anacimas Enderlein, 1923
Species: geropogon, limbellatus
Palpus, proboscis, generally different from those described
above; labellum large; antennal flagellum without hairy
annulations ..--..................-.. Tabanus Linnaeus, 1758, ex parte
Species: 58 or more, including varieties,
and names in couplet 6.

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82 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 2

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Bargren: Annotated List of Horse Flies in Florida 83

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and keys to the genera and species of Pangoniinae exclusive of Chry-
sops. Rev. Brasil. Ent. 2: 13-60.
Philip, C. B. 1955. New North American Tabanidae, IX. Notes on and
keys to the genus Chrysops Meigen. Rev. Brasil. Ent. 3: 47-127.
Philip, C. B., and G. B. Fairchild. 1956. American biting flies of the
genera Chlorotabanus Lutz and Cryptotylus Lutz. Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 49(4): 313-324.
Philip, C. B. 1957. New records of Tabanidae in the Antilles. Amer.
Mus. Novit. 1858: 1-16.'
Philip, C. B. 1958. New records of Tabanidae in the Antilles, supple-
mental report. Amer. Mus. Novit. 1921: 1-7.
Philip, C. B. 1959. New North American Tabanidae, X. Notes on synony-
my and description of a new species of Chrysops. Trans. Amer. Ent.
Soc. 85: 193-217.
Philip, C. B. 1960a. New North American Tabanidae, XI. Supplemental
notes pertinent to a catalog of Nearctic species. Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 53(3): 364-369.
Philip, C. B. 1960b. New North American Tabanidae, XII. A new va-
riety of Tabanus imitans Walker. Fla. Ent. 43(4): 171-174.
Philip, C. B. 1960c. Supplemental note to Part X. Fla. Ent. 43(4): 174.










84 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 2
Schomberg, 0., and D. E. Howell. 1955. Biological notes on Tabanus
abactor Phil. and equalis, Hine. Jour. Econ. Ent. 48(5): 618-619.
Shewell, G. E. 1947. The male of Diachlorus ferrugatus (Fabr.). Canad.
Ent. 79: 32.
Steyskal, George C. 1953. A suggested classification of the lower brachy-
cerous diptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 46(2): 237-242.
Stone, Alan. 1938. The horse flies of the subfamily Tabaninae of the
nearctic region. U.S.D.A. Misc. Publ. 305, 172 pp.
Stone, Alan. 1953. New tabanid flies of the tribe Merycomyiini. Jour.
Wash. Acad. Sc. 43(8): 255-258.
Tashiro, H., and H. H. Schwardt. 1953. Notes on biology of Tabanus
giganteus. Jour. Econ. Ent. 46(4) : 681-682.


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EIGHT NEW AMBLYSEIUS FROM MEXICO WITH
COLLECTION NOTES ON TWO OTHER
SPECIES (ACARINA: PHYTOSEIIDAE)1

DONALD DE LEON
Erwin, Tennessee

Recent authors have not recognized Amblyseiopsis Garman and have
placed mites of this group either in Amblyseius, Berlese or in Typhlodromus
Scheuten; although Garman (1958), considers Amblyseiopsis distinctive,
I believe it is more correct to use the generic placement Amblyseius.
In the descriptions of new species all measurements are in microns and
are averages unless variation from the average exceeds 10 per cent, in
that case the range is given. Since D2-D6 and Ml in this genus are minute
or nearly so (5-14 microns long) no measurements for these setae are given
in the description of species. The females of all the species described have
4 pairs of interscutal setae.

Amblyseius megaporos, n. sp.
(Figures 1-3)
A. megaporos appears to be most closely related to chiapensis, described
below, but differs most notably from that species in having the whip-like
setae of the dorsal shield shorter and the pores of the ventrianal shield very
much larger.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 355 long, 235 wide with setae of the following
lengths: L1 53, L2 14, L3 11, L4 56, L5 11, L6 13, L7 11, L8 11, L9 195;
D1 24; M2 56. VL1 65. Genital shield 92 wide at base; ventrianal shield
63 wide (74 wide at level of anus), 105 long, with three pairs of preanal
setae and a pair of unusually large pores; primary metapodal shield 31
long about 5.4 wide, the anterior end constricted; accessory shield 18 long
about 2 wide. Fixed digit with 10-11 teeth including the subapical tooth;
movable digit not observable. Genua I-IV each with a macroseta 35, 39,
58, and 105 long respectively; tibia and metatarsus IV each with a macro-
seta 66 and 56 long respectively; tarsus IV 115 long, excluding pretarsus.
MALE: Unknown.
Holotype: Female, Veracruz, Veracruz, January 1, 1957 (D. De Leon),
from Bumelia sp.

