Volume 44, No. 3 September, 1961
Peterson, Alvah-Some Types of Eggs Deposited by Moths,
Heterocera-Lepidoptera ---.....--.... -----......----..- 107
Questel, D. D., and W. G. Genung-Effects of a Severe Winter
on Survival of the Recently Established Parasite of the
Rhodesgrass Scale in Florida ........--- ............------ ....... 115
Emerson, K. C.-A New Species of Mallophaga from
the Peafowl ---------------.....--.----....--...-----117
Donnelly, Thomas W.-A New Species of Damselfly from
St. Lucia, British West Indies (Odonata:
Protoneuridae) ..... -----------------------......-. 119
Wilson, H. G., G. C. LaBrecque, and J. B. Gahan-Laboratory
Tests of Selected House Fly Repellents -..-......-........-----...123
Beck, Elisabeth C.-Two New Chironomidae (Diptera) and
Additional State Records from Florida ... ..__------------- 125
Mockford, Edward L.-An Annotated List of the Psocoptera
of the Flint-Chattahoochee-Apalachicola Region of
Georgia, Florida, and Alabama ....----....- -----..--..... 129
Notices ---..-------.----.....----------....---... -118, 141
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
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$ John R. King
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SOME TYPES OF EGGS DEPOSITED BY MOTHS,
For the past six or more years the author has been working with eggs
of insects. Recently he has paid special attention to eggs of moths. To
date the eggs from more than 150 species representing some 35 or more
families of moths have been collected, photographed, preserved and de-
scribed; also a rough sketch of each species has been made. The investi-
gation thus far shows that distinctive types exist, also characteristics com-
mon to many species are present.
In this article some of the types and common characteristics are shown.
In later publications the author hopes to present more detailed information
on species of given genera and families.2
Most moths deposit their eggs on a host plant or in the vicinity of food
which the larvae will consume upon hatching. Many species deposit single
isolated eggs but the majority deposit their eggs in groups. The most sim-
ple mass occurs where a female deposits 10 to 100 or more eggs in a con-
tinuous flat group (9)3 in such a manner that each egg is separated from
others usually by a distance that does not exceed the greatest diameter of
a single egg. Other species deposit continuous flat masses of firmly con-
structed eggs where every egg is in contact with one to five eggs (10) and
all are sealed together by a strong adhesive. When pliable eggs are de-
posited in a continuous flat mass the eggs within the mass and away from
the border may assume irregular shapes (11), most frequently hexagonal.
When species, possessing scale-like eggs, deposit them in a mass (12)
the eggs often overlap considerably yet none in the mass is completely
covered by other eggs. Among a few species the females deposit a compact
mass of eggs consisting of several layers or eggs are scattered in an ir-
regular manner. Usually these are mixed with bits of wax or froth-like
secretions produced by the female as she oviposits (17).
EGG SIZES AND SHAPES
Eggs of moths vary in size, the smallest being approximate 0.3 mm.
in diameter and the largest seen to date 2.8 mm. in length. The size of an
egg mass may be 3 mm. to 40 mm. or more in length.
The over all shape of a single moth egg is frequently spherical (1) or
oval (7). Others are rod-shaped (4), barrel or cone-like (6), spindle-shaped
(3) or scale-like (2). Oval eggs from a top view may be ovid while others
resemble thick oval wafers (5) with flattened upper and lower surfaces.
1 This investigation was supported by a research grant from the Na-
tional Science Foundation assigned to the Ohio Historical Society State
Museum, Columbus, Ohio. Many of the eggs used in this study were col-
lected in Florida when the author was associated with the State Plant
Board, Gainesville, Florida, 1959-1960. The author is indebted to C. P.
Kimball for the determination of the species of moths from which eggs were
2 Information on collecting, preserving, and photographing eggs of moths
was given in the recent article by Alvah Peterson, 1960. Photographing
eggs of insects, Florida Entomologist, 43(1): 1-7.
3 Numbers in parentheses refer to figures.
1U0 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 3
Most eggs of all shapes possess a narrow to broad, flattened base or
lower surface which is adjacent to the substrate on which they rest. Single
isolated eggs (4) or those which are firmly constructed in a mass (10)
usually are fairly constant in size and shape for a given species. When
eggs in a mass are pliable (11) their shapes may vary somewhat.
The color of some moth eggs may be due to pigment located in the
chorion. This is true of thick-shelled eggs among Citheroniidae and Sat-
urniidae (8), which undergo little or no color change during their incuba-
Eggs of many species in numerous families possess a chorion that is
translucent, in some cases almost transparent. This is especially notice-
able when the eggs are deposited on clear glass or polyethylene. If highly
translucent eggs are deposited on green foliage the color of the leaf or sub-
strate can be seen through the eggs. Among many species the color of the
embryonic tissue within is visible (24). This is particularly obvious when
portions of the cytoplasm and embryo change in color as the larva develops.
For example among many Phalaenidae red to brown pigment areas appear
as irregular blotches or rings around the margin (26) a few days previous
to hatching. Among other families, especially the Tortricidae, Olethreuti-
dae, Pyralidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae and others, some species possess
first instar larvae with dark-colored heads and, in some cases, black setae
(14) which, prior to hatching, can be seen through the chorion. When
eggs are in this state of development they are often referred to as the
"black spot stage". In general most eggs of moths that possess a thin
semi-transparent chorion change color a short time previous to hatching.
Figure 1. A spherical chalk-white egg. Egg diameter 1 mm. Notodonti-
dae. Lophodonta angulosa (A. and S.)
Figure 2. Two isolated, scale-like, shiny eggs. Egg length 0.75 mm.
Olethreutidae. Bactra verutana Zell.
Figure 3. An elongated spindle-like egg with a rough semi-transparent
chorion. Egg length 1.2 mm. Phaloniidae. Carolella sartana (Hbn.)
Figure 4. A single, elongated, rod-like, lemon yellow egg. Egg length
1.1 mm. Lacosomidae, Lacosoma chiridota Grt.
Figure 5. Several flattened, oval, wafer-like, orange-colored eggs covered
with tiny hexagonal depressions. Egg length 0.7 mm. Geometridae.
Racheospila lixaria Gn.
Figure 6. Several circular, cone-shaped, green eggs with some vertical
ridges terminating in flanges that protrude beyond the micropylar area.
Egg length 0.6 mm. Phalaenidae, Helicontia apicella (Grt.)
Figure 7. Several oval, smooth, near white eggs. Egg length 0.5 mm.
Pterophoridae, Oidaematophorus balanotes (Meyr.)
Figure 8. Several rounded, somewhat flattened, cream-white, eggs each
with one large or two narrow brown bands about their periphery.
Length 2.6 mm. Saturniidae, Telea polyphemus (Cram.)
Figure 9. A simple, scattered, cluster of oval, light yellow, eggs on grape
foliage. Egg length 0.55 mm. Zygaenidae, Harrisina americana
Figure 10. Portion of a compact, flat, mass of firmly constructed, adhesive,
chalk-white eggs with bluish centers. Egg diameter 0.8 mm. Noto-
dontidae. Datana ranaeceps Guer.
_1 __ _ _~ _
i .~-~: zY
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 44, No. 3
The overall color of newly deposited eggs for a given species is fairly
constant. It may be some shade of white, yellow, orange, green, blue, red,
brown to near black. Near white and shades of yellow and green are the
most common colors.
The color of the entire egg among some species may undergo a change
6 to 48 hours after deposition. For example among species of Acrolophus
(13) a newly deposited egg is near white. Six to 12 hours after deposition
the entire egg changes to a dark brown or black. Among species of Cram-
bus (23) the color changes from a cream white to orange, pink or red usually
within 48 hours after being laid.
COATING ON EGGS
Most eggs of moths when deposited are covered with a thin, clear, ad-
hesive coating which soon hardens. This adhesive coating sticks the eggs
to the substrate on which they rest and also holds them together (10) if
they are adjacent to each other in a mass. The adhesive quality of the
coating varies considerably. Some eggs are deposited without an adhesive
coating or the coating, if present, is ineffective as an adhesive. These eggs
are completely free and roll about if they are deposited in a small glass
container. Typically the eggs of several species of Acrolophus (13) and
Crambus (23) are like this.
Figure 11. Portion of a cluster of pliable near white eggs that become
hexagonal in shape under pressure. Egg diameter 0.55 mm. Pyrali-
dae, Galleria mellonella (L.)
Figure 12. A cluster of near-white, oval, flattened, scale-like eggs that
overlap like shingles. Egg length 0.65 mm. Pyralidae, Sericophaga
Figure 13. Several free (unattached), nearly spherical, shiny eggs, that
are near white when deposited, changing to a deep brown or near black
within a few hours after deposition. Egg length 0.35 mm. Acrolophi-
dae, Acrolophus propinquus (Wlshm.)
Figure 14. An enlarged, nearly spherical egg showing a larval head
through the translucent chorion. Egg diameter 1.3 mm. Notodonti-
dae, Fentonia marthesia Cram.
