Title: Florida Entomologist
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 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1962
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
 Notes
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00179
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 45, No. 4 December, 1962






CONTENTS
Page
Rhoades, W. C.-A Synecological Study of the Effects of the
Imported Fire Ant Eradication Program .........-------...... 161

Frost, S. W.-Winter Insect Light-Trapping at the
Archbold Biological Station, Florida -..........-.................. 175

Farr, Thomas H.-A new Species of Schildia from Jamaica
(Diptera: Asilidae) -----------.....-... ---... ........................... 191

Sivik, Frank P.-Antennal Anomaly of a Neotropical Bee,
Augochlora pura mosieri Cockerell, Found in Florida
(Hymenoptera, Apoidea) .....-..-- .........-..-- ..-.............. ..... 195

Minutes of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Entom logical Society ...................................................... 197


Published by The Florida Entomological Society














THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


OFFICERS FOR 1962-1963

President ............---................................-.........................Henry True
Vice-President -..................... ----....... ---....................... ....... G. W Dekle
Secretary.....------------------...............................-............. .........S. H. Kerr
Treasurer --............-............................ ..................-.. Robert E. W aites
John O'Neill
Other Members of Executive Committee ....... W. G. Genung
W. C. Rhoades

Editorial Board
Lewis Berner ---...............--.........................--- Editor
Thomas J. Walker... --.-......---.......--- Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites....------.... ........-- ..Business Manager



THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post
office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and
orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 2425,
University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
TOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Suggestions for the prepara-
tion of papers submitted for publication in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST."
FLA. ENT. 41(4): 193-194. 1958.
One zinc etching, not to exceed one-half page in size, or the equivalent
thereof, will be allowed free. The actual cost of all additional illustrations
must be borne by contributors. In general, the cost of a full page zinc
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A SYNECOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF THE
IMPORTED FIRE ANT ERADICATION PROGRAM'

I. ALCOHOL PITFALL METHOD OF COLLECTING

W. C. RHOADES2~3
The imported fire ant, Solenopsis. saevissima richteri Forel, has become
an important problem in Florida as well as in other Southeastern and
Gulf Coast States. There is diversity of opinion concerning the effects
of this insect and of the large scale eradication and control programs
on other forms of wildlife. To obtain reliable quantitative data on this
subject, a cooperative study was initiated in 1959 with the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission of Florida and the Division of Plant Indus-
try, State of Florida Department of Agriculture.
The over-all study is concerned with various forms of wildlife, in-
cluding mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, annelids, and arthropods.
The methods of collecting arthropods and annelids are as follows:
1. alocohol pitfalls, 2. soil samples, 3. sweep nets, 4. litter samples, and
5. light traps. This paper is reporting only on the alcohol pitfall method
of collecting arthropods and annelids. The other methods of collecting
and studying the other forms of wildlife will be described and reported
on in subsequent papers.

PREVIOUS WORK
Previous studies on the effects of large-scale insect control programs
have been confined to limited experiments using wettable powder, dusts
and emulsion concentrate formulations. Hoffman et al. (1949) made
intensive studies on the effects of airplane applications of DDT on forest
invertebrates in Pennsylvania. They found a great deal of variation
in response among different kinds of animals and they considered their
work quite preliminary. These investigators stated that "additional
studies on the effects of DDT sprays on the inter-relationships of insects
and their natural enemies-insects, amphibians, reptiles, fikh, birds,
mammals-would be of great interest and value." Stickel (1949) studied
the effect on wildlife of DDT dust used for tick control on a 206 acre
plot of Texas prairie. He found that ground feeding birds suffered
most severely while other birds were less affected. Some reptiles were
killed, but mammals were affected very little, if at all. Springer and

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1481.
2Entomologist, University of Florida, North Florida Experiment Sta-
tion, Quincy, Florida.
I3 am indebted to Mr. Harold Denmark, Chief Entomologist, Division
of Plant Industry, State of Florida, Department of Agriculture, Mr. R. W.
Murray, Biologist, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission of Florida, and
to Drs. A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert, M. H. Muma, and E. G. Kelsheimer, En-
tomologists with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, for their
helpful suggestions in carrying on this project. I should also like to thank
Dr. M. H. Muma, Mr. Harold Denmark, and Mr. T. J. Spilman, the latter
of the Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Research Branch,
U. S. D. A., A. R. S., Beltsville, Maryland, for their help in identification of
specimens reported in this paper.












The Florida Entomologist


Webster (1951) investigated the effects of DDT applications in New
Jersey tidal salt marshes. They found that birds apparently suffered
little direct harm, though local movements of swallows and gulls occurred
in response to depletion or increases of available food. None of these
tests have been made under Florida conditions nor were they as extensive
and comprehensive as those reported in this paper. No work has been
done on the effects of granular formulations.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Three ecologically similar areas, each approximately 1,280 acres in
size and located in Okaloosa and Washington Counties in Northwest
Florida, were selected for this study. Area 1, eleven miles north and
two miles west of Crestview on State Road 2, was heavily infested with
imported fire ants and was selected as the one to be treated. It was
treated by airplane with a granular formulation of heptachlor at the
rate of 11/4 pounds technical material per acre on September 20, 1960.
Area 2, located ten miles north of Crestview on State Road 85, was
heavily infested with imported fire ants and was selected .as the area
that would not receive treatment so the effects of the fire ants on other
forms of wildlife could be studied. Area 3, two miles northeast of Chipley
in Washington County, had no infestation of imported fire ants and
was used ,as the check area.
The alcohol pitfall method used in this series of tests for collecting
soil surface arthropods was described by Fichter (1941).
Samples were taken in all areas for one year prior to treatment in
order to establish, as .accurately as possible, the normal animal population.
Each area was subdivided into four plots, and pre-treatment sampling
began in September, 1959, and ran through August, 1960. Alcohol
pitfalls were set and allowed to run for one week per month. These
were set as nearly as possible on the same date in each month. The
total catch of each pitfall was brought into the laboratory and iden-
tified to family and in the case of the indicator forms to species.
Indicator species selected for the alcohol pitfall studies were:

1. Araneida (spiders)
2. Tetracha carolina (tiger beetle)
3. Tetracha virginica (tiger beetle)
4. Prosapia bicincta (spittle bug)
5. Gryllus assimilis (field cricket)
6. Forficula auricularia (earwig)
7. Conoderus falli (wireworm)
8. Annelida (earthworm)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Tables 1 through 8 show the actual number of each indicator species
caught in four pitfalls in each of the areas for two twelve-month periods,
September, 1959, through August 1960, and September, 1960, through
August, 1961. Figures 1 through 8 show the numbers collected during
the second year .as percentages of the numbers collected during the first