Amblyseius chiapensis, n. sp.
(Figures 4-7)
A. chiapensis resembles elongatus Garman, but differs from that species
in having 6 pairs of "D" setae whereas elongatus has 5 pairs.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 322-376 long, 208-232 wide (5 specimens), with
setae of the following lengths: L1 54, L2 13-19, L3 8-14, L4 100, L5 8,
L6 9, L7 6, L8 8, L9 214-235; D1 24-30, M2 117. VL1 76 long. Genital
shield 83 wide at base; ventrianal shield 71-81 wide 116-132 long, with three

1 Research aided by a grant from Sigma Xi-RESA Research fund.


































5


\\ /




6

I,p
:t----C-
t-




7













17


Plate 1


3














De Leon: Eight New Amblyseius from Mexico 87

pairs of preanal setae and a pair of pores; primary metapodal shield 22
long, 5 wide; accessory shield 18 long, 3.5 wide. Fixed digit with 8-10
rather large teeth not including the subapical tooth; movable digit with 1
small tooth. Genua I-IV each with a macroseta 38-48, 38, 38-47, and 91
long respectively; tibia and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta 51-63, and
63-72 long respectively; tarsus IV, not including pretarsus 132-141 long.
MALE: Resembles female; dorsal shield 238-283 long, 163-180 wide
(3 specimens). Ventrianal shield with 3 pairs of preanal setae and a pair
of narrow pores. Spermatophore bearer with foot 12 long, shank 14 long,
of shape shown in figure. The length of the shank is measured from its
base to the distalmost point of the heel; in this species the heel is evenly
rounded, but in the following species the distal part of the heel is pro-
longed. The length of the foot is measured from the tip of the toe to
the back of the heel.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 18, 1957 (D.
De Leon), from Ceiba pentandra. Paratypes: 2 males, 2 females, January
10, 1957, from Acrocomia mexicana; 1 male, 1 female, January 26, 1957,
from Cocos nucifera, all other data as for holotype. Additional speimens
were taken in the same area and during the same period from the follow-
ing plants: Styrax argentea, Annona purpurea, Sterculia apetala, Jaquinia
pungens, and Quercus conspersa.

Amblyseius coffeae, n. sp.
(Figures 8-11)
The female of A. coffeae closely resembles the female of chiapensis.
L1, L4, L9, and M2 of coffee are somewhat shorter and the pores of the
ventrianal shield are somewhat more distant from the bases of the posterior
pair of preanals than for chiapensis; the spermatophore bearer is dis-
tinctive.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 344-365 long, 217-244 wide (5 specimens) with
setae of the following lengths: L1 40-47, L2 12-14, L3 10, L4 70, L5 9-13,
L6 11-14, L7 9, L8 9, L9 220; D1 30; M2 76-90. VL1 46-72 long. Genital
shield 79-86 wide at base, ventrianal shield 74-85 wide, 112-127 long; primary

Explanation of Figures
Figures 1-3. Amblyseius megaporos, n. sp. Female, dorsal shield, meta-
podal shields, and ventrianal shield.
Figures 4-7. Amblyseius chiapensis, n. sp. Female, dorsal shield, meta-
podal shields, ventrianal shield; male, spermatophore bear-
er-b, base of shank; h, heel; l.p., lateral process, and t,
toe. For details see discussion under description of this
species.
Figures 8-11. Amblyseius coffee, n. sp. Female, dorsal shield, meta-
podal shields, ventrianal shield; male, spermatophore bear-
er, lateral view (left) and edge view (right). Abbreviations
as in figure 7.
Figures 12-14. Amblyseius nayaritensis, n. sp. Female, dorsal shield,
metapodal shields, and ventrianal shield.
Figures 15-17. Amblyseius gliricidii, n. sp. Female, dorsal shield, meta-
podal shields, and ventrianal shield.
Figures 18-20. Amblyseius arbuti, n. sp. Female, dorsal shield, meta-
podal shields, and ventrianal shield.














