Volume 45, No. 3 September, 1962
Norman, Paul A.-Insect Transmission of Tristeza Virus
of Citrus in Florida .-.....-- ...------ .--.--.-- ..........----------. 103
Peterson, Alvah-Some Eggs of Moths Among the
Geometridae-Lepidoptera ..--..---............--------..---------------..... 109
Dumas, B. A., W. P. Boyer, and W. H. Whitcomb-Effect of
Time of Day on Surveys of Predaceous Insects in Field
Crops .----------------.......................... ......---------------...... ..--.. 121
De Leon, Donald-Three New Genera and Seven New
Species of Cheyletids (Acarina: Cheyletidae) .-......-------.. 129
Denmark, H. A., and Carleton M. Clifford, Jr.-A Tick of
the Ornithodoros Capensis Group Established on Bush
Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida ..................------------------......................---... 139
Lambers, D. Hille Ris-A Third Species of Toxopterella
Hille Ris Lambers (Homoptera: Aphididae) from
North America ........-----------------..---------------- 143
Mockford, Edward L.-Notes on the Distribution and Life
History of Archipsocus Frater Mockford (Psocoptera:
Archipsocidae) ............---------......-.....--------------------.........................--.......----..... 149
Blickle, R. L.-Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) of Florida...-.... 153
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
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INSECT TRANSMISSION OF TRISTEZA VIRUS
OF CITRUS IN FLORIDA
PAUL A. NORMAN
Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service,
United States Department of Agriculture
Among the virus diseases commonly infecting citrus in Florida, tristeza
is the only one that has been shown to be insect transmitted.
There is ample evidence of natural spread of this disease in Florida.
A survey by the State Plant Board of Florida, after discovery of tristeza
in 1952, revealed the presence of infected trees in every citrus area of the
State. Seventy-two virus-free parent trees in Orange County selected for
entry in the Citrus Budwood Program in 1953 were free of the virus when
tested in 1955, but later 15 of 38 trees were found to have tristeza (Burnett,
1960). In another group of 84 formerly virus-free seedling trees, in the
Citrus Budwood Program, 26 are now known to be tristeza-infected. Twelve
percent of 1,739 trees surveyed by the Florida Plant Board throughout the
State during 1959-60 carried the virus. Gerald Norman (1961) reported
natural spread in Polk County where previously healthy trees in three lo-
cations, when indexed with Key lime, were found to have the disease. Nor-
man attributed this spread to the heavy infestations of aphids that occurred
in the spring of 1959 and 1960.
INSECT TRANSMISSION OF TRISTEZA VIRUS DISEASE OF CITRUS
Transmission of tristeza virus by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera
citricidus [Kirk.]), an aphid which does not occur in continental United
States, was demonstrated in Brazil by Meneghini (1946) and Bennett and
Costa (1949), in Argentina by Valiela (1948), and in South Africa by Mc-
Clean (1950). Dickson et al (1951) reported transmission of quick decline
(tristeza) by the melon aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.) in California. The
brown citrus aphid is an efficient vector of the virus, but the melon aphid
is considered to be comparatively inefficient as a vector.
In Florida, one of several potted Key lime seedlings placed around in-
fected trees in 1952 developed vein-clearing and stem-pitting symptoms
typical of a mild strain of tristeza virus (Norman and Grant, 1954). Large
numbers of spirea aphids (A. spiraecola Patch) observed on or near the
test plants, suggested this species as a possible vector. Later, after 160
unsuccessful tests with infected Valencia orange trees and Key lime seed-
lings serving as inoculum, the virus was successfully transmitted by spirea
aphids from a stunted Temple orange tree on red lime (Rangpur type)
rootstock to 9 of 128 Key lime test plants. In subsequent experiments, the
melon aphid transmitted the virus to one of 26 Key lime indicator plants.
The first positive evidence of transmission of tristeza virus by the black
citrus aphid (Toxoptera aurantii [Fonsc.]) was obtained in 1956 with an
infected Valencia orange scion on a Key lime rootstock grown in a green-
house as the source of inoculum and Key lime as the indicator plant (Nor-
man and Grant, 1956).1
1 Identity of these aphids was confirmed by Louise M. Russell, taxono-
mist, of the Entomology Research Division.
104 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 3
Insects and mites found on citrus in Florida, which failed to transmit
tristeza in tests conducted at Orlando, included the green peach aphid
(Myzus persicae [Sulz.]), citrus mealybug (Pseudococcus citri [Risso]),
the leafhoppers Homalodisca coagulata (Say) and Oncometopia undata
(F.), a big-footed plant bug (Acanthocephala femorata [F.]), the southern
green stink bug (Nezara viridula [L.]), another stink bug Euschistus ob-
scurus (P. de B.), and the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri [McG.])
(Norman and Grant, 1956).
TRANSMISSION OF MILD AND SEVERE STRAINS OF TRISTEZA
The existence of different strains of tristeza virus is widely recognized.
They are identified on the basis of their effect on plant growth, degree of
symptom expression, and stability of differences in symptom expression
after repeated transmissions through a series of test plants.
Two mild strains of tristeza virus (Ti and T2) were obtained from Key
lime plants that had been inoculated by spirea aphids from a Temple orange
tree (Norman and Grant, 1956). A severe form of tristeza (T3) was ob-
tained by tissue transmission from a lime tree in the field (Grant and Hig-
gins, 1957). These strains of the disease have been transmitted to Valencia,
Temple, Florida sweet seedling, and Pineapple orange trees, and to Cleo-
patra mandarin and Rough lemon seedlings by means of leaf-piece inocula-
The spirea aphid (300-400 per test plant) transmitted the T2 mild
strain of tristeza from Temple, Florida sweet seedling, and Valencia
sources to seven out of 13 Key lime indicator plants. The melon aphid
(700 per test plant) also transmitted the Ts strain of virus from a Temple
source to six indicator plants. In these tests, initial symptoms of tristeza
were detected on one or more branches of the indicator plant five to eight
weeks after aphid inoculation. New, young leaves of infected branches
showed distinct vein-clearing and a veinlet pattern that frequently faded
as growth matured. After the initial vein-clearing symptoms disappeared,
some leaf cupping and deficiency signs remained. Presence of the virus in
the indicator plants was confirmed by tissue transmissions to additional
Key lime plants (Norman and Grant, 1956).
The melon aphid (200-400 per test plant) transmitted the T3 severe
strain from a Pineapple orange source to 10 of 12 indicator plants. The
same number of aphids. fed on a Rough- lemon source infected one of two
indicator plants but no transmission occurred from a Cleopatra mandarin
source to two indicator plants. Ten months after inoculation it was noted
that five of the 11 infected plants in the T3 series exhibited extreme stunt-
ing, some vein-corking on the upper surfaces of the older leaves, leaf drop,
and branch dieback, with five of the remaining plants stunted, and showing
leaf cupping and yellowing. All but one of the 11 infected plants had very
thick bark and showed stem pits and striations. Although the remaining
plant produced some new growth and there was a slight tendency towards
milder symptoms, nonetheless it had thick bark with distinct pits and stri-
ations separated by normal-appearing wood. (Norman and Grant, 1959).
Norman: Insect Transmission of Tristeza Virus
DIFFERENCES IN TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF APHID CLONES
Simons (1959), working with southern cucumber mosaic, found consid-
erable differences in the ability of several clones of the melon aphid to
transmit this virus. A melon aphid clone obtained from John N. Simons,
University of Florida, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, and
another developed at Orlando were used in tristeza transmission studies
during 1958 and 1959. The Belle Glade clone transmitted tristeza virus
to six of 21 indicator plants compared with only two of 21 for the Orlando
clone. The aphids obtained from Belle Glade had been reared on pepper.
The clone from Orlando had been reared entirely on citrus. Aphids from
both clones were transferred to kenaf two weeks before use in the initial
tests. Of interest in these preliminary tests was the transmission efficiency
of the Belle Glade melon aphids, a clone considered to be an inefficient vector
of southern cucumber mosaic by Dr. Simons. Results suggesting that the
Belle Glade aphids may be more efficient vectors of tristeza than the Or-
lando aphids, need confirmation in further tests.
INSECT TRANSMISSION OF TRISTEZA VIRUS FROM DIFFERENT CITRUS VARIETIES
In Florida, aphids appear to be attracted to Temple oranges because
these trees habitually have more succulent growth than many other citrus
varieties. The first transmissions of tristeza virus with the spirea aphid
in Florida were from Temple orange to healthy Key limes. Attempts at
that time to transmit the disease from infected Valencia orange trees and
from Key lime test plants with spirea aphids produced negative results.
In later tests in which Temple orange inoculum was again used, 11 of 12
indicator plants became infected with the Ts severe strain of tristeza when
100-300 melon aphids were used per test.
The suitability of Meyer lemon as an inoculum source was investigated
in 16 tests with the black citrus aphid and 21 tests with the melon aphid.
No positive transmissions were obtained in these experiments. In 107 tests
with the spirea aphid in which the Meyer lemon was used as the only source
of inoculum, two positive transmissions resulted. Vein-clearing symptoms
occurred on young leaves of indicator lime plants five months later, but
these became less evident as leaves matured. Subsequent new growth
showed no further symptoms. Indicator plants inoculated with budwood
from the branch of this Meyer lemon on which the aphids had fed developed
strong vein-clearing symptoms that were evident for a longer period and
were more distinct than those observed on the original Key lime infected
The Meyer lemon scion on one of the graft-inoculated Key lime indicator
plants was allowed to develop. Spirea aphids successfully transmitted
tristeza virus from this Meyer lemon to one of two Key lime plants, with
transitory leaf symptoms developing four months after inoculation. The
limited symptom expression of tristeza suggested that either the inoculum
contained a very mild tristeza virus strain or that the aphids had trans-
mitted only a portion of a virus mixture. Further experiments provided
additional evidence that a milder form of tristeza virus had been trans-
mitted from the Meyer lemon by the aphids than had been transmitted by
tissue grafts from the same source.
The Florida Entomologist
In 1958, an evaluation was made of the ability of aphids to transmit
a severe strain of tristeza from orange varieties Hamlin, Bedmar, Sanguina
Grosse Ronde, Maltese Oval, Mediterranean Blood, Valencia, Florida sweet
seedling, Pineapple, Cuba sweet, Selecta, Joppa, Precose de Valence, St.
Michael, Morocco, Princess Early, and McIlhenny. Melon aphids trans-
mitted the virus from Hamlin, Maltese Oval, Precose de Valence, and
Florida sweet sources. The black citrus aphid transmitted the virus from
Precose de Valence and St. Michael sources of inoculum, but not from
Mediterranean Blood or Cuba sweet orange varieties. Alate spirea aphids
transmitted tristeza virus from a Hamlin orange source but not from Prin-
cess Early or Joppa orange seedlings.
The vector studies in Florida showed that under laboratory conditions
the spirea, melon, and black citrus aphids were capable of transmitting
mild and severe strains of tristeza virus. Research is currently being con-
ducted to determine the possible differences in the efficiency with which
these aphids transmit the different virus strains, as well as the relationship
of such factors, as temperature, inoculum source, and aphid strain to trans-
mission and the character of virus infections in the field.
The possibility that recent natural spread of tristeza in Polk County
reported by Gerald Norman (1961) may be associated with heavy aphid
infestations on citrus in 1959 and 1960 suggested that the vectors may not
always be abundant or efficient enough under normal conditions to cause
rapid spread. If large populations of aphids are necessary, their control
may provide important practical benefits by limiting natural spread of
tristeza. In view of the value of citrus trees in full production, any reason-
able measures that might be taken to prolong their productive life should
Bennett, C. W., and A. S. Costa. 1949. Tristeza disease of citrus. Jour.
Agr. Res. 78(8): 207-237.
Burnett, Harry C. 1960. Tristeza indexing, in cooperation with the Citrus
Budwood Certification Program. Fla. State Plant Bd. Bull. 2(14):
Dickson, R. C., R. A. Flock, and M. McD. Johnson. 1951. Insect transmis-
sion of citrus quick-decline virus. Jour. Econ. Ent. 44(2): 172.
Grant, Theodore J., and Richard P. Higgins. 1957. Occurrence of mix-
tures of tristeza virus strains in citrus. Phytopathology 47(5): 272-6.
McClean, A. P. D. 1950. Virus infections of citrus in South Africa. Farm-
ing in S. Africa 25: 261-2, 289-96.
