Title: Florida Entomologist
ALL VOLUMES CITATION DOWNLOADS THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00178
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1963
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
 Notes
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00178
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Downloads
Full Text

FRANK W. MEAD
MAR 111963




The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 46, No. 1 March, 1963




CONTENTS
Page
Burditt, A. K., Jr.-Observations on the Mites Phyllocop-
truta oleivora (Ashmead) and Aculus pelekassi Keifer
Under Laboratory Conditions --..----... -----------. 1
LaBrecque, G. C.-Effectiveness of Three 2-Methyl-Aziri-
dine Derivatives as House Fly Chemosterilants ------- 7
Muma, Martin H.-Generic Synonymy in the Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata) ----.......-------------------. 11
Workman, R. B.-Laboratory Tests for Control of Earwigs.. 17
Wilkinson, R. C.-Larval Instars and Head Capsule Morph-
ology in Three Southeastern Ips Bark Beetles ............ 19
Frost, S. W.-Winter, Insect-Light Trapping at the Arch-
bold Biological Station, Florida -------....-...------------ .23
The Florida Entomological Society Constitution
and By-Laws .---------------------------------. 45
Index to Vol. 45, 1962 ------------~~... ......................... ...... 57
Obituary, William W. Warner .....--..----------..-------..---- 5
N notices -..-......- ....-.. ............- -......... ... .............-.. 10, 16


Published by The Florida Entomological Society















THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


OFFICERS FOR 1962-1963

President------ ....-...-........................................................... HHenry True
Vice-President...----..........................................................- G. W. Dekle
Secretary ...--------.............. ........ ..---...........................S. H. Kerr
Treasurer...........................-...........-- ...............--.... Robert E. Waites
John O'Neill
Other Members of Executive Committee ..-... W. G. Genung
W. C. Rhoades

Editorial Board
Lewis Berner.--....--..............-.............--...........Editor
Thomas J. Walker............--..--........Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites-----..----..---... Business Manager



THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post
office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and
orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 2425,
University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
TOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Suggestions for the prepara-
tion of papers submitted for publication in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST."
FLA. ENT. 41(4): 193-194. 1958.
One zinc etching, not to exceed one-half page in size, or the equivalent
thereof, will be allowed free. The actual cost of all additional illustrations
must be borne by contributors. In general, the cost of a full page zinc
etching is $7.90. Reprints of articles may be secured by authors if they
are ordered before, or at the time proofs are received for correcting; 25
copies furnished free to authors.

REPRINTS WITHOUT COVERS
Each additional
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ........................................ $ 5.25 $ 6.25 $ .98
5-8 .... -----.............. ........ ......... 8.75 10.75 2.10
9-16 ........................................ 13.00 17.10 3.00
17-20 ........................................ 19.25 23.50 4.00
More than 20 pages,
per page ............................ .98 .88 .19
Additional for covers with title and author's name,
First 50 .....-..................$5.25 Additional, each............$ .02















OBSERVATIONS ON THE MITES PHYLLOCOPTRUTA
OLEIVORA (ASHMEAD) AND ACULUS PELEKASSI
KEIFER UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

A. K. BURDITT, JR., D. K. REED, AND C. R. CRITTENDEN
Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A.

The citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora [Ashmead]), was first
described by Ashmead in the Florida Agriculturist in September, 1879.
For over 50 years it was the only species of Eriophyid mite reported from
citrus. In 1937 the citrus bud mite (Aceria sheldoni [Ewing]) was de-
scribed from California. This species has recently been found in Florida
(Attiah, 1959).
Several new species of Eriophyid mites have been collected from citrus
during the past few years. These include Calacarus citrifolii Keifer from
Union of South Africa (Keifer 1955); Aculus pelekassi Keifer from Greece
(Keifer 1959a), Thailand (Keifer 1959b), Japan, Italy, and Sicily (Keifer
1962); Floracarus fleschneri Keifer from India (Keifer 1959b) ; and Dip-
tilomiopus assamica Keifer from India (Keifer 1959b). One of these A.
pelekassi, has been found in Florida during the past few months (Den-
mark, in press). This mite has, a distinct pink color' in Florida, although
Keifer's description reports it as being light yellow in Greece (Keifer,
1959a).
Differences in color of citrus rust mites have been observed frequently.
Speare and Yothers (1924) noted that adult citrus rust mites may change
color from lemon yellow to a darker or orange yellow and reported that
these offcolor mites frequently were diseased. They further reported that
these mites would congregate in large numbers on the sunny side of fruit
where they were observed in a "writhing, wriggling mass." The mites died
soon afterwards and turned brownish in color. They attributed this mor-
tality and change in color to a fungus disease. Re-examination of slides
of diseased mites made by Mason in 1922 showed that the mites had a
fungus disease now known as Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher. This disease of
citrus rust mites was described by Fisher (1950).
Swirski (1958) reported offcolor citrus rust mites in Israel and that
they were pale yellow but turned light brown, and then brown, as they
become older. His data showed that this color change was normal and
must be differentiated from a change in color as a result of disease.
Swirski stated that "occasionally young adults and even larvae, turn brown,
but this generally occurs when there is a disease evidently caused by fungi."
A laboratory colony of citrus rust mites was established on Murcott
honey orange seedlings early in 1961. The mites were kept in a ventilated
greenhouse until May, 1961, and, subsequently, in air-conditioned green-
houses at 75-85 F. Additional mites were added to the colony in June,
1961. The mites in this colony came from a calamondin and a variegated
lemon tree at the Horticulture Field Station in Orlando.
During the summer and fall of 1961 numerous offcolor mites were ob-
served in the colony of citrus rust mites. Offcolor citrus rust mites found
during August were examined and found to have the fungus disease, H.
thompsonii. Additional offcolor mites found in the colony and during