162


Vol. 45, No. 4












Rhoades: Study of Fire Ant Eradication Program 163

year. The collections during the first year of the studies were given a
rating of 100% or what was termed the normal population of these forms
for the months indicated and are shown by the solid straight line across
the graphs. The broken lines represent collections during the second
year as mentioned above.
SPIDERS: All species are grouped together in this report, however,
they have been identified as 79.05 per cent belonging to the family Lyco-
sidae and 13.09 per cent to the family Gnaphosidae. The remaining 7.86
per cent was distributed among eleven other families.
The population was reduced to 50 per cent of normal one week after
insecticidal application and to 10 per cent of normal in five weeks.
Thereafter, they began increasing gradually until they reached normal
level eight months following treatment. (Table 1, Fig. 1)
TIGER BEETLES: The treatment had a severe effect on both species
of tiger beetles, reducing their number to approximately 30% of normal
within one week after the insecticide was applied and to zero after two
months. The population began increasing in April, seven months after
treatment, and continued to increase until it had reached approximately
75% of normal by August, 1961, one year after application of the insec-
ticide.
There were no tiger beetles caught in any of the alcohol pitfalls in
December, January, February or March of either test year. (Tables 2
and 3; Figures 2 and 3)
SPITTLE BUG: Heptachlor treatment reduced the spittle bug pop-
ulation to 55% of normal one week after application, and none were
identified in the November collection, two months after treatment. The
population began increasing in March, six months after treatment and
after one year had reached 70% of normal.
There were no spittle bugs collected in the alcohol pitfalls during the
months of December, January and February of either test year. (Table
4, Figure 4)
FIELD CRICKETS: Figure 5 shows the effect of treatment on the field
cricket. The population was reduced to 47% of normal one month after
treatment and to approximately zero after five months. The numbers
began increasing six months after application and at the end of one
year were back to approximately normal. (Table 5, Figure 5)
EARWIGS: The earwig population was greatly reduced by the hep-
tachlor treatment for approximately seven months before it began building
back up toward normal. One year after treatment, the population had
reached 90% of normal. (Table 6, Figure 6)
WIREWORMS: The wireworm population was reduced to zero five
weeks after the application of heptachlor for fire ant control and re-
mained at a very low level for five months, then gradually began increas-
ing until it had reached approximately 60% of normal one year after
treatment. (Table 7, Figure 7)
EARTHWORMS: Earthworms were affected by the treatment but to a
much lesser degree than were the arthropods. Their numbers were reduced
to approximately 50% of normal four months after treatment and then
began increasing until they had reached 15% above normal after one
year. (Table 8, Figure 8)












The Florida Entomologist


A ten-acre plot was selected in each of Areas 1 and 2 for studying
the spread of fire ants. Only active mounds were counted. Five weeks
after Area 1 was treated, no active mounds were found. In Area 2, the
fire ants remained active and the number of mounds increased from 96
in September, 1959, to 198 in August, 1961. (Table 9)

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
A study was begun in September, 1959, to obtain quantitative data on
the effects of a large-scale insect eradication program on other forms of
wildlife, including game species, on species of arthropods other than the
one being eradicated or controlled, and on annelids. Particular attention
was given to the effect of the insecticide on beneficial forms.
Three ecologically similar areas in Northwest Florida, each approx-
imately 1,280 acres in size, were selected for this study. Data were
taken from all areas for one year prior to treatment to establish, as
nearly as possible, a normal population cycle. One area, severely infested
with fire ants, was treated with heptachlor in September, 1960. Another
area, severely infested with fire ants, received no treatment, and was used
to determine whether the fire ants had any detrimental effect upon other
arthropods and on annelids. The third area was not infested with fire
ants, received no treatment, and was used as a check.
Observations and data collected to date showed that treatment with
114 pounds technical heptachlor per acre eradicated the fire ants from
Area 1 and reduced the numbers of spiders, other insects and earthworms
for approximately five months. These forms, other than the fire ants,
The fire ants apparently have had very little effect on other forms of
have increased to approximately normal in most instances.
wildlife, including other insects.






Figures 1-8: Number of each indicator species collected at monthly in-
tervals during the second year, expressed as a percentage of the normal
monthly population as determined by collections made during the first year.
The three areas are indicated as follows:
Area 1 (infested with fire ants, treated at the end of the first year) solid
line;
Area 2 (infested, untreated) dotted line;
Area 3 (uninfested, untreated) broken line.
The straight line across each graph at 100% represents the normal
monthly population as determined by collections made during the first year.


164


Vol. 45, No. 4












Rhoades: Study of Fire Ant Eradication Program


140
I30
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0


SEPT OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG.


FIGURE :


140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0


Spiders


SEPT. OCT NOV. DEC. JAN FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG.


Tet racha carolin a


165


FIGURE : 2













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 45, No. 4


- \








SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC- JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG.
SET C.NV E- A.FB.MR P.MYJN UYAG


FIGURE :


140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0


Tet r a c h a


virqinica


SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG.


FIGURE : 4


140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
I0
0


166


Prosopia


bicin c t-a













Rhoades: Study of Fire Ant Eradication Program 167


140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0


SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG.


FIGURE : 5


140
130
120
I10
I00
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
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Gry IIu s


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SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG.


auricula r ia


Far f i c 0 1 a


FIGURE*: 6













The Florida Entomologist


I40
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
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SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG.


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I40
130
120
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Conoderus fall


SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG.


Ear thworms


168


Vol. 45, No. 4


FIGURE : 8














Rhoades: Study of Fire Ant Eradication Program


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Rhoades: Study of Fire Ant Eradication Program 173

LITERATURE CITED
Fichter, Edson. 1941. Apparatus for the comparison of soil surface
arthropod populations. Ecology 22(3) :338-339.
Hoffman, C. H., H. K. Townes, H. H. Swift, and R. I. Sailer. 1949. Field
studies on the effects of airplane applications of DDT on forest
invertebrates. Ecological Monographs 19:1-46.
Springer, Paul E., and John R. Webster. 1951. Biological effects of
DDT applications on tidal salt marshes. Mosquito News. 2(2) :67-74.
Stickel, George. 1949. Effects of DDT dust on wildlife. Amer. Midl.
Nat. 42(1) :228-237.












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WINTER INSECT LIGHT-TRAPPING AT THE ARCHBOLD
BIOLOGICAL STATION, FLORIDA1

S. W. FROST
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

The Archbold Biological Station, located about ten miles south of Lake
Placid, Florida, was selected to study insects attracted to light traps in
a semitropical area. This station, affiliated with the American Museum
of Natural History, is situated in a typical slash pine, sandy area latitude
27 10' 30" North and longitude 81 21' East. The laboratory provided
ideal facilities for insect light-trap studies. The project covered a period
of two winters, 1958-1959 and 1959-1960, from early November to April
first in each case. The studies during the first winter were somewhat
preliminary and the traps were not run every night. The second winter
the traps were operated practically every night. Three objectives were
considered: the feasibility of operating insect-light traps during the
winter months, the species involved, and the periods of the night when
different species or groups of species were active. Since no extensive
light trapping has been done previously in such an area, the opportun-
ities were unlimited and the results have been more satisfactory than
expected.


FENCE

Figure 1. Location of the light traps at the
Archbold Biological Station.


1Authorized for publication on Sept. 8, 1961, as paper No. 2601 in the
journal series of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station.












The Florida Entomologist


THE LIGHT TRAP
The same type trap was used throughout the studies. It was con-
structed entirely of 20 guage sheet aluminum and provided with a central,
vertical, black-light fluorescent lamp. Four baffles 20 inches long and 5/2
inches wide were placed at right angles to the lamp. A 25 inch circular
top diverted the rain. A 60 degree funnel, 12 inches in diameter di-
rected the insects downward. This was narrowed to a 2 inch opening at
the bottom which was fitted with a threaded mason jar top to accommodate
pint sodium cyanide killing jars. Small containers were desirable to fa-
cilitate complete removal of all insects and to permit proper cleaning. It
was essential that these jars be similarly prepared as this determined
their uniformity in killing the insects attracted. Ten jars were usually
prepared at a time. The high humidity of Florida necessitated the prep-
aration 'of new jars at about three months intervals. A few narrow
strips of paper toweling were placed in each jar, when in use, to absorb
excessive moisture and to prevent the larger insects from injuring the
smaller ones. After use, the jars were thoroughly cleaned and filled with
paper toweling to keep them dry.





..A -t. ...




Ti













Figure 2. Two light traps on standard, somewhat dense foliage
in the background, open exposure in the foreground.