Meneghini, M. 1946. S6bre a natureza e transmissibilidade da doenga
"cristeza" dos citrus. Biol6gico 12: 285-7.
Norman, Gerald. 1961. Tristeza-a reminder. Citrus and Vegetable Mag.
Norman, Paul A., and Theodore J. Grant. 1954. Preliminary studies of
aphid transmission of tristeza virus in Florida. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. Proc. 66: 89-92.
Norman, Paul A., and Theodore J. Grant. 1956. Transmission of tristeza
virus by aphids in Florida. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 69: 38-42.
Vol. 45, No. 3
Norman: Insect Transmission of Tristeza Virus 107
Norman, Paul A., and Theodore J. Grant. 1959. Transmission of the T8
severe strain of tristeza virus of citrus by the melon aphid. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 52(4): 632-4.
Simon-s, John N. 1959. Variation in efficiency of aphid transmission of
southern cucumber mosaic virus and potato virus y in pepper. Vir-
ology 9: 612-23.
Valiela, M. V. Fernandez. 1948. Informe preliminary acerca de la etiologia
de "podredumbre de las raicillas" del naranjo agrio injertado. (Ar-
gentina) Rev. de Invest. Agr. 2: 139-146.
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SOME EGGS OF MOTHS AMONG THE
The author has been investigating the eggs of moths for several years.
To date the eggs from more than 300 species, representing 31 families, have
been collected, photographed, preserved and studied. Approximately two-
thirds of them come from species that belong to the three largest families
of Lepidoptera, namely the Phalaenidae, Pyralidae and Geometridae. The
information assembled on eggs of the Geometridae warrants a publication
on this family at this time, the first of a proposed series on species from
Many species of geometrids are attracted in numbers to "black lights"
on warm nights. Females caught at night on a white cloth adjacent to
a light are placed in polyethylene bags or in broad glass vials lined with
polyethylene. Some moths of most species will deposit some to many eggs,
especially if the containers are kept in a warm place and adjacent to a
west or north window. A few species deposit more readily if the contain-
ers possess repository objects which may be foliage, twigs, paper toweling
or other materials.
After eggs were obtained and their characteristics noted, an effort was
made to locate them in nature. Those deposited in clusters are easier to
find than single isolated eggs. To date comparatively few have been found,
consequently their host plants remain unknown.
The author is aware of the fact that egg deposition by moths in a small
space may be abnormal, especially among some species that produce a
fairly uniform cluster pattern on given objects outdoors. When a female,
confined in a small container, deposits most of her eggs in one or several
clusters one may be fairly certain that this species naturally deposits her
eggs in clusters. Species that deposit single isolated eggs in nature, when
confined in a small container, will do likewise; however, if the species
deposits numerous single eggs some of them will be close together and a
few may be in contact with each other.
In general it can be said that an abnormality in the distribution pattern
of eggs has little or no influence on the shape, size, color or surface struc-
ture of individual eggs. These important characteristics can be learned
from eggs deposited in confinement.
Some general facts about eggs of geometrids that relate to their shape,
size, position, distribution, surface structure, chorion consistency, and
color will be presented before descriptions of species and genera are given.
The great majority of geometrid eggs are distinctly oval or elliptical,
especially if viewed from above. None are spherical even though the tops,
when in a compact mass, may be circular. From a side view most geo-
1 This investigation was supported by a research grant from the Nat-
ional Science Foundation assigned to the Ohio Historical Society Museum,
Columbus, Ohio. Most of the eggs presented in this study were collected
in Florida, North Carolina, Ohio and Minnesota. The author is indebted
to C. P. Kimball for determination of all the species used in this publication,.
except those shown in figures 1, 2, 4, and 18, and to L. A. Hetrick, D. G.
Embree and W. H. Sudlow for eggs sent to be photographed.
Peterson: Eggs of Moths Among Geometridae-Lepidoptera 111
metrid eggs are somewhat flattened. A few are distinctly flat or wafer-
like (9-10)2. Most geometrid eggs are deposited on their sides and seldom
overlap. A few species deposit their eggs in a vertical or nearly vertical
position. When vertical or nearly vertical eggs are in a compact mass,
the eggs are cylindrical (1) or oval (2) with rounded bottoms and flattened
tops that are circular or oval in shape. Vertical deposition may also occur
among single eggs (22) or eggs deposited in small groups (20,23). Ex-
ceptional shapes or positions among geometrid eggs are illustrated in figures
1, 2, 9, 10, and 21-23.
Egg size correlates closely with female size, the largest moths produc-
ing the largest eggs and the reverse situation with small moths. All of
the eggs figured, except 1, 2 and 4, were photographed at the same magni-
fication, consequently a comparison will show size differences. Sizes vary
in length from 0.45 mm. to 1.3 mm. and in width from 0.35 mm. to 0.75 mm.
Some of the smallest eggs from the smallest moths are shown in figures
20, 21, 31 and 32 while the largest eggs from large moths occur in fig-
ures 3, 35 to 40.
Eggs of geometrids may be deposited in dense and single-layered masses
(1, 2, 5 to 7), in linear strands (4), in loose, single-layered clusters (8,
29, 37 and 40) in small groups (16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25) or singly (31, 32)
in isolated spots. Individual eggs in most clusters are firm and maintain
their normal shape (1, 2, 29, 37). Among some species the chorion is pli-
able when the egg is deposited. When eggs are pliable (7) their shape
within a cluster may be altered. Eggs shown in figure 8 are pliable yet
their shape is not altered because thcy are not in contact with each other.
Eggs of geometrids as rule do not overlap when they are deposited. Those
shown in figure (2) are an exception.
The surface structure of the chorion among geometrid eggs varies con-
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to figures.
Figure 1. Alsophila pometaria (Hbn.), fall cankerworm. Egg mass par-
tially surrounds a twig.
Figure 2. Ennomos subsignarius (Hbn.), elm spanworm. Top view of a
portion of an elongated egg mass.
Figure 3. Neptyia semiclusaria (Wlk.). Enlarged view of eggs that
have shriveled somewhat.
Figure 4. Deuteronomos magnarius (Gn.). Hatched eggs in a linear band
on bark of gumbo-limbo, Dade County, Florida.
Figure 5. Anavitrinella pampinaria Gn. A cluster of firm eggs tightly
fixed to polyethylene and to each other.
Figure 6. Tornos scolopacinarius (Gn.). A cluster of firm eggs tightly
fixed to polyethylene and to each other.
Figure 7. Anacamptodes defectaria (Gn.). A mass of pliable eggs tight-
ly fixed to polyethylene and to each other. Note shape of eggs
when surrounded by others.
Figure 8. Anacamptodes humaria (Gn.). Single pliable eggs attached
to polyethylene. The same eggs in a mass resemble those in
Figure 9. Racheospila lixaria Gn. Scattered wafer-like eggs attached
Figure 10. Synchlora denticularia (Wlk.). Three wafer-like eggs attached
to a leaf.
Peterson: Eggs of Moths Among Geometridae-Lepidoptera 113
siderably and is useful in the determination of genera and species. Among
a few species the surface is smooth (33, 36) with no apparent depressions
or elevations. Eggs of a few species possess a chorion that appears to be
granular (2, 7, 8) in structure. Eggs of most species possess faint to
prominent pits or depressions or ridges and transverse striae. When the
pits or depressions are prominent or moderate in size (5, 6, 11-16) they
are usually arranged in more or less parallel rows running lengthwise on
each egg. The depressions or pits may be irregular, circular, hexagonal
or oblong in shape. Often they are larger (16) near the blunt end of the
egg. The hexagonal reticulations among some species are very small and
inconspicuous. Many can be seen only under a microscope on living eggs
or in magnified colored transparencies. In a few eggs of geometrids the
rows of depressions are such that they produce faint (30) or prominent
ridges (21, 22) with faint to distinct striae between them.
Eggs of most geometrids are covered with a thin, clear adhesive coating
when they are deposited, consequently they cling to their substrate on
which they rest and to each other when deposited in tight clusters. A few
species deposit eggs that are moderately or slightly adhesive. These usually
fall off readily when touched, especially if they are deposited on polyethyl-
ene. Figures 12, 15, 30, and 38 illustrate single eggs that have been pushed
off of polyethylene and placed in a glass dish for photographing. Some
of the eggs, that are on their sides or upside-down, show fragments of
the dried adhesive material that failed to hold them to their substrate.
Eggs shown in figure 21 appear to be free possessing little or no adhesive
when they are deposited. In this respect they resemble eggs of Crambus
(Pyralidae) and Acrolophus (Acrolophidae).
Geometrid eggs vary in color. When deposited each species usually has
a uniform color. The colors of those seen to date are near white, light
yellow, beige, cream colored, orange, yellowish green and varying shades
of green, red, grey or brown. The original color among some species may
change during incubation. Light yellow or green may become orange, red
or deep brown before they hatch (21, 22, 35, 39, and 40).
To date the author has photographed in color the eggs of more than 60
species of geometrids. In this paper, 40 species, in 35 genera, are illus-
trated. They represent all of the types seen. In general it can be said that
Figure 11. Euchlaena muzaria (Wlk.). Lightly attached eggs on poly-
Figure 12. Euchlaena astylusaria (Wlk.). Eggs removed from polyethyl-
ene and placed in a dish, some are upside down.
Figure 13. Euchlaena marginata Minot. Scattered eggs on polyethylene.
Figure 14. Euchlaena tigrinaria (Gn.). Scattered eggs on polyethylene.
Figure 15. Eubaphe mendica (Wlk.). Eggs removed from polyethylene
and placed in a dish, some are upside down.
Figure 16. Melanolophia canadaria (Gn.). A small cluster on polyethyl-
Figure 17. Semiothisa bicolorata (Fabr.). A small cluster on a leaf.
Figure 18. Operophtera brumata (Linn.). An injured winter moth egg on
bark under lichen.
Figure 19. Itame brunneata (Pack.). Three eggs on a leaf.
Figure 20. Metasiopsis ossularia (Hbn.). An erect cluster of eggs on a
?I 4^",f X
Peterson: Eggs of Moths Among Geometridae-Lepidoptera 115
the eggs of species in a given genus resemble each other rather closely.
This fact and others will be noted under the following discussions of the
species or genera.
Eggs of (1) Alsophila pometaria Harr., the fall cankerworm, are de-
posited in compact clusters on the bark of twigs or small branches of their
host plants. Each single-layered cluster may contain 100 to 150 short,
cylindrical, perpendicular eggs which may partially surround a small twig.
The eggs are laid in rows parallel with the twig and possess rounded bot-
toms and flat circular tops with dark rings about a greyish center.
Eggs of (2) Ennomos subsignarius (Hbn.), the elm spanworm, are de-
posited on elm twigs in elongated, narrow bands approximately 3 cm. in
length. The 150, more or less, eggs in a loose continuous mass stand at
an angle (45 ) to the twig. They are arranged in irregular, curved,
transverse rows each possessing three to eight eggs. Each egg is elongated,
oval in shape, somewhat flattened and greyish brown with the lower end
rounded and the upper end flat and bordered with a light colored edge.
Eggs of (3) Neptyia semiclusaria (Wlk.) occur on sand-pine trees in
central Florida. The specimens figured came from L. A. Hetrick. He
confined females in a cage with pine bark and they deposited irregular
batches of beige to light brown, flattened eggs. The exposed surface of
each egg is covered with tiny depressions which may be irregular or some-
what parallel in their distribution.
Eggs of (4) Deuteronomos magnarius (Gn.) occur on loose bark of
celtis and gumbo-limbo trees in Dade County, Florida. Only hatched eggs
have been seen and these were deposited in a linear manner. Named speci-
mens are in the U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C.
Eggs of (5) Anavitrinella pampinaria (Gn.) and (6) Tornos scolopaci-
narius (Gn.) have a firm structure and are light to medium green. On
polyethylene they are deposited in irregular, flat, compact masses firmly
attached to their substrate. Each egg, from a top view, possesses 12 to
14 distinct rows of pits. These are somewhat larger and more irregular in
(6) Tornos scolopacinarius (Gn.) than in (5) Anavitrinella pampinaria
Eggs of (7) Anacamptodes defectaria (Gn.) and (8) Anacamptodes
humaria (Gn.) have a pliable chorion and are a light to medium green
Figure 21. Sterrha demissaria (Hbn.). Non-adhesive free eggs in a dish.
Figure 22. Scopula aemulata (Hulst). Erect eggs on polyethylene re-
moved and placed on their sides in a dish.