88 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 2

metapodal shield 25 long, about 6 wide, accessory shield 17 long, about 3
wide. Fixed digit with 10-11 teeth including the subapical tooth; movable
digit with 2 teeth. Genua I-IV each with a macroseta 34, 36, 38-53, and
95 long respectively; tibia and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta 63-72
and 64-74 long respectively; tarsus IV, excluding pretarsus, 125 long.
MALE: Resembles female; dorsal shield 289-301 wide (2 specimens).
Ventrianal shield with 3 pairs of preanals and a pair of pores. Spermato-
phore bearer with foot about 9 long, shank about 17 long, of shape shown
in figures.
Holotype: Female, Cordoba, Ver., February 4, 1957 (D. De Leon),
from orange leaves. Paratypes: 1 male, same data as for holotype; 1
female from coffee; 2 females from Gilbertia arboreal, and 2 females from
Eriobotrya japonica, all other data as for holotype. Additional specimens
were taken from Licaria coriacea near Ocozocoatla, Chiapas, from an un-
known host near Matias Romero, Oax., and from Tillandsia at Cordoba.

Amblyseius nayaritensis, n. sp.
(Figures 12-14)
A. nayaritensis resembles A. andersoni Chant, but differs from this
species chiefly in having L3 about 3 times as long as L6 which is minute,
in andersoni L3 and L6 are about equal in length, and in having L4 dis-
tinctly longer.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 302-320 long, 180 wide (6 specimens) with
setae of the following lengths: L1 29, L2 21-25, L3 22-32, L4 98, L5 7, L6 9,
L7 9, L8 8, L9 155-190; D1 29; M2 91-101. VL1 63-75 long. Genital
shield 74 wide at base; ventrianal shield 64-72 wide and slightly wider at
at about level of anus with 3 pairs of preanal setae and a pair of narrow
pores. Two pairs of metapodal shields, the primary 20 long about 5 wide,
the accessory 14 long and about 2 wide. Fixed digit with 9-11 teeth includ-
ing the subapical tooth, the 5 to 6 beginning with the second tooth from the
base coarser than the others; movable digit with 3 small teeth. Genua
I-IV each with a macroseta 29-38, 30, 34, and 74 long respectively; tibia
and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta 51 and 74-96 long respectively.
Tarsus IV, excluding pretarsus, 127 long.
MALE: Unknown.
Holotype: Female, San Bias, Nayarit, March 28, 1957 (D. De Leon),
from Casearia arguta. Paratypes: 2 females from Orbignya guacuyule
and 3 females from Tetrccera sp. ? Aticama, Nay., April 8, 1957; 1 fe-
male, San Blas, April 9, 1957, from Annona sp. The specimens from
Orbignya were taken in association with Tenuipalpus coyacus.

Amblyseius gliricidii, n. sp.
(Figures 15-17)
A. gliricidii appears to be most closely related to A. sinuatus, n. sp.,
but is readily distinguished from that species in having setae M2 and L9
shorter and by the smaller and somewhat more elongate ventrianal shield.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 338 long, 203 wide with setae of the following
lengths: L1 51, L2 27, L3 39, L4 60, L5 12, L6 21, L7 13, L8 9, L9 70; D1













De Leon: Eight New Amblyseius from Mexico


27; M2 44. VL1 51 long. Pores of the dorsal shield as for the previous
species and with an additional refringent pore about midway between
L6 and M2. Genital shield 81 wide at base; ventrianal shield 68 wide (very
slightly narrower at level of anus), and 117 long with 3 pairs of preanal
setae and a pair of narrow pores; 2 metapodal shields, the primary 29 long
and about 3.7 wide, the accessory very narrow (full length not visible).
Fixed digit with at least 7 teeth including the subapical tooth, movable
digit with 2 teeth. Genua I-IV each with a macroseta 22, 26, 38, and 58
long respectively; tibia and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta 28 and
84 long respectively, the tip of the latter slightly enlarged; tarsus IV, ex-
cluding pretarsus, 136 long.
MALE: Unknown.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 18, 1957 (D.
De Leon), from Gliricidium sepium.