The Florida Entomologist


various experiments in late September were assumed to be diseased. How-
ever, in November and December mites were found that were pink and
did not show evidence of disease. Experiments were undertaken1 to deter-
mine the reasons for differences in color of these mites and the normal
yellow citrus rust mites. The pink mites were generally found in experi-
ments in which mites that apparently originated from the June, 1961, ad-
dition to the colony were used, although a possibility existed that the two
colonies had become mixed.
The first indication, other than color, that pink mites present in the
citrus rust mite colony were abnormal, was the finding on new growth of
high populations of mites, which apparently resulted in distortion of these
leaves. Initially, this leaf distortion was attributed to the use of 2-4-D-
contaminated alcohol to remove mites from the plants. However, leaf dis-
tortion was soon observed on plants that had not been washed with the
contaminated alcohol, and these mites also were found to be pink.
In early August, 1961, an experiment was initiated in which 40 Murcott
honey orange seedlings were used, each seedling having a high infestation
of rust mites. One group of seedlings was placed in a ventilated green-
house and the other in an air-conditioned greenhouse. Pink mites were
observed on seedlings in both greenhouses during late December and had
built up to high levels in January. At this time leaves of plants with pink
mites were distorted, due to feeding by high populations of mites on tender
new leaves.
In early November, 1961, an experiment was initiated to determine
whether mites were easily carried by wind currents. A clean plant was
placed in the air stream of a fan in a wind tunnel with a heavily infested
plant on the downwind side. In five days a heavy infestation of mites was
present on the clean plant. Most of these mites were pink. At that time
the mites were assumed to have the fungus disease, H. thompsonii. How-
ever, the microscope slides were re-examined at a later date and the mites
were found to be A. pelekassi.
Experiments were initiated to determine whether biological differences
existed between citrus rust mites and the pink mites. In December, 1961,
and January, 1962, observations of the pink rust mites showed that these
mites were capable of reproducing pink mites. These mites appeared to
be healthy, and when samples of the mites were examined microscopically,
no evidence of H. thompsonii was observed. Samples of the pink mites
were forwarded to N. S. Wilson, of this Division, at Riverside, California,
to determine whether the mites were morphologically identical with the
citrus rust mite. He found that the pink mites were not P. oleivora and
sent them to H. H. Keifer, California Department of Agriculture, who
identified them as A. pelekassi on March 28, 1962. A survey to determine
the distribution of this species was initiated by the Florida Department
of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, and eradication of known
infestations was undertaken (Denmark, in press).
Under the phase-contrast microscope differences in morphology between
P. oleivora and A. pelekassi are obvious. The dorsal setae of P. oleivora
are located toward the center of the dorsal shield whereas those of A.
pelekassi are along the posterior margin of the dorsal shield. Two ridges
occur along the dorsolateral sides of the abdomen of P. oleivora, with a
concave area between the ridges. The dorsal side of the abdomen of A.


Vol. 46, No. 1












Burditt: Observations on the Mites Phyllocoptruta


pelekassi is convex. Differences in .arrangement of the lines occur on the
dorsal shield of the two species as well as in the number of rays on the
featherclaw and in other morphological characters that are of interest
primarily to the taxonomist.
Although P. oleivora is usually yellow and A. pelekassi in Florida is
usually pink, these differences are not always sufficient to distinguish be-
tween the two species. As noted earlier, specimens of P. oleivora vary in
color from lemon to dark yellow, light brown, or brown, depending upon
age and presence or absence of a fungus disease. Also, Keifer has indi-
cated that A. pelekassi is light yellow instead of pink (1959a). A few
yellow specimens from our colony have proved to be A. pelekassi.
A useful indication of the presence of A. pelekassi in the field is the
location and type of damage done to citrus leaves. High populations of A.
pelekassi build up on the new-leaf growth of citrus, causing a distinct
distortion of the leaves. This distortion has been observed both in the
green house and in young trees in ,a citrus nursery. P. oleivora mites very
rarely build up to high populations on new leaves, and leaf distortion has
never been observed from this species.
Adults of A. pelekassi show a definite positive response to light, espe-
cially fluorescent, and move about fairly rapidly, in contrast to the slower
moving citrus rust mites, which usually fail to respond to light. Adults of
A. pelekassi frequently congregate in large numbers, especially at the
edges of leaves, and have been observed thereon hanging two or three mites
deep. Because of this habit, they are more easily distributed by wind.
This behavior may explain the high infestation of A. pelekassi that
developed in the wind-movement experiment conducted in November, 1961.
These mites also have been frequently observed standing upright on their
.anal pads. Such behavior by citrus rust mites has been observed oc-
casionally.
The sex of rust mites can be determined only by examination of the
genital structures with a compound microscope. Of 1224 specimens of P.
oleivora examined, 33% were male compared with only 12% of 332 specimens
of A. pelekassi. Male citrus rust mites were reported by Keifer (1938) from
California and Swirski (1958) from Israel. Others and Mason (1932)
failed to find male citrus rust mites in Florida and reported that this
species reproduced parthenogenically. However, in a recent conversation,
Mr. Others indicated that he had observed smaller mites, which he assumed
were males, but he had never observed copulation taking place. The senior
author of the present paper has observed copulation only once. The female
almost completely covered the male during the act.
In the greenhouse, eggs of the citrus rust mite were opaque and usually
had been laid in hollows or along the midrib of leaves. Eggs of A. pelekassi,
however, were scattered all over leaves indiscriminantly and were difficult
to locate because they were usually translucent to white. The eggs of both
species are extremely large for the size of the mite, one egg occupying about
a fifth of the body of the female. Usually one egg is produced at a time
and this is squeezed through a genital opening about a third the size of
the egg. Reproduction appears to be identical for both species of mites.
Fertilized females produced both female and male offspring, but unfer-
tilized females produced only male offspring.













The Florida Entomologist


No differences have been observed in the immature stages of these
two species of rust mites. First-instar nymphs of both species are clear
to white. Second-instar nymphs may have a faint yellow or pink color
depending upon species. Immature mites of the two species usually
may be separated by the location of the dorsal setae in relation to the pos-
terior margin of the dorsal shield.

SUMMARY
Two types of offcolor rust mites have been found in a colony of citrus
rust mites (Phyllocoptruta oleivora [Ashmead]) at Orlando, Florida. One
type of mite, dark yellow to brownish, proved to be diseased citrus rust
mites, having the fungus disease, Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher. The other
type, which is pink, was a species of mite previously not reported from
the United States, Aculus pelekassi Keifer. This species may build up to
large populations on new growth of citrus, causing distortion of the young
leaves. Diseased citrus rust mites may be mistaken for A. pelekassi, but
P. oleivora generally does not feed on young growth or cause distortion
of leaves. The two species may be distinguished microscopically. The
dorsal setae of A. pelekassi are located along the posterior margin of the
dorsal shield and the dorsal side of the abdomen is convex. The dorsal
setae of P. oleivora are located toward the center of the dorsal shield,
and two ridges occur along the dorsolateral sides of the abdomen, which
is concave.
LITERATURE CITED
Ashmead, W. H. 1879. Injurious and beneficial insects found on the
orange trees of Florida. Canad. Ent. 11: 159-160, Fla. Agric. II
(17): 129.
Attiah, H. H. 1959. On the discovery of two economic species of Erio-
phyid mites on mango and citrus trees in Florida. Fla. Ent. 42
(4) : 189.
Denmark, H. A. Aculus pelekassi Keifer, another citrus mite in Florida.
Fla. Hort. Soc. In press.
Ewing, H. E. 1937. A, new eriophyid mite from lemon trees (Acarina:
Eriophyidae). Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 39 (7): 193-194.
Fisher, Fran. E. 1950. Two new species of Hirsutella Patouillard. My-
cologia. 42 (2): 290-297.
Keifer, H. H. 1938. Eriophyid studies. Bull. Dept. of Agric., State of
Calif. 27 (2) : 181-206.
Keifer, H. H. 1955. Eriophyid studies XXIII. Bull. Dept. of Agric.,
State of Calif. 44 (3) : 126-130.
Keifer, H. H. 1959a. Eriophyid studies XXVII. Occasional Papers,
No. 1, Bur. Ent. Calif. Dept. of Agric. 18 pp.
Keifer, H. H. 1959b. Eriophyid studies XXVIII. Occasional Papers,
No. 2, Bur. Ent. Calif. Dept. of Agric. 20 pp.
Keifer, H. H. 1962. Eriophyid studies, B-6. Bur. Ent. Calif. Dept. of
Agric. 20 pp.
Speare, A. T., and W. W. Others. 1924. Is there an entomogenous fungus
attacking the citrus rust mite in Florida? Science 60 (1541): 41-42.