LOCATION: During both winters the light traps were located in the
same small clearing at the southwest corner of the Station grounds. They
were hung on a standard eight feet above the ground and were completely
exposed on two sides but somewhat shielded on the other two by trees and
bushes. Nearby were two guest houses, a chicken yard, a vegetable gar-
den and a wash house, all of which had some bearing on the operation of
the traps. This location was selected partly to be near the living quarters


176


Vol. 45, No. 4












Frost: Insect Light-Trapping at Archbold Station 177

so that hourly visitations could be made readily. The wash house sup-
plied electric power for the timers and relays and a comfortable place to
remove the insects from the cyanide jars during all types of weather. The
garden, chicken yard and surrounding foliage accounted for some of the
insects trapped.
OPERATION: With a few exceptions, the traps were operated every
night. They were turned on by means of a time clock at 6 P.M. and off
at 7 A.M. the following morning, regardless of light intensity. The noc-
turnal flight of most insects was thus included. The manipulation of the
light traps was divided into six periods. From 6 to 10 P.M., the traps
were visited hourly; the insects were removed from the killing jars and
transferred to properly labelled pint icecream boxes. Fresh jars were
then placed on the traps. Hourly collections were necessary during warm
evenings when the insects nearly filled the cyanide jars. Such collections
supplied information on the time of flight of certain insects and yielded
much better specimens. The balance of the night and early morning was
divided into two periods, 10 P.M. to 2 A.M. and 2 A.M. to 7 A.M. This was
accomplished by operating two traps within three feet of each other. Cyanide
jars were placed on both traps at 10 P.M. The lamp of only one trap
was illuminated at this time. At 2 A.M. the lamp of this trap was switched
off and the other on, by means of an electric relay and a time control. It
should be noted that small numbers of insects were caught in the unil-
luminated trap. This was probably due to the fact that insects attracted
to the illuminated trap were intercepted by the baffles of the unillum-
inated trap. Also, the light from the illuminated trap reflected upon the
baffles of the adjacent trap thus forming a slight attraction for insects.
The following tests indicate that the number of insects captured in the
unilluminated traps, under such conditions, was not large.

TABLE 1.-INSECTS CAPTURED IN ILLUMINATED AND UNILLUMINATED TRAPS
PLACED WITHIN THREE FEET OF EACH OTHER.

Period Illuminated traps Unilluminated traps

Nov. 4 Pyralidae 42 9
6-7 P.M. Staphylinidae 404 92
Misc. Coleoptera 191 7
Other insects 2890 145

Total insects 3527 253

Nov. 25 Pyralidae 692 109
10-12 P.M. Staphylinidae 488 233
Misc. Coleoptera 764 69
Other insects 2496 270

Total insects 4440 681












The Florida Entomologist


SORTING THE COLLECTION
The morning following the night's operation, except in a few cases
when the collection was exceedingly large, the material was completely
sorted. This involved the identification and counting of the common species
and the search for and preparation of the rarer species, for subsequent
identification. This procedure required considerable time and patience.
Various sorts of simple equipment aided in the sorting process. White
pans 10 X 12 inches and 2 inches deep were very useful to spread the
material for a general inspection and to remove moths, grasshoppers, cric-
kets and other large insects. After these and many of the medium-sized in-
sects were removed, the sample was usually transferred to a six-inch petri
dish for the separation of the smaller insects. Only a small portion of the
sample was taken at a time until the whole was completed. This material
was examined under a binocular microscope to assure the recovery of
small species such as Psocidae, Aphidae, and even Strepsiptera. The scales
of the Lepidoptera often obscured the smaller insects and hindered their
separation. They were removed in two ways. Gently blowing over the
container usually left the sample clear for examination. When static
electricity caused the scale to adhere to the bottom of the petri dish, pouring
the material several times from one dish to another, removed scales and
other minute debris.
If the sample did not exceed 5000 specimens, the whole was sorted and
every insect accounted for. If larger, other methods were necessary.
After the removal of the larger and medium sized insects an "insect sorter"
was very useful. This machine, made in the laboratory workshop, consisted
of a cylinder of copper screen, 14 meshes to the inch, 81/2 inches long, and
8 inches in diameter. It was arranged so that it could be tilted and re-
volved. Various insects were readily separated by this device. Specimens
of the minute mayfly Caenis diminuta Wlk., which were usually a problem
because of their small size, their abundance, and the fact that they adhered
to each other in great masses, were retained by the screen, allowing smaller
insects especially Staphylinidae and Trichopterygidae, to pass through.
These were collected in a white pan placed below the separator. Screens
of larger meshes, 8 and 4 meshes to the inch, were sometimes useful in
separating larger insects.
A very large collection required division. Collections were never di-
vided until all the larger insects and most of the medium-sized insects had
been removed, resulting in a somewhat uniform mixture. This often con-
sisted of one or two dominant species. The Corixidae for example often
constituted a large percentage of such a mixture. The sample was thor-
oughly mixed and a portion taken by weight for careful examination and
counting. Rare insects might be missed by this method, but if suspected,
the unexamined portion was preserved for future study.
Very small insects such as the midges and Staphylinidae were difficult to
pick up with forceps. They were most easily counted by pushing them aside,
selecting one species at a time.
Small petri dishes, approximately 30 mm. in diameter, were very handy
to hold desired specimens until time permitted proper mounting. These
dishes could be closed to retain a certain amount of the original moisture
and to protect the insects.


178


Vol. 45, No. 4








Frost: Insect Light-Trapping at Archbold Station 179





~*1S


c
i o..
F :hyl .


: : :
r4:


,i


Figure 3. An insect sorter.


-I . I


Figure 4. A uniform mixture of insects in a six-inch petri dish after the
removal of the larger insects. Micro Coleoptera predominate.












10u The Florida Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 4

RECORDING THE DATA
A two-page form was prepared to include the orders, families, genera,
and species to be recorded with spaces for the intervals of collections. It
was difficult to arrange a suitable form that would be concise and flexible.
Ten orders, 40 families, 18 genera, and 10 species were included. The com-
mon species such as Etiella zinckenella Treit., Tomaspis bicincta Say and
Diplotaxis bidentata Lee., were indicated by generic names only. On the
other hand, rarer species such as Trox terrestris Say, T. monachus Hbst.,
and T. suberosus Fab., were recorded collectively under the generic name
Trox to be classified subsequently.
Over 95 per cent of the material has been identified with only a few
small groups remaining to be studied. The majority of the material has
been deposited in the collection of The Pennsylvania State University but
representatives of the more common species have been placed in the Arch-
bold Biological Station collection. New and rare species have been retained
by those making identifications.

FACTORS AFFECTING LIGHT TRAP OPERATIONS
There are two major sources of variation in evaluating light trap
catches: the activities of the insects and the environmental conditions. The
activities of the insects are due primarily to seasonable abundance, differ-
ences in the response of males and females, and types of flight. The latter
determines to some extent the number of insects actually caught. Certain
beetles, especially the aquatic species, dash into the baffles and drop almost
immediately into the funnel and thence into the killing jar. Moths and
other insects tend to circle about the light, and often fly away to rest on
some nearby surface or even fail to enter the trap until the following night.
Odors produced by the scent glands of males or females may attract
others of the same species thus increasing the number caught. Copulating
pairs of Formicidae, Tipulidae and Cecidomyiidae have frequently been
taken in light traps. These, however, were probably mated before they
were attracted to the traps. Many insects were undoubtedly on nuptial
flights when they were captured.
Environmental factors include geographical location, the local placement
of the traps and the weather conditions including precipitation, humidity,
wind direction, wind velocity, temperature, light intensity, especially at
sunset and at dawn, and possibly the effect of moonlight. The location of
the traps was standardized but the ever changing weather conditions pre-
sented a problem difficult to evaluate.
These studies were concerned chiefly with the species and number of
specimens captured, however, some notes were taken on temperatures.
During 1958-1959, temperatures were taken at 6 P.M., 7 A.M., and the
lowest for the night, which were averaged to give the mean temperature
for the period of operation of the traps. During 1959-1960, temperatures
were taken at hourly periods from 6 to 10 P.M., at 7 A.M., and the lowest
for the night, which were averaged. Daily temperatures from 7 A.M. to
6 P.M., were plotted but rarely reflected any influence on the nightly col-
lections.


__


I_ _ _










Frost: Insect Light-Trapping at Archbold Station 181


AVERAGE NIGHT TEMPERATURES
1958-1959
70

60

50

40


NOV I DEC I JAN I FEB I MARCH

AVERAGE NIGHT TEMPERATURES
70 1959-1960


60.

50.

40'


NOV. I DECG JAN. FEB. MARCH

Figure 5. Average night temperatures November-March 1958-1959
and 1959-1960.