Amblyseius arbuti, n. sp.
(Figures 18-20)

A. arbuti resembles A. potentillae Garman, but may be readily distin-
guished from that species in having the posterior margin of the sternal
shield concave and in having the primary metapodal shield about 6 times
as long as wide.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 403 long, 251 wide (2 specimens), with setae
of the following lengths: L1 47, L2 18, L3 30, L4 54, L5 11, L6 19, L7 11,
L8 10, L9 84; D1 29; M2 66. VL1 56 long. Genital shield 100 wide near
base; ventrianal shield 97 wide, 141 long with 3 pairs of preanal setae and
a pair of narrow pores; 2 pairs of metapodal shields, the primary one 38
long and about 6 wide, the accessory 23 long and about 3 wide. Fixed digit
with at least 11 teeth, excluding the subapical tooth; movable digit not ob-
servable. Genua I-IV each with a macroseta 36, 36, 36, and 60 long re-
spectively; tibia IV and metatarsus each with a macroseta 50 and 93 long
respectively; tarsus IV, excluding pretarsus 140 long. The setae of the
legs and body unusually slender.
MALE: Unknown.
Holotype: Female, Quiroga, Michoacan, March 4, 1957 (D. De Leon),
from Arbutus sp. Paratype: 1 female, other data as for holotype.

Amblyseius divisus, n. sp.
(Figures 21-23)

A. divisus resembles A. potentillae Garman, but differs from that species
most noticeably in having the pair of pores of the ventrianal shield be-
tween and about in line with the bases of the third pair of preanals.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 317 long, 208 wide with setae of the following
lengths: L1 47, L2 12, L3 23, L4 65, L5 7, L6 9, L7 8, L8 8, L9 109; D1 27;
M2 78. VL1 54 long. Genital shield 73 wide; ventrianal shield 83 wide,
110 long with 3 pairs of preanal setae and a pair of narrow pores; 2 pairs
of metapodal shields, the primary one 19 long, 6 wide, the accessory 18 long
3 wide. Fixed digit with apparently 10 teeth including the subapical tooth;
movable digit not observable. Genua I-IV each with a macroseta 26, 27,














The Florida Entomologist


31, and 60 long respectively; tibia and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta
46 and 72 long respectively; tarsus IV, excluding pretarsus, 127 long.
MALE: Unknown.
Holotype: Female, Matias Romero, Oax., January 30, 1957 (D. De
Leon), from Acrocomia sp.


Figures 21-23.

Figures 24-26.


Plate 2
Explanation of Figures
Amblyseius divisus, n. sp. Female, dorsal
podal shields, and ventrianal shield.
Amblyseius sinuatus, n. sp. Female, dorsal
podal shields, and ventrianal shield.


shield, meta-

shield, meta-


Amblyseius sinuatus, n. sp.
(Figures 24-26)
A. sinuatus resembles divisus, but is readily separated from that species
in having L3 longer than D1 and L6 short, but not minute.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 371 long, 217-226 wide (2 specimens) with
setae of the following length: L1 56, L2 27, L3 46, L4 67, L5 9, L6 19-22,
L7 8, L8 8, L9 108; D1 29; M2 70. VL1 66 long. Genital shield 83 wide;
ventrianal shield 84 wide, 108 long with 3 pairs of preanals and a pair of
narrow pores; 2 pairs of metapodal shields, the primary one 27 long, about
5.5 wide, the accessory 18 long and about 2 wide. Teeth of fixed digit small
with 9, excluding subapical tooth, present; movable digit with 1 tooth.
Genua I-IV each with a macroseta 31, 31, 31-36, and 63 long respectively;
tibia and metatarsus IV each with a macroseta 47-57 and 78 long respective-


Vol. 44, No. 2













De Leon: Eight New Amblyseius from Mexico


ly; tarsus IV, excluding pretarsus, 133 long. All leg setae more slender
than usual.
MALE: Unknown.
Holotype: Female, Santa Maria del Oro, Nay., March 24, 1957 (D. De
Leon), from Hedyosmum mexicanum. Paratype: 1 female, Tepic, Nay.,
from Baccharus trinervis.