Vol. 46, No. I












Burditt: Observations on the Mites Phyllocoptruta


Swirski, E., and S. Amitai. 1958. Contribution to the biology of the
citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora [Ashm.]) A. Development,
.adult longevity and life cycle. Jour. Agric. Res. Sta. Rehovot.
Ktavim 8 (3-4): 189-207.
Others, W. W., and Arthur C. Mason. 1930. The citrus rust mite and
its control. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 176: 56 pp.







WILLIAM W. WARNER
1929-1962

William W. Warner, Director and Entomologist, Monroe County (Flor-
ida) Anti-Mosquito District was killed in a hunting accident December 16,
1962. He was born at Key West, Florida October 29, 1929. Mr. Warner
attended the University of Florida and received the B.S. degree in entomol-
ogy in 1951.

The mosquito control district was organized in Monroe County in Au-
gust, 1951 and Bill Warner was appointed as its first director. At the time
of his death, he also was serving as Civil Defense Director for Monroe
County.

Probably no other Florida mosquito control district is faced with as
difficult a problem in water management as that in the Florida Keys of
Monroe County. The Keys are of limestone composition with only a thin
veneer of soil, making drainage construction most difficult. Bill Warner
accepted this problem and solved it with personal ingenuity, professional
skill, and the boundless enthusiasm for his work for which he was so well
known.

He was a member and a Past President of the Florida Anti-Mosquito
Association, and a member of The Florida Entomological Society, The
Entomological Society of America, and the American Mosquito Control
Association. He also served as Collaborator of the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods, Department of Plant Industry.

He is survived by his wife, Mrs. Margery Farr Warner, two sons, Wil-
liam Wolcott and Mark Gregory, and a daughter, Leslie Ann. His untimely
death is indeed a tragic loss to his young family, his host of friends, the
citizens of Monroe County and the State of Florida, and the professional
community of entomology.-Andrew J. Rogers












o, FAS CO


you'll find
All your pest control
needs under
the dependable
FASCO label...


Nematocides
Fumigation Covers
Soil Fungicides
and Insecticides
Foliar Fungicides
and Insecticides
Bulb,Tuberand Rizome
Fungicides and Dips
Herbicides


Delivered when you need them from one of
our warehouses that's near you.

FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY COMPANY
POST OFFICE BOX 658
JACKSONVILLE 1, FLORIDA















EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE 2-METHYL-AZIRIDINE
DERIVATIVES AS HOUSE FLY CHEMOSTERILANTS

G. C. LABRECQUE, D. W. MEIFERT, AND H. K. GOUCK1
Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A.
Orlando, Fla.

Several compounds have demonstrated the property of inducing sterility
in house flies (Musca domestic L.) when administered in the food (La-
Brecque et al., 1960). Particular promise has been shown by certain ethyl-
enimine derivatives, which have consistently given favorable results in lab-
oratory and field experiments (LaBrecque, 1961, Weidhaas et al., 1961,
LaBrecque et al., 1962a, 1962b). Another group of closely related com-
pounds, the 2-methyl-aziridine derivatives, are also effective as house fly
chemosterilants. This paper presents the initial results with three com-
pounds of this group, metepa (tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide),
methiotepa (tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide), and phenyl me-
tepa (bis (2-methyl-l-aziridinyl) phenylphosphine oxide).
In screening tests 25 grams of fly food consisting of six parts of sugar,
six parts of powdered nonfat dry milk, and one part of powdered egg was
treated with 12.5 ml. of acetone containing 0.2% or 2.0% of the chemical
in suspension or solution. The food was then allowed to dry, repulverized,
and placed in an emergence cage containing 100 pupae. Cages contain-
ing untreated food were used as checks. Seven days later the first exam-
ination of each cage was made to note the number of flies that had emerged,
their condition, and any acute toxic effect of the treated food.
Two days later another examination was made and oviposition medium
was placed in the cage. Four to six hours later the oviposition medium
was inspected for eggs. If none were present, the medium was replaced
and examined daily until oviposition occurred or all of the adults were
dead. The viability of any eggs deposited was determined by inspecting
the medium for growing larvae two days after oviposition. The larvae
were reared to adults and observed for any abnormalities. Secondary
tests were made with higher or lower concentrations of the sterilants to
determine the full range of activity. The results are given in Table 1.
Metepa caused some mortality of the flies at 1% and eliminated hatch-
ing at concentrations as low as 0.3%. Methiotepa also acted as a toxicant
at 1%, eliminated hatching completely at 0.5%, and produced variable
results at 0.1%. Phenyl metepa caused complete sterility only at 5%, the
highest concentration tested.
In tests to determine the effect of the compounds on each sex, males
and females were given food treated at various concentrations for the
first five days after emergence. They were then given untreated food for
two days, and on the seventh day were mated with flies of the opposite
sex that had been given either treated or untreated food. Ten insects of
each sex were used, and all flies were maintained on untreated food there-
after. On the ninth day, oviposition medium was made available for four
to six hours, after which all egg masses were removed and placed in water

1 The authors are indebted to R. L. Fye and R. A. Boyd, of this Division,
for help in performing the experiments.









The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


to break up the egg masses into individual eggs. The eggs from all egg
masses were mixed thoroughly and a random sample of 100 eggs was then
taken and placed on a moistened patch of black cloth. This patch was
placed in a container partially filled with moist larval medium into which
any larvae that hatched could crawl. Forty-eight hours later the cloth
was removed and the hatching rate was determined. If any eggs hatched,
the medium was held until the larvae had time to develop to the pupal
stage to determine whether the chemical had any effect on the larvae.
Fecundity and fertility were determined by offering oviposition medium
in this manner at weekly intervals for three weeks. Each test was compared
to untreated checks run concurrently. The results are given in Table 2.
Metepa induced complete sterility in males at concentrations as low as
0.5%, and partial sterility at 0.1%. In females the sterility was complete
at 2%, almost complete at 1%, and partial at 0.5%. The failure of the

TABLE 1.-EFFECT OF THREE 2-METHYL-AZIRIDINE DERIVATIVES IN THE FOOD
ON THE FERTILITY OF HOUSE FLIES.

Concentration (%): Effect on house flies

Metepa
1.0 Toxicant
1.0 Oviposition normal, no hatch
1.0 Oviposition normal, no hatch
0.5 Oviposition normal, no hatch
.5 Oviposition normal, no hatch
.4 Oviposition normal, no hatch
.3 Oviposition normal, no hatch
.25 Oviposition normal, no hatch
.25 Oviposition normal, hatch light
Few F, adults
.1 None

Methiotepa
1.0 Toxicant
0.5 Oviposition normal, no hatch
.25 Oviposition normal, no hatch
.1 Oviposition normal, no hatch
.1 None
.05 None
.025 None

Phenyl metepa
5.0 Oviposition normal, no hatch
2.5 Oviposition normal, hatch light
Few F1 adults-died on emergence
1.0 None
1.0 None
0.1 None













TABLE 2.-FERTILITY OF MALE AND FEMALE HOUSE FLIES GIVEN FOOD TREATED
WITH CHEMOSTERILANTS DURING THE FIRST 5 DAYS FOLLOWING ECLOSION.