Generally, temperatures during the period of operation of the traps,
from 6 P.M. to 7 A.M. were the most important factors regulating the
abundance of the insects caught. The total number of insects taken during
1959-1960, the number of Caenis i;,,,;,,tr Wlk., the number of Trichocorixa
louisianae Jacq., and in fact all the species or groups were considerably
reduced during the cool periods from November 28 to December 1, January
20 to 25, and March 4 to 9. Figure 5 indicates that low temperatures oc-
curred during these periods.
To further illustrate the temperatures at which insects were attracted
in largest number, the month of January, 1960 (Table 3), was selected as it
exhibited a wide range of temperatures, many below 40' Fahrenheit and a
few above 600. The average of nightly temperatures for this month was
slightly below that of November and March (Table 2). Some details will
help interpret this table. It is very evident that temperature is the principle
factor concerned. Practically no rain occurred during January (Fig. 6).
There was less than one-half inch on the 30th of the month. The night wind
velocities were generally low as follows; January 3rd less than 10 miles per
hour, January 7th approximately 20 miles per hour until 10 P.M., January
18, 29, 30 and 31 less than 10 miles per hour. All other nights the wind
velocities were imperceptible.
The catches were very high when the temperatures were above 600F.,
somewhat high when the temperatures were between 50' and 600, more or
less reduced between 400 and 500 and considerable reduced below 40'. The
data for the period January 20 to 24th illustrated the effect of low tem-












The Florida Entomologist


peratures. This held true for all groups as well as individual species. On
the 25th the temperature was relatively high (44.30) but the catches were
low, which illustrates a delay of the insects to return to their normal activ-
ity after a prolonged cool period.
Of the 1,085 Orthoptera, listed in Table 3, 1,077 were Nemobius carolinus
Scudd. A few Neoconocephalus triops (L.) and other Orthoptera were in-
cluded in the total.

TABLE 2.-AVERAGE NIGHT TEMPERATURES *


Number of days

Below Above Total
Month 40 40-50 50-60o 60-70' 70 days

(1958-1959)
November 0 0 0 18 6 24
December 0 5 12 14 0 31
January 4 7 8 11 1 31
February 0 0 4 22 2 28
March 1 4 8 17 1 31

Total days 5 16 32 82 10 145

(1959-1960)
November 0 2 0 21 3 26
December 1 7 13 10 0 31
January 5 2 15 9 0 31
February 2 7 9 11 0 29
March 1 8 8 14 0 31

Total days 9 26 45 65 3 148

Temperatures, in Fahrenheit, were computed for 1958-1959 on temperatures at 6 P.M.,
7 A.M., and the lowest for the night. For 1959-1960, they were computed on the tempera-
tures at 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 P.M.. 7 A. M., and the minimum for the night.

The 46,853 Coleoptera involved many species. More than twelve species
of Staphylinidae contributed 13,408 specimens, several species of Dytiscidae
were included in the 6,969 specimens, and several species of Carabidae con-
tributed 2,122 specimens. Dyscinetus morator Fab., was somewhat abun-
dant with 353 specimens.
Of the 8,492 specimens of Lepidoptera, 5,503 were Pyralidae, chiefly
Paraponyx allionealis (Wlk.) and Pachyzancla phaeopteralis (Gn.), and
242 were Noctuidae. Some of the species were not numerous. Only 154
specimens of Urodus parvulus (HyEdw.), 39 specimens of Tolype minta
Dyar and 8 specimens of Halisidota long (Grt.) were taken.
The Heteroptera totaled 4,670 specimens. Approximately 50 per cent
(2603) were Trichocorixa louisianae Jacq. The balance consisted of nu-


182


Vol. 45, No. 4












Frost: Insect Light-Trapping at Archbold Station 183

merous species, none especially numerous except the minute Antillocoris
pallidus (Uhler).
About 50 species of Homoptera were identified but none occurred in
noticeable numbers. The Fulgoroidea and Cicadellidae contributed the
majority of the specimens.
PRECIPITATION
1956 -159


NOV.


I DEC JAN.
DEC. 1 JAN. FEB.


MARCH


PRECIPITATION
o195 -o10


N 1
NOV.


DEC. |


JAN,


, FE. MA, R
FE B. MARCH


Figure 6. Precipitation November-March 1958-1959 and 1959-1960.

It is evident that the midges constituted the largest part of the Diptera.
These consisted of 15,024 specimens of Culicoides, 41,986 specimens of Ceci-
domyiidae and Mycetophylidae, 491 specimens of Tendipedidae, chiefly Ten-
dipes crassicaudatus (Mall.), and a few miscellaneous species.
The remaining Diptera, 2,898 specimens, involved relatively small num-
bers of a large number of species.
The Trichoptera consisted of two groups: two or three species of Micro-
trichoptera (Hydroptilidae) and approximately ten species of Macrotri-
choptera. To date, they have not been identified and were difficult to sepa-
rate at the time the counts were made.
The Ephemeroptera presented .a very interesting picture. Caenis dimi-
nuta Wlk. contributed 24,210 specimens while only 88 specimens of Calli-
baetis pretiosus Banks were taken.
Eleven species of Psocoptera have been identified but none were notice-
ably abundant during January.















184 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 4



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Frost: Insect Light-Trapping at Archbold Station


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186 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 4


The Hymenoptera consisted chiefly of small parasitic species, some For-
micidae, and a few Ichneumonidae. The largest collection, January 5th,
consisted chiefly of a common species of ant, Wasmannia auropunctata
(Rog.), indicating a small flight.

TOTAL COLLECTION
9s59-1980


16000 - --- ------ -- .

8000 -- ---..

4000

2000

1000 --

100
200 .... I -




NO* DEG. JAN. FEB. MARCH
Figure 7. Total insect collections made by light traps November-March
1959-1960.

Table 4 clearly reveals the effect of various temperatures on the num-
ber of insects captured in light traps. Ninety-five per cent of the Orthop-
tera consisted of Nemobius carolinus. The balance were Neoconocephalus
triops and a few miscellaneous species. A large proportion of the Nema-
tocera were Culicoides. The Ephemeroptera were chiefly the minute Caenis
diminuta. The Hymenoptera were almost entirely several species of For-
micidae.
The Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Ephemerop-
tera usually were not affected until the temperatures dropped to 500. The
Orthoptera, Homoptera, Psocoptera, and Hymenoptera were almost absent
when the temperatures dropped below 400. The Nematocera were the last
to be affected and often came when the temperatures were well below 40.
Wind velocities were recorded for the night as mild, 5 miles per hour
or less, strong, 5 to 10 miles per hour, or very strong, more than 20 miles
per hour. Air currents were generally negligible because the traps were
somewhat protected by foliage on two sides. The records indicated that the
conditions were calm or with very mild winds on the majority of the nights.
During 1959-1960 strong winds were recorded on only seven nights, namely
November 16, December 24, January 7, February 4, 11, 13, and March 3.
On December 24 and February 13 the winds were very strong and con-
tinuous.
Precipitation was recorded for the 24 hour period with special notes
for excessive rains during the night. The rains often came during the day
especially the late afternoon, and seldom in sufficient amounts at nights to
interfere with the operation of the traps. Although rains occurred on












Frost: Insect Light-Trapping at Archbold Station 187


32 twenty-four hour periods, during 1958-1959, they exceeded one inch on
only five of these periods. During 1959-1960, rains occurred on 36 twenty-
four hour periods, exceeding one inch on only three.


TABLE 4.-RELATION OF THE NUMBER OF INSECTS CAPTURED IN LIGHT
TRAPS TO TEMPERATURES*

Archbold Biological Station, Florida
November 4, 1959, to March 30, 1960

Temperature Below Above
400 40-500 50-60 60-70 700

No. nights 9 ,26 45 65 3

Orthoptera 0 0 51 2213 437
Coleoptera 0 72 28,358 143,634 16,112
Lepidoptera 6 354 5973 23,039 3278
Heteroptera 0 12 1847 34,786 2845
Homoptera 0 0 262 4592 1090
Nematocera 38 5994 77,094 125,527 7867
Other Diptera 4 37 1303 4262 827
Trichoptera 2 102 5810 25,338 2422
Ephemeroptera 1 1392 37,653 125,642 53,556
Psocoptera 0 1 176 588 11
Hymenoptera 0 4 76 2290 286

Average temperatures for the nightly period of operation of the light traps.