Figure 15. Several nearly spherical, greenish-white, chalk-like eggs with
green centers and surrounded on all sides with clear, permanent, ad-
hesive bubbles. Egg diameter 0.75 mm. Liparidae, Olene leucophaea
(A. and S.)
Figure 16. A mass of perpendicular eggs around a cherry twig covered
with a brown shiny froth. Egg length 1.0 mm. Lasiocampidae, Mala-
cosoma americana (Fabr.)
Figure 17. A female tussock moth depositing eggs in the midst of a white
froth-like secretion. Egg diameter 0.9 mm. Liparidae, Hemerocampa
leucostigma (J. E. Smith)
Figure 18. A flat mass of 12 to 18 nearly circular flexable eggs covered
with fine, yellow, wax-like secretions. Egg length 0.9 mm. Pyralidae,
Schoenobius melinellus (Clem.)
Figure 19. Scattered and bunched light yellow eggs in part covered with
numerous yellow waxy hairs. Egg length 1.2 mm. Megalopygidae,
Megalopyge opercularis (A. and S.)
Figure 20. An isolated, flattened, oval, near-white egg coated with and
sealed to a substrate by an opaque white adhesive. Egg length 1.0
mm. Pyralidae, Platytes panalope Dyas.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 44, No. 3
Many eggs, possessing an adhesive coating, adhere tightly to plant tis-
sues yet the same eggs if deposited on plastic or polyethylene are not firmly
attached and usually fall off the substrate after they are placed in a pre-
servative. Among some species of Olene the clear adhesive coating is plenti-
ful and appears as small transparent permanent bubbles (15) between and
around the sides of the eggs. In other cases the adhesive coating resembles
a whitewash paste (20) which holds the eggs to the substrate and together
when in a mass.
Among species of Malacosoma a brown, froth-like, adhesive coating (16)
is deposited among and over the tops of perpendicular eggs that have been
placed in a mass partially or completely around a small twig. Some species
of Liparidae (17) and Megalopygidae (19) secrete a loose to thick coating
of wax-like froth, small thread-like strands or waxy material over and among
eggs in a mass. A similar situation exists among species of Schoenobius
in that the female deposits a compact, flat layer of eggs (18) and then
places over the egg mass long, thin, brown or yellowish, hair-like structures
in an irregular or parallel position. These secretions may also be mixed
with thin scales apparently sloughed off from the caudal end of the abdomen
of the female during deposition.
Figure. 21. Several pale yellowish green to orange and pink oval eggs pos-
sessing longitudinal rows of small hexagonal depressions. Egg length
0.5 mm. Geometridae, Melanolophia canadaria (Gn.)
Figure 22. Several dirty white to chocolate brown, slightly pointed, oval
eggs possessing conspicuous irregular depressions, mostly hexagonal.
Egg length 2.5 mm. Cossidae, Prionoxystus robinae' (Pech.)
Figure 23. Numerous free (unattached) eggs, each with 16 to 17 parallel,
longitudinal, rounded ridges. These near-white eggs become pink to
red within four days. Egg length 0.475 mm. Pyralidae, Crambus satra-
Figure 24. A few light yellowish-green, semi-spherical eggs which ex-
hibit a red ring of pigment near the margin previous to hatching. Egg
diameter 1.3 mm. Notodontidae, Heterocampa umbata Wlk.
Figure 25. Top and side views of several bright green eggs possessing
conspicuous vertical ridges and transverse striae. Egg diameter 0.55
mm. Phalaenidae, Leucania latiscula H. S.
Figure 26. Top views of several four-day-old eggs, each with 35 to 38
vertical ridges. They also show reddish-brown, internal, pigment areas.
Egg diameter 0.6 mm. Phalaenidae, Agrotis ypsilon (Rott.)
Figure 27. Three circular, flattened, near-white eggs with a translucent
chorion each possessing 44 to 46 ridges. Egg diameter 0.9 mm. Phala-
enidae, Acronicta longa Gn.
Figure 28. Side and top views of several pea green eggs each with 29
to 34 vertical ridges and distinct micropylar areas. Egg diameter 0.65
mm. Phalaenidae. Mocis latipes Gn.
Figure 29. Top views of several, somewhat flattened, greenish-white eggs
each with a narrow border of parallel ridges and a large central area
covered with tiny hexagonal depressions. Egg length 0.475 mm.
Nolidae, Celama sorghiella (Riley)
Figure 30. Top views of several near-white, spiny eggs. Entire egg sur-
face above the base covered with tiny, triangular areas bearing hooked
spines at each corner of every triangle. Egg diameter 0.9 mm. Pha-
laenidae, Noropsis hieroglyphica (Cram.)
~d~~ ~ ~Y1
114 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 3
GROSS CHORION STRUCTURE
The outer surface of the chorion on a moth egg may be smooth (1) to
rough (22) and brilliant (13) to chalk-like (15). Eggs of some species,
that appear to be smooth to the naked eye, may possess microscopic struc-
tures only visable when magnified 10 to 25 times. These details vary
considerably. Among some species tiny, rounded pimples or dimples are
present on most of the exposed surface while among others inconspicuous,
irregular, hexagonal depressions occur in rows (21) or scattered (5) over
the surface. Eggs of Prionoxystus possess conspicuous depressions (22)
that may be lopsided squares to hexagons. Each darkened depression is
surrounded by a distinct ridge which is frequently lighter in color than
Many eggs of moths possess parallel ridges on their exterior. These
may be vertical or horizontal depending upon the position of the eggs on
their substrate. So far as known distinct parallel ridges on moth eggs
are always more or less parallel with a line that is perpendicular to the
micropylar area of the egg. When the micropylar area is at the top of an
egg fixed to a leaf or substrate, the ridges are vertical (28). If the micro-
pylar area is at one end of a free egg resting on its side the ridges are
horizontal. Comparatively few eggs are free (unattached). Eggs of Cram-
bus (23) and Acrolophus (13) are good examples of free eggs that show
ridges in a horizontal position.
Most species of Phalaenidae possess eggs firmly attached to a substrate.
Their faint to conspicuous parallel ridges are vertical (25-28). Each ridge
extends from the top-center or micropylar area to the base or point of at-
tachment of the egg to its substrate. They vary in length and the longest
terminate near the micropylar area. The shorter ridges end at lower points
or they may join with adjacent ridges. The number of ridges present on
the eggs of a given species is more or less constant. Among species seen
to date 10 to 56 may be present. Figures (25) and (28) illustrate two spe-
cies that are different. If the ridges and adjacent grooves are conspicuous,
the number per egg is apt to be small (25).
The upper terminals of vertical ridges near the micropylar area are
usually inconspicuous. Among species of Helicontia the terminals of the
longest vertical ridges are prominent (6), often in the form of thin trans-
lucent flanges or fringes that protrude some distance above the top surface
of the egg. Species possessing ridges often exhibit numerous tiny trans-
verse striae (25) in the grooves between the ridges. These are more or
less constant in number for a given species. If nodules or bead-like spots
occur along the tops of the ridges the striae usually coincide with these
structures. All of the above structures are seen best in living eggs under
high magnification or in enlarged micro-photographs or transparencies.
An interesting variation of ridges exists among species of Celana (29).
These somewhat flattened eggs possess a narrow band of short parallel
ridges adjacent and perpendicular to the outer border of the egg. The
central micropylar area is large and covered with minute depressed hex-
Another unusual feature associated with moth eggs is found on those
of some species of Noropsis (30). The entire surface of the egg above the
base is covered with small triangular areas and each triangle bears hooked
spines at its three corners.
SI :: L
- .. : k:,. ;
EFFECTS OF A SEVERE WINTER ON SURVIVAL OF THE
RECENTLY ESTABLISHED PARASITE OF THE
RHODESGRASS SCALE IN FLORIDA
D. D. QUESTELL AND W. G. GENUNG2
We recently reported on the successful establishment of the Hawaiian
parasite, Anagyrus antoninae Timberlake3, for control of the Rhodesgrass
scale (Antonina graminis (Mask.)) in south Florida (Questel and Genung,
(1957)'. Because the parasite is tropical and the exceptionally severe win-
ter of 1957-58 resulted in an almost unprecedented series of freezes from
late December through February that were extremely injurious to host
grasses of the scale, we were concerned as to whether the parasites would
survive. The direct effects of the cold on the parasites and the indirect
effects of reduced numbers of the host insect and its host grasses were both
considered to be important in the parasite's survival.
Host material was collected from areas where introduction had been
made earlier. Collections were made after danger from frost had passed
to determine whether parasites could be reared from the sample material
and whether they had survived the winter. Collection and rearing methods
employed have been described previously.4
On March 4, 1958, collections of scale-infested Para grass were made
near Clewiston, Florida, where temperatures had gone as low as 21F.