Figure 23. Sterrha- tacturata (Wlk.). Erect eggs on edge of a leaf.
Figure 24. Scelolophia pannaria (Gn.). A cluster of eggs on polyethylene.
Figure 25. Semiothisa gnophosaria (Gn.). Several eggs attached to edge
Figure 26. Semiothisa orillata (Wlk.). Three eggs on vein of a leaf.
Figure 27. Lambdina pellucidaria (G. and R.). Adhesive eggs on poly-
Figure 28. Euphyia unangulata Haw. A cluster of eggs on polyethylene.
Figure 29. Xanthotype sosepta (Dru.). A cluster of adhesive eggs on
Figure 30. Syssaura olyzonaria (Wlk.). Eggs removed from polyethylene
and placed in a dish, some are upside down.
L;... -./ -n
Peterson: Eggs of Moths Among Geometridae-Lepidoptera 117
color. On polyethylene they may be deposited singly or in compact, irreg-
ular, flat masses. All of the eggs located within a mass (7) may vary in
shape. When deposited singly (8), where they are not in contact with other
eggs, all have the same shape. The surface of each egg (7 and 8) is finely
and irregularly pitted producing a granular appearance.
Eggs of (9) Racheospila lixaria Gn. and (10) Synchlora denticularia
(Wlk.) on foliage or polyethylene are scattered, flattened, wafer-like ob-
jects firmly attached to their substrate. All eggs seen among species of
Racheospila are orange colored while those seen among Synchlora were
yellow to yellowish-green. The upper surface of these eggs is covered
with tiny circular to hexagonal pits. Near the margin of each egg a con-
tinuous depression may be present.
Eggs of four species (11-14) of Euchlaena, namely E. muzaria Wlk.,
E. astylusaria (Wlk.), E. marginata Minot., and E. tigrinaria (Gn.) are
light yellow to medium green and resemble each other. All four species
scatter their loosely attached eggs on polyethylene, from whence they can
be pushed off easily into a glass dish to be photographed. Conspicuous,
more or less hexagonal pits occur on the exposed surfaces. They are ar-
ranged in more or less parallel rows and from a top view 10 to 12 rows are
visible. Most of the pits are hexagonal and usually possesses at their six
corners tiny light-colored papillae. During incubation some of the species
change color. This was very noticeable with E. muzaria (Wlk.) changing
from a medium green to a distinct red. The above four species of Euchlaena
(Geometridae) serve to demonstrate the similarity of eggs among species
in a given genus.
Eggs of (15) Eubaphe mendica (Wlk.) are a medium green and re-
semble the eggs of species of Euchlaena, especially those of E. astylusaria
(Wlk.), in that the hexagonal pits are large and light colored papillae
occur at their corners.
Eggs of (16) Melanolophia canadaria (Gn.) are yellow to reddish and
possess distinct but smaller pits than those found in eggs of Euchlaena;
also the pits near the blunt end are somewhat larger than the remainder
and possess near white papillae.
Eggs of (17) Semiothisa bicolorata (Fabr.) have a greyish green color
Figure 31. Chlorochlamys indiscriminata (Wlk.). Single eggs on poly-
Figure 32. Pleuroprucha insularia (Gn.). Single eggs on polyethylene.
Figure 33. Plagodis keutzingaria (Pack.) Two eggs on polyethylene.
Figure 34. Nycterosea obstipata (Fabr.). Several eggs on tip end of a
Figure 35. Tetracis lorata Grt. Several adhesive eggs attached to poly-
Figure 36. Hyperetis alienaria (H.-S.). Five eggs attached to polyethyl-
Figure 37. Metarranthis obfirmaria (Hbn.). Adhesive, eggs in a cluster
Figure 38. Stenaspilates zalissaria (Wlk.). Loosely attached eggs on
Polyethylene placed in a dish. One is Upside down.
Figure 39. Pero barnesi C. and S. Four eggs on a cork stopper.
Figure 40. Abbottana clemataria (A. and S.). A cluster of eggs on poly-
118 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 3
and possess distinct pits on the surface that are somewhat irregular in
their distribution and do not possess distinct papillae.
Eggs of (18) Operophtera brumata (Linn.), winter moth, are light yel-
lowish to reddish brown before hatching. They are deposited singly on
bark, frequently adjacent to or under the edge of lichens. Their surface
possesses an irregular distribution of pits.
Eggs of (19) Itame brunneata (Pack.) have a bluish green color, and
possess distinct small pits that are somewhat irregular in their distribu-
Eggs of (20) Metasiopsis ossularia (Hbn.) have a conspicuous red shade,
and are deposited, more or less erect, in small clusters on foliage. They
possess distinct pits with white papillae about their margins and prominent
lighter colored bumps near the top of each egg.
Eggs of (21) Sterrha demissaria (Hbn.) and S. flavescens (Hulst) re-
semble each other closely. They are light yellow and change to a light
orange. Their width approximates their length. From a side view five
or six prominent ridges and conspicuous transverse striae are visible, also
the eggs are almost nonadhesive. In general, they resemble the eggs of
Crambus sp. (Pyralidae). The eggs of (23) Sterrha tacturata (Wlk.)
are very different from the foregoing species in that they are firmly at-
tached in a vertical position to their substrate and are vivid red, also their
surface is covered uniformly with small hexagonal pits. Assuming that
the identification of this moth is correct, the eggs of this species are mark-
edly different from others in the same genus. In this respect this genus
differs from other genera of Geometridae.
Eggs of (22) Scopula aemulata (Hulst.) are green to reddish and un-
usual in that they are deposited singly and in a vertical position. Each egg
possesses distinct longitudinal ridges with faint transverse striae. They
are lightly attached to polyethylene and in the figure have been removed
from their substrate and assembled on their sides in a glass dish for a
Eggs of (24) Scelolophia pannaria (Gn.) are yellow to greenish, some-
what elongated and possess a rough surface with irregular longitudinal
rows of shallow pits that are not very distinct.
Eggs of (25) Semiothisa gnophosaria (Gn.) and (26) S. orillata (Wlk.)
resemble each other in color and surface consistency. They are pea green
and the surface has a granular appearance due to the minute elevations
and depressions present. The two species differ in size, also the eggs of
S. gnophosaria (Gn.) are somewhat flatter than the eggs of S. orillata.
Eggs of (27) Lambdina pellucidaria (G. and R.) are iridescent and
golden in appearance. The surface is smooth, shiny and possesses very
inconspicuous, tiny, rounded reticulations seen through the adhesive coat.
Eggs of (28) Euphyia unangulata (Haw.) are of moderate size, some-
what adhesive and have a shiny beige-white color. Very tiny hexagonal
reticulations are present on the entire surface.
Eggs of (29) Xanthotype sospeta (Dru.) are light yellowish green and
are-. deposited firmly on polyethylene in flat masses. Each egg possesses
small irregular reticulations that are not very distinct.
Eggs of (30) Syssaura olyzonaria (Wlk.) are yellowish green and from
a top view show 11 or 12 faint longitudinal ridges with elongated and
Peterson: Eggs of Moths Among -Geometridae-Lepidoptera 119
slightly elevated, parallel, transverse striae producing oblong depressions.
These eggs are removed easily from polyethylene.
Eggs of (31) Chlorochlamys indiscriminate (Wlk.) are small, adhesive,
yellowish green and scattered on polyethylene. Each egg shows a faint
network of fine elevations on the upper surface. The periphery of the egg
possesses a ring-like collar.
Eggs of (32) Pleuroprucha insularia (Gn.) are small and near white.
They possess faint reticulations of moderate size partially distributed in
Eggs of (33) Plagodis keutzingaria (Pack.) are a very light yellowish
green. The bright smooth surface appears to be without reticulations.
Eggs of (34) Nycterosea obstipata (Fab.) are small and yellowish white.
They possess faint hexagonal reticulations of medium size that are scat-
tered over the egg, mostly in parallel rows.
Eggs of (35) Tetracis lorata Grt. are light yellow turning to orange
during incubation. They are firmly attached to each other and to the
substrate. Their surface is smooth and somewhat granular in appearance.
Eggs of (36) Hyperetis alienaria (H.-S.) are a bright yellowish white,
very adhesive and have a smooth surface with no reticulations or pits.
Eggs of (37) Metarranthis obfirmaria (Hbn.) are large, adhesive and
bright cream-white. They are deposited on polyethylene in flat, loose
masses. Each egg is covered with very small faint hexagonal reticulations
that vary in size.
Eggs of (38) Stenaspilates zalissaria (Wlk.) are large, somewhat ad-
hesive and beige to muddy green. They possess tiny, inconspicuous reticu-
lations scattered over the entire surface. For this photograph the eggs
were removed from the polyethylene and placed in a glass dish. One egg
is upside down and shows fragments of the torn adhesive coat.
Eggs of (39) Pero barnesi C. and S. are large and dull, muddy, yellowish
green. Forty-eight hours after deposition they change to a muddy brown
color. In this figure the four eggs are located on the edge of a cork stop-
per. The surface of each egg is smooth with tiny reticulations visible under
a microscope, especially in reflected light areas.
Eggs of (40) Abbottana clemataria (A. and S.) are bright green when
deposited. During incubation they become reddish brown. Their surface
is smooth with faint indications of tiny reticulations.
Eggs of geometrids vary considerably in structure and manner of deposi-
tion yet there are a few characteristics which are common to most species
and genera. Most geometrid eggs are oval in shape and are deposited on
their sides. Many species possess surfaces that are rough, granular or
smooth, but the great majority have a rough surface consisting of reticula-
tions (pits or depressions) or ridges with transverse striae. When reticu-
lations occur they vary from microscopic, faint pits or depressions to con-
spicuous ones that are arranged in longitudinal rows. Many species deposit
their eggs in clusters. As a rule these are flat, decidedly adhesive, and
consist of a single, naked layer without a protective coat of waxy secre-
tions above them. When eggs are deposited singly and isolated they may
not be firmly attached to their substrate, especially if deposited on poly-
j t r6
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_ _ _
I __ _
EFFECT OF TIME OF DAY ON SURVEYS OF
PREDACEOUS INSECTS IN FIELD CROPS
B. A. DUMAS, W. P. BOYER, AND W. H. WHITCOMB
In recent years, numerous workers have studied the accuracy of various
techniques for estimating insect and spider predator populations in field
crops. The effect of many factors on these methods has been carefully ap-
praised. Weather, type of plant growth, size of sample, personal factor,
and other influences have been taken into consideration. However, very
few investigators have stressed the effect of time of day on the counts or
questioned the advisability of comparing results taken at different hours.
In preliminary work conducted during 1959 and 1960 at Morrilton, Arkansas,
surveys at 6 A.M. in insecticide treated cotton fields showed more Lebia
analis Dej. present than in untreated fields at 1 P.M. It was questionable
whether sampling done at different times of day could be logically com-
pared. To investigate this, populations of various insect and spider preda-
tors were sampled at three different times of day near Little Rock, Arkansas,
during the summer of 1961.
Specific information on the effect of temperature or time of day on
sampling of any insect population is scarce, although it has been discussed
in a general way in several papers, for example those of Wellington (1957),
Andrewartha and Birch (1960), Morris (1960), Richards (1961), and Strick-
land (1961). Few papers resulting directly from field research have been
published. DeLong (1932) pointed out that temperature could influence
the number of certain insects taken in a sweep net and that, in areas of
marked temperature variation, estimates of population based on sweep-net
catches would change with the time of day samples were taken. In a study
of the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Baker), Romney (1945) found
some catches with the sweep net 200% greater than others, depending on
the time samples were taken. However, he observed little effect of temper-
ature or time of day on samples taken with a metal cylinder. Wylie (1951),
in studying the jarring method for plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar
(Herbst), population estimates, found the temperature too high during the
summer in Arkansas for jarring to be effective during daylight hours. In
sampling Aphis fabae Scop., Johnson (1952) found a double peak of aerial
density, but this was only weakly correlated with weather factors. Hughes
(1955) observed a striking difference among the net catches of a species of
chloropid fly taken at different times of day.
A 30 acre soybean field near Little Rock, Arkansas, was chosen for the
study. It was surrounded largely by trees and was somewhat isolated from
other row crops; the nearest cotton and soybean fields were one-half mile
away. A small plot of sweet corn was 200 yards from the soybean field
and separated from it by a grove of trees.
1 Contribution from the Department of Entomology, University of Ar-
The Florida Entomologist
Two methods of estimating predator populations were used. The first
consisted of complete plant examinations, as described by Lincoln (1955).