TABLE 5.-LIGHT INTENSITY IN FOOT-CANDLES AT SUNSET AT
THE ARCHBOLD BIOLOGICAL STATION, 1960*

Hour

Date 6.00 6.10 6.20 6.30 6.40 6.50

Jan. 18 10.0
Feb. 2 29.6 9.6 1.6 .0 .0 .0
Feb. 8 36.8 18.8 4.8 .4 .0 .0
Feb. 16 36.0 32.0 7.6 1.6 .0 .0
Feb. 25 40+ 40+ 12.2 2.8 .0 .0
Feb. 29 40+ 40+ 27.2 11.2 1.2 .0
March 7 40+ 40+ 30.8 18.0 2.4 .0
March 14 40+ 40+ 38.0 10.4 4.2 .4
March 21 40+ 40+ 40+ 30.0 9.2 1.2
March 28 40+ 40+ 40+ 34.8 14.8 2.4

Cloudy evenings were avoided, occasionally thin clouds affected the readings.












188 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 4

Official hours of sunset and sunrise gave information for seasonal changes
during the period of operation. More valuable information was obtained
by taking light readings at sunset. Cloudiness at this time or at dawn
greatly lessened the activity of the insects. Light-intensity readings were
taken with an accurate photometer and converted into foot-candles. Pre-
vious to January 18th, the intensity of the light was too strong, before
6 P.M., to measure with this instrument. Table 5 clearly indicates the
change of light intensity from January 18th to March 28th.
Frogs, birds and other predacious forms constitute a part of the environ-
ment and may reduce the catch. Frogs have been reported to visit light
traps during the night and capture specimens but in spite of frequent
checking of the traps, they have never been observed. Birds have fre-
quently been seen, especially at dawn, feeding upon insects on or near the
traps. However, they apparently never altered the count. Spiders oc-
casionally visited the traps and may have taken a small toll.
Odors produced by insects such as Meloidae, Staphylinidae or Pentato-
midae may attract or repell other insects.
Evenings, when enormous numbers of one species were attracted, they
repelled others, or obscured the light and thus reduced the catch. When in-
sects such as Staphylinidae or Corixidae were exceedingly numerous, other
insects, especially Lepidoptera, were reduced.
Finally, there is a definite relation between the plants growing in the
vicinity of the traps and many of the insects captured in them. A large
percentage of insects depend directly or indirectly upon plants for their
existence. More than 50 per cent of the species of insects are plant feeders
and the Homoptera, including leafhoppers, aphids and fulgorids, are strictly
phytophagous. Many Hemiptera, the larvae of most Lepidoptera, the
larvae of sawflies, the Orthoptera, with the exception of the mantids, certain
groups of Coleoptera such as the Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Elateridae
and Curculionidae, are also phytophagous. The attraction of many insects
such as aphids, leafhoppers, treehoppers, leaf miners and certain Lepidop-
tera have been traced directly to the approximation of the traps to their
host plants. For this reason a list of the common plants growing in the
vicinity of the light traps is given below.

COMMON PLANTS GROWING AT THE ARCHBOLD BIOLOGICAL STATION
IN THE VICINITY OF THE LIGHT TRAPS.
Trees
Bayberry Myrica cerifera
Cabbage palm Sabal palmetto
Grape fruit Citrus paradisi
Guava Psidium guajava
Holly Ilex cassine
Laurel oak Quercus laurifolia
Mandarin Citrus reticulata
Mango Mangifera indica
Mulberry Morus nigra
Persimmon Diospyros virginiana mosieri
Slash pine Pinus elliottii
Swampbay Persea palustris
Sweet orange Citrus sinensis
White bay Magnolia virginiana


___












Frost: Insect Light-Trapping at Archbold Station


Ferns


Cinnamon fern
Swamp fern
Sword fern


Shrubs


Azalea
Brazilian pepper
Castor bean
Cress
Flame of the woods
Golden trumpet
Japanese privet
Lobelia
Night blooming jasmine
Pepper grass
Primrose-willow
Stagger bush
Southern elder
Turks-cap mallow
Virginia willow


Vines


Carolina jasmine
Cherokee rose
Blackberry
Dutchman's pipe
Grape
Rosary pea
Virginia creeper
Wild balsam apple


Bermuda grass
St. Augustine grass
Natal grass
Sedge
Sedge


Osmunda cinnamomea
Blechnum serrulatum
Nephrolepis cordifolia


Azalea species
Schinus terebinthifolius
Ricinus communis
Cardamine debilis
Ixora coccinea
Allamanda cathartic
Ligustrum lucidum
Lobelia glandulosa
Cestrum nocturnum
Lepidium virginicum
Jussuaea angustifolia
Pieris nitida
Sambucus simpsonii
Malvaviscus grandiflorus
Itea virginica


Gelsemium sempervirens
Rosa laevigata
Rubus cuneifolium?
Aristolochia macrophylla?
Muscadinia munsoniana
Abrus precatorius
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Mormordica charantia


Sedges and Grasses
Cynodon dactylon
Stenotaphrum secundatum
Tricholaena rose
Carex alata
Cyperus retrorsus?


Herbs


Bedstraw
Beggar ticks
Bitter-weed
Caesar's weed
Composite
Coral plant
Day flower
Ginger lily
Golden rod
Golden aster
Fireweed
Primrose willow
Nightshade
Ragweed
Rabbit tobacco
Red emilia
Scarlet sage
Snow bush
Wood Sorrel
Toad flax


Galium tinctorium
Bidens pilosa
Actinospermum angustifolium
Urena lobata
Eclipta alba
Russelia juncea
Commelina longicaulis
Hedychium coronarium
Solidago fistulosa
Chrysopsis graminifolia
Erechtites hieracifolia
Jussiaea peruviana
Solanum nigrum
Ambrosia monophylla
Gnaphalium purpureum
Emilia coccinea
Salvia coccinea
Phyllanthus lathyroides
Oxalis corniculata
Linaria canadensis


189












The Florida Entomologist


Amaryllis
Bowstring hemp
Bunch moss
Mexican day flower
Pineapple
Saw palmetto
Seminole bells
Spanish moss
Sprouting leaves
Cactus


Beet
Carrot
Cruciferae
Snap bean


Vol. 45, No. 4


Miscellaneous
Hippeastrum vittatum
Sansevieria guineensis
Tillandsia recurvata
Callisia fragrans
Ananas comosus
Serenoa repens
Bryophyllum pinnatum
Tillandsia usneoides
Kalanchoe verticellata
Opuntia species

Garden crops
Beta vulgaris
Daucus carota
Several species
Phaseolus vulgaris
(To be continued)


190










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A NEW SPECIES OF SCHILDIA FROM JAMAICA
(DIPTERA: ASILIDAE)

THOMAS H. FARR
Science Museum, The Institute of Jamaica
Kingston, Jamaica, W. I.

The genus Schildia was erected by Aldrich (1923)1 for S. microthorax
from Costa Rica and since that time no additional species have been de-
scribed for the genus. However, according to Dr. Charles H. Martin (Per-
sonal communication, 1961), there are at least three other species now
placed in other genera which actually should be included in Schildia, but
he is certain that the species herein described is not one of these.