After the grass was held for 10 days, more than 50 parasites emerged,
showing that survival was high despite the cold. On March 21, 1958, sam-
ple material was collected near the release point in the vicinity of Lake
Worth, Florida. Within five days A. antoninae adults were emerging, an
indication that survival was good in the Lake Worth area where tempera-
tures had dropped to 260-28F. In both areas scale-infested grass was
Since host grasses of the Rhodesgrass scale were so severely injured
and the scales were so scarce, the logical conclusion was that the parasites
must have been reduced in number. However, where living scale-infested
grass stems could be found, survival of the parasites was good. Scale
scarcity at centers of introduction could also be attributed to the parasite's
effectiveness since observations prior to the freezes had shown that scale
populations had been reduced. If these parasites are capable of surviving
a winter as severe as the one described, we may reasonably assume that low
temperatures will not be too serious an obstacle to permanent establish-
ment of the parasite in the southern third of Florida.
Formerly Entomologist, Entomology Research Division, Agricultural
Research Service, U.S.D.A., Belle Glade, Florida. Retired 1959.
2Associate Entomologist, University of Florida, Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle Glade, Florida.
SQuestel, D. D., and W. G. Genung. 1957. Establishment of the para-
site Anagyrus antoninae in Florida for control of Rhodesgrass Scale. Fla.
Ent. 40(4): 123-125.
The Mite* is no longer mighty
The ability of KELTHANE to
kill on initial contact the impor-
tant mites that endanger your
crops, plus its long residual
action, add up to both effective
and low cost mite control.
KELTHANE cleans up mites fast,
including species that have
developed resistance to phos-
phates. Its long and strong
residual action also means effec-
tive control of migrant mites
and late-hatching colonies.
When used as recommended it
is completely safe for new foliage
and fruit finish. KELTHANE can
be used up to seven days before
harvest. Compatible with most
pesticides, it kills mites, but
will not harm beneficial insects.
To insure thorough coverage
on hard-to-wet foliage, add
TRITON B-1956, the non-oil
spreader sticker. Ask your
dealer for both.
*Especially Rust and Six-spotted mites.
PHILADELPHIA 5, PA.
A NEW SPECIES OF MALLOPHAGA FROM THE PEAFOWL
K. C. EMERSON
In an earlier paper (Emerson and Elbel, 1957)' it was noted that two
species of Amyrsidea are found on the peafowl; and that the smaller of
the two species was undescribed. That form is herewith described and
Amyrsidea minute, n. sp.
MALE. General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 2. Male geni-
talia as shown in figure 3.
FEMALE. General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 1.
Explanation of figures.
All figures pertain to Amyrsidea minute n. sp. Figures 1 and 2 are drawn
to the same scale.
Fig. 1. Dorsal-ventral view of female.
Fig. 2. Dorsal-ventral view of male.
Fig. 3. Male genitalia.
'Emerson, K. C., and R. E. Elbel, 1957. New species and records of
Mallophaga from gallinaceous birds of Thailand. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 44, No. 3
DIAGNOSIS. In general appearance and size this species resembles A.
lagopi (Grube, 1851), A. megalosoma (Overgaard, 1943) and A. perdicis
(Denny, 1942). In each of the above named species, the parameres and
endomeres of the male genitalia are long, slender, and straight; while in
A. minute these structures are short, and the parameres are curved out-
ward at the distal tips. The male genitalia of A. phaeostoma (Nitzsch,
1866) are of a different type (Emerson and Elbel, 1957)'. In addition,
A. phaeostoma is almost twice as large as A. minute.
TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype male allotype female, and paratypes col-
lected by Dr. G. J. Spencer on 15 October, 1949, at Vancouver, British Co-
lumbia, Canada. Additional paratypes from the following locations: Zo-
ological Gardens, London, England, October, 1952; Bridgnorth, Shropshire,
England, 19 September, 1934; New Orleans, Louisiana, 6 December, 1918;
Portland, Oregon, 17 March, 1933; and McAllen, Texas, March, 1937. The
holotype and allotype are in the collection of Dr. G. J. Spencer at the Uni-
versity of British Columbia. Paratypes are in the British Museum (Natural
History), the U. S. National Museum and the collection of the author.
ANNUAL MEETING OF THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The annual meeting of the Society will be held jointly with those of the
Entomological Society of America and the Southeastern Branch of the
E.S.A. at Miami from November 27-30. Headquarters of the Florida En-
tomological Society and the Southeastern Branch will be at the Columbus
Hotel and those of the National Society at the adjacent McAllister. Ar-
rangements have been made to house the members of the Florida Society at
the Columbus. Members registering at the Hotel should be sure to indicate
their society affiliation.
The meetings of the National Society are expected to be unusually well
attended. It is also hoped that the Florida organization will have the largest
contingent ever to attend its annual meeting. The program should be ex-
ceptionally good and many special events have been planned by the local
A NEW SPECIES OF DAMSELFLY FROM ST. LUCIA,
BRITISH WEST INDIES (ODONATA: PROTONEURIDAE)
THOMAS W. DONNELLY
Dept. of Geology, Rice University, Houston, Texas
A single male and female of a new species of Protoneura were taken
on the upper Cul de Sac River, St. Lucia, on 7 September, 1957. No others
of this species were seen, but other Odonata present included Dythemis
multipunctata Kirby, Enallagma coecum (Hagen), Ischnura ramburii credu-
la (Hagen), and Ceratura capreola (Hagen). The stream at this locality
is narrow with alternate riffles and pools. The bottom is composed of sand
and gravel, and there is some emergent vegetation in the quieter parts.
Protoneura ailsa, n. sp.'
HOLOTYPE MALE: Head pale brownish-yellow and dark iridescent ma-
genta to copper. Labium and mandibles pale, labrum deep iridescent
magenta with a broad pale anterior margin, anteclypeus pale, postclypeus
deep iridescent magenta, frons and genae pale, this pale color extending
along mesal side of antennae bases. Antennae dark, dorsum of head dark
iridescent copper. Eyes red, rear of head dark.
Prothorax pale brownish yellow, dark as follows: dorsum of median
lobe dull copper, hind lobe dusky. Posterior margin of hind lobe entire,
Pterothorax pale brownish-yellow, dark as follows: mesepisternum and
mesostigmal laminae dusky copper, upper half of mesinfrapisternum and
Legs pale yellowish, with black spines, except for distal spines of an-
terior tibiae, and black tips of tarsal claws. Distal ends of femora dusky.
Wings with veins brownish, stigma red-brown. Width of wings about
one-sixth the length, first antenodal costal space longer than the third, Rs
arising at subnodus, M: arising proximal to subnodus, M2 arising at fifth
postnodal cross vein in fore wing and fourth in hind wing. Ms terminates
at the level of the stigma.
Abdomen dark brownish-black dorsally, obscurely pale as follows: side
and anterior half of segment one, small anterior ring and lateral edges of
three to six.
Appendages with superior very unusual for the genus: dark, shorter
than segment ten, equant, and labyrinthine, with a recurved dorsal-mesal
process, a ventral-lateral sinus, and a flattened ventral process. Inferior
appendage pale, normal for the genus, twice the length of the superior;
broad at the base and tapering apically with a rounded tip.
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Head similar to male, but pale anterior border of
labrum wider than in male. Dark color of the dorsum of the head iridescent
SThe specific name is that of my wife, who not only is a keen and compe-
tent collector but who also discovered these damselflies during a brief col-
lecting trip in St. Lucia. In selecting this name I am also perpetuating an
old and honored tradition among Odonatists by giving a woman's name to
an incredibly lovely damselfly.
The Florida Entomologist
Figures 1-7, Protoneura ailsa, new species. Figures 1 and 2, color pat-
terns of male and female. Figure 3, mesostigmal laminae of female.
Figures 4-6, superior appendage of male in dorsal, tilted, and lateral views.
Figure 7, wings of male.
Vol. 44, No. 3
Donnelly: A New Species of Damselfly From St. Lucia 121
green rather than copper or magenta. Pale color of frons extending pos-
teriorly to the rear of the antennae.
Prothorax with front and hind lobes pale, the latter narrower and more
erect than in male. Median lobe dusky dorsally, as in male.
Pterothorax with mesepisternum iridescent greenish, upper half of
mesinfrapisternum dusky. Pale color grayish-yellow, rather than brown-
ish-yellow as in the male. Mesostigmal laminae dark, pale laterally and
posteriorly, with a prominent bifid rounded mesal process flanked by two
lateral processes pointing in a mesal-anterior direction.
Legs as in male.
Wings as in male. One front wing has M, arising between the fifth
and sixth postnodal cross veins and the other at the fifth cross vein.
Abdomen dark dorsally with obscure pale anterior bands on segments
three (narrow) to six, a very obscure pale anterior band on seven, and pale
lateral spots on eight and nine. Sterna of six and seven distended ven-
trally. Ventral margin of valves of ovipositor finely serrated apically.