Fertility of eggs

Concen- First egging Second egging Third egging
tration
(%) Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
hatch pupation hatch pupation hatch pupation


Metepa:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
5
Metepa:
0
0
0
7
14
0
0
0
0
7
2
15
0


Methiotepa:
0
0


males treated


0
0
0
0
0
40
40
25
79
females
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
*
*
*
*


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
treated
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
*
*
*
*


males treated
1 0
0 0


1.0 22
1.0 88


5.0 11
5.0 25


-- 92
95
-- 97
-- 90

* No oviposition.


Methiotepa: females treated
12 15 7.
0 *
Phenyl Metepa: males treated
11 20 2
25 45 42
Phenyl Metepa: females treated
4 89 73
6 88 81
Untreated check
82 94 87
88 93 78
84 90 69
90 100 63


2.0
1.0
0.75
.5
.5
.25
.25
.1
.1


2.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.75
.75
.5
.5












The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


four groups of females treated concurrently with metepa at 0.75%, and 0.5%
to lay second and third clutches of eggs may not have been caused by the
chemical, since females given food containing higher concentrations, in
tests conducted at other times, oviposited normally. Methiotepa sterilized
males, but not females at 1%, and phenyl metepa failed to cause complete
sterility in either sex at 5%.

LITERATURE CITED
LaBrecque, G. C. 1961. Studies with three alkylating agents as house
fly sterilants. Jour. Econ. Ent. 54: 684-9.
LaBrecque, G. C., P. H. Adcock, and Carroll N. Smith. 1960. Tests with
compounds affecting house fly metabolism. Jour. Econ. Ent. 53:
802-5.
LaBrecque, G. C., D. W. Meifert, and Carroll N. Smith. 1962a. Mating
competitiveness of chemosterilized and normal male house flies.
Science 136: 388-9.
LaBrecque, G. C., Carroll N. Smith, and D. W. Meifert. 1962b. A field
experiment in the control of house flies with chemosterilant baits.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 55: 449-51.
Weidhaas, D. E., H. R. Ford, James B. Gahan, and Carroll N. Smith. 1961.
Preliminary observation on chemosterilization of mosquitoes. N. J.
Mosq. Extermin. Assoc. Proc. 48: 106-9.











NOTICE OF ANNUAL MEETING

The 46th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society will be
held September 12 and 13, 1963, at the Outrigger Inn, St. Petersburg. Reg-
istration will begin and a pre-meeting "Bull Session" will be held on the
evening of September 11. This is a change from the August 29-30 dates
originally scheduled.












GENERIC SYNONYMY IN THE PHYTOSEIIDAE
(ACARINA: MESOSTIGMATA)1

MARTIN H. MUMA
Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida

Three exhaustive systematic studies of the predatory mite family, Phy-
toseiidae, have been published within the last four years. In each study
a different subfamily, generic, and subgeneric organization of the family
has been proposed. Chant (1959) recognized two subfamilies, eight genera,
and four subgenera; Muma (1961) proposed four subfamilies, 43 genera,
and five subgenera; Wainstein (1962) outlined two subfamilies, three tribes,
seven genera, 22 subgenera, and 18 sections.
Because of the wide geographic separation of the workers, the nearly
concurrent publication of the studies, and the remarkably similar morphol-
ogy of related species, numerous synonyms and one homonym have been
established.
The purpose of this paper is to present in systematic arrangement the
presently described supraspecific categories within the family, to cite author-
ities recognizing such categories, and to indicate their validity according
to the most recent interpretation of the International Code of Zoological
Nomenclature. Personal opinions or evaluations of the present or other
authors are not cited, and if the systematic status of the category is not
in question, no notation is included. Because of extensive repetitions of refer-
ences, only the authors and dates are cited in the body of the text with full
references restricted to the literature cited.

FAMILY PHYTOSEIIDAE

Subfamily Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark and Baker 1959, Chant 1959,
Muma 1961, Wainstein 1962.
Genus Macroseius Chant, Denmark and Baker, 1959, Chant 1959,
Muma 1961, Wainstein 1962.
Subfamily Aceodrominae Muma 1961.
Genus Aceodromus Muma 1961.
Subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma 1961-Phytoseiinae Berlese 1916 in part,
Chant 1959 in part, Wainstein 1962 in part.
Tribe Amblyseiini Wainstein 1962.
Genus Phytoscutus Muma 1961.
Phytoscutella Muma 1961.
Phytoseiulus Evans 1952, Athias-Henriot 1957, Chant 1959,
Muma 1961, Wainstein 1962.
Subgenus Phytoseiulus, Wainstein 1962.
Asperoseius, Wainstein 1962.
Proprioseius, Wainstein 1962.
Kampimoseius Wainstein 1962.

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1585.












The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


Genus Proprioseius Chant 1957, Chant 1959, Muma 1961.
Phytoseiulella Muma 1961.
Amblyseiulella Muma 1961.
Proprioseiopsis Muma 1961--Pavlovskeius Wainstein 1962 is
an objective synonym.
Asperoseius Chant 1957, Chant 1959, Muma 1961.
Amblyseiulus Muma 1961.
Platyseiella Muma 1961.
Paraphytoseius Swirski and Shechter 1961.
Amblyscutus Muma 1961-Megadromus Wainstein 1962 is an
objective synonym.
Genus Cydnodromella Muma 1961-Allodromus Wainstein 1962 is an
objective synonym.
Kampimodromus Nesbitt 1951, Womersley 1954-Paradromus
Muma 1961 is an objective synonym.
Paradromus Muma 1961 is an objective synonym of Kampimo-
dromus Nesbitt 1951.
Amblyseiella Muma 1955, Athias-Henriot 1957.
Amblyseius Berlese 1941, Garman 1948, Nesbitt 1951, Wom-
ersley 1954, Evans 1957, Athias-Henriot 1957, Muma 1961,
Wainstein 1962.
Subgenus Amblyseius, Muma 1961, Wainstein 1962.
Section Amblyseius, Wainstein 1962.
Typhlodromopsis, Wainstein 1962.
Amblydromus Wainstein 1962 is a homonym of Ambly-
dromus Muma 1961.
Euseius Wainstein 1961.
Italoseius Wainstein 1962.
Afrodromus Wainstein 1962.
Subgenus Amblyseialus Muma 1961.
Typhlodromopsis DeLeon 1959, Muma 1961.
Arrenoseius Wainstein 1962.
Pavlovskeius Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Proprioseiopsis Muma 1961.
Skironodromus Wainstein 1962.
Megadromus Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Amblyscutus Muma 1961.
Kampimodromus, Wainstein 1962.
Section Kampimodromus, Wainstein 1962.
Gynaeseius Wainstein 1962.
Subgenus Amblyseiellus Muma 1955, Wainstein 1962.
Iphiseius Berlese 1921, Muma 1961.
Genus Iphiseius Berlese 1921, Evans 1954, Athias-Henriot 1957,
Chant 1959.
Paraamblyseius Muma 1962.
Cydnodromus Muma 1961.
Phyllodromus DeLeon 1959B, Muma 1961.
Phytodromus Muma 1961.
Athiaseius Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym of Typhlo-
seiella Muma 1961.