Amblyseius limonicus Garman and McGregor, 1956
This distinctive species was collected at Veracruz from cherimoya;
at Cordoba, Ver., from Gilbertia arborea and Bursera simaruba; at Jalapa,
Ver., from Inga sp., and about 45 miles north of Oaxaca from a palm.
The mite also occurs in the southeastern United States having been col-
lected at Columbus, Ga., from Hicoria sp.; at Coral Gables, Fla., from
Exothea paniculata; in the Everglades National Park from Icacorea panicu-
lata, and at Key Largo, Fla., from Pithecellobium guadalupense.

Amblyseius largoensis (Muma), 1955
A. largoensis was collected at Veracruz, Ver., in December, 1956, from
mango and from Cocos nucifera.
Paratypes of the above new species will be deposited in the University
of Florida Collections, Gainesville; the remaining specimens are in the
author's collection.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank the following botanists for the identification of plants:
Mr. Miguel Angel Palacios Rinc6n, Instituto de Historica Natural de Chi-
apas, for those in the region round Tuxtla Gutierrez; Dr. Rogers McVaugh,
University of Michigan, for those of Jalisco and Nayarit, and Dr. Faustino
Miranda, Instituto de Biologia, Casa del Lago, Mexico, D. F., for those from
other parts of Mexico.

LITERATURE CITED
Garman, P. 1958. New species belonging to the genera Amblyseius and
Amblyseiopsis with keys to Amblyseius, Amblyseiopsis, and Phy-
toseiulus. Ent. Soc. Amer., Annals 51: 69-79.
Garman, P., and E. A. McGregor. 1956. Four new predaceous mites.
So. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bul. 55 (Part I): 7-13.
Muma, M. H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in
Florida. Ent. Soc. Amer., Annals. 48: 262-272.






































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A NEW FALSE SPIDER MITE GENUS FROM MEXICO
(ACARINA: TENUIPALPIDAE)1

DONALD DE LEON
Erwin, Tennessee

The false spider mites of Mexico have received little attention, yet pre-
liminary studies show that some genera are common and widespread and
are represented by many species. The new genus and species described
below, however, was collected at only one locality.

Priscapalpus, new genus
Priscapalpus resembles Brevipalpus in dorsal chaetotaxy, but unlike
Brevipalpus it bears an enlarged ventral plate and a rudimentary genital
plate, the palpus is 2-segmented, and the legs are long in proportion to
the length of the body.


Explanation of Figures
Figure 1, dorsum (left half) and venter (right half) of female Prisca-
palpus macropilis, n. sp.; figure 2, dorsocentral hysterosomal seta 1 of
male, and figure 3, dorsum of deutonymph.
1 This study has been aided by a grant from the Sigma Xi-RESA Re-
search Fund.














The Florida Entomologist


Body narrowly oval; dorsum strongly ridged longitudinally, the ridge
crested with tubercles, with 9 pairs of dorsolateral setae and 3 pairs of
dorsocentral setae, all setae round or nearly round in cross section. Fe-
male with an enlarged ventral plate and a rudimentary genital plate,
an anterior and a posterior pair of medioventral metapodosomals, a pair
of medioventral opisthosomals, and 2 pairs of genital setae. Palpus 2-
segmented, the distal segment with 3 setae. Legs rather long and slender,
the fourth pair the longest, the 3 anterior pairs about equal in length; basal
leg segments nobbed dorsad.
Type: Priscapalpus macropilis, n. sp.

Priscapalpus macropilis, n. sp.
(Figures 1-3)
FEMALE: Body white to pale yellowish; length including rostrum 273
microns, width 143 microns. Dorsum with markings and shapes of setae
as shown in figure 1. Venter with characters of genus. Rostrum reaching
slightly beyond middle of femur I, broad at base, the anterior third abruptly
and narrowly constricted. Tarsi I and II each with 1 sensory rod, all claws
with strong hooks; basal leg segments nobbed dorsad, nobs especially large
on coxa III, dorsal setae of basal leg segments very coarse and scabrous;
coxae III and IV without a ventral seta.
MALE: Resembles female, but dorsal setae somewhat shorter propor-
tionally, dorsocentral 1 usually branched, and tarsus II with 2 sensory rods.
Three anal setae present.
NYMPH: Dorsal setae arranged as shown in figure 3.
Holotype: Female, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, May 29, 1957 (D. De Leon),
on the underside of leaves of sapodillaa". Paratypes: 4 females, 7 males,
1 nymph, other data as for holotype.
A paratype will be deposited in the University of Florida Collections,
Gainesville; the remaining specimens are in the author's collection.