Dimensions: Total length: male 38 mm.; female 34 mm. Abdomen:
male 33 mm.; female 29 mm. Hind wing: male 17 mm.; female 19 mm.
Type locality: Cul de Sac River, near Bexon, Castries Quarter, St.
Lucia, British West Indies. Specimens collected on 7 September, 1957.
Holotype male and allotype female in the collection of the University of
The general appearance and wing venation of this species are typical
for Protoneura s. str. as defined by Williamson (1915, pp. 616-625)2 How-
ever, this species is immediately set apart from all others in the genus by
the most peculiar labyrinthine superior appendage of the male. The female
resembles that of P. capillaris (Rambur) but has mesostigmal laminae
of a different shape. The other West Indian Protoneura is capillaris, which
is abundantly distinct from ailsa. There is a good possibility that the so-
called capillaris from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands may have to be
referred to another species (Westfall, personal communication), but this
problem is in no way related to that of the relationship between ailsa and
capillaris s. lat. The new species ailsa is dominantly red in the male,
whereas capillaris is dominantly blackish and violet (Cuba) or iridescent
blue-green (Virgin Islands). The superior appendage of ailsa is short,
equant, and labyrinthine, whereas that of capillaris s. lat. is as long as the
inferior, subcylindrical, with a ventral apical tooth.
I would like to acknowledge discussions of the Protoneura capillaris
problem with Minter Westfall, who also criticized this manuscript. Harold
Grant, D. E. Kimmins, and Ashley Gurney kindly made available the col-
lections of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, the British
Museum, and the United States National Museum, respectively.
Williamson, E. B. 1915. Notes on Neotropical dragonflies, or Odon-
ata. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 48: 601-638.
FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service
to Florida Farmers through the facilities of its 14 Stores, Lab-
oratory and technically trained Field Staff.
THE ILGORE SEED COMPA
THE KILGORE SEED COMPANY
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Stores located at
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PAHOKEE, PALMETTO, PLANT CITY, POM-
PANO, SANFORD, VERO BEACH,
WAUCHULA, WEST PALM BEACH
LABORATORY TESTS OF SELECTED HOUSE FLY
H. G. WILSON, G. C. LABRECQUE, AND J. B. GAHAN
Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A.
The rapid development of resistance to insecticides in house flies (Musca
domestic L.) indicates an urgent need for other approaches or alternate
means for their control. The use of repellents appears to be practicable
in restricted areas and under favorable conditions to relieve the annoyance
caused by these insects and to reduce the contamination which is associated
with their presence. LaBrecque and Wilson (1959)' reported the results
of laboratory tests with 65 compounds as vapor or contact repellents to
house flies. This paper presents the results with 26 additional chemicals
tested by the same methods. Some of the compounds were received from
commercial laboratories where they had been developed as fly repellents
and others were selected because they showed repellency in other types of
tests conducted at our laboratory.
Briefly, the test method was based on the numbers of female flies caught
in 30 minutes in traps made of drinking glasses baited with Edamin (a
casein hydrolysate) and capped with white cardboard funnels. The number
caught in a trap with an untreated funnel divided by the number in a trap
with a treated funnel gave the repellency ratio. The repellents were ap-
plied at 200 milligrams per square foot, and treated funnels were tested
after various periods of aging up to 12 weeks, or until the repellency ratio
fell below two.
The results with 12 compounds that gave ratios above two after aging
for two days or longer are given in table 1. Four compounds were effective
throughout the entire 12-week testing period, namely n-octylsulfinylbu-
tyronitrile, decyl lactate acetate, n-octylmercaptobutyronitrile, and diiso-
hexylamine. Deet, which has been outstanding as a repellent for personal
protection against mosquitoes and biting flies, was effective for two weeks.
The following compounds gave ratios of less than two during the first
two days of aging:
ENT. No. Repellent
21557 6-Chloropiperonyl chrysanthemumate
26299 Hydrazide of m-toluic acid
30436 Cyclohexyl format
30486 Tetrahydro-2-furfuryl format
30490 2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-propanediol diformate
1 LaBrecque, G. C., and H. G. Wilson. 1959. Laboratory tests with
sixty-five compounds as repellents against house flies. Fla. Ent. 42(4):
The Florida Entomologist
TABLE 1.-EFFECTIVENESS OF 12 COMPOUNDS AS HOUSE FLY REPELLENTS IN
GLASS TRAP TESTS. (AVERAGE OF TWO REPLICATIONS.)
Ratio of repellency at indicated days of aging
Code No. Repellent
15705 Decyl lactate acetate 6.4
26028 n-Octylmercapto- 1.9
16568 Diisohexylamine 54.0
26033 3-Chloro-2-hydroxy- 15.0
26030 3-n-Octylmercapto- 4.0
16562 Nonylamine 14.0
16575 Trihexylamine 28.0
30126-a N,N-Dibutyl-m- 15.3
22542 Deet (N,N-diethyl- 20.3
25469-X Pyrethrins (Kenya 2.8
Oleo Resin, 25 %)
26282 4,5-Dimethyl-m- 1.3
1 2 1 2 4 8 12
9.8 7.7 3.1 6.4 26.0 4.5 5.3
4.4 2.1 3.8 2.6 2.1 2.2
15.3 8.0 13.0 16.5 2.8 2.0
22.5 4.4 2.8 2.4 2.0 2.1
12.3 10.3 4.2 15.5 2.7 <1
2.8 3.0 3.7 8.1 1.8 -
18.3 2.7 3.2 2.0 <1 -
6.7 9.5 3.3 1.9 -
4.3 8.6 4.9 1.7 -
4.3 3.9 1.0
Vol. 44, No. 3
TWO NEW CHIRONOMIDAE (DIPTERA) AND
ADDITIONAL STATE RECORDS
ELISABETH C. BECK
Bureau of Entomology, Florida State Board of Health
Since the publication of a checklist of Chironomidae of Florida (Beck
and Beck, 1959), 21 additional species have been collected in Florida, two
of which are new. Collection records in this paper followed by (WMB)
were those of W. M. Beck, Jr., made while he was conducting biological sur-
veys for the Florida State Board of Health, Bureau of Sanitary Engineering.
All other specimens were taken in mosquito light traps operated by the
Florida State Board of Health, Bureau of Entomology.
NEW STATE RECORDS
Pentaneura annulata (Say). Keystone Heights, 16 Dec., 1955; Orange
County, 15 Oct., 1957 (WMB).
Anatopynia fastuosa (Joh.). Blountstown, 4 April, 1958.
Pseudochironomus middlekauffi Townes. Miami, 14 Jan., 1958.
Lauterborniella agrayloides (Kieffer). Clay County, Bull Creek, 18 April,
Omisus pica Townes. Bonifay, 7 Apr., 1958.
Paratendipes subaequalis (Malloch). Chattahoochee, 13 July, 1956.
Kribioxenus bicornis Townes. Keystone Heights, 6 May, 1959.
Kribioxenus mirabilis Townes. Moorehaven, 20 Nov., 1959.
Polypedilum griseopunctatum (Malloch). Chumuckla, 4 Aug., 1958
(WMB); Kenansville, 29 Apr., 1958; Walton County, small creek on
US # 98, 8 Apr., 1958 (WMB).
Polypedilum gomphus Townes. Chumuckla, 4 Aug., 1958 (WMB).
Polypedilum braseniae (Leathers). Tallahassee, 19 June, 1957 (WMB).
Stenochironomus poecilopterus (Mitchell). Chattahoochee, 28 Mar., 1961.
Chironomus (Chironomus) riparius Meigen. Madison, 12 June, 1957.
Chironomus (Tribelos) ater (Townes). Leesburg, 8 Apr., 1958.
Chironomus (Tribelos) jucundus var. jucundus Walker. Bonifay, 10 Mar.,
CI',,,',,,'in,- (Cryptochironomus) sorex (Townes). Myakka State Park,
9 Nov., 1960; Lakeland, 6 Apr., 1954; Crestview, 12 Apr., 1954 (WMB).
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) scimitarus (Townes). Myakka State
Park, 13 June, 1960.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) amachaerus (Townes). Goose Prairie,
13 Jan., 1961.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 44, No. 3
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) undine (Townes). Keystone Heights, 24
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) curtilamellata Malloch. Jacksonville, 10
Glyptotendipes meridionalis Dendy and Sublette. Hernando County, 27
Sept., 1960 (WMB); Orange County, Sept., 1960 (WMB); Wewahitchka,
9 Sept., 1960; Chattahoochee, 13 Sept., 1960.
The two following species are previously undescribed. Disposition of
types is indicated in parenthesis after data: United States National Mu-
seum (USNM), University of Florida Collection (UF), Dr. James E. Sub-
lette (JES). All other types are in the collection of the Florida State Board
of Health, Bureau of Entomology.