Schildia jamaicensis, new species
MALE: Length, 8.5 mm. Head, black; face gray pollinose, frons and
vertex, dark gray pollinose, posteriorly dark gray-brown except for a med-
ian dorso-ventral band of gray; mystax, two pale hairs; post-orbital bristles
black, few, moderately well developed; antennal segments 1 and 2 gray-
white, 3 with basal half gray-white, distal half and style, dark brown, style
about one-fourth the length of segment 3, segments 1 and 2 with a circlet
of short setae; proboscis, dark brown.
Thorax, polished dark brown, gray-white and ivory white; pronotum
gray-white pollinose; mesonotum, dark brown, humeri ivory white bounded
medially by a gray or dirty white area, post-alar callosities, ivory white;
a pair of narrow, faint, brown stripes, dorsocentrally; chaetotaxy, pre-
sutural dorsocentrals 1, postsutural dorsocentrals 1, supraalars 1, postalars
1; in lateral view, the mesonotum projecting noticeably beyond the anterior
margins of the mesopleura; scutellum brown with very minute marginal
setae; mesopleura yellow-white dorsally and anteriorly, brown medially,
darker brown ventrally and posteriorly.
Abdomen,2 polished brown, elongate clavate; segment 2 nearly twice as
long as segment 3; tergites polished dark brown, somewhat darker at apices,
a narrow ring of gray present at about mid-length of segment 2, tergites
3-5 pale gray at base, tergite 6 entirely pale gray, tergites 7 and 8 and
tergal portions of segment 9 dark brown except for the tips of the surstyli
and proctiger; sternites somewhat paler in color; vestiture moderate, black.
Wings, hyaline with violaceous reflections; membrane with a scant to
moderate number of microtrichia uniformly distributed, veins with micro-
trichia (not shown in drawing) except on subcosta and Ri+2. Halteres, stem
white, knob, dark brown.

1 Aldrich, J. M. 1923. New genera of two-winged flies of the subfamily
Leptogastrinae of the family Asilidae. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 62,
Art. 20, p. 4.
2 In order to study the terminalia, they were cut from the abdomen and
treated in concentrated KOH at room temperature for two hours, then
washed in water and placed in glycerine for examination under the micro-
scope. The male abdomen used in figure 4 was treated in the same manner.












The Florida Entomologist


-Y




c4


C


192


Vol. 45, No. 4












Farr: A New Species of Schildia From Jamaica


Legs with coxae, pale yellowish white; fore and middle femora pale
gray-brown with two faint brown bands, apices, brown; hind femora pale,
gray-brown basally, shading to darker brown apically, clavate portion gray-
white on basal third, apical two-thirds, dark brown; fore and middle tibiae
pale gray-brown with two faint bands of darker brown, hind tibiae dark
brown with a gray-white band at about mid-length; fore and middle tarsi
with segments 1-3 pale gray, 4 and 5 brown, hind tarsi with basitarsi pale
gray but with dark brown apices, succeeding segments entirely dark brown.
Pubescence, black, scant to moderate except on the hind tibiae where it is
rather pronounced.
FEMALE: Length, 9 mm. The female is very similar to the male in
general appearance. The 8th sternite (Fig. 8) appears to be bi-lobed at
its posterior margin but there is actually a thinly sclerotized area connect-
ing the two "lobes". The region posterior to the 8th segment seems to be
entirely membranous and may represent the 9th segment and proctiger.
In dried specimens, the 8th segment is withdrawn into the 7th segment.
Holotype: Male, St. Andrew, Long Mountain, 3 April 1960 (T. H.
Farr).
Allotype: Female, St. Andrew, Long Mountain, 23 February 1961
(T. H. Farr).
Paratypes: 15 males, 11 females. Males. St. Andrew, Long Mountain,
22 February 1961, 23 February 1961, 9 March 1960, 18 March 1962, 26
March 1961 (2), 30 March 1962, 1 April 1960, 3 April 1960 (2), 30 April 1960,
12 May 1962, 30 September 1956; Trelawny, Windsor Estate, 24 January
1962, 24 August 1955. Females. St. Andrew, Long Mountain, 15 April
1962, 16 April 1960, 19 August 1956, 25 August 1957 (2), 29 September
1957 (2); Trelawny, Windsor Estate, 24 January 1962 (4). All collected
by T. H. Farr.
The holotype and allotype are deposited in the United States National
Museum. Deposition of paratypes as follows: British Museum (N. H.),
3 males, 2 females; Institute of Jamaica, Science Museum, 8 males, 6 fe-


EXPLANATION OF FIGURES

1. Head, left lateral aspect.
2. Wing.
3. Right posterior leg.
4. Male abdomen, left lateral aspect.
5. Male, dorsal outline of 9th tergite.
6. Male, 9th abdominal segment.
a. Left, lateral aspect of 9th segment and associated structures.
b, c, d. Three aspects of process "x" (dististylus?).
e. Mesal aspect of apical half of process "y" as seen beneath a cov-
er-slip.
7. Female, left, lateral aspect of 8th abdominal segment and associated
structures.
8. Female, outline of 8th sternite.
Note: Membranous areas in figures 6 and 7 are represented by stip-
pling.


193












The Florida Entomologist


males; Charles H. Martin collection 2 males, 1 female; United States Na-
tional Museum, 2 males, 2 females.
DISCUSSION: Males vary in length from 7.5 9.0 mm; females from
7.15 10.0 mm. Although there is some variation in intensity of color, the
pattern is virtually the same throughout the series. In some specimens,
the 6th abdominal segment has changed from the original gray-white color
to brown.
The palpi are so small that they are difficult to see unless the proboscis
is dissected from the head. They are about two-thirds the length of the
proboscis, two segmented with the first segment nearly twice the length of
the second.
In dried specimens, abdominal segment 7 appears to be entirely dark
brown, but when the abdomen is expanded, the tergite and sternite are seen
to be pale gray in the basal third. A specimen which had been stunned
with ethyl acetate was examined under a microscope where it was observed
that the exoskeleton of the 6th and part of the 7th abdominal segments
was actually transparent and visceral movement was clearly discernible in
the transparent area. Apparently post-mortem changes render this region
opaque gray-white.
I have not examined the genotype but Aldrich's description of micro-
thorax indicates that the antennae are yellow and that the mesonotum is
brownish yellow; in jamaicensis, the antennae are gray-white and dark
brown and the mesonotum is mostly dark brown. The "second joint" of the
abdomen of microthorax is described as having a yellow ring in the middle;
in jamaicensis, the ring on segment 2 is gray-white. Aldrich makes no men-
tion that his species has the 6th abdominal segment distinctly different in
color from the other segments; in jamaicensis, the gray-white 6th segment
contrasts markedly with the dark brown of the other segments.
Twenty-two of the specimens were collected in a logwood woodland
(Haematoxylon campechianum) along the base of a steep bank and six
were collected in a moist woodland along the base of a limestone cliff.
Nearly all were taken as they hung head uppermost from the underside of
spider webs located in hollows of the bank and cliff. The flies were not
trapped in the webs because they were observed to leave and return to
them at will.


194


Vol. 45, No. 4














ANTENNAL ANOMALY OF A NEOTROPICAL BEE,
AUGOCHLORA PURA MOSIERI COCKERELL,
FOUND IN FLORIDA
(HYMENOPTERA, APOIDEA)

FRANK P. SIVIK
Biology Department, Barry College, Miami Shores, Florida

While I was on a field trip with a group of students to Virginia Key,
Florida, a small island east of South Miami, on November 11, 1961, an
interesting specimen of Augochlora pura mosieri' was collected on Aster.
The right antenna of this male bee was anomalous, as its flagellum was
distorted even though it was 13-jointed, a normal male character.
Anomalous antennae have been studied for some time as Cockerell (1911)
noted that some females of the genus Androgynella possessed 13-jointed
antennae instead of the normal 12. Mitchell (1929) found abnormalities in
some of the female Megachile and noted that their terminal joints were not
appreciably dilated or expanded; and with some of the male Megachile, he
noted that their apical joints were not only longer than the others but also
were greatly flattened. In 1943, Rodeck discovered that a female Nomada
vicina never possessed a right antenna at all.
Study of our specimen revealed that the scape and pedicel of both
antennae were similar but that there was a difference in the flagella. The
left antenna was normal filiform in shape; whereas, the right one appeared
about a third shorter, more or less broadly dilated, and with some of the
joints irregular in shape (fig. 1). Further study of this bee showed no
other external morphological anomalies.