NOTICE
Plans for the annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society are
well along. We will meet jointly with the Entomological Society of America
and the Southeastern Branch of E.S.A. in Miami from November 27-30.
Headquarters for the National Society will be at the McAllister Hotel,
those of the Florida Entomological Society and the Southeastern Branch
will be at the adjacent Columbus Hotel. The Florida Society does not plan
to hold paper-reading sessions at these meetings.-L. B.


Vol. 44, No. 2
















ERYTHEMIS SIMPLICICOLLIS (SAY), A DRAGONFLY
PREDATOR OF THE BOLLWORM MOTH1

R. BELL 2 AND W. H. WHITCOMB 3

During the summers of 1959 and 1960, dragonflies were observed feed-
ing on the bollworm moth, Heliothis zea (Boddie), near Pine Bluff, Hope,
McGehee, Morrilton, Weiner, and Fayetteville, Arkansas. This study was
done as a part of an investigation of the predators feeding on all stages of
the bollworm. Extensive collecting of both predator and prey showed that
in most cases the dragonflies preying on the bollworm moth belonged to
one species, Erythemis simplicicollis (Say).
Dragonflies have been known as predators of the imago of various
Lepidoptera for many years. Comstock (1879) reported that Mr. F. M.
Meekin from Alachua County, Florida, had observed a dragonfly repeatedly
feeding on the cotton leafworm moth, Alabama argillacea (Hbn.). In
England, Poulton (1906) reported observations of dragonflies feeding on
various prey, including a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae and one of
the family Danaidae as well as a skipper of the family Hesperiidae. Lefroy
(1910) reported lepidopterous remains in the excreta of Indian dragonflies.
Another English entomologist, Campion (1914), reported dragonflies, both
African and English, feeding on seven different families of Lepidoptera.
Warren (1915), working in Hawaii, examined the stomach contents of two
species of dragonflies. In the case of Anax junius (Drury), 24% of the
prey species identified belonged to the order Lepidoptera; in the case of
Pantala flavescens (Fabr.), approximately 19% of the prey belonged to this
order. Shiraki (1917) reported seven different dragonflies feeding on the
adult of the paddy borer, Schoenobius incertulas (Wlk.), in rice fields
in Formosa. Hobby (1933) recorded both dragonflies and damselflies feed-
ing on Lepidoptera. He completed a list of prey of various British dragon-
flies in which seven families of Lepidoptera were represented, including
Noctuidae. He further made the statement that dragonflies had been ob-
served with lepidopterous prey more often than in the case of any other
British predatory insect. Aoyama (1939) named dragonflies as a natural
enemy of the pyralid moth, Nymphula vittalis Bremer, in Korea. Price
(1958) reported several North American Odonata preying on various adult
Lepidoptera, including Gomphus fraternus (Say) on the nymphalid, Phyci-
odes tharos Drury; Gomphus externus Hagen on Pieris rapae (L.); Dromo-
gomphus spoliatus (Hagen) on Pieris rapae (L.), Colias philodica Godt.,
and Phyciodes tharos Drury; and Erythemis simplicicollis (Say) feeding
on Phyciodes tharos Drury.
In a cotton field at the Five Forks Place near Pine Bluff, Ark., on July
22, 1959, a dragonfly, intermediate in size, was seen to swoop down, pick
a bollworm moth out of the air, and then alight on a nearby cotton plant.
An unsuccessful attempt was made to catch the specimen. Two more ob-
servations were made this same week at the Word Place, also near Pine

1 Published with approval of Director of the Arkansas Agricultural Ex-
periment Station.
2 Former graduate student, University of Arkansas.
SEntomologist, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.