In the second, the sweep method was used, in spite of the inadequacies
pointed out by Gray and Treloar (1933) and others. The size of the sample
taken and the ease with which the sweep method could be used, partly com-
pensated for the drawbacks.
Twenty-five plants were examined at 7 A.M., 1 P.M., and 6 P.M. Mon-
day and Friday of each week. The plants were located in groups of five,
the same plants being examined each time. Because of the effect of handling
on plant growth, these plants were changed every third week. Predators
were removed during each examination. It was questionable whether the
same plants should be examined at midday and in the evening after the
removal of the insects in the morning. This was necessary because of
simultaneous inspections for another project. The assumption that this
removal made little difference, in the case of flying insects, seems justified,
since the numbers of insects taken in plant examinations corresponded very
well to the numbers taken in sweeps. There was no evidence that the re-
moval lowered the later counts.
Sweep samples were taken at each location with a 15 inch net of the
California type. A plastic vial attached to the bottom of the bag facilitated
removal of specimens, as mentioned by Miner (1960). Early in the season,
the whole plant was swept with the net. As the plant grew larger, only
the upper portion was swept. Twenty-five sweeps were taken at each of
four locations, immediately following the complete plant examinations, with
each sweep made one step from the preceding.
Predators of lepidopterous larvae received special attention. Wherever
feasible, counts were made of individual species. All identifications of
specimens were verified in the laboratory, and in case of any question, de-
terminations were checked by specialists. In all, 12 species or species com-
plexes were numerous enough for consideration. Immediately prior to
plant examination, temperature was recorded in centigrade, and weather
conditions were noted. Plant height was measured each day populations
Counts taken at the different times of day are summarized in Tables
1 and 2. As expected, results varied abruptly from species to species.
Counts of two of the three hemipterous predators gave significantly
different results at the three times of day. Those of the third species did
not (see Fig. 1). One of the first two, the insidious flower bug, Orius in-
sidiosus (Say), often considered the most important predator of the eggs
of the bollworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), was most abundant in the morning,
both in the plant examinations and in the sweep net (see Fig. 2). Not only
were the differences statistically significant, but twice as many insidious
flower bugs were taken in the plant examinations in the early morning
as at other times. There were only a few exceptions to this; one of these
occurred on July 7, when numbers of these insects were migrating into the
field. A second exception took place on July 27 and 28, both days of com-
plete cloud cover and rain. More big-eyed bugs, Geocoris punctipes (Say),
were taken in the morning than at midday or evening by both methods.
The difference was significant in the sweeps but not in the direct plant ex-
Vol. 45, No. 3
Dumas: Surveys of Predaceous Insects in Field Crops 123
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Dumas: Surveys of Predaceous Insects in Field Crops 125
aminations. The fact that insufficient numbers were taken in the obser-
vations on the plants possibly explains this, since fewer than 25 of these
insects were taken during the entire summer. The difference between mid-
day and evening counts was not significant in either case. Too few nabids
(Nabis spp.) were taken in the plant examinations to make comparisons.
In the sweeps, however, numbers were ample, but, in spite of this, differ-
ences were not significant (see Fig. 1). No attempt was made to distin-
guish between the various species, although this might clarify the situa-
Spotted Ground Nobids Big-eyed Insidious Striped Orb
Lady Beetle Bug Flower Lynx Weovers -
Beetle (L. anlis) Bug
AVERAGE PER 100 PLANTS EXAMINED
S ed Ground Nabids Bigeyed Insidious Striped Orb
Beetle Flower Lynx Weovers
te (L.. nolia) Bug
7:00 o.m. AVERAGE PER 100 SWEEPS
K 1:00 p.m.
O 6:00 p.m.
Figure 1. Average populations of predators sampled three times
a day by the two methods at Little Rock, Ark., 1961.
Two families of Coleoptera were represented in the surveys. Lebia
analis Dej. was the only ground beetle abundant enough for study. In this
case, the counts at midday were distinctly lower than morning and evening
counts, with fewer than half as many beetles taken at midday (see Fig. 3).
Temperatures alone did not explain this. Some of the greatest differences
in counts occurred on days, such as July 14, when temperatures differed
only slightly all day. The two days when results were reversed (samples
at midday were larger than those of the morning) occurred when morning
temperature differences were normal. However, on those two days, it
The Florida Entomologist
rained, and there was complete cloud cover part of both days. In the
sweeps, slightly more beetles were taken in the evening (6 P.M.) than
in the morning (7 A.M.), but in the plant examinations a few more beetles
were taken in the morning than in the evening. In neither case, were the
differences significant. The spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata
(DeGeer), was the only coccinellid abundant in the experimental field.
Differences at various times of day were not significant, in either sweeps
or plant examinations, but results were inconsistent. One day, counts made
at midday were highest; on the following day, counts made in the evening
were highest. No correlation with temperature, cloud cover, or humidity
could be discovered. It was impossible to determine whether this held true
for Hippodamia convergens Guer., Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Scymnus
spp., and the other coccinellids.
16 6:00p.m. ...
June July August September
Figure 2. Bi-weekly populations of Orius insidious (Say) per 100 plants
examined at three different times of day at Little Rock, Ark., 1961.
Differences in all of the spider counts were slight in both plant examina-
tions and sweeps. This was equally true for wandering spiders and orb
weavers and for matures and immatures and can be explained by the fact
that counts were too low. There were indications that results might have
been different, if samples had been larger or if nocturnal counts had been
Vol. 45, No. 3
Dumas: Surveys of Predaceous Insects in Field Crops 127
O. .... ... .. .........- ..... ". .K
? 30 02.L.77S / -.
14 I:00p.m. ---
0 7 1 I
June July ugust September
2 / /
M/ A \ / 'A.
/14 21 28 | I 8 25 I
Figure 3. Bi-weekly populations of Lebia analis Dej. per 100 sweeps
found at three different times of day and the temperature at the three times
of sampling at Little Rock, Ark., 1961.
In most cases, fewer predators were taken during the hot hours of mid-
day than at any other time. This was, however, especially evident in the
case of certain species. More attention should be given to the hour when
samples are taken, particularly in an open area such as a soybean or cotton
field. In this experiment, in the case of the genus Lebia, time of day seemed
to make more difference in size of samples than most other factors.
Populations of 12 species or species complexes of predators were sam-
pled at three different times of day in a soybean field near Little Rock,
Arkansas. Two methods of sampling were used; the first consisted of com-
plete examination of 25 plants, and the second, of 100 sweeps made with a
15 inch California type net. With very few exceptions, sweeps and plant
examinations agreed closely. In many cases, counts taken in the morning
and evening differed, significantly from those taken at midday.
The Florida Entomologist
Andrewartha, H. G., and L. C. Birch. 1960. Some recent contributions to
the study of the distribution and abundance of insects. Ann. Rev.
Ent. 5: 219-242.
DeLong, D. M. 1932. Some problems encountered in the estimation of
insect populations by the sweeping method. Ann. Ent. Soc. America
Gray, H. E., and A. E. Treloar. 1933. On the enumeration of insect pop-
ulations by the method of net collection. Ecology 14(4): 356-367.
Hughes, R. D. 1955. The influence of the prevailing weather on the num-
bers of Meromyza variegata Meigen (Diptera, Chloropidae) caught
with a sweepnet. Jour. Animal Ecology 24: 324-335.
Johnson, C. G. 1952. The changing numbers of Aphis fabae Scop., flying
at crop level, in relation to current weather and to the population on
the crop. Ann. Appl. Biol. 39: 525-547.
Lincoln, Charles. 1955. Survey methods. Predators on cotton. Coopera-
tive Econ. Insect Rept., Plant Pest Control Branch, Agric. Res. Serv.,
U. S. Dept. Agric. 5(48): 1077-1078.
Miner, F. D. 1960. Biology and control of insects and mites attacking
forage crops. Minutes S-25 Tech. Committee Meeting, Atlanta,
Georgia, Feb., 1960. p. 32.
Morris, R. F. 1960. Sampling insect populations. Ann. Rev. Ent. 5:
Richards, O. W. 1961. The theoretical and practical study of natural in-
sect populations. Ann. Rev. Ent. 6: 147-162.
Romney, Van E. 1945. The effect of physical factors upon catch of the
beet leafhopper (Eutettix tenellus (Bak.)) by a cylinder and two
sweep-net methods. Ecology 26: 135-147.
Strickland, A. H. 1961. Sampling crop pests and their hosts. Ann. Rev.
Ent. 6: 201-220.
Wellington, W. G. 1957. The synoptic approach to studies of insects and
climate. Ann. Rev. Ent. 2: 143-162.
Wylie, W. D. 1951. Technique in jarring for plum curculio. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 44(5): 818-819.
Vol. 45, No. 3
THREE NEW GENERA AND SEVEN NEW SPECIES
OF CHEYLETIDS (ACARINA: CHEYLETIDAE)'
DONALD DE LEON
The cheyletids discussed here are all free living predators from plants,
although specimens of one species were also collected in a house where they
were associated with a psocid infestation. The plant-predators generally
catch their prey by ambush and those I have seen, except for one species,
do not run any distance with speed, but go in short spurts. The exception,
Bak deleoni Yunker, lives in the pores of the sporophores of Coriolus nigro-
marginatus and travels in and out of the pores with a continuous rapid
The number of setae on the leg segments and on the ventral surface of
the body is the same for most species in the family and this is given below
for the females; only exceptions to these numbers are noted in the de-
Leg segments (the number after a + sign indicates a solenidion)
Tibiae: 5+1, 4+1, 4, 2
Tarsi: 9+1, 7+1,7,7
Ventral body surface
Pairs I-VI; pair V is usually located slightly anterior of the anterior
end of the genital opening and VI is lateral of the genital covers.
Genital covers: 2 setae per cover, the bases of the 2 setae almost
touching each other.
Anal semicircle: 3 pairs of setae.
In the following descriptions body length includes the rostrum and all
measurements are in microns. All drawings are of females.
Cheyletia cordovensis, n. sp.
Cheyletia cordovensis resembles C. wellsi Baker, but differs most notice-
ably from that species in having the dorsal shields finely striate and the
entire dorsum and lateral areas covered with somewhat sparsely distributed
small, oval disks; the size and proportions of the leg segments also differ.
The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 306; sides of body and dorsal surface with nu-
merous small (1-2 microns in length), oval slightly thickened areas or disks,
most of these disks distant from each other much more than their own
lengths; dorsal shields finely striate, interscutal areas coarsely striate;
1 Cost of engravings borne by a grant from the Pinellas Foundation,
Inc., St. Petersburg, Florida.
The Florida Entomologist
shape and arrangement of dorsal setae as shown in figure 1, dorsolateral
seta 1 is 27 long. Rostrum and palpus with setae and markings as shown
in figure 2; rostrum 89 long, palptibial claw with 8 teeth, outer comblike
seta with about 18 teeth, inner comblike seta with about 25 teeth. Tarsus
I 56 long, solenidion 22 long; tibia I 22 long (with only 4 tactile setae),
solenidion 8 long; genu I 20 long, solenidion about 3.5 long; tarsus II 49
long, solenidion about 4.5 long; tibia II 19 long, genu II 19 long. Ventral
setae I 14 apart, setae of genito-anal area normally arranged, posteriormost
anal seta serrate, 15 long.
Holotype: Female, Cordoba, Vera., February 4, 1957 (D. De Leon),
on Phoebe psychotrioides.
Cheyletia scutellata, n. sp.
Cheyletia scutellata resembles C. wellsi Baker in the markings of the
dorsal shields and in the shapes of the dorsolateral setae, but it differs from
that species most noticeably in having no staghornlike setae, a much smaller
hysterosomal shield and with only one pair of setae on it, and tarsus I and
tibia I shorter. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 303-380. Dorsum with 2 shields both fully cov-
ered with small (3-5 in 10 microns), oval areolae; shape and number of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 4, dorsal setae 15-22 long, the humeral the
longest. Rostrum and palp with setae and markings as shown in figure 5;
rostrum 96 long. Palptibial claw with 5-6 teeth, outer comblike seta with
about 16 teeth, inner comblike seta with about 20 teeth, dorsal seta of palp-
femur 27 long. Tarsus I 54-59 long, with only 4 tactile setae, solenidion 39
long; tibia I 25 long, solenidion about 4 long; genu I 27 long, solenidion
about 2 long. The setae of genito-anal area smooth, normal in number and
Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nay., April 6, 1957 (D. De Leon), on a
cultivated tree called agualama. Paratypes: 1 female, Coral Gables, Flor-
ida, March 7, 1956, on Swietenia mahagoni; 1 female, Key Largo, Fla., Jan-
uary 1959, on Guettarda scabra; 1 female, Tuxtla Gutierriez, Chiapas, Jan-
uary 1957, on Xylosma, elliptica. Other specimens were taken on Pithecello-
bium sp., San Blas, Nay., March, 1957, and on Erythrina herbacea, Ever-
glades N. P., Fla., February, 1959.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE
Figures 1-3. Cheyletia cordovensis, n. sp. 1, dorsum; 2, rostrum and
palpus; 3, tibia and tarsus I.