Muma: Generic Synonymy in the Phytoseiidae


Typhloseiella Muma 1961-Athiaseius Wainstein 1962 is an
objective synonym.
Typhloseius Muma 1961.
Subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese 1916, Chant 1959 in part, Muma 1961,
Wainstein 1962 in part.
Tribe Phytoseiini Wainstein 1962.
Genus Dubininellus Muma 1961. If Chant and Athias-Henriot (1960)
are correct in assuming that Ribaga (1902) misidentified
his type of Phytoseius Ribaga (1902) as Gamasus plumifer
Canestrini and Fanzago 1876, this genus is a subjective
synonym of Phytoseius. Further, G. plumifer and related
species will then represent an undescribed genus.
Phytoseius Ribaga 1902, Nesbitt 1951, Womersley 1954,
Athias-Henriot 1957, Evans 1957, Chant 1959, Wainstein
1959, Muma 1961 in part. See discussion under Dubini-
nellus above.
Subgenus Phytoseius Ribaga 1902, Wainstein 1959, Chant 1959,
Chant and Athias-Henriot 1960. The discussion
above concerning Phytoseius and Dubininellus as
genera also applies to this and the following sub-
genus.
Dubininellus Wainstein 1959, Chant 1959, Chant and
Athias-Henriot 1960. See discussions above.
Tribe Typhlodromini Wainstein 1962.
Genus Typhloseiopsis DeLeon 1959A, Chant 1959, Muma 1961.
Chanteius Wainstein 1962.
Subgenus Chanteius Wainstein 1962.
DeLeoneius Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym of
Galendromimus Muma 1961.
Allodromus Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Cydnodromella Muma 1961.
Colchodromus Wainstein 1962.
Eratodromus Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Metaseiulus Muma 1961.
Typhloseiopsis, Wainstein 1962.
Evanseius Wainstein 1962.
Section Evanseius Wainstein 1962.
Dendrodromus Wainstein 1962.
Botanoseius Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Amblydromus Muma 1961.
Genus Paraseiulella Muma 1961.
Metaseiulus Muma 1961-Eratodromus Wainstein 1962 is an
objective synonym
Neoseiulus Hughes 1948, Muma 1961.
Amblydromella Muma 1961.
Genus Neoseiulella Muma 1961-Nesbitteius Wainstein 1962 is an
objective synonym.
Australiseiulus Muma 1961-Australidromus Wainstein 1962
is an objective synonym.
Clavidromus Muma 1961.













The Florida Entomologist


Anthoseius DeLeon 1959B, Muma 1961.
Clavidromina Muma 1961.
Amblydromus Muma 1961-Amblydromus Wainstein 1962 is
a homonym and Botanoseius Wainstein 1962 is an objective
synonym.
Typhlodromina Muma 1961.
Galendromimus Muma 1961-DeLeoneius Wainstein 1962 is
an objective synonym.
Galendromus Muma 1961-Trichoseius Wainstein 1962 is a
subjective synonym.
Typhlodromus Scheuten 1857, Nesbitt 1951, Womersley 1954,
Evans 1957, Athias-Henriot 1957, Chant 1959, Muma 1961,
Wainstein 1962.
Subgenus Typhlodromus, Chant 1959, Wainstein 1962.
Section Typhlodromus, Wainstein 1962.
Menaseius Wainstein 1962.
Trichoseius Wainstein 1962 is a subjective synonym of
Galendromus Muma 1961.
Lamiaseius Wainstein 1962.
Subgenus Amblyseius, Chant 1959.
Neoseiulus, Nesbitt 1951, Womersley 1954, Wainstein
1962.
Section Neoseiulus, Wainstein 1962.
Seiodromus Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Typhlodromella Muma 1961.
Taxodromus Wainstein 1962.
Subgenus Nesbitteius Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym of
Neoseiulella Muma 1961.
Section Nesbitteius Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Neoseiulella Muma 1961.
Kallitoseius Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Typhloctonus Muma 1961.
Subgenus Australidromus Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym
of Australiseiulus Muma 1961.
Genus Typhlodromella Muma 1961-Seiodromus Wainstein 1962 is an
objective synonym.
Typhloctonus Muma 1961-Kallitoseius Wainstein 1962 is an
objective synonym.
Seiulus Berlese 1887, Athias-Henriot 1957, Chant 1959, Muma
1961, Wainstein 1962.
Paraseiulus Muma 1961, Wainstein 1962A Melodromus
Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym.
Melodromus Wainstein 1962 is an objective synonym of Para-
seiulus Muma 1961.

LITERATURE CITED
Athias-Henriot, C. 1957. Phytoseiidae et Aceosejidae (Acarina, Gama-
sina) d'Algeria I, genres Blattisocius Keegan, Iphiseius Berlese,
Amblyseius Berlese, Phytoseius Ribaga, Phytoseiulus Evans. Bull.
Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique Nord, 48: 319-352.


Vol. 46, No. 1









Muma: Generic Synonymy in the Phytoseiidae 15

Berlese, A. 1887. Acari, Myriapoda, et Scorpiones in Italia report, Fasc.
41. Padua.
Berlese, A. 1914. Acari nuovi. Redia 10: 113-150.
Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria prima-sesta di Acari nuovi. Redia 12: 19-67.
Berlese, A. 1921. Acari, Myriapoda et Pseudoscorpiones Indice Sinoni-
mico. Redia 14: 95.
Chant, D. A. 1957. Descriptions of two new phytoseiid genera (Acarina:
Phytoseiidae) with a note on the genus Phytoseius Ribaga, 1902.
Canad. Ent. 87: 89: 357-363.
Chant, D. A. 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Part I.
Bionomics of seven species in southeastern England. Part II. Tax-
onomic review of the family Phytoseiidae, with descriptions of 38
new species. Canad. Ent. 91 (Suppl. 12): 1-1616.
Chant, D. A., and C. Athias-Henriot. 1960. The genus Phytoseius Ribaga,
1902 (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Entomophaga 5(3): 213-228.
Chant, D. A., H. A. Denmark, and E. W. Baker. 1959. A new subfamily
Macroseiinae nov. of the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Gamasina).
Canad. Ent. 91: 808-811.
DeLeon, D. 1959. Seven new; Typhlodromus from Mexico with collection
notes on three other species (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Ent. 42:
113-121.
DeLeon, D. 1959A. A new genus and three new species of phytoseiid
mites from Mexico with collection records on Phytoseius plumifer (C.
and F.) and P. macropilis (Banks). Ent. News 70: 147-152.
DeLeon, D. 1959B. Two new phytoseiid genera (Acarina: Phytoseiidae).
Ent. News 70: 257-265.
Evans, G. 0. 1952. On a new predatory mite of economic importance.
Bull. Ent. Res. 43: 379-401.
Evans, G. 0. 1954. The genus Iphiseius Berl. (Acarina: Laelaptidae).
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 124: 517-526.
Evans, G. 0. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Aca-
rina) with keys to the families and genera. Jour. Linnean Soc. 43:
208-259.
Garman, P. 1948. Mite species from apple trees in Connecticut. Con-
necticut Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 520: 1-27.
Muma, M. H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in
Florida. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48: 262-272.
Muma, M. H. 1961. Subfamilies, genera and species of Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). Bull. Fla. State Mus., Biol. Sci. 5(7):
267-302.
Muma, M. H. 1962. New Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) from
Florida. Fla. Ent. 45 (1): 1-10.
Nesbitt, H. H. J. 1951. A taxonomic study of the Phytoseiinae (Family
Laelaptidae) predaceous upon Tetranychidae of economic importance.
Zoologische Verhandelingen No. 12: 1-64.
Ribaga, C. 1902. Gamasidi planticoli. Riv. di Patologica Vegetale, 10:
175-178.