96 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 2

Bluff, but still there were no captures. One week later, on July 30, six
observations were made, and four of the dragonflies were caught with their
victims. The dragonflies were identified as the "green jacket", Erythemis
simplicicollis (Say), and the victims, as Heliothis zea (Boddie). Further
observations were made during August, and predator and prey were cap-
tured. The preying of E. simplicicollis on H. zea was found to be extremely
common, although no method has yet been devised for determining the
prevalence of such activity nor of determining the actual dragonfly popu-
lation. At times, almost every moth flushed from the cotton was captured
before it could alight again. The action took place at various hours from
nine in the morning until dark. The last observation in 1959 was made
on September 2.
The first observation outside the Pine Bluff area of E. simplicicollis
feeding on the bollworm moth was made near Morrilton, Ark., on August
21, 1959, in corn. The following week, this species was captured while
feeding on bollworm moths in cotton fields near McGehee and Hope, Ark.
The first observation in 1960 was made near Pine Bluff in cotton, June
20, when a specimen of E. simplicicollis was taken with a bollworm moth
between its mandibles. On June 24, E. simplicicollis was taken feeding on
a bollworm moth in a red clover field near Fayetteville, Ark. Numerous
observations were made during July and August near Pine Bluff and Hope.
The last observation near Pine Bluff made during 1960 was on August 20.
After this date, cabbage looper moths, Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.), were so
numerous that E. simplicicollis was largely occupied in taking this moth.
The last observation in the state in 1960 was made by G. Dowell near
Weiner, Ark., on September 4.
E. simplicicollis fed on several other noctuids. In the Pine Bluff area
the most abundant of these was the cabbage looper. Late in the season at
Hope, Alabama argillacea (Hbn.) was also taken in numbers. Feeding
was in no way confined to the Lepidoptera; at times prey consisted mostly
of other insects. Feeding took place freely from 9 A.M. until nightfall.
E. simplicicollis is common in cotton fields throughout Arkansas, even
though some of these plantings are some distance from water. They are
observed flying up and down the rows or zigzagging across the fields. The
junior author has observed them perched on a middle branch of a cotton
plant as late as 10 P.M. They are present from early June until late Sep-
tember.
E. simplicicollis is found throughout most of the U. S. from Massachu-
setts to California, north into Canada, and south into Mexico according to
Needham and Westfall (1955). Bick (1941) studied the life history of
this dragonfly in Louisiana.
Four other dragonflies are especially abundant in Arkansas cotton fields,
Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister), Pantala hymenea (Say), Plathemis
lydia (Drury), and Tramea lacerata Hagen. They are observed flying be-
tween the rows of cotton as does E. simplicicollis, but none of them have
been seen feeding on H. zea by the authors.
Only one observation was made of any other species of dragonfly feed-
ing on H. zea. This occurred on July 20, 1960, on the Word Place near
Pine Bluff, Ark. Even this could not be completely verified, since the
dragonfly, Anax junius (Drury), had so completely destroyed the moth
that final verification was difficult.













Bell: Dragonfly Predator of the Bollworth Moth 97

As a result of these observations, it is quite clear that E. simplicicollis
commonly feeds on the adult of H. zea and is apparently of economic im-
portance under Arkansas conditions, although methods for determining
actual dragonfly populations have not yet been developed.

LITERATURE CITED

Aoyama, T. 1939. Life-history of Nymphula vittalis Bremer in Korea.
Rep. Jap. Ass. Adv. Sci. 14(2): 320-323.
Bick, G. H. 1941. Life-history of the dragonfly, Erythemis simplicicollis
(Say). Ann. Ent. Soc. America 34:215-230.
Campion, H. 1914. Some dragonflies and their prey. Ann. Mag. Nat.
Hist. 13 (8 series): 495-504.
Comstock, J. H. 1879. Report upon cotton insects. U. S. Dept. Agric.
Rpt. 1879.
Hobby, B. M. 1933. The prey of British dragonflies. Trans. Ent. Soc.
S. Eng. 8(2): 65-76.
Lefroy, H. Maxwell. 1910. Entomological notes: What do dragonflies eat?
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 20: 236-238.
Needham, J. G., and M. J. Westfall, Jr. 1955. A manual of the dragon-
flies of North America (Anisoptera). Univ. of Calif. Press, Berke-
ley.
Poulton, E. B. 1906. Predaceous insects and their prey. Trans. Ent.
Soc. London. 1906. Part III: 398-401.
Price, H. F. 1958. Additional notes on the dragonflies of northwestern
Ohio. Ohio Jour. Sci. 58(1): 50-62.
Shiraki, T. 1917. Paddy borer, Schoenobius incertellus Wlk. Agric.
Expt. Sta., Govt. of Formosa, Taihoku 1917: 1-256.
Warren, A. 1915. A study of the food habits of the Hawaiian dragonflies.
Bull. College of Hawaii Publications 3: 3-45.
