Figure 1. Right anomalous antenna of Augochlora pura mosieri.

LITERATURE CITED
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1911. Androgynella detersa. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.
(8)6:313.
Mitchell, T. B. 1929. Sex anomalies in the genus Megachile with descrip-
tions of new species. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 54:321-383.
Rodeck, H. G. 1943. Antennal anomaly in Nomada vicina Cresson (Hym.:
Apoidea). Ent. News 54 (8):175.
SCollected by Miss P. A. Stack.










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J' p
















MINUTES OF THE 45th ANNUAL MEETING
OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

The 45th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society was
held in Gainesville, Florida, from August 29-31, 1962. A pre-meeting "bull
session" of selected topics was held at the Holiday Inn, Gainesville, on
the evening of August 29.
President W. C. Rhoades opened the convention at 9:00 A.M., August 30,
in the auditorium of the J. Hillis Miller Health Center on the University
of Florida Campus. One hundred five persons registered. Thirty papers
were presented, including five invitational papers and two panel discussions.
The invitational papers were:
The Status of Arboviruses in the State. John A. Mulrennan, State
Board of Health.
Observations of a Wandering Entomologist. Fred C. Bishopp, Lee
County Mosquito Control District.
The Position of the Division of Plant Industry on the Eradication
of Well-Established Insects in Florida. W. G. Cowperthwaite,
Division of Plant Industry.
Ecological Situations in Florida Habitats. John H. Davis, Univer-
sity of Florida.
The Role of the Taxonomist. Charles H. Curran, Watermelon and
Grape Investigations Laboratory.
The panel discussions were:
Forest Entomology. R. J. Kowal, U.S.D.A., Division of Forest In-
sects Research, Moderator; Vaughn F. McCowan, Florida Board
of Forestry; John F. Wooten, U.S.D.A. Forest Service; E. P.
Merkel, U.S.D.A Forest Service; Robert Wilkinson, Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station; and R. E. Lee, III, Union Bag-
Camp Paper Corporation.
Understanding and Coordination Among Agricultural Industries and
Research Agencies. Willard M. Fifield, Florida Agricultural Re-
search Institute, Moderator; S. H. Kerr, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station; M. C. Van Horn, Florida Agricultural Supply
Company; Lewis S. Maxwell, X-Cel Supply Company; and J. T.
Griffiths, Eloise Groves Association.
The first business meeting was called by President W. C. Rhoades at
4:15 P.M. on August 30, at the Health Center Auditorium. Fifty members
were present.
President Rhoades read a proposal to amend Article II, Section 6 of the
By-Laws as follows:
"Section 6. There shall be a permanent Public Relations Committee of
5 members. It shall be the duty of this committee to handle such matters
as publicity, education and general public relations in fulfillment of the
first objective given in the constitution, which is 'To promote the study
of entomology.' The committee shall also be concerned with matters which
affect the interests of the entomological profession. In the furtherance of
this latter objective, the committee shall (1) Appear at public hearings on
matters which affect the interests of the entomological profession; (2)
keep informed on all public affairs affecting entomology, including legisla-
tion, and to represent the Society in all such matters by offering advice
and counsel to the State Government and to the public in these matters;
(3) to promote activities designed to improve the status of professional
entomology. The Chairman (or representative) of the committee shall
serve in an ex-officio capacity on the Executive Committee.












The Florida Entomologist


"Upon the adoption of this amendment, the incoming President shall
name the full initial committee, one member of which will serve for one
year, two for two years and two for three years. Each succeeding Presi-
dent shall appoint members for a three-year term to fill committee vacan-
cies. The Chairman shall be designated each year by the President under
whom he will serve."
Lewis Berner moved the adoption of the proposal with a change at the
beginning of the second paragraph, namely, strike "Upon adoption of this
amendment". The motion was seconded and carried unanimously by a
show of hands.
J. T. Griffiths moved that the Public Relations Committee, created by
the above proposal, study the matter of certification of professional en-
tomologists, and, if the committee decides it is feasible, to have a certifi-
cation program and to offer proposals on how to proceed to set up such
a program. The motion was seconded and carried by a show of hands
after a discussion which should provide helpful leads to the committee.
The following committees were appointed by President Rhoades:
Auditing: John King, Chairman; Herman Mayeux; John Mulrennan.
Resolutions: Henry True, Chairman; Milledge Murphey; D. O.
Wolfenbarger.
President Rhoades read the membership a letter prepared by the Ex-
ecutive Committee to be sent to Dr. Lawrence Hetrick on behalf of the
membership thanking Dr. Hetrick for his long and excellent service as
secretary of the Society. A motion was made to send the letter to Dr.
Hetrick. The motion was seconded and carried unanimously by a show of
hands.
President Rhoades recognized honorary member Kenneth Bragdon.
Report of the Honors and Awards Committee for 1962.
In consideration of the advice and recommendations of the 1960 and
1961 committees, the 1962 committee has nominated two men to receive
the distinguished award of the Florida Entomological Society for outstand-
ing contributions to Science and the public. Appropriate plaques and cita-
tions signifying this honor have been prepared for presentation to each
nominee or their representative upon approval by the Society.
The citations read as follows:
"Be it known by all men who shall read these presents, that the Florida
Entomological Society on this thirtieth day of August, in the year of our
Lord, nineteen hundred and sixty-two, does hereby recognize and honor
Dr. Archie N. Tissot for outstanding and meritorius service to Science and
to the public.
"Archie, as he is known to his many friends and colleagues, has served
as Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Entomologist for 37 years.
He has been an invaluable leader in Florida Entomology as Head of the
Entomology Department of the Station for 15 years. He has a real ap-
preciation for all aspects of Entomology, applied as well as the academic.
He has devoted unselfishly his professional life to improving our under-
standing of Florida insects and to controlling those of economic importance.
During his residency in Florida, he has been a member of the Society and
has served without hesitation in most offices. Following Professor J. R.
Watson's death, Archie held the Society together and brought order out of
chaos. He has always been a directing force in the Society .and a voice
that all of us listened to with respect. His advice has been sound and his
recommendations carefully and thoughtfully given. Archie is truly out-
standing in the history of the Society, and his contributions to Florida
Entomology are beyond words.
"We are humbly grateful for this man, who has freely given of himself
to all men and Entomology.
"We, the committee, submit this nomination to you in the form of a
motion. We move that this nomination be accepted, and that the President
make the presentation of the plaque and citation on behalf of the Florida
Entomological Society, and that the text of the citation be recorded in the