The Florida Entomologist


Scheuten, A. 1857. Einiges Uiber milben. Arch. fiir Naturges. 23: 104-
112.
Wainstein, B. A. 1959. A new sub-genus and species of the genus Phyto-
seius Ribaga, 1902 (Phytoseiidae, Parasitiformes). Zool. Zhurn. 38:
1361-1365.
Wainstein, B. A. 1962. Revision du genre Typhlodromus Scheuten, 1857
et systematique de la famille des Phytoseiidae (Berlese, 1916) (Aca-
rina: Parasitiformes). Acarologia 4(1): 5:30.
Wainstein, B. A. 1962A. Some new predatory mites of the family Phyto-
seiidae (Parasitiformes) of the U.S.R.R. fauna. Rev. Ent. U.S.R.R.
XLI: 230-240.
ADDENDUM
The following two 1962 generic revisions were not reviewed until after
the present paper was in press, and the additional synonyms are not in-
cluded here.
Hirschmann, W. 1962. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes, Gamasiden.
Schrift. Vorgl. Milbenkunde, Folge 5, Teil 5: 1-56.
Pritchard, A. Earl, and Edward W. Baker. 1962. Mites of the family Phy-
toseiidae from Africa, with remarks on the genera of the world.
Hilgardia 33(7): 205-309.












A LIST OF THE APHIDS OF NEW YORK, by Mortimer D. Leonard, Washington,
D. C. Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science, Vol. 10, No. 6,
pp. 289 428, 4 plates, Feb. 1963. Paper covers, $1.50.
The life histories, economic importance, method of feeding, production
of winged forms, productivity, role as vectors of plant viruses, and other
pertinent information are discussed as introductory material. Detailed rec-
ords of the distribution of about 350 species of aphids known to occur in
New York are given and a list of over 700 food plants on which they occur.


Vol. 46, No. 1












LABORATORY TESTS FOR CONTROL OF EARWIGS1

R. B. WORKMAN
Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings, Florida

One of the more common earwigs in Florida is Labidura riparia (Pallas).
It has been described by Schlinger et al. (1959)2 in California as a bene-
ficial, predaceous earwig feeding on a large variety of litter- or soil-inhabit-
ing insects. The earwig measures from 20 to 30 millimeters in length and
varies from reddish-brown to black. The appendages, undersides of the
head and thorax, lateral sides of the abdomen, and margins of the wing
covers are light colored.
Labidura riparia becomes very numerous in Northeastern Florida dur-
ing late summer and fall, and many of the insects enter homes, where
their presence is objectionable. The earwig moves about actively, and when
crushed or otherwise disturbed, produces an offensive and lingering odor.
A series of pesticide trials were initiated when reports of difficulty in
controlling this earwig were received at the Potato Investigations Lab-
oratory.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
Earwigs for the tests were collected along a clay roadway where num-
erous tunnels were present. Fresh soil about an entrance hole indicated
recent activity. By digging carefully with a sharp-pointed trowel, the
insects could be captured without injuring them. Plastic dishes, ten inches
in diameter by three inches deep, half-full with moistened soil served as
holding containers. About 50 earwigs were placed in each dish and sup-
plied with pelleted dog food and cube sugar for food. By keeping fresh
food and water available, little cannibalism occurred. Cheesecloth, secured
by .a rubber band over the top of the dish, prevented escape of the insects.
Quart-size wide-mouth mason jars containing 100 milliliters of moist
soil were used for the pesticide trials. Different insecticide treatments
were sprayed onto the soil surface at the rate of approximately 100 gallons
per acre with a De Vilbiss hand atomizer. Soil sprayed with water only
served as a check. Each treatment was replicated eight times. Three
earwigs were added to each jar about four hours after treatment. Dog food
and sugar were provided, and water was added daily to prevent the soil
from drying out. Due to space and equipment limitations two separate
trials were conducted, one with eight insecticides and the other with 11.
Mortality records were taken periodically.

RESULTS

The tests indicated that Labidura riparia is not effectively controlled
with the more common chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides but is very
susceptible to some of the phosphatic insecticides (Tables 1 and 2). Dibrom

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1591.
2Schlinger, E. I., R. van den Bosch, and E. J. Dietrick. 1959. Biological
notes on the predaceous earwig Labidura riparia (Pallas), a recent immi-
grant to California (Dermaptera: Labiduridae). Jour. Econ. Ent. 52:
247-9.








The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


produced the quickest mortality, with most of the earwigs dying within
four to eight hours after exposure. Diazinon and parathion killed all ear-
wigs tested in 24 hours. American Cyanamid 18133 and dimethoate killed
all earwigs tested within 48 to 72 hours.

TABLE 1.-LABORATORY TESTS OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST Labidura riparia.

Mortality of earwigs
No. Insecticide Actual per Mortality
acre-oz. 24 hours 48 hours 72 hours Total

1. Diazinon 2EC 4 24 24
2. Parathion 2EC 8 24 24
3. Endrin 1.6EC 3.2 3 3 4 10
4. Aldrin 4EC 8 0 0 8 8
5. Thiodan 2EC 8 3 1 4 8
6. Dieldrin 1.5EC 4 1 2 3 6
7. Toxaphene 8EC 16 1 2 1 4
8. Chlordane 8EC 16 0 0 2 2
9. Untreated 0 1 0 1


TABLE 2.-LABORATORY TESTS OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST Labidura riparia.

Mortality of earwigs
No. Treatment Actual per Mortality
acre-oz. 24 hours 48 hours 72 hours Total

1. Am. Cyan. 18133 4EC 4 19 4 1 24
2. Diazinon 2EC 4 24 24
3. Dibrom 8EC 8 24 24
4. Dimethoate 4EC 4 17 6 1 24
5. Parathion 2EC 4 24 24
6. Malathion 5EC 20 19 2 0 21
7. Un. Carb. 8305 4EC 4 11 6 0 17
8. Vapona 4EC 4 5 8 2 15
9. Phosdrin 2EC 4 12 1 1 14
10. Phosphamidon 4EC 4 5 4 1 10
11. Trithion 2EC 4 4 3 2 9
12. Untreated 1 0 0 1


SUMMARY
Labidura riparia has been described in California as a beneficial pred-
atory earwig; however, spray schedules for insect control on commercial
crops tend to eliminate the insect in the field. The earwig is known pri-
marily as a garden and household pest in Florida.
Laboratory trials for the control of Labidura riparia indicated that cer-
tain of the phosphatic insecticides are very effective against this insect. Six
of the commonly available chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides were in-
effective as tested.

