Figures 4-6. Cheyletia scutellata, n. sp. 4, dorsum; 5, rostrum and pal-
pus; 6, tibia and tarsus I.
Figures 7-10. Mexecheles cunlifei, n. sp. 7, dorsum; 8, rostrum and pal-
pus; 9, tibia and tarsus I; 10, genito-anal setae.
Figures 11-14. Mexecheles intermedius, n. sp. 11, dorsum; 12, rostrum
and palpus; 13, tibia and tarsus I; 14, genito-anal setae.
Figure 15. Mexecheles aztecorum, n. sp. Design of part of rostrum.
Figures 16-19. Chiapacheylus edentata n. sp. 16, dorsum; 17, rostrum and
palpus; 18, tibia and tarsus I; 19, genito-anal setae.
Vol. 45, No. 3
The Florida Entomologist
Cheyletia wellsi Baker
Although C. wellsi is common in Florida and in Mexico and in other
parts of the world, the male does not seem to have been previously described.
The length of the male, including rostrum, is about 290; the dorsal shields
lack staghornlike setae, the anterior shield bears 3 pairs of dorsolateral
setae and 2 pairs of dorsosubmedian setae, the posterior shield bears 3
pairs of dorsolateral setae and 1 pair of dorsosubmedian setae, all setae
similar in size and shape to the female's. The shape of the palpfemur is
similar in both sexes; the palptibial claw has 6-7 teeth, the palptarsus has
2 distinctly comblike setae and 2 sicklelike setae. The legs are similar in
shape to the female's; tarsus I 71 long, solenidion 56 long, slender and
tapering; tibia I 23 long; solenidion about 4.9 long; solenidion of tarsus II
17 long, of tarsus III 10 long, of tarsus IV 17 long.
Mexecheles, n. gen.
Mites allied to Cheyletia, but with tarsus, tibia, and genu of leg I elon-
gated, tarsus I with distal end attenuated and the claws much smaller than
those of the other legs; tibia I with 5 setae (exclusive of a solenidion).
The males with only 1 distinctly comblike seta (the seta that would, in the
female, be the inner comblike seta is considerably shorter and more slender
than the inner sicklelike seta and is weakly serrate or with very fine teeth),
and 2 large sicklelike setae. Some of the dorsal body setae are long and
Type of genus: Mexecheles cunliffei, n. sp. Cheyletia virginiensis Baker
1949 belongs in this genus and C. flabellifera (Michael) and C. pyriformis
(Banks) probably belong here.
Mexecheles cunliffei, n. sp.
The female Mexecheles cunliffei resembles M. virginiensis (Baker), but
differs most noticeably from that species in lacking tubercles in the inter-
scutal areas and in having somewhat shorter dorsolateral setae, the ros-
trum striate, and the palpfemur with a squamiform seta. The male has
some of the dorsolateral setae long and straplike similar to the dorsolateral
setae of the females of other species in this genus.
FEMALE: Body length 572; dorsal shields finely striate, interscutal
areas coarsely striate, the striae without lobes or spines; shapes and ar-
rangement of dorsal setae as shown in figure 7, dorsolateral seta 1 is 64
long; anterior shield with 5 pairs of staghornlike setae, posterior shield with
3 pairs of staghornlike setae. Rostrum and palpus with setae and mark-
ings as shown in figure 8. Rostrum 144 long; palptibial claw with 8 teeth;
outer comblike seta with about 24 teeth, inner comblike seta with about
35 teeth. Tarsus I 148 long, solenidion 115 long; tibia I 127 long, solenidion
10 long; genu I 92 long, solenidion about 5 long; tarsus II 110 long, soleni-
dion 30 long; tibia II 25 long, solenidion about 6 long; genu II 58 long,
solenidion about 6 long; anterior setae of coxa III narrow elliptic, spinose.
Ventral body setae as follows: I 45 long, 70 apart; II 110 long, 101 apart;
III at least 45 long, 98 apart; IV at least 98 long, 65 apart; V 31 long, 42
Vol. 45, No. 3
De Leon: Seven New Species of Cheyletids
apart; VI 28 long, 59 apart. Setae of genito-anal unit normally arranged,
simple; anal setae 22 long.
MALE: Body length 480; anterior shield with 4 pairs of dorsolateral
setae and 2 pairs of dorsosubmedian setae, the first lateral 91 long, about
12 wide, the second lateral 108 long, 12 wide, the first dorsosubmedian seta
45 long, about 10 wide; posterior shield partly obscured by gut contents,
but with at least 3 pairs of dorsolateral and 2 pairs of dorsosubmedian
setae; both shields finely striate. Palpfemur shaped as for female and with
middle dorsal seta columnar, spinose, and reaching about to middle of claw.
Inner comblike seta of palptarsus much shorter and thinner than inner
sicklelike seta and with minute teeth. Tarsus I (as for female with upper
distal surface undulate) 147 long, solenidion 121 long; tibia I 159 long,
solenidion 9 long; genu I 96 long, solenidion not observed; tarsus II 139
long, solenidion 52 long; tibia If 31 long, solenidion 7 long; genu II 69 long,
solenidion not observed; tarsi III and IV each with a solenidion about
Holotype: Female, Huajuapan de Le6n, Oaxaca, February 1, 1957 (D.
De Leon), on Ipomoea murucoides. Paratype: 1 male, collected with
female. The mite is named for Dr. Frederick Cunliffe, Acarologist.
Mexecheles intermedius, n. sp.
The female Mexecheles intermedius resembles M. cunliffei, but differs
most noticeably from that species in having a smaller body, shorter leg
segments, and much longer setae on the dorsum. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Body length 398-443, sides of body reddish brown, rest of
body dirty white; sides of body and dorsal shields with many fine, rather
blunt spinelike thickenings. Setae of dorsum arranged as shown in figure
11; dorsolateral 1 is 74-90 long. Rostrum and palpus with setae and mark-
ings as shown in figure 12; rostrum 121 long, palptibial claw with 11-12
teeth, outer comblike seta with about 20 teeth, inner comblike seta with
about 28 teeth. Tarsus I 101 long, solenidion 90 long; tibia I 92 long,
solenidion 12 long; genu I 62 long; tarsus II 90 long, solenidion 20 long;
tibia II 27 long, solenidion about 4 long; genu II 45 long; coxa III with an-
terior seta spinose. Ventral body setae I-V about 50 long, I-IV nearly
reaching to base of seta behind. Arrangement of genito-anal setae nor-
mal, posteriormost anal seta 18 long.
Holotype: Female, Tamazunchale, S.L.P., December 21, 1956 (D. De
Leon), on Eriobotrya sp. Paratypes: 1 female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas,
January 10, 1957, on Acrocomia mexicana; 1 female, Cintalpa, Oax., Janu-
ary 28, 1957, on Vernonia deppeana; 1 female, San Blas, Nayarit, May 27,
1957, on avocado. Additional specimens were taken in the Tuxtla area on
Pluchea, Morus, and Quercus.
Mexecheles aztecorum, n. sp.
Mexecheles aztecorum closely resembles M. intermedius differing most
noticeably from that species in the pattern of the rostrum, longer dorso-
laterals, and longer leg segments.
The Florida Entomologist
FEMALE: Body length 509, cuticle of sides of body and dorsal shields
with many minute, rather blunt, spinelike thickenings. Anterior dorsal
shield with 4 pairs of elongate dorsolateral setae and 4 pairs of staghorn-
like dorsosubmedian setae; posterior shield with 3 pairs of elongate dorso-
lateral setae and 3 pairs of staghornlike dorsosubmedian setae; dorsolateral
seta 1 of anterior shield 91 long, 2 is 98 long, 3 is 99 long, 4 is 90 long;
humeral 94 long; dorsolateral seta 3 of posterior shield 63 long, 4 is 73
long, all about 12 wide. Rostrum 157 long, center part with design as
shown in figure 15; palptibial claw with 10-11 teeth, outer comblike seta
with 21 teeth, inner comblike seta with about 31 teeth; setae of palpus sim-
ilar to those of M. intermedius. Tarsus I 128 long, solenidion 98 long;
tibia I 95 long, solenidion 10 long; genu I 76 long, solenidion about 4.2
long; tarsus II 103 long, solenidion 22 long; tibia II 36 long, solenidion
about 4 long; genu II 51 long, solenidion not observed. Ventral body setae
I-IV over 50 long, pair I 54 apart; setae of genito-anal unit normally ar-
ranged, posteriormost anal seta slightly serrate, the others simple, all about
MALE: Body length 362; cuticle of dorsum with small spines as for
female; dorsal setae straplike, spinose; lengths of setae of the anterior
shield as follows: DSL1 53, DSL2 52, DSL3 25 (bases of 2 and 3 almost
touching each other); DL1 63, DL2 70, DL3 72, DL4 ? (broken off in both
specimens); humeral 71; posterior shield with setae of the following lengths:
DSL1 65, DSL2 21; DL1 25, DL2 21, DL3 21. Palptibial claw with 8-10
teeth; palptarsus with inner comblike seta much shorter and thinner than
the inner sicklelike seta and faintly serrate. Tarsi with solenidia of the
following lengths: I 90, II 33, III 12, IV 11, all slender, those of I and II
tapering slightly to tips, of III and IV with sides practically parallel to
Holotype: Female, Oaxaca, Oax., February 1, 1957 (D. De Leon), on
Quercus conzattii. Paratypes: 1 female, collected with holotype; 2 males
on Cocos nucifera, January 26, 1957, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Ch.
Cheletomimus berlesei Oudemans
C. berlesei was collected at Coral Gables, Fla., on Trema sp. in 1956,
and on a wide variety of plants in 1957 on the east slope of Mexico as far
south as Veracruz, Vera., and Tuxtla Guttierez, Ch., in which latter area
it was quite common. On the west slope it was collected at San Blas, Nay.
The male has not previously been described. It is 235 long and resembles
the female in general appearance, but the hysterosoma has only 1 shield
covering most of the dorsal surface, and bears 5 pairs of short, elliptic setae.
The palptibial claw has 7 teeth, the palptarsus has 2 sicklelike and 2 dis-
tinctly comblike setae. Each tarsus bears a slender solenidion 49, 13, 15,
and 15 long respectively.
Cheletomimus denmarki Yunker
This mite was collected on Callicarpa americana at Coral Gables, Fla.,
in 1954; at New Orleans, La., on Pittosporum sp. and Ficus sp. and at
Boutte, La., on Myrica sp. in 1956.
W1l. 45, No. 3
De Leon: Seven New Species of Cheyletids
Chiapacheylus, n. gen.
Cheyletid mites with 2 dorsal shields, a pair of eyes, squamiform dorsal
setae, palptarsus with 2 comblike and 2 sicklelike setae, palptibial claw
without teeth; legs short and thick with large squamiform setae dorsad;
tarsus I with rayed pulvillus, but without claws, other tarsi with large
claws; solenidia short (less than 12 microns). The male is unknown.
Type of genus: Chiapacheylus edentata, n. sp.
Chiapacheylus edentata, n. sp.
The genus is similar to Cheletomorpha in lacking claws on tarsus I,
but is very different in general facies, type of legs, and character of dorsal
FEMALE: Body length 246-271; dorsal shields finely striate with setae
arranged as in figure 16; dorsosubmedian seta 1 is 25 long; lateral and
interscutal striae without lobes or spines. Rostrum 38 long; rostrum and
palpus with markings and setae as shown in figure 17; outer ventral seta of
palpfemur elliptic and spinose, palptibial claw without teeth, outer comb-
like seta of palptarsus with 11-12 teeth, inner comblike seta with about 16
teeth. Tarsus I 35 long, solenidion 7-11 long; tibia I 14 long, genu I 14 long,
no solenidia observed on these last 2 segments; tarsus II 32 long, solenidion
about 3.5 long; tibia II 15 long, genu II 16 long; coxa III with anterior seta
squamiform, all coxae striate to a point slightly distal of bases of coxal
setae. Ventral body setae of the following lengths: I 17, II at least 42,
III 9, IV at least 50, V 9, VI 9; setae of genito-anal unit arranged as in
figure 19, there are only 2 pairs of anal setae, both bifurcate, all about
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Ch., January 18, 1957 (D. De
Leon), on Jaquinia pungens. Paratypes: 1 female, collected with holotype;
2 females, on Sterculia apetala, other data as for holotype. Other speci-
mens were collected in the same area January 26 on avocado, Trichilia
hirta, and Xylosma elliptica.