198


Vol. 45, No. 4












Minutes of the 45th Meeting of Fla. Entomological Society 199

minutes of this meeting to become a part of the permanent record of the
Florida Entomological Society.
"Be it known by all men who shall read these presents, that the Florida
Entomological Society on this thirtieth day of August, in the year of our
Lord, nineteen hundred and sixty-two, does hereby recognize and honor
the late Mr. Frank S. Chamberlin for outstanding and meritorius service
to Science and to the public.
"Frank, as he was known to his many friends and colleagues, served as
United States Department of Agriculture Entomologist for 45 years; 39
of those years at Quincy, Florida. His contributions to Entomology are
best known for research on biology and control of tobacco insect pests, and
particularly cigar-wrapper tobacco pests. During his many fruitful years
of service he was author and co-author of many publications relating to the
biology and control of many economic insect pests in the Southeastern
United States. Many of the controls he established for cigar-wrapper to-
bacco insects have been adapted for use on other types of tobacco through-
out the United States and the World. He was Vice-President of the Society
just prior to being transferred to Oxford, North Carolina, in 1955, where he
headed all research on tobacco insect control for the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. His keen interest and devotion to his work was a
major asset in his life, thereby, creating in him the ability to serve so long
and diligently the profession of Entomology. His untimely passing in 1961
carried with it a vast knowledge of tobacco insects and control, and his
presence and vibrant personality are sorely missed by the Society, State, and
those who knew him.
"We, the committee, submit this nomination to you in the form of a
motion. We move that this nomination be accepted, and that the President
of the Florida Entomological Society act as the representative or designate
an alternate on behalf of the Society to present the plaque and citation to
Mrs. Frank S. Chamberlin of Quincy, Florida, in honor of her late husband,
Mr. Frank S. Chamberlin, and that the text of the citation be recorded in
the minutes of this meeting to become a part of the permanent record
of the Florida Entomological Society."
Lewis Berner
M. H. Muma
William B. Tappan, Chairman
The above motions were approved and carried unanimously by a show
of hands. President Rhoades then appointed William Tappan to make the
presentation of the plaque and citation to Mrs. Chamberlin.
President Rhoades brought to the attention of the membership the
feeling of the Executive Committee that the Honors and Awards Committee
should be continued with its present duties, and in addition if an award is
approved, only one per year will be given.
A. J. Rogers made a motion to leave it to the discretion of the Honors
and Awards Committee as to how many awards will be given per year.
Action on the motion was held in abeyance until information on the
status of the present duties of the committee could be studied.
The meeting was adjourned at 5:00 P.M.
The second business session was convened by President Rhoades on
August 31 at 2:00 P.M. Forty members were present.
The motion made by A. J. Rogers at the end of the first business session
was taken up again. J. T. Griffiths asked if Dr. Rogers would incorporate
into his motion a request that the incoming president make an examination
of the original functions of the Honors and Awards Committee. Dr.
Rogers did so, and the motion was carried by a show of hands.
A report on membership was made by Dr. R. E. Waites.
State members 207
Out of State Members 41
Foreign members 14
New members during the past year 15
Membership applications on file 6













The Florida Entomologist


The new members accepted into the society during the past year are:
David A. Dame, Post Office Box 3391, Orlando, Florida
Hollis M. Flint, 285-6 Corry Village, Gainesville, Florida
Edwin I. Hazard, 1400 Sustella Avenue, Valdosta, Georgia
Russell E. Hill, 1710 E. So. Lambright, Tampa, Florida
Charles R. Howell, 310-B Flavet I, Gainesville, Florida
William R. Hudgens, Apt. 232-A Flavet III, Gainesville, Florida
David W. Meifert, 880 N. Lakemont Avenue, Winter Park, Florida
Philip B. Morgan, Post Office Box 3391, Orlando, Florida
Chad M. Murvosh, Post Office Box 3391, Orlando, Florida
Kenneth A. Noegel, 277-14 Corry Village, Gainesville, Florida
Lester E. Scherer, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida
John D. Spooner, Route 1, Box 27 K, Gainesville, Florida
Henry Wolfman, 278-10 Corry Village, Gainesville, Florida
Donald B. Woodard, 341 N. Shine Street, Orlando, Florida
William C. Yearian, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida

REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE
We find all records of the Florida Entomological Society in good order
and correct as presented by its business manager, Dr. R. E. Waites, for the
year ending July 31, 1962. The Committee commends Dr. Waites on the
way he has kept the records of the Society. The records were in good
order and balanced.
Herman Mayeux
John Mulrennan
John King, Chairman

REPORT OF THE TREASURER-BUSINESS MANAGER FOR THE YEAR ENDING
JULY, 31, 1962
Receipts:
Cash used for change at 44th Annual Meeting in Miami
(in conjunction with E.S.A.) ..-..................--.....................-.. $ 100.00
Monies donated by various groups for bus transportation for
field trips at E.S.A. Meeting in Miami .........--..........-..- ............. 457.00
Membership dues .-........------. ..... ............ .............. 398.75
Subscriptions -----......- ---.......... ..... ----------..................- 396.25
Advertisements ..............-----.. ..----------............... 840.16
Reprints .--.---......------ ..--------....... --.......-....... 206.34
Back Issues .....------......--...----.---. ...........-....-... 130.75
Plates & Etchings ---........ ........-------- ............-.... 66.31

2595.56
Cash on Hand October 31, 1961 .......-...............-............ ........ 2716.96

$5312.52
Disbursements:
Cash used for change at 44th Annual Meeting in Miami
(in conjunction with E.S.A.) ..................----.............................. $ 100.00
Pepper Printing Company-printing of the "Florida
Entomologist" -------------------.......---... ----.....---.. -----.-.......... -2124.64
Tropical Coach Line-Transportation for Field Trips at
E.S.A. Meeting in Miami ----...........-................. ------................ 507.00
Erma Butcher-hostess expenses in connection with E.S.A.
Meeting in Miami ...--................-------. -...-...-.. --........-- -..... 21.09
L. A. Hetrick-Reimbursement for postage, mimeo, paper and
phone calls ..--.----....----... ...-- --------.. ----. 31.41
Postmaster, Gainesville, Florida-Postage and Box Rent ....--..... 29.20
Guaranty Federal Savings & Loan Assn.-Fla. Ent. Soc.
Savings Acct ........ ....-.. ..--. -- -----.....--... .....-.....-... 1000.00


200


Vol. 45, No. 4












Minutes of the 45th Meeting of Fla. Entomological Society 201

Chesnut Office Equipment Company-postal scale ..................... 5.10
Baird Hardware Company-Locks for Fla. Ent.
Storage Cabinets --------- ------.------------------ 2.58
Bank Service Charges ....-------------- ----------------- .95
3821.97
Cash on Hand July 31, 1962 .....-...-- .....-..-- ... -------------. 1490.55
$5312.52
R. E. Waites, Business Manager

REPORT OF THE RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE

Be it resolved by the Florida Entomological Society:

1. That the Society expresses its appreciation to the Health Center of
the University of Florida for use of its auditorium and other facilities. To
the officers, individuals and committees who contributed toward the most
informative and enjoyable Forty-fifth Annual Meeting at Gainesville.
The Arrangements Committee consisted of Frank Robinson,
Chairman.
The Program Committee consisted of Harold Denmark, Chairman.
To industry goes our thanks for a most delightful social hour.
2. That the Society expresses its thanks to the Division of Plant In-
dustry of the State Department of Agriculture and to the Plant Pest Con-
trol of the United States Department of Agriculture for their foresight in
planning and their speed in initiating the present program to eradicate
the Mediterranean fruit fly from Florida.
D. O. Wolfenbarger
Milledge Murphey
Henry True, Chairman
A motion was made and seconded to approve the above committee re-
ports. It was carried by a show of hands.

REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE

After careful deliberations by correspondence and telephone conversa-
tions within the nominating committee, and after getting the approval of
the men involved, the nominating committee is proud to present the fol-
lowing slate of officers of the Florida Entomological Society for 1963:
President ........................................---------- Henry H. True
Vice-President ........-......-..------..--------. G. W. Dekle
Treasurer-Business Manager ..........R. E. Waites (continuing)
Secretary .............. .............-- S. H. Kerr
Executive Committee ...--.....................W. G. Genung (2-year term)
Editor ................................----------.. Lewis Berner
Associate Editor .----.........----......................Thomas J. Walker
Respectfully submitted,
Charles E. Brian
Milledge Murphey
Norman C. Hayslip, Chairman

A motion was made by J. T. Griffiths for the secretary to cast a unani-
mous ballot for the election of officers as presented by the nominating
committee. The motion was passed by a show of hands and the unanimous
vote recorded.
W. C. Rhoades handed over the gavel to the new president, Henry True.
President True announced that the next meeting would be held in St.













202 The Florida, Entomologist Vol. 45, No. 4

Petersburg at the Outrigger Inn on August 29 and 30, 1963, with registra-
tion to begin on August 28.
Lewis Berner moved the appointment of a committee to develop a pro-
posal to make a change in the Constitution and/or By-Laws which would
have the Executive Committee appoint the Editor and Associate Editor
rather than have the editors elected by the membership. The motion was
seconded and carried by a show of hands.
The meeting was adjourned at 2:30 P.M.
An Executive Committee Meeting was held from 9:45 P.M. to 11:15
P.M. on August 29, 1962.
S. H. Kerr,
Secretary




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