The following abbreviations (following Dendy and Sublette, 1959)
L.R.-Leg ratio D.L.-Dorsolateral
A.R.-Antennal ratio P.A.-Prealar
Chironomus (Nilodorum) devineyae n. sp.1
MALE HOLOTYPE: St. James City, Florida, 21 Jan., 1958. (USNM)
Wing 1.6 mm. long; A.R. 1.0; L.R. 1.7 (paratype, foretarsi are missing
on the holotype). Palpal segments very short, only 11/ times as long as
wide, in proportion of 6:10:10:12; frontal tubercles absent; pronotum dis-
tinctly projecting medially, with deep median notch.
Thorax light brown; mesonotal vittae, postnotum, scutellum, sternum
and small pleural markings blackish brown, the lateral vittae darker than
the median ones. D.L. in single row, bistles far apart; P.A. bristles 4-5;
D.M. in a double row; scutellum with transverse row of 6-7 large bristles;
halters light brown; legs brown.
Abdomen uniformly dark brown. Wing tinged with brown, the veins
brown; fork of Cu well beyond r-m; C and R,.I curving posteriorly to end
at wing apex; ends of R2.+ and R, distinctly separated; squama with long
thick fringe of hairs.
Foretibia with inner apical low rounded scale; combs of middle and hind
tibiae close, but with a distinct notch between, each with a strong spine;
pulvilli conspicuous; foretarsi not bearded.
Genitalia: (Fig. 1) Genitalia conspicuous, more thickened dorso-ven-
trally than usual. Style long and slender, curved inward, narrowing to a
point. Anal point black, broader at tip; inferior appendage slender, some-
what club-shaped; superior appendage brown, long, curved, pointed at apex,
with only microtrichia near the base.
PARATYPES: 2 males, Big Pine Key, Fla., 5 Sept., 1957; 6 Sept., 1960.
3 males, Rock Harbor, Fla., 17 Dec., 1957. 21 males, Allenhurst, Fla., 7
Mar., 1958. 3 males, Sanibel, Fla., 3 Jan., 1958. 3 males, Ft. Myers, Fla.,
6 Aug., 1957; 30 July, 1957. 6 males, Ozello, Fla., 16 Sept., 1960. 7 males,
SI am naming this species in honor of Dr. Ezda M. Deviney.
Beck: Two New Chironomidae (Diptera)
New Smyrna Beach, Fla., 1 Nov., 1960, (JES, one). 1 male, Vero Beach,
Fla., 14 Jan., 1958, (UF); many males, 28 Feb., 1958; 28 Oct., 1960. 1 male,
Santa Rosa, Fla., 9 Aug., 1957. 14 males, Everglades City, Fla., 24 Jan.,
1958, (USNM, one); 27 Oct., 1960; 29 Oct., 1960; 1 Nov., 1960; 6 Dec.,
1960. 1 male, Naples, Fla., 6 Apr., 1956.
Figure 1. Male genitalia, Chironomus (Nilodorum) devineyae, n. sp.
Figure 2. Male genitalia, Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) sublettei, n. sp.
The abdomen varied in color from olive green to dark brown. Wing
length, range 1.4-1.6; mean 1.49 mm (5); leg ratio, range 1.5-1.7; mean 1.6
(3); Antennal ratio, range .83-1.1; mean .98 (3). The species apparently
occurs throughout the year.
DIAGNOSIS: This find represents the first record of the subgenus from
the Nearctic region. The species differs from those described by Freeman
(1957) in several genitalic features. However, the structure of the prono-
tum, the absence of frontal tubercles, and the reduced mouthparts would
indicate inclusion in Nilodorum. The reduced mouthparts together with the
distinctive genitalia serve to separate this species from all other nearctic
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) sublettei, n. sp.2
MALE HOLOTYPE: Everglades City, Florida, 1 Nov., 1960 (USNM).
Wing 1.4 mm long; L. R. 1.4; A. R. 1.7. Frontal tubercles very small,
only about as long as their diameter. Palpal segments in ratio of 15:33:
2It is with pleasure that I name this species in honor of Dr. James E.
The Florida Entomologist
Thorax pale tan; P. A. bristles 3-4; D. L. in single row; D. M. in double
row; scutellum with two large apical bristles and about 6-8 finer bristles
in a transverse row; head, antennal flagellum, mesonotal vittae, and fore-
legs light brown, mid and hind legs stramineous with distal tarsal segments
Abdomen pale green, becoming brown toward apex. Wing pale, anterior
veins slightly darkened; squama with only 1 hair.
GENITALIA: (Fig. 2) Style stout with lobe-like swelling on inner mar-
gin, sometimes rather acute; superior appendage rod-shaped with irregular
pointed apex bearing two setae.
PARATYPES: 2 males, Everglades City, Fla., 1 Nov., 1960 (JES, one;
UF, one). 1 male, Floral City, Fla., 2 July, 1957. 2 males, Sanibel, Fla.,
5 Nov., 1957; 1 male, 9 Aug., 1957. 1 male, Ft. Myers, Fla., 25 Oct., 1957.
Wing length, range 1.4-1.7; mean 1.45 mm. (5); leg ratio, range 1.36-1.4;
mean 1.38 (3); antennal ratio, range 1.3-1.7; mean 1.45 (4). The abdomen
in this species is often pale tan, rather than green, with the base of each
abdominal segment slightly darkened. All specimens are from light traps.
The species was taken throughout the year.
DIAGNOSIS: This species superficially resembles abortivus Malloch in
the shape of the superior appendage of the male genitalia. However, the
well-developed inferior appendage, beset with conspicuous microtrichia,
and the unusually heavy style serve to distinguish this species from aborti-
vus as well as all other nearctic forms.
I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. J. E. Sublette and to W. M.
Beck, Jr., for help with this manuscript.
Records are given for 21 species of Chironomidae not previously recorded
from Florida. New species Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) sublettei and
Chironomus (Nilodorum) devineyae are described. The latter represents
the first Nearctic record for the subgenus Nilodorum. These 23 species
bring the total known Chironomid fauna of Florida to 133.
Beck, E. C., and W. M. Beck, Jr. 1959. A checklist of the Chironomidae
(Insecta) of Florida (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bull. Fla. St. Mus.,
Biol. Sci., 4: 85-96.
Dendy, J. S., and James E. Sublette. 1959. The Chironomidae of Alabama
with descriptions of six new species. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 52(5):
Freeman, Paul. 1957. A study of the Chironomidae (Diptera) of Africa
south of the Sahara. Part III. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent.,
Vol. 44, No. 3
AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE PSOCOPTERA OF THE
OF GEORGIA, FLORIDA, AND ALABAMA
EDWARD L. MOCKFORD '
The Flint-Chattahoochee-Apalachicola Region of Georgia, Florida, and
Alabama has been of interest to students of natural history in the South-
eastern States for many years. A survey of the biota of this region was
undertaken by the Florida State Museum when part of the area became
threatened with inundation (Hubbell et al., 1956). In order to collect psocids
for the survey, I visited this region with other biologists from the Uni-
versity of Florida in June, 1953, and again in March, 1954. Prior to the
initiation of the survey, I had made two collecting trips to Torreya State
Park, Florida. This paper is based primarily on the specimens taken on
these four trips. In addition, some specimens are treated which were col-
lected by P. B. Kannowski and T. J. Cohn on a trip to this region in June,
1956. I also include the very few literature records of psocids from the
area (distribution records of Chapman, 1930).
To date only 38 species of psocids have been found in the region under
consideration. I believe that this represents less than half of the number
of species which actually occur there, for the Florida psocid fauna far
exceeds 100 species, and the great variety of habitats in the Flint-Chatta-
hoochee-Apalachicola region probably harbor many species. Also, the fact
that two undescribed species known only from this region are represented
by a single specimen each, indicates that much more collecting is needed
before the fauna becomes well known.
Until 1952, the states of Georgia, Florida, and Alabama comprised
almost virgin territory for psocid collecting. This is still true of Georgia
and Alabama, but Florida is now somewhat better known. Nevertheless,
very little conclusive evidence can be presented about the ranges of the
species treated in this paper.
HABITATS: After much collecting over a wide area, one becomes aware
that certain situations merit close attention for psocid habitation in con-
trast to a set of situations in which psocids cannot live. Generally, any
terrestrial community is liable to have at least a few psocids. Hence, psocids
are to be found in all of the terrestrial communities discussed by Hubbell
et al. (1956: 29-38), with the possible exception of "lawns and grazed
meadows", and "bulldozed floodplain areas". Generally, psocids are more
abundant and varied in forest communities than in those of shrub and
grassland. The small size and poor mobility of a psocid restrict its ability
to utilize the "whole environment" offered by a major plant community.