Grallacheles, n. gen.
Cheyletid mites with 2 dorsal shields, a pair of eyes, dorsal setae both
straplike and squamiform, palptarsus with 2 comblike and 2 sicklelike
setae, palptibial claw with basal teeth, tarsi with claws and pulvilli, genua
and tibiae not much longer than wide, femora not over twice as long as
wide, all tarsi attenuated and more than 41 times as long as the respective
tibiae. The male is unknown.
Type of genus: Grallacheles bakeri, n. sp.
Grallacheles bakeri, n. sp.
FEMALE: Body length 416-444. Shape and number of dorsal setae as
shown in figure 20; both dorsal shields smooth; dorsosubmedian seta 1 is
80 long, 8 is 118 long, all dorsal setae densely spinose. Rostrum and palpus
The Florida Entomologist
with markings and setae as shown in figure 21; rostrum 119 long; palp-
tibial claw with 6-9 teeth, outer comblike setae with about 22 teeth, inner
comblike seta with about 30 teeth. Tarsus I 105-119 long, solenidion about
11 long, apparently without supporting seta; tibia I 21-26 long, solenidion
about 4.5 long, genu I 31 long, solenidion about 3.5 long; tarsus II 101 long,
solenidion about 7 long; tibia II 19 long, solenidion about 4.2 long; tarsus
III 103 long, tibia III 21 long; tarsus IV 107 long, tibia IV 22 long; anterior
seta of coxa III narrow elliptic, spinose; trochanter III with only 1 seta;
setae of genito-anal unit arranged as shown in figure 23, the oval seta
EXPLANATION OF PLATE
Figures 20-23. Grallacheles bakeri, n. sp. 20, dorsum; 21, rostrum and
palpus; 22, tibia and tarsus I; 23, genito-anal setae.
NYMPH: Resembles female in general appearance, but dorsosubmedian
seta 1 squamiform-split; dorsolaterals 1, 2, and 3 and dorsosubmedian 2
Vol. 45, No. 3
De Leon: Seven New Species of Cheyletids 137
straplike, dorsosubmedian 3 absent; hysterosoma with 3 dorsal shields and
5 pairs of straplike setae. Ventral setae IV-VI absent; each of what appear
to be rudimentary genital covers with 2 setae; 1 pair of anal setae, the
setae narrowly oblanceolate and serrate. Palpfemur without the inner ven-
tral seta. Legs with coxae IV and trochanters I-IV bare, other coxae with
setae as for female; tarsi similar in shape to female's; tibia I and genua I
much shorter than for female.
LARVA: Anterior dorsal, shield with same number of setae and setae
of same shape as for nymph; hysterosoma with 3 shields and 5 pairs of
straplike setae. Rostrum without ventral basal pair of setae; palpfemur
without setae ventrad. Legs: coxa I with 1 setae, no setae on other coxae
or on trochanters; tarsi similar in shape to female's. Only ventral setae
I and II present; anal opening bordered by 3 pairs of setae.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, November 30, 1956 (D. De
Leon), associated with psocids in floor sweepings from an old house. Par-
atypes: 3 females, 2 nymphs, 1 larva, collected with holotype; 1 female, near
Mante, Tamaulipas, on sapote verde, June, 1957. The mite is named for
Dr. E. W. Baker, Acarologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Types and paratypes of the new species are in the author's collection.
Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in
the United States National Museum. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 99:
Yunker, C. E. 1961. The genus Bak, new genus, and Cheletomimus Oude-
mans with descriptions of three new species. Canad. Ent. 93: 1023-
...on Superior Sam's side of the fence.
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A TICK OF THE ORNITHODOROS CAPENSIS GROUP
ESTABLISHED ON BUSH KEY, DRY TORTUGAS,
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE TERRESTRIAL ARTHROPODS
OF THE DRY TORTUGAS ISLANDS
H. A. DENMARK2 AND CARLETON M. CLIFFORD, JR.3
A tick (Fig. 1 insert) tentatively determined as Ornithodoros capensis
Neumann, 1907, was recently found to be established on Bush Key, Dry
Tortugas, Florida. Ticks currently identified as 0. capensis are widely dis-
tributed in many parts of the world as parasites of marine birds. The
so-called capensis group, which includes this species, needs to be revised
but until such a revision is completed, we prefer to regard any determina-
tions of material in this group as tentative, especially where the specimens
are from previously unreported areas. The various forms that have been
considered under the name 0. capensis, as well as host and distribution data
-for this species up to 1957, are given in a study of the ticks of Micronesia
(Kohls, 1957). Subsequently, this species has been recorded from New
Zealand (Dumbleton, 1958) and the Island of Chesterfield in the South
Pacific (Rageau and Vervent, 1958).
Besides these literature records, the Rocky Mountain Laboratory has
a large lot of ticks, provisionally determined as 0. capensis, from nesting
sites of Sooty and Noddy Terns at Soldado Rock, Trinidad, British West
Indies (unpublished data). These specimens were collected by Dr. T. H. G.
Aitken of the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory on June 18, 1961, and
are morphologically indistinguishable from the Florida specimens.
The infestation reported in this paper from Bush Key represents the
second report of a tick of the 0. capensis group occurring in the United
States. The first record was from Hawaii (Joyce, 1953).
Bush Key is a bird sanctuary and nesting site for Sooty and Noddy
Terns and is one of a tiny group of coral keys that form the Dry Tortugas
68 miles west of Key West, Florida. It is separated from Garden Key with
its bastion towers of Fort Jefferson by a deep channel.
Great colonies of Sooty Terns (Sterns fuscata fuscata Linnaeus) have
used the Dry Tortugas as a nesting area for centuries, and the Brown Noddy
(Anous stolidus stolidus [Linnaeus]) occurs here also but in lesser num-
bers (Sprunt, 1950). In 1915 and 1916, Bird Key, 500 feet long and 300
feet wide, was a bird reservation for Sooty and Noddy Terns and was pro-
tected by the United States Government and the Audubon Society. At
this time, a warden was stationed on the island from April until the end
of August (Bowman, 1918). The breeding of Sooty and Noddy Terns on
Bird Key was described by Audubon in 1832 (Watson and Lashley, 1915).
1 Contribution No. 6, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture.
2 Chief Entomologist, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida.
SScientist, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
Health Service, National Institute of Health, National Institute of Allergy
and Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 45, No. 3
In 1935, Bird Key disappeared and the birds shifted first to Garden Key and
then to Bush Key, where they have been nesting for over 20 years. These
nesting sites have been protected except for scientific investigations. This
is now the only major breeding colony of Sooty and Noddy Terns within
the boundaries of the United States except for Hawaii (Fisher and Lock-
ley, 1954). Other colonies of Sooty and Noddy Terns occur on Cat Cay
in the Bahamas and on several other oceanic islands in the British West
Indies. Both species also breed on islets in tropical portions of the eastern
Atlantic and the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
.F ~~' is
,R '# 5i~
~I __ ____ 4 S
Figure 1. Collecting ticks from dead bay cedar, Suriana maritime L.
(photo by F. W. Mead). Insert: Ornithodoros capensis (photo by N. J.
Bush Key appeared about 1900 as an elevated coral reef with piles of
detritus heaped up in spots and was at first barren of vegetation (Bartsch,
1919). It was not mentioned in a floral survey of the sand keys of Florida
(Millspaugh, 1907). Considerable change has occurred in Bush Key since
it appeared (Davis, 1942) and today Bush Key supports distinct plant
communities of a subclimax type. Dr. Oliver L. Austin, Jr., Associate
Denmark: Tick of the Ornithodoros Capensis Group 141
Curator at the University of Florida State Museum, informs us (personal
communication) that about 16,000 terns were banded there between 1936
and 1941, and that about 16,000 terns have been banded each year since
1959. While some of these birds were being banded in July, 1961, Dr. Austin
in company with Dr. W. B. Robertson, Jr., Park Biologist, Everglades Na-
tional Park, collected a tick from the foot of a Sooty Tern and the junior
author identified it tentatively as 0. capensis.
A, . .. I
. .. .%..-
.. ,., ,ie
Figure 2. Examining a clump of Cyperus brunneus Sw. for ticks
(photo by F. W. Mead).
H. A. Denmark and Frank W. Mead, Entomologist of the Division of
Plant Industry, returned to the Dry Tortugas in January, 1962, to continue
a faunal survey of land arthropods of that area in which the Entomology
Section, Division of Plant Industry of the Florida Department of Agricul-
ture, is conducting. They found Bush Key infested throughout with 0.
capensis. The senior author first found them by beating dead bay cedar,
Suriana maritima L., over a beating square (Fig. 1). All dead bay cedar
so examined was found infested. Dead limbs of the white mangrove,
Laguncularia racemosa 0. Gaetn., were found to be infested to heights of
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 45, No. 3
two feet to three feet above ground level. Old, abandoned, Brown Noddy
nests from living bay cedar plants and litter collected beneath a dense
growth of white mangrove were gathered for Berlese samples. Both nests
and litter were infested.
The Brown Noddies nest from two feet to five feet above the ground
on almost any plant available, including Opuntia, and this may account for
the ticks being found above ground level. Sooty Terns nest on the ground
in the open, and the chicks run under cover. This should explain the pres-
ence of ticks in the open and in the litter under white mangrove. Mead
found the heaviest infestation in and around the roots of a dead clump of
sedge, Cyperus brunneus Sw. (Fig. 2). Approximately one-fourth of a
cubic foot of soil, plant and roots, was taken for Berlese samples, from
which approximately 5,000 ticks were recovered.
Apparently the ticks survive without feeding in the absence of terns
from August to April by hiding in protected areas such as crevices of dead
wood, old nests, or roots of dead sedge. Ticks did not attempt to feed on
either collector, but would crawl out of the direct sunlight and hide.
It appears that colonies of ticks may have existed on any of the keys
used as nesting sites in the Dry Tortugas area for many years.
Bartsch, Paul. 1919. The bird rookeries of the Tortugas. Smithsonian
Inst. Board of Regents. Annual report 1917. 469-500.
Bowman, H. H. M. 1918. Botanical ecology of the Dry Tortugas. Carne-
gie Inst. of Wash. Dept. of Marine Biol. Papers. 12: 109-138.
Davis, J. H., Jr. 1942. The ecology of the vegetation and topography of
the sand keys of Florida. Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Dept. of Marine
Biol. Papers. 33: 113-195.
Dumbleton, L. J. 1958. The occurrence of an argasid tick in New Zealand.
New Zealand J. Sci. 1(4): 570-578.
Fisher, J., and R. M. Lockley. 1954. Sea birds. Houghton Mifflin Co.,
Cambridge, Mass. 320 p.
Joyce, C. R. 1953. Insect records from French Frigate Shoal. Proc.
Hawaii Ent. Soc. 15(1): 13.
Kohls, G. M. 1957. Insects of Micronesia. Acarina: Ixodoidea. Insects
of Micronesia. 3(3): 85-104.
Millspaugh, C. F. 1907. Flora of the sand keys of Florida. Field Co-
lumbian .Museum. Publ. 118. Botan. Ser. 2(5): 191-245.
Rageau, J., and G. Vervent. 1958. Presence d'Ornithodoros (Acarines:
Argasidae) aux Iles Chesterfield (Pacifique Sud.). Bull. Soc. Path,
Exot. 51(2): 238-244.
Sprunt, Alexander, Jr. 1950. A list of the birds of the Dry Tortugas Keys
1857-1951. Fla. Naturalist. 23: 49-60, 73-78, 105-111.
Watson, J. B., and K. S. Lashley. 1915. An historical and experimental
study of homing. Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Dept. of Marine Biol.
Papers. 7: 7-60.
lw ". .. : <.