LARVAL INSTARS AND HEAD CAPSULE MORPHOLOGY
IN THREE SOUTHEASTERN IPS BARK BEETLES 1, 2


R. C. WILKINSON
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida

A review of the literature has failed to provide information on the
number of larval instars in three species of southeastern Ips bark beetles.
This information and description of a morphological character separating
Ips avulsus Eichh. larvae from the larvae of Ips grandicollis Eichh. and
Ips calligraphus Germ. are given here.

so -

40

so
20

0II I
.I I. ,.


4
4
Il-
0
2
z
>r


0

20






to
10 B



2o 8 g 8
HEAD WIDTH, MM X 100


Figure 1. Distribution of larval head capsule widths for overwintering
Ips species from Alachua County, Florida. A-Ips calligraphus, B-Ips gran-
dicollis, C-Ips avulsus.

Naturally occurring beetle populations were sampled during November
through February, 1961-62, from Alachua County in north-central, pen-
insular Florida. Ips avulsus was collected from loblolly pine, Pinus taeda
L., while I. grandicollis and I. calligraphus were taken from both longleaf
pine, Pinus palustris Mill., and typical slash pine, Pinus elliottii Engelm.
var. elliottii. Adults and associated immature forms from a minimum of
20 isolated gallery systems per Ips species were preserved .and also were
examined in 70% ethyl alcohol. Maximum larval head capsule widths were
measured at magnifications from 30X to 90X with an ocular micrometer
mounted in a binocular dissecting microscope. Three larval head capsule

SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1584.
The assistance of Dr. A. A. Di Edwardos in photographing specimens
is gratefully acknowledged.














The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


ECDYSIAL SULCUS



CORONAL SUTURE

ENDOCARINAL LINE


FRONTAL SUTURE -

FRONTOGENAL SUTURE


Figure 2. Larval head capsules of Ips species from Alachua County,
Florida. A-Ips calligraphus, B-Ips grandicollis, C-Ips avulsus. DESL-
dorsal epicranial sensilla, FS-frontal setae, FSL-frontal sensilla. Nomen-
clature follows that of Thomas (1957).


















Figure 3. Dorsal view of Ips species larval head capsules, from left to
right: Ips calligraphus, Ips grandicollis, Ips avulsus. Frontal tubercles
are visible in I. avulsus.












Wilkinson: Three Southeastern Ips Bark Beetles


sizes were readily distinguished in each species, and examination was con-
tinued until each size was represented by 100 head capsule measurements.
The distribution of larval head capsule widths in Figure 1 clearly indi-
cates three instars for each of the three Ips species. The gaps in distri-
bution for I. grandicollis are artifacts of conversion from ocular micro-
meter readings to metric units. The head capsule widths of larvae inside
the egg chorion corresponded very closely to those of newly closed larvae,
as did the head capsule widths of feeding instar III larvae with those of
mature non-feeding instar III larvae. Thus, the presence of additional
instars is not suspected.
The range, mean larval head capsule width, and standard deviation
obtained for each instar of the three Ips species are listed in Table I. Ips
calligraphus instar III larvae are distinguished from the other two species
by their distinctly larger head capsules. The larvae of I. grandicollis and
I. avulsus commonly are found in intimate mixture in the field. They can-
not be separated by size, but a means of separating these two species was
determined by study of head capsule morphology.

TABLE 1.-LARVAL HEAD CAPSULE WIDTHS OF OVERWINTERING Ips SPECIES
FROM ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA


Instar


I. calligraphus

Number of larvae 100 100 100
Range in mm. 0.41-0.54 0.58-0.78 0.81-1.02
Mean in mm. 0.48 0.66 0.92
Standard Deviation 0.03 0.04 0.04

I. grandicollis I II III

Number of larvae 100 100 100
Range in mm. 0.35-0.45 0.48-0.58 0.66-0.80
Mean in mm. 0.39 0.53 0.73
Standard Deviation 0.02 0.02 0.03

I. avulsus I II III

Number of larvae 100 100 100
Range in mm. 0.34-0.44 0.47-0.57 0.61-0.70
Mean in mm. 0.39 0.52 0.65
Standard Deviation 0.01 0.03 0.02


The head capsules and mouth parts were dissected out with micro-
scalpels, cleared in KOH, overstained in Gage's acid fuchsin, destined
with KOH, and mounted in Hoyer's medium, following the general methods









The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


outlined by Thomas (1957).3 A small amount of wetting agent was added
to water solutions to prevent the dissected parts from floating. Sixteen
I. calligraphus, 13 I. grandicollis, and 9 I. avulsus instar III capsules were
examined, and drawings were made at 100X with a large-scale camera
lucida. A consistently placed sensilla was discovered immediately above
dorsal epicranial seta 2 in each species by scanning at higher powers
(Figure 2). This particular minute sensilla is not indicated in any of the
Canadian Ips species depicted by Thomas (1957).
The chaetal pattern of the epipharyngeal lining of the labrum and
clypeus of I. calligraphus from Florida corresponds to that shown for I.
calligraphus by Thomas (1957). No morphological differences were detected
in mouth parts that would separate the three southeastern Ips species.
The chaeto-sensillary pattern of I. calligraphus head capsules is identical
to that of I. grandicollis, and frontal sensilla are found between frontal setae
3 and 4 (Figure 2: A, B). In I. avulsus these frontal sensilla appear to
be more dorsad and are located on distinct tubercles (Figure 2: C). These
tubercles are visible at relatively low powers (15 to 20X, thus facilitating
recognition of instar III I. avulsus in the field (Figure 3). Similar tu-
bercles were found by Thomas only in Ips pini (Say), the single species
he was able to distinguish among five Canadian Ips species examined. Un-
like I. avulsus, the sensilla in I. pini are shown as being located bet-veen
frontal setae 3 and 4, and they are not located on the tubercles. Thus, the
two species appear to be distinct in these respects.

SUMMARY
The bark beetles, Ips avulsus Eichh., Ips grandicollis Eichh., and Ips
calligraphus Germ. have three larval instars as indicated by head capsule
measurements. A pair of tubercles on the frons of Ips avulsus larvae
distinguishes this species from the other two southeastern species.

Thl,..in., J. B. 1957. The use of larval anatomy in the study of bark
beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canad. Ent. 89 (1957), Supplement 5,
pp. 1-45, illus.
































~

1





:~:












WINTER, INSECT-LIGHT TRAPPING
AT THE ARCHBOLD BIOLOGICAL STATION, FLORIDA
(Continued from Vol. 45, No. 4.)