Therefore, such a community offers a whole host of habitats, each with its
assemblage of psocids, consisting frequently of a few obligate species and
many facultative species. The major plant community determines the dis-
tribution of these assemblages only insofar as it determines the distribu-
tion of their habitats. Thus an accumulation of leaf litter from broad-
leaved trees may carry the same obligate species of psocids in a dry oak-
1 Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State Normal University,
The Florida Entomologist
land that it does in a ravine forest. Likewise, a clump of the epiphyte
Spanish moss on a cypress branch in a cypress pond is liable to contain the
same assemblage of psocids that occurs in Spanish moss on a magnolia
branch in a sandy hammock. In the two examples cited, the psocid habitat
offers considerably more stable moisture, temperature, and food supply than
the surrounding environment, and this is probably an important clue to the
distribution of all small, rather immobile organisms.
The psocid habitats investigated in the study area and their obligate
species are presented in table I. The obligate species of this table are
either known to be obligate throughout their range or are considered obli-
gate on the basis of certain morphological characters which are probably
adaptive for the habitat. The fact that several habitats have no obligate
species is easy to understand in some cases. Fence posts are virtually the
same habitat as tree trunks. Most of the foliage of the broad-leaved,
dicotyledonous trees and shrubs falls to the ground in this region in the
winter, and psocids of this habitat occur in the ground litter in early
spring. Most psocids apparently do not distinguish between Spanish moss
and dry leaves on a branch. The virtual absence of psocids from cane
(Arundinaria tecta) is not so readily explicable. It probably indicates
that cane bears a very scanty epiphytic microflora.
TABLE I. PSOCID HABITATS OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE REGION
AND THEIR OBLIGATE SPECIES
1. Conifer foliage
2. Trunks and branches of broad-
leaved trees in forests
3. Fence posts on roadside
4. Foliage of broad-leaved dicoty-
ledonous trees and shrubs
5. Dry leaves of dicotyledonous
trees on branches
6. Dry needle palm leaves
7. Spanish moss (in dry, mesic
8. Dry grass in old field
9. Cane in ravine
10. Ground litter
11. Under loose bark of dicot. trees
None (Hyalopsocus floridanus taken
in no other habitat, but found else-
where on trees).
Lachesilla anna, Lachesilla sp. c.
Lachesilla sp. a
None, but several species taken in no
other habitat in this area.
Caecilius sp. g.
Embidopsocus sp. a, Belaphotroctes
CLASSIFICATION: The family classification used in this paper is es-
sentially that of Pearman (1936) with minor modifications.
NAMES OF PLANTS: Common names of plants used in this paper, with
their corresponding scientific names, are given on the following list. Sci-
Vol. 44, No. 3
Mockford: An Annotated List of the Psocoptera
entific names are from Gray's Manual of Botany (8th edition, 1950) and
J. K. Small's Manual of the Southeastern Flora (1933).
List of the plant species on which collections were made:
Loblolly pine Pinus taeda
Long-leaf pine Pinus australis
Cypress Taxodium distichum
Torreya Tumion taxifolium
Florida yew Taxus floridana
Needle palm Rhapidophyllum Hystrix
Cane Arundinaria tecta
Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides
Magnolia Magnolia spp.
Sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua
Beech Fagus grandifolia
Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana
Hickory Carya spp.
Post oak Quercus stellata
Maple Acer spp.
LOCALITIES: The following code of abbreviations is used in the dis-
tribution records in this paper.
Fla. 1-Jackson County, State Road 71, 6.6 miles south of junction
with U. S. Highway 90.
Fla. 2-Liberty County, Torreya State Park.
Fla. 3-Liberty County, 1.5 miles north of Bristol.
Fla. 4-Liberty County, Rock Bluff.
Fla. 5-Liberty County, 2.5 miles northeast of Bristol.
Fla. 6-Gadsden County, Apalachicola River near Chattahoochee.
Fla. 7-Gadsden County, Chattahoochee.
Fla. 8-Gadsden County, Mosquito Creek south of Chattahoochee.
Fla. 9-Gadsden County, Woodruff Dam Site, block 411.
Fla. 10-Calhoun County, 2.8 miles south of Altha on State Road 71.
Ga. 1-Decatur County, Woodruff Dam Site block 420.
Ga. 2-Decatur County, Woodruff Dam Site blocks 417, 381, and 385.
Ga. 3-Decatur County, 2.9 miles south of Faceville on State Road 97.
Ga. 4-Decatur County, about 5 miles south of Faceville on State Road
Ga. 5-Decatur County, Woodruff Dam Site, block 368 (Mosquito Creek
Ga. 6-Seminole County, Chattahoochee River at Florida State Line.
Ga. 7-Seminole County, Spring Creek.
Ala. 1-Houston County, Chattahoochee State Park.
Ala. 2-Houston County, Irwin Mill Creek.
132 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 3
LIST OF SPECIES
1. Echmepteryx hageni (Packard)
Amphientomum hageni Packard, 1871, p. 405.
This scaly-winged psocid is widespread in eastern North America. It
occurs on trunks and branches of trees, and on stone outcrops.
Records: Fla.-2, Aug. 22, 1951, on trunk of beech in ravine forest, 1 9.
Ala.-1, June 3, 1953, beating Spanish moss in dry mesic woods, 1 2. Ala.-2,
June 3, 1953, beating loblolly pine foliage and branches, nymphs. Ga.-6,
June 14, 1956, 1 nymph.
2. Lepolepis occidentalis Mockford
Lepolepis occidentalis Mockford, 1955, p. 436.
An obligate of ground litter, this normally brachypterous scaly-winged
psocid has a wide range in eastern North America. A macropterous female
taken in the study area is the second macropterous specimen known.
Records: Fla.-9, June 2, 1953, sifting ground litter on hillside in hickory
woods, 1 nymph. Fla.-5, March 27, 1954, sifting ground litter on dry slope
in mixed hardwood-pine forest, 9 nymphs. Ala.-2, June 3, 1953, sifting
ground litter under loblolly pines, 2 nymphs. Ga.-3, June 22, 1956, 1
3. Rhyopsocus phillipsae Sommerman
Rhyopsocus phillipsae Sommerman, 1956, p. 146.
Of the four species of Rhyopsocus now known from North America
(Sommerman, 1956; Mockford and Gurney, 1956: 357) this is perhaps the
one with the widest range.
Records: Fla.-2, June 3-4, 1952, on needle palms, mostly dry leaves,
8 S, 8 9. Fla.-2, June 4, 1953, under loose bark of dead trees, 1 2 nymphs.
Ala.-1, June 3, 1953, beating Spanish moss in dry mesic woods, 12 $, 6 9,
4. Belaphotroctes sp.
The genus Belaphotroctes has not previously been recorded from the
Western Hemisphere. Three species have been described, one from the
Congo (Badonnel, 1949) one from Angola (Badonnel, 1955) and another
from Natal (Ribaga, 1911). The species listed here is probably new and
has been taken at several Florida localities.
Records: Fla.-2, June 4, 1953, under loose bark of dead trees, 5 apter-
ous 9, 5 nymphs.
5. Embidopsocus sp. a
Like most other members of its genus, this undescribed species inhabits
the space between loose bark and wood of trees, usually dead ones. It has
Mockford: An Annotated List of the Psocoptera
been found at several localities in Peninsular Florida, but it has not been
taken north of the study area. It is being described in a separate work.
Records: Ga.-6, June 3, 1953, under loose bark of small dead tree, 1
macropterous 9. Fla.-2, June 4, 1953, under loose bark of dead trees, 1
macropterous 9, 1 apterous .
6. Liposcelis bostrychophilus Badonnel
Liposcelis bostrychophilus Badonnel, 1931, p. 250.
Since my specimens show many characters in common with this Afro-Eu-
ropean species, I believe that they are identical with it. The species has a
wide range in eastern United States, where it is often subcorticolous. In
Europe and Africa it has been found only in domestic situations and on
Records: Fla.-2, June 3-4, 1952, on dry needle palm leaves, 3 9. Fla.-2,
June 4, 1953, under loose bark of dead trees, 1 9. Fla.-7, June 3, 1953, at
light, 1 9 Fla.-9, June 2, 1953, beating foliage of broad-leaved trees and
shrubs along stream, 1 9 Ga.-1, June 21, 1956, 1 Ga.-2, June 18, 1956,
3 9, 1 nymph.
7. Liposcelis liparus group sp.
There are at least two species near L. liparus Broadhead (1947) in
North America. The species from the study area lacks a bristle anterior
and medial to the humeral seta and is apparently somewhat darker than
the British species.
Records: Fla.-2, Aug. 23, 1951, on trunk of long-leaf pine, 1 9. Ga.-1,
June 21, 1956, 1 9.
8. Liposcelis sp. a
An undescribed species with very distinctive markings is frequently
encountered in Florida. It has been taken several times in the study area.
Records: Fla.-2, August 23, 1951, on dry needle palm leaves, 19.
Ala.-1, June 3, 1953, in Spanish moss, 19, 1 nymph.
9. Liposcelis sp. b
This is an undetermined species apparently near L. hirsutus (Badon-
Record: Fla.-2, June 2, 1952, on tree trunk, 1 .