~ jp C
Ir ~'ls )~Y
A THIRD SPECIES OF TOXOPTERELLA HILLE RIS
LAMBERS (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE)
FROM NORTH AMERICA
D. HILLE RIS LAMBERS
Bladluisonderzoek T.N.O., Bennekom, Netherlands
In 1960 1 I described as new genus and species Toxopterella canadensis
from Crataegus. In 1955 G. A. Bradley had submitted alatae of an aphid
that was recognized as undescribed and belonging to an unknown genus
for which the reference name Sorbobium drepanosiphoides was suggested
to Dr. Bradley. In 1961 2 this insect was described as T. (Sorbobium)
drepanosiphoides by MacGillivray and Bradley. Because in 1960 only alates
of the latter species were known I certainly did not realize that canadensis
was congeneric with drepanosiphoides.
Professor C. F. Smith recently sent me fundatrices, larvae and alatae
of a remarkable aphid for identification, and later kindly asked me to
Toxopterella smith n. sp.
FUNDATRIX (from 8 specimens): Body very broadly oval, about 3.00-4.00
mm. long. Tergum rather thickly membranous with a very dense pat-
tern of irregular angular warts on the middle of the body, each with some
slender, blunt spinules, more laterally and also ventrally with pointed
to flat-topped warts. Integumentum faintly pigmented. Very dark inter-
segmental sclerites present as in the fundatrix of T. (S.) drepanosiphoides.
Hairs in two very different shapes; frontal hairs very thin and wavy, about
0.050 mm. long, but hairs on vertex only 0.009 mm. long, but not blunt;
middle of dorsum spinallyy and pleurally) with very few acute and stiff
hairs 0.013-0.030 mm. long, but marginally on tergites I-V, pleurally and
marginally on tergite VI and all over tergites VII and VIII very large
number of very long and fine hairs present about 0.070-0.080 mm. long,
similar to the ventral hairs; VIIth abd. tergite between the stigmata with
some 50 or more hairs. Marginal tubercles absent. Head with slightly con-
cave front, dorsally and ventrally densely covered with blunt nodules. An-
tennae about half as long as body, densely bluntly imbricated, rather pale
with the apex of Vth segment and the whole VIth segment very dark; IIIrd
segment often with two types of hairs of which the rather numerous short
ones are about half as long as the diameter of the segment at its strongly
constricted base, while a few fine and long ones are about equal in length
to that diameter; the other segments with short hairs only; processus ter-
minalis conspicuously tapering and pointed; primary rhinaria normal and
rather small. Rostrum not reaching the middle coxae; ultimate segment
blunt, about as long as the second joint of the small hind tarsi, provided
with only 0-2 hairs besides the three subapical pairs of hairs. Siphunculi
'Hille Ris Lambers, D. 1960. Some new genera and species of aphids
from Canada (Homoptera: Aphididae). Can. Ent. 92: 251-265.
2MacGillivray, M. E., and G. A. Bradley. 1961. A new subgenus and
species of Toxopterella Hille Ris Lambers (Homoptera: Aphididae), from
Sorbus. Can. Ent. 93: 999-1005.
The Florida Entomologist
jet black, rather cylindrical on basal half, from the middle slightly and
gradually tapering to the small, bulging flange, about 1/6th-1/5th the
length of the body, somewhat curved inwards on distal half, very densely
and rather acutely imbricated. Cauda faintly constricted at the very base
and strongly tapering to a point from basal 1/3rd; blackish, less than 1/5th
of the siphunculi and with a rather large number of hairs that can not be
counted in the available specimens. Legs short with brownish femora and
pale tibiae, all of which have dark apical portions, while the generally
darker hind tibiae also have the base darkish; femora densely covered with
transverse rows of spinules and with numerous very long, fine hairs; tibiae
smooth except dorsally near base, the fore tibiae with rather spiny hairs
resembling the short type of antennal hairs, the middle tibiae, especially
on basal half, with long and fine hairs which are gradually replaced by
shorter and shorter spiny hairs towards apex and dorsally; but the hind
tibiae on basal half on three sides with long, fine, wavy hairs and only on
distal 1/3rd with spiny hairs; on the caudal side of the hind tibiae about
12-19 very short and stout sound pegs placed over about 3/4ths of the
length of the tibiae, not all in a row; sound pegs varying from blunt to
bifid and becoming slightly longer (up to 0.009 mm.) more distad. First
tarsal joints all with two rather short hairs.
TABLE I. FUNDATRICES*
No. Length Ant. Siph. Cau. Ant. segments
body III IV V VI
1 3.09 1.64 0.60 ? 0.36 0.31 0.28 0.18 + 0.32
2 3.21 1.71 0.65 ? 0.40 0.32 0.30 0.19 + 0.32
3 3.32 1.78 0.61 0.12 0.41 0.31 0.33 0.20 + 0.34
4 3.47 1.65 0.64 0.11 0.40 0.30 0.28 0.17 + 0.31
5 3.40 1.79 0.62 0.12 0.41 0.33 0.30 0.18 + 0.34
6 3.45 1.87 0.65 0.11 0.40 0.35 0.31 0.21 + 0.39
7 3.85 1.62 0.62 0.12 0.44 0.28 0.27 0.17 + 0.29
Measurements in mm.
ALATE VIVIPAROUS FEMALE (from 35 specimens): Body much smaller,
only about 1.75-2.05 mm. long. Head and thorax blackish sclerotic; ab-
domen with rather small, nodulose marginal sclerites, with rather narrow,
smooth spino-pleural transverse bars of which the one on Ist abd. tergite,
if well developed, is on posterior half of the tergite (with the hairs either
cephalad of that bar on scleroites, or these scleroites fused with the bar),
while the more caudad ones are more on the middle of the tergites; these
bars often interrupted or much corrugated and perforated; all the abdominal
sclerites brown, rather pale. All dorsal hairs short and acute, about 0.008-
0.009 mm. long, very scarce except on the marginal sclerites which each
have 8-14 hairs; even ventral hairs short, 0.008-0.016 mm. long. Head
smooth; front sinuated, the antenniferous tubercles not higher than the
middle of the front. Antennae about as long as body, uniformly brown;
segments I and II nodulose imbricated especially on the underside, flagellum
Vol. 45, No. 3
Lambers: A Third Species of Toxopterella
normally imbricated; segments III-V with strongly transversely oval, much
protruding, rather large rhinaria all over the segments, which consequently
have a very irregular outline; IIIrd segment with strongly constricted,
scabrous base and about 25-42 rhinaria; IVth segment with some 16-24
rhinaria; Vth with 9-20 secondary rhinaria, all smaller than its strongly
transverse primary rhinarium; for interrelation of segmental lengths vide
measurements. Antennal hairs like those on dorsum. Last rostral seg-
ment with two hairs besides the subapical pairs. Siphunculi from 1/6th to
just over 1/5th of the length of the body, nearly cylindrical with suddenly
widened very base, dark, especially at base, in the middle just thicker than
basal 1/3rd part of the hind tibiae, markedly curved outwards and down-
wards at basal 1/3rd part, crenulated, and only near apex slightly imbri-
cated, with trumpet-like, swollen, small flange. Cauda dark, only about
1/4th of the siphunculi, about semi-oval but somewhat pointed and faintly
constricted at base, with some 8-11 rather short and stiff, often blunted
hairs. Subanal plate more or less pointed. Subgenital plate with many
hairs on its disc. Femora spinulosely imbricated on distal half, especially
ventrally; tibiae smooth, the hind tibiae with their caudal side conspicu-
ously convex on basal half, concave on distal half; all hairs on the legs
rather uniform, short and spiny, and no trace of sound pegs visible; first
tarsal joints all with a pair of very short and inconspicuous hairs, the fore
and middle legs besides with one conspicuous spiny hair of more than twice
the length of the tiny lateral hairs (3, 3, 2). Wings with the media only
NYMPHS: Alatoid nymphs, until last instar agreeing closely with the
fundatrix in structure of the integumentuin and in chaetotaxy, i.e., mar-
ginally and ventrally on the body the numerous hairs are fine, long and
wavy, spinally and partly pleurally they are short and spiny. Antennae
as in the fundatrix with a few long hairs on IIIrd segment. Siphunculi
with innerside convex, outerside less markedly concave (like X-legs).
Hind tibiae very spinulose over nearly their whole length; with sound
pegs as in fundatrix.
Nymphs inside alate migrants on the spinulose hind tibiae with four
acute sound pegs that look like very short normal tibial hairs.
This aphid can easily be distinguished from both T. canadensis H.R.L.
and drepanosiphoides MacGill. and Bradley, as far as the alatae are con-
cerned. They key as follows:
1 (2) Primary rhinaria on Vth ant. segment at least three times as large
as the secondary rhinaria. First tarsal joints of all the legs only
with two very short hairs. On Crataegus sp. . T. canadensis H.R.L.
2 (1) Primary rhinaria on Vth ant, segment at most twice as large as the
secondary ones. First tarsal joints of fore and middle legs with one
very stout, spiny hair besides the two very small lateral hairs . 3
3 (4) Siphunculi on basal half very conspicuously swollen like a calve and
on innerside markedly imbricated. Ventral hairs on VIth abd. ster-
nite up to 0.043 mm. long. First tarsal joints of hind legs usually
The Florida Entomologist
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00M C 00 0000 00 l 00
oco 10 U "lo1
o o M M M Ca-I M M M M CD M M
w W O L- 0 L 10 C0 L-- CI L0 0LI
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Vol. 45, No. 3
Lambers: A Third Species of Toxopterella
with three hairs. IIIrd ant. segment with 32-53 rhinaria, IVth with
19-38, Vth with 10-28 rhinaria. On Sorbus spp.
ST. drepanosiphoides MacGill. and Bradley
4 (3) Siphunculi not at all swollen on basal half, approximately smooth to
slightly crenulated with only near apex some reticulations. Ventral
hairs on VIth abd. sternite only about 0.020 mm. long. First tarsal
joints of hind legs with normally two very inconspicuous hairs.
IIIrd ant. segment with about 25-42 rhinaria, IVth with 16-24, Vth
with 9-20 rhinaria. On Pirus angustifolia. T. smith n. sp.
It will be realized that with the discovery of this species the differences
between Toxopterella proper and its subgenus Sorbobium MacGill. and
Bradley have become insignificant. The only important difference was in
the number of hairs on the first tarsal joints in alatae but this character
is not a reliable one for generic or subgeneric distinction. The presence of
sound pegs on the hind tibiae of alatae of the genotype and their absence
in Sorbobium can hardly be considered significant: if in T. canadensis
I had not known that the fundatrix had sound pegs I would never have rec-
ognized them in the alatae. The new species has the media in the fore
wings only once branched but for the rest shows all the characters that
MacGillivray and Bradley describe for Sorbobium. Therefore I believe
that Sorbobium can better be dropped as a subgenus of Toxopterella as
no good reasons are left for keeping it separate.
As additional characters for the genus Toxopterella I would like to add:
Processus terminalis characteristically pointed. Secondary rhinaria con-
spicuously transversely oval. If three hairs on the first tarsal joints are
present, then the middle hair very much longer than the two lateral hairs.
Fundatrices with at least some dorsal hairs that are long and wavy and
very different from the dorsal hairs in alatae. Media in the fore wings
twice branched with the second branch rather close to the margin of the
wing, or once branched.
The generic position of Toxopterella is rather clear. There is only a
very small number of Aphidine genera with a pointed processus terminalis
and these genera are all associated with mosses. They all have the same
type of cauda, the same kind of secondary rhinaria and quite frequently
extraordinary scabrous hind tibiae in all nymphs.
LIFE HISTORY: Professor Smith permits me to record his notes on
this aphid which makes tight, deep-red leaf curls on Pirus angustifolia Ait.
"On 2-VI-1961 there was only one large blackish aphid per leaf; no nymphs
were present. The leaves were curled longitudinally and usually only one
side of the leaf showed any symptoms of curling. Veins on the curled
portion turned reddish-purple. Ants were attending the aphids. On 1,5-VI
nymphs were present. On 1-VII the apterae were very dark brownish-
black with a purple tinge. The nymphs were reddish and were developing
wing-pads. On 8-VII alates were very abundant. They were reddish with
darker bars on the abdomen. It is interesting to note that the nymphs leave
the curled leaves before making the last molt. Never did I see an alate
inside a curled leaf. They were always on the outside; all of the nymphs
developed into alatae." Although the part of the life cycle of the Toxopte-
rella species that is known points undoubtedly to host alternation, the sec-
ondary host plants as yet are unknown, but the morphology suggests that
148 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 3
in summer the aphids live in very moist surroundings near or below ground
HOLOTYPE: Alate viviparous female, Laurel Springs, North Carolina,
2-VI-1961, on Pirus angustifolia Ait., leg. C. F. Smith 61-134. In the
U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D. C. Paratypes: 8 fundatrices, host
plant and locality as in holotype, 2-VI-1961, leg. C. F. Smith 61-67; 34
alatae, host plant and locality as in holotype, 1-VII and 8-VII-1961, leg.