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A METHOD FOR COLLECTING AND PRESERVING
SPIDER WEBS

JOHN E. PORTER AND NANCY M. PORTER 2

Several techniques have been advanced for the study of spider webs
Comstock in The Spider Book, as revised and edited by Gertsch (1948), pro-
poses that webs be photographed. It is suggested that these pictures 'be
taken in one of several different ways: (1) In the field under conditions ol
natural and often inadequate lighting; (2) From webs constructed by
spiders brought into the controlled conditions of the laboratory; or (3)
From field collected webs removed by cutting the supporting vegetation
and carrying the support and all into the laboratory.
Crompton (1950) reports upon the many habits of spiders but there is
no indication that his studies were conducted with other than webbing
fashioned by the spider in the field or under laboratory conditions.
Borror and Delong (1957) suggest that webs be collected and preserved
between two pieces of glass which are then taped together in the fashion
of a lantern slide.
The fragile nature of a spider's web and the desirability to spend more
time with it than can frequently be permitted under field conditions indi-
cated the need for a means of preserving the webs. Bishop (1940), before
the advent of aerosol packaged paints and varnishes, suggested the use
of brushing lacquer, lacquer thinner and "gold size". These were applied
to spider webs by means of household spray guns. Properly prepared webs
were then taped to the background material (usually glass) behind which
was mounted a black cloth. Various protective steps were described as
necessary in framing the webs.
By utilizing aerosol preparations of white paint and also varnish, the
authors have developed the following relatively simple and quick means
of collecting and preserving spider webs.

TECHNIQUE FOR COLLECTING WEBS:
Once a desirable web is observed it is carefully and gently sprayed
using an aerosol preparation of white paint. A clean glass plate of the
needed size is then carefully pushed into the center of the web with the
forward motion continuing until the foundation lines and guy-lines of the
web are broken loose. There is a natural adhesive quality to webbing and
this, with the addition of the still moist paint, makes the web adhere tightly
to the glass. In this manner a large or small section of a web can be taken
in the field with very little, if any distortion of its design. Numbers ap-
plied with a wax pencil to the underside of the glass can correspond with
the number assigned to the associated spider, trapped items and such other
data as may be desired.

1Entomologist, U. S. Quarantine Station, Miami Beach, Florida, Divi-
sion of Foreign Quarantine, PHS, U. S. Department of Health, Education
and Welfare.
2As a result of my daughter Nancy's interest in spiders and a corre-
sponding need to develop a science project in connection with her school
activities credit should be given to her for the ideas herein set forth.











The Florida Entomologist


If numerous mounts are to be made, a box can be prepared to hold these
slides in a fashion similar to the familiar microscope slide box. There is
then less danger of glass breakage or web disturbance.
TECHNIQUE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF SPIDER WEB MOUNTS:
The slide-mounted webs taken during the course of field studies can be
permanently preserved by applying an aerosol spray coating of varnish
directly to the webbed surface of the slide. Care should be taken in this
instance to not overspray or spray from too close a distance for it some-
times will make the paint (previously applied to the web) smear.
The suggested means of spider web preservation is at this time only
practical for those webs constructed in one plane, it does not include the
many other types of webs constructed involving more than one plane.
LITERATURE CITED
Bishop, M. B. 1940. A method for the preservation of spider webs for
museum exhibits. Turtox News 18(5): 80-81.
Borror, D. J., and D. M. Delong. 1957. An introduction to the study of
insects. Rhinehart and Co., New York.
Comstock, J. H., and W. J. Gertsch. 1948. The spider book. Comstock
Pub. Co., Ithaca, N. Y.
Crompton, John. 1950. Life of the spider. Fontana Books, London.


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FOR ALL PURPOSES


Carefully Executed


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Vol. 44, No. 2


100


FLORIDA




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