10. Caecilius sp. a
A small, distinctively marked, undescribed species is frequent through-
out much of Florida.
Records: Fla.-2, June 3, 1952, on foliage of Torreya, 19. Fla.-10,
August 22, 1951, on foliage of trees in bayhead, 2 29, 1 nymph.
11. Caecilius sp. g
This is an undescribed species known from a single male in Alabama
and several Florida localities.
Records: Ala.-2, June 3, 1953, sweeping dry Andropogon, 1 .
134 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 3
12. Caecilius pinicola Banks
Caecilius pinicola Banks, 1903, p. 238.
This species is found throughout the eastern United States, largely on
Records: Fla.-2, June 4, 1952, beating dry oak leaves on branch, 1 ,
1 2, 1 nymph. Fla.-2, March 27, 1954, beating needle palm, Pinus echinata,
Torreya, and yew, 1 $. Fla.-3, March 27, 1954, beating pine and hardwood
foliage in forest, 2 9, 4 nymphs. Fla.-4, April 4, 1927, 1 8. Ga.-2, June 17,
13. Caecilius sommermanae Mockford
Caecilius somrmermanae Mockford, 1955, p. 438.
This species has a wide range in eastern North America, extending far
down the Florida Peninsula. It is an inhabitant of forests, where it may
be found in a variety of habitats.
Records: Fla.-2, June 3-4, 1952, beating Torreya foliage, cane, dry
oak leaves on branch, and needle palm leaves, 1 14 9. Fla.-2, March 27,
1954, beating bushes in hardwood-pine forest, 1 9.
14. Teliapsocus conterminus (Walsh)
Psocus conterminus Walsh, 1863, p. 185.
This is a common species in the Southeastern States on the leaves of
forest shrubs and saplings.
Records: Fla.-8, June 5, 1953, on foliage of woody plants in mesic
hardwood forest, 2 $. Fla.-10, August 22, 1951, beating foliage of trees
in bayhead, 1 Ga.-1, June 2, 1953, on Torreya foliage, 1 nymph. Ga.-7,
April 11, 1927, 1S.
15. Polypsocus corruptus (Hagen)
Psocus corruptus Hagen, 1861, p. 13.
This is a common forest species in the eastern United States, ranging
south into southern Florida. Nymphs may be found in ground litter in the
spring, while all stages occur on foliage of shrubs and saplings later in the
Records: Fla.-2, June 3-4, 1952, on tree trunks, Torreya foliage, needle
palm leaves, and magnolia leaves in ravine forest, 5 6 9. Fla.-2, June 4,
1953, beating branches of broad-leaved trees, 1 19. Fla.-2, March 27,
1954, beating needle palm, Pinus echinata, Torreya, and yew in ravine for-
est, 1 nymph. Fla.-5, March 27, 1954, sifting ground litter on dry slope in
hardwood-pine forest, 3 nymphs. Fla.-5, June 5, 1953, beating general
foliage of woody plants in mesic forest, 1 9.
16. Lachesilla anna Sommerman
Lachesilla anna Sommerman, 1946, p. 636.
Mockford: An Annotated List of the Psocoptera
The species of Lachesilla are largely inhabitants of dry plant material,
and are frequently found in dry leaves hanging on branches. L. anna is
often encountered in that habitat and is widespread in the Eastern States.
Records,: Fla.-2, June 4, 1952, in dry oak leaves on branch (ravine for-
est) 3S, 19.
17. Lachesilla sp. a
An undescribed species very closely related to L. anna was found in the
Records: Fla.-2, August 23, 1951, on needle palm leaves, 3 9. Fla.-2,
June 3-4, 1952, on needle palm leaves, 10 8, 5 9, 3 nymphs.
18. Lachesilla so. b.
A single male representing an undescribed species of unknown affinity
was collected in the area of the survey.
Records: Fla.-2, June 4, 1952, in dry needle palm leaves, 1 .
19. Lachesilla sp. c
A female and three nymphs of an undescribed species near L. chapman
Somm. were taken in the area.
Records: Fla.-2, March 27, 1954, in dry beech leaves, 19, 3 nymphs.
20. Lachesilla contraforcepeta Chapman
Lachesilla contraforcepeta Chapman, 1930, p. 347.
This species is widely distributed in North America and is generally
confined to conifer foliage. In the survey area adults have been taken on
foliage of Torreya, pine, and Florida yew.
Records: Fla.-2, June 3, 1952, beating Torreya foliage in ravine for-
est, 43, 149, 9 nymphs. Fla.-2, June 4, 1952, beating Pinus echinata
foliage, 1 Fla.-2, March 27, 1954, beating Torreya, needle palm, Pinus
echinata, and yew in ravine forest, 3 9.
21. Lachesilla corona Chapman
Lachesilla corona Chapman, 1930, p. 350.
This species apparently reaches its southern limit in the area under
Records: Ala.-1, June 3, 1953, beating Spanish moss, 2 9.
22. Lachesilla forcepeta Chapman
Lachesilla forcepeta Chapman, 1930, p. 348.
Although widely distributed and often abundant in eastern North Amer-
ica, only five individuals of this species have been collected in the area
of this study.
Records: Fla.-2, August 22, 1951, on pine foliage, 1 9. Ala.-1, June
3, 1953, in Spanish moss, 2 1 9, 1 nymph.
The Florida Entomologist
23. Lachesilla nubilis (Aaron)
Caecilius nubilis Aaron, 1886, p. 13.
A single male of this species was taken in the survey.
Record: Fla.-7, June 3, 1953, at light, 1 .
24. Ectopsocus meridionalis Ribaga
Ectopsocus briggsi var. ?neridionalis Ribaga 1904, p. 294.
In a separate paper (Mockford, 1959), I have recorded this species from
North America and have discussed its range. It occurs primarily on foli-
age of shrubs and trees and on dry leaves on branches. Numerous speci-
mens were taken in the survey.
Records: Fla.-2, June 3-4, 1952, on needle palm leaves, 1 9. Fla.-2,
June 4, 1952, beating dry oak leaves on branch, 3 9. Fla.-2, June 4, 1953,
beating branches of broad-leaved trees in ravine forest, 1 9. Fla.-2, March
27, 1954, beating bushes in hardwood-pine forest, 1 9. Ga.-1, June 2, 1953,
beating ferns, dry leaves on branch, and Torreya foliage in ravine forest,
3 13 nymphs. Ga.-2, June 2, 1953, beating branches and foliage of broad-
leaved trees, 12 9, 1 nymph.
25. Ectopsocus dimorphus Mockford and Gurney
Ectopsocus dimorphus Mockford and Gurney, 1956, p. 363.
The easternmost record of this curious dimorphic species was taken in
the survey area.
Record: Ga.-2, June 2, 1953, sifting ground litter on recently cleared
hillside, 2 $.
26. Ectopsocopsis pumilis (Banks)
Peripsocus pumilis Banks, 1920, p. 313.
This species is common in the area on dry plant material.
Records: Fla.-6, June 1, 1953, beating dead sweet gum leaves on branch,
1 9. Ga.-1, June 2, 1953, beating dry leaves on branch, 1 4 9. Ga.-2,
June 2, 1953, beating dry leaves on branch, and live post oak foliage, 2 3,
3 9, 4 nymphs. Ga.-3, March 28, 1954, beating dry sweet gum leaves on
branch, 2 9. Ga.-7, April 11, 1927, 2 S. Ala.-2, June 3, 1953, beating dry
leaves on branch, 19.
27. Peripsocus quadrifasciatus (Harris)
Psocus quadrifasciatus Harris, 1869, p. 331.
This species occurs on a variety of forest habitats in the area. The
presence of males is noteworthy, for they show a spotty distribution.
Records: Fla.-2, August 23, 1951, beating dead branches of trees along
slough, 19, 3 nymphs. Fla.-2, June 4, 1952, beating dry oak leaves on
branch, 6 9 9. Fla.-2, June 4, 1953, beating branches of broad-leaved
trees in ravine forest, 1 Fla.-2, March 27, 1954, beating trees and
shrubs and sifting ground litter in ravine forest, 1 5, 1 9 Fla.-4, April 25,
1924, 1 9. Fla.-4, April 4, 1927, 1 9. Ala.-1, June 3, 1953, beating dry oak
leaves on branch, and beating Spanish moss, 1 2 9, 2 nymphs.
Vol. 44, No. 3
Mockford: An Annotated List of the Psocoptera
28. Aaroniella sn. b
This form is intermediate in certain respects between the northern
A. maculosa (Aaron) and an apparently undescribed species in Peninsular
Record: Fla.-6, June 1, 1953, beating dead sweet gum leaves on
29. Cerastipsocus venosus (Burmeister)
Psocus venosus Burmeister, 1839, p. 778.
The large size and herding habits of this species make it conspicuous
on trunks and branches of forest trees in early summer.