C. F. Smith, 61-124 and 61-134, respectively. In the collection of Professor
C. F. Smith, Raleigh, N. C., and in the author's collection.
NOTES ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND LIFE HISTORY
OF ARCHIPSOCUS FRATER MOCKFORD
EDWARD L. MOCKFORD
Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State Normal University,
I. DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES
Archipsocus frater Mockford was previously known only from the type
locality at Gainesville, Florida. The following records are all from South
Florida: Dade Co., Everglades National Park, Anhinga Trail, Nov. 26,
1961, on Phragmites stems, 11 9, A. M. Nadler; Dade Co., Miami, Aug. 12,
1961, on dead Myrica leaves, 2 9, E. L. Mockford; Hillsborough Co., Sulphur
Springs, Sept. 6, 1957, on Citrus limon, 4 9, 1 nymph, D. E. Stokes; Lee Co.,
3 miles south of Fort Myers on U. S. Highway 41, Nov. 30, 1961, on leaves
of Thalia sp., 1 3 9, 3 nymphs, E. L. Mockford and R. O. Rilett; Monroe
Co., Key Largo (hammock near northern end), Nov. 26, 1961, beating veg-
etation, 2 9, E. L. Mockford; Pasco Co., 7 miles south of Port Ritchey on
U. S. Highway 19, beating laurel oak and turkey oak, 1 9, E. L. Mockford
and R. 0. Rilett.
II. NOTES ON POLYMORPHISM
In the original description (Mockford, 1957b) only a single, macropterous
female form was mentioned. Subsequently it has been found that two
female forms exist. The new form, which might be called brachypterous
(Fig. 2), has wings not quite as long, ocelli somewhat less conspicuous,
(anterior ocellus apparently absent) and thoracic notal sutures somewhat
less well developed than in the macropterous form (Fig. 1).
III. NOTES ON FLIGHT
In December, 1961, living specimens from the Lee County locality cited
above were brought to Illinois, and cultures were started from these in my
laboratory at Normal. The cultures were kept in moist chambers with
loosely fitting lids, which allowed individuals to wander out. Usually the
insects remained in the culture jars, but when the population density in a
jar was high, and there were many macropterous females, these sometimes
left. In early March, 1962, when population densities were high in the
culture jars, these females were seen flying in the laboratory on several
occasions. Flight is generally rather indirect, with a laterally weaving
path. The flight speed appears roughly similar to that of Drosophila mel-
anogaster. A few times, the psocids were observed flying rapidly in circles
around the light of a desk lamp in the laboratory. Each time, the insect
was batted down or watched until it landed in order that its identity could
1The work reported in this paper is part of a project supported by a
Faculty Research Grant from Illinois State Normal University.
150 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 3
Several previous attempts on my part to force macropterous females of
various species of Archipsocus to fly resulted in failure. To my knowledge,
these are the first observations of flight in any Archipsocus species.
There can be no doubt that macropterous females of A. frater are able
to function as efficient distributors of their species. Furthermore, since
all macropterous females of Archipsocus have essentially the same struc-
ture, it seems highly likely that they are all able to fly. This means that,
although they are not dependent on passive transport by moving air over
short distances, by taking to the air of their own accord they may subject
themselves to such transport, perhaps over long distances. It is possible
that such an agency may account for the presence of A. pana'ma Gurney
in Panama and Florida (Mockford, 1953).
Figure 1. Archipsocus frater Mockford, macropterous female, dorsal view,
Figure 2. Archipsocus frater Mockford, brachypterous female, dorsal view,
The question remains as to whether macropterous females dispersing
from a colony have mated before leaving. It appears that mating is gen-
erally essential in Archipsocus (Mockford, 1957a). If they have not mated
before leaving, then mating must be a highly vicarious event for them.
If they have mated before leaving, then nearly all mating in Archipsocus
must result in close inbreeding.
A preliminary investigation of this question was made by isolating three
macropterous females of A. frater found wandering outside of a colony
container on March 10, 1962. Between 10 P.M. on March 16 and 10 P.M.
on March 17, each of the three females had given birth to several nymphs.
Although this would suggest that they had mated before leaving the colony,
it must be pointed out that no tests for parthenogenesis have been made
for this species.
Mockford, E. L. 1953. Three new species of Archipsocus from Florida
(Psocoptera: Archipsocidae). Fla. Ent. 36(3): 113-124, 30 figs.
Mockford: Life History of Archipsocus Frater 151
Mockford, E. L. 1957a. Life history studies on some Florida insects of
the genus Archipsocus (Psocoptera). Bull. Fla. St. Mus. 1(5):253-
Mockford, E. L. 1957b. A new species of Archipsocus from Florida (Pso-
coptera: Archipsocidae). Fla. Ent. 40(1): 33-34, 6 figs.
when mite counts
KELTHANE miticide kills citrus
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P LA 0c. PA
HYDROPTILIDAE (TRICHOPTERA) OF FLORIDA1
R. L. BLICKLE
University of New Hampshire, Durham
The present study resulted from the examination of light trap collec-
tions from 23 localities. The trap locations were scattered throughout the
state from Laurel Hill, Okaloosa County, in the northwestern part to Big
Pine Key, Monroe County, in the extreme southern part. In only one
area were the light traps fairly closely grouped, these were the three
locations in Jackson County and one in Gadsden County in the vicinity of
the Jim Woodruff Dam. Clewiston, Hendry County, was the only locality
from which no Hydroptilidae were taken. The period covered in the study
was from January, 1957, to July, 1958, with a few scattered observations
Twenty-six species, in six genera, totaling 9,102 specimens were taken,
the identification being based on males. Of the 26 species four have been
recently described as new. One species, Oxyethira janella Denning, re-
corded from Florida was not taken.
berneri Ross: March, April, May. Alachua County (type locality),
High Springs; 6 specimens.
loganae Blickle: March-July, September, October, December. Chatta-
hoochee (type locality), Goose Prairie, Highlands Hammock State
Park, Temple Terrace; 31 specimens.
maculata (Banks): March-September. Fellsmere, Port Mayaca, Prince-
ton, Temple Terrace; 761 specimens. This species was taken only
at localities near the central and southern east coast or the central
west coast of Florida.
molsonae Blickle: September. Highlands Hammock State Park (type
locality); 2 specimens.
quinola Ross: April, May. Chattahoochee; 3 specimens.
remita Blickle and Morse: March-June, August, October-December.
Chattahoochee, Highlands Hammock State Park, Keystone Heights,
Sneads; 24 specimens. Previously this species was known only from
the type locality, Durham, New Hampshire.
wakulla Denning: March-August, October. Highlands Hammock State
Park, High Springs, Temple Terrace, Wakulla Springs (type lo-
cality); 399 specimens. All of the records are for 1957, even though
the traps were operated in the same localities for the first six months
waubesiana Betten: March-December. Chattahoochee, Goose Prairie,
Lakeland, Laurel Hill, River Road (Jackson County), Sneads, Jim
Woodruff Dam; 536 specimens.
SPublished with the approval of the Director of the New Hampshire
Agricultural Experiment Station as Scientific Contribution No. 274.
The Florida Entomologist
ayama Mosely: April. Madison; 1 specimen.
elerobi Blickle: April. Laurel Hill (type locality); 1 specimen.
minutisimella (Chambers): May, July. Highlands Hammock State
Park, River Road (Jackson County); 2 specimens.
ranae Denning, synonym of N. vibrans Ross, Miami (type locality).
vibrans Ross: April-June, September. Chattahoochee, Madison, Miami
(Denning), River Road (Jackson County), Temple Terrace; 22 speci-
provosti Blickle: July, Temple Terrace (type locality); 1 specimen.
tarsalis (Hagen): March-December, Temple Terrace; 1,487 specimens.
This widespread species being taken at only one locality was sur-
americana Banks: February-November. Chattahoochee, Fellsmere,
Goose Prairie, Highlands Hammock State Park, Indrio, Keystone
Heights, Lakeland, Leesburg, Miami (Denning), Port Mayaca, River
Road (Jackson County), Sneads, Temple Terrace, Jim Woodruff
Dam; 426 specimens.
baldufi Kingsolver and Ross: June 19, 1957, Chattahoochee, 1 specimen.
cristata Morton: April-July, September, Big Pine Key, Chattahoochee,
Fellsmere, Miami (Denning), Sneads; 13 specimens.
curta Kingsolver and Ross: April, May, June, Goose Prairie; Highlands
Hammock State Park; Temple Terrace (type locality); 41 specimens.
dentata Kingsolver and Ross: April, Temple Terrace (type locality);
instabilis Denning: Winter Park (type locality).
abacatica Denning: March, May-November, Chattahoochee, Keystone
Heights, Jim Woodruff Dam; 225 specimens.
florida Denning: February, March, April, October, November, Miami
(type locality), Temple Terrace; 1 specimen. The above records are
from Denning (1947), except for April.
glasa Ross: January-December. Big Pine Key, Chattahoochee, Fells-
mere, Fort Myers, Goose Prairie, Highlands Hammock State Park,
Inverness, Keystone Heights, Lakeland, Lake Wales, Miami (Den-
ning), Port Mayaca, River Road (Jackson County), Sneads, Temple
Terrace, Vero Beach; 2,722 specimens. This was the most wide-
spread and numerous species taken, however, sixty-five percent of
the specimens were taken at Goose Prairie.
janella Denning: Type locality, Winter Park, May. Not taken in the
Vol. 45, No. 3
Blickle: Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) of Florida 155
lumosa Ross: March, November. Chattahoochee, Daytona Beach (type
locality), Goose Prairie, Highlands Hammock State Park, Inverness,
Keystone Heights, Lake Wales, Lakeland, Laurel Hill, River Road
(Jackson County), Sneads, Temple Terrace, Jim Woodruff Dam; 491
specimens. This species was taken only in the northern half of the
maya Denning: March-July, September-November. Chattahoochee,
Fellsmere, River Road (Jackson County), Sneads, Jim Woodruff
Dam; 25 specimens. This species, northern in distribution, was taken
in the spring and fall but not the summer.
novasota Ross: March-May. Chattahoochee, Sneads; 6 specimens.
pallida (Banks): March-June. Chattahoochee, River Road (Jackson
County), Sneads, Temple Terrace, Jim Woodruff Dam; 28 speci-
mens. This species is closely related to 0. maya and has the same
distribution, however, it occurred only in the spring collections.
verna Ross: February-December. Chattahoochee, Fellsmere, Fort My-
ers, Goose Prairie, Highlands Hammock State Park, Indrio, Inverness,
Keystone Heights, Lakeland, Leesburg, Madison, Miami (Denning),
North Fort Myers, Port Mayaca, Sneads, Temple Terrace; 654 speci-
mens. A widespread and numerous species.
walteri Denning: February-December. Big Pine Key, Chattahoochee,
Fellsmere, Fort Myers, Goose Prairie, Highlands Hammock State
Park, Keystone Heights, North Fort Myers, Miami (type locality),
River Road (Jackson County), Sneads, Temple Terrace, Jim Wood-
ruff Dam; 1,137 specimens. A widespread, numerous species.
Blickle, R. L. 1961. New species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). Bull.
Brook. Ent. Soc. 56(5): 131-134.
Denning, D. C. 1947. Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from southern United
States. Can. Ent. 79: 12-20.
Denning, D. C. 1948. New species of Trichoptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.
Kingsolver, J M., and H. H. Ross. 1961. New species of Nearctic Ortho-
trichia (Hydroptilidae, Trichoptera). Trans. Ill. St. Acad. Sci. 54
(1) (2): 28-33.
Ross, H. H. 1941. Descriptions and records of North American Trichop-
tera. Am. Ent. Soc. Trans. 67: 35-126.
Ross, H. H. 1947. Descriptions and records of North American Trichop-
tera, with synoptic notes. Am. Ent. Soc. Trans. 73: 12.5-168.
Ross, H. H. 1948. Notes and descriptions of Nearctic Hydroptilidae (Tri-
choptera). Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 38(6): 201-206.