Records: Fla.-2, Aug. 22, 1951, sweeping Torreya, 19. Fla.-2, June
2-4, 1952, trunks of broad-leaved trees in ravine forest, 12 5, 5 9. Ga.-2,
June 2, 1953, beating branches and foliage of broad-leaved trees, 6 nymphs.
Ga.-5, June 20, 1956, 9 nymphs. Ga.-7, no date, 4 3 9.
30. Metylophorus novaescotiae (Walker)
Psocus novaescotiae Walker, 1853, p. 485.
Record: Fla.-5, March 27, 1954, beating pine and hardwood foliage in
forest, 8 nymphs.
31. Metylophorus purus (Walsh)
Psocus parus (Walsh) 1862, p. 361.
This species occurs on trunks and branches of a variety of broad-leaved
forest trees in the area.
Records: Fla.-2, August 23, 1951, on trunks of hornbeam and beech in
ravine forest, 2 1 9. Fla.-2, August 23, 1951, at light, 1 Fla.-2, June
2-4, 1952, on trunks of broad-leaved trees, 1 9 Fla.-2, June 4, 1953, under
loose bark of dead trees, 3 9, 2 nymphs. Ga.-1, June 2, 1953, on trunks of
maples in ravine forest, 1 2 nymphs.
32. Hyalopsocus floridanus (Banks)
Psocus floridanus Banks, 1905, p. 2.
Record: Ga.-3, March 28, 1954, on fence posts (with egg masses on
north faces of posts), 5 79, 10 nymphs.
33. Psocus atratus Aaron
Psocus atratus Aaron, 1883, p. 39.
Record: Ga.-1, June 2, 1953, on trunk of maple in ravine forest, 2 9.
34. Trichadenotecnum slossonae (Banks)
Psocus slossonae Banks, 1903, p. 236.
Record: Ala.-1, June 3, 1953, beating Spanish moss in dry mesic woods,
The Florida Entomologist
35. Blaste opposite (Banks)
Psocus oppositus Banks, 1907, p. 165.
This species occurs on the branches of a variety of trees in the bay-
heads and forests of the area.
Records: Fla.-l, Aug. 22, 1951, sweeping broad-leaved foliage, 1 .
Fla.-2, Aug. 23, 1951, beating dead branches of trees along slough, 3 y.
Fla.-2, June 3-4, 1952, on needle palm leaves, mostly dead, 1 9. Fla.-3,
Aug. 23, 1951, sweeping vegetation in bayhead, 1 Fla.-8, June 5, 1953,
beating woody plants in mesic forest, 1 $. Fla.-10, Aug. 22, 1951, sweeping
foliage in bayhead, 1 $, 1 9. Ga.-2, June 2, 1953, beating branches and
foliage of broad-leaved trees, 1 .
36. Blaste quieta (Hagen)
Psocus quietus Hagen, 1861, p. 12.
This species was taken from branches of several woody plants in the
Records: Fla.-2, March 27, 1954, beating bushes in hardwood-pine for-
est, 1 nymph. Fla.-10, Aug. 22, 1951, sweeping foliage in bayhead, 1 1 9,
1 nymph. Ga.-2, June 2, 1953, beating small oak in field, 1 nymph.
37. Blastopsocus lithinus (Chapman)
Psocus lithinus Chapman, 1930, p. 249.
Record: Fla.-2, June 3-4, 1952, on needle palm leaves, mostly dead, 3 9.
38. Lichenomima sp. e
This is an undescribed species which has been taken at several Florida
Records: Fla.-2, Aug. 23, 1951, beating dead branches of broad-leaved
trees along slough, 1 9.
Records are given for 38 species of Psocoptera found in the region of
confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers. The unique natural
features of the region, including the endemic conifers Tumion taxifolium
and Taxus floridana apparently harbor no endemic psocid species. An
undescribed species of Lachesilla, here designated Lachesilla sp. a, found
on needle palm, has not been collected outside of this region and may prove
to be endemic. Additional collecting in this region will probably add many
species of psocids to the list.
Aaron, S. F. 1883. Descriptions of new Psocidae in the collection of the
American Entomological Society. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 11: 37-40,
Aaron, S. F. 1886. On some new Psocidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,
1886: 13-18, pl. I.
Vol. 44, No. 3
Mockford: An Annotated List of the Psocoptera 139
Badonnel, A. 1931. Contribution a 1' 6tude de la faune du Mozambique.
Voyage de M. P. Lesne (1928-29). 4e note: Copeognathes. Ann.
Sci. Nat. (Zool.), 14: 229-260.
Badonnel, A. 1943. Faune de France 42. PsocoptBres. Paris: P. Lechev-
alier et Fils, 164 pp., 375 figs.
Badonnel, A. 1949. PsocoptBres du Congo Belge (3e Note). Inst. royal
Sci. Nat. Belg., 25: 1-64, 83 figs.
Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocopteres de l'Angola. Comp. Diamant. Angola
Pub. Cult., 26: 1-267, 625 figs.
Banks, N. 1903. Some new Neuropteroid insects. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc.,
Banks, N. 1905. Descriptions of new nearctic neuropteroid insects. Trans.
Amer. Ent. Soc., 32: 1-20, pls. I and II.
Banks, N. 1907. New Trichoptera and Psocidae. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc.,
Banks, N. 1920. New Neuropteroid insects. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
Broadhead, E. 1947. New species of Liposcelis Motschulsky (Corrodentia,
Liposcelidae) in England. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond., 98: 41-58.
Broadhead, E. 1950. Revision of the genus Liposcelis Motschulsky with
notes on the position of this genus in the order Corrodentia and on
the variability of ten Liposcelis species. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond.,
101: 335-388, 28 figs.
Burmeister, H. 1839. Handbuch der Entomologie. Berlin: G. Reimer,
Zweiter Band, Zweite Abtheilung, (Zweite Hilfte; vulgo Neuroptera)
(Psocina pp. 772-782).
Chapman, P. J. 1930. Corrodentia of the United States of America: I.
Suborder Isotecnomera. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 38: 219-290, 319-403,
Hagen, H. A. 1861. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America.
Smith. Misc. Coll., 4(1) : xx + 347 pp.
Hubbell, T. H., A. M. Laessle, and J. C. Dickinson. 1956. The Flint-
Chattahoochee-Apalachicola Region and its environments. Bull. Fla.
St. Mus., 1: 1-72.
Mockford, E. L. 1955. Notes on some eastern North American psocids
with descriptions of two new species. Amer. Midi. Nat., 53: 436-441.
Mockford, E. L. 1959. The Ectopsocus briggsi complex in the Americas.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 61: 260-266.
Mockford, E. L., and A. B. Gurney. 1956. A review of the psocids, or
book-lice and bark-lice, of Texas (Psocoptera). Jour. Wash. Acad.
Sci., 46: 353-368.
Packard, A. S. 1870. New or rare American Neuroptera, Thysanura, and
Myriopoda. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 13: 405-409.
Pearman, J. V. 1936. The taxonomy of the Psocoptera: preliminary
sketch. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond., 5: 58-62.
Ribaga, C. 1904. Sul genere Ectopsocus McL. e descrizione di una nuova
varieta dell E. briggsi McL. Redia, I: 294-298.
Ribaga, C. 1911. Nuovi Copeognati Sudafricani. Redia, 7: 156-171.
140 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 44, No. 3
Sommerman, K. M. 1946. A revision of the genus Lachesilla north of
Mexico. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 39: 627-661, pls. I-IV.
Sommerman, K. M. 1956. Two new species of Rhyopsocus (Psocoptera)
from the U. S. A., with notes on the bionomics of one household
species. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 46: 145-149.
Walsh, B. D. 1862. List of the Pseudoneuroptera of Illinois contained in
the cabinet of the writer. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1862: 361-402.
Walsh, B. D. 1863. Notes by Benj. D. Walsh. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila.,
Walker, F. 1853. Catalogue of the Neuroptera in the British Museum.
London, 658 pp. (Sub-order 4. Corrodentia, pp. 477-501).
INSECT PHOTO SALON
The Entomological Society of America announces an Insect Photo Salon
to be held in conjunction with its Miami meeting on November 27-30, 1961.
This meeting will be at the McAllister Hotel in Miami, Florida. The
closing date for Insect Photo Salon entries is November 11, 1961. All en-
tries should be sent to:
Lewis S. Maxwell, Chairman
Entomological Society of America, Insect Photo Salon
This salon will be conducted according to practices approved by the Photo-
graphic Society of America. However, as the categories are being restricted
to Arthropods the exhibit cannot be rated as a P.S.A. approved Nature
Entry blanks for the salon can be obtained from Lewis S. Maxwell, 506
E. Hollywood Ave., Tampa 4, Florida. To expedite your receipt of the entry
blank, please include a self-addressed stamped envelope with your request.
The entry blank will answer most of your questions as to categories, sizes,
numbers and the like.
Prizes will be given only to E.S.A. members; however, awards will be
presented to non-members for outstanding photos.