S. W. FROST
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.

INSECT ACTIVITY DETERMINED BY PERIODIC LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS
The following discussion pertains to nightly periods when insects came
to lights in the greatest numbers. The time of starting the traps was set,
somewhat arbitrarily, at 6. P.M., with the belief that the earliest visitors
would not appear before that time. However, when traps were operated
from November 10 to 16th between 5:30 and 6 P.M., certain insects, espe-
cially the Staphylinidae and Trichopterygidae, were taken in significant
numbers. No counts were made of the Trichopterygidae but observations
revealed that they came decidedly before 6 P.M., usually within a few
minutes and sometimes in enormous numbers striking against the baffles
of the trap like buckshot.

TABLE 6.-EARLY VISITORS TO THE LIGHT TRAPS*
NOVEMBER 10-16TH, 1960


Arriving Arriving
Insect Between Between
5:30-6 P.M. 6-7 P.M.

Aphodiinae 7 40
Carabidae 11 37
Staphylinidae 10139 3207
Pselaphidae 5 13
Caenis diminuta 426 6033
Microtrichoptera 68 3469
Macrotrichoptera 37 1739
Antillocoris pallidus 38 705
Formicidae 13 44


These are the only insects that came before 7 P.M. on these dates.

Table 7 lists some of the common species and groups of insects by
hourly collections. It is very evident that many of the insects had definite
hours of flight. The minute mayfly, Caenis diminuta, definitely came in
greatest numbers during the first or second hour of operation. It is inter-
esting to note that the time of arrival of these insects shifted from the
first to the second hour when the light intensity increased at 6 P.M., i.e.,
when the day lengthened about the end of January (figure 8.) This did not
occur in the case of the Staphylinidae or notably with any of the other
insects.









The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


TABLE 7.-TOTAL CATCHES OF SOME COMMON INSECTS, Nov. 4, 1959,
TO MARCH 31, 1960.

6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10 P.M.- 2-7
Insect P.M. P.M. P.M. P.M. 2 A.M. A.M.


ORTHOPTERA
Nemobius carolinus

EPHEMEROPTERA
Caenis diminuta


HOMOPTERA
Cicadellidae


HEMIPTERA
Miridae
Antillocoris pallidus
Trichocorixa louisianae

PSOCOPTERA
Psocidae

COLEOPTERA
Aphodiinae

Carabidae
Pselaphidae
Staphylinidae
Dyscinetus morator
Dytiscidae


332 592 549 338


76349 81655 1123 592


542 615 381 253


17
2151
10067


70
2191
5055


107
196
5566


127
288
4434


23 32 69 72 238 281


1376

999
518
20680
380
2001


711

1036
665
22358
541
3112


48

708
544
10207
187
2435


738

717
1052
8256
149
2773


TRICHOPTERA
Hydroptilidae
Macrotrichoptera

LEPIDOPTERA
Noctuidae
Pyralidae


11926 3704 752 447
5906 2511 1090 858


49
2054


89
2991


62 112
2998 2764


DIPTERA
Culicidae 705 224 190 161


605 401
1273 795


457 295
5888 2410


301 213


HYMENOPTERA
Formicidae


1228 164


72 49 65 235


Nemobius carolinus came quite consistently throughout the night but
was more numerous during the darker hours from 7 P.M. to 2 A.M.
Many species of Cicadellidae were involved but none were attracted in
appreciable numbers. They came more freely during the early hours of
the evening and those of the morning.
The Miridae were attracted most strongly toward the morning hours.
Many species were concerned but few came in large numbers.


563 124


19 64


554 430


445 273
143 224
864 209


31

1642
922
3588
34
785


44

440
174
2888
12
335












Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 25


NUMBER HOURLY CATCHES OF
CAENIS DIMINUTA
,- 7-8PM
25600

12600
eoo I

6400

3200

1600
,I 6-7PM
800 \
00I 8-I PM
I I
400 /

oI II
00 I II / I
100 / ,


15 31 15 31 15 31 15 26 15 31
NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MARCH
SUNSET 4:49 4:46 5:07 5:2 7 5;48
Figure 8. Hourly catches of Caenis diminuta correlated with light
intensity the first three hours of operation.

The minute lygaeid Antillocoris pallidus definitely came in largest num-
ber from sunset until about 10 P.M.
The Psocidae, eleven species of which were identified, came chiefly dur-
ing the morning hours.
A large number of species of Coleoptera were attracted to the light
traps. These included 36 species of Carabidae, 10 species of Dytiscidae, 12
species of Aphodiinae, and many species of Staphylinidae and Pselaphidae.
In general they came in largest numbers during the early hours of the
evening. This was especially true of Dyscinetus morator and the Staphy-
linidae.
The Trichoptera came in largest numbers during the early hours of the
evening.
The Lepidoptera were attracted throughout the night but in largest
numbers towards midnight. This is a large group involving 65 species of
Pyralidae, 147 species of Noctuidae and several smaller groups. Many of
the Pyralidae were taken only occasionally. Two species Paraponyx al-
lionealis (Wlk.) and Pachyzancla phaeopteralis (Gn.) contributed the ma-
jority of the records. The numbers of individuals and species of Noctuidae
were too small to draw conclusions.









The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


Thirteen species of mosquitoes were most numerous in the early evening
and toward dawn.
Nine species of Formicidae came chiefly at dusk and at dawn.

INSECT ACTIVITY AT LIGHT TRAPS DETERMINED BY MONTHLY OBSERVATIONS

Having operated light traps for many years in other areas, a few com-
parisons might be made. The effective period for trapping most insects
in Pennsylvania is approximately 122 nights from May 15 to September 15.
In Florida insects were trapped for 148 nights from November 4 to
March 31. Of course the effective period in Florida is 365 nights, for in-
sects can be trapped every night of the year with the exception of a few
when the temperature drops to or near freezing.

TABLE 8.-NUMBER OF NIGHTS THAT COMMON INSECTS CAME TO LIGHT
TRAPS OPERATED FOR 148 NIGHTS FROM NOVEMBER 4, 1959,
TO MARCH 31, 1960, IN FLORIDA.

Insect or group Number of nights insects captured

Nematocera 147
Caenis diminuta 115
Microtrichoptera 112
Noctuidae 111
Pyralidae 109
Macrotrichoptera 103
Culicidae 101
Staphylinidae 97
Miridae 84
Psocidae 84
Cicadellidae 82
Carabidae 79
Corixidae 76
Aphodiinae 75
Dytiscidae 68
Pselaphidae 66
Dyscinetus morator 57
Nemobius carolinus 42
Formicidae 38
Aphidae 35



Table 9 illustrates the winter months when certain common species came
to the light traps most frequently. In general, as might be expected, the
catches were lightest during December and January. On the other hand
some species were collected in considerable numbers during these months.
The small cricket, Nemobius carolinus, for example, came in the largest
numbers during January and February.
The mayfly, Callibaetis pretiosus Banks, came more or less consistently
throughout the winter although it was more abundant during March. The












Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 27

minute mayfly, Caenis diminuta, was more numerous during the months
of November and March.
The carabid, Agonoderus infuscatus Dej., was without doubt taken
more frequently during February and March.

TABLE 9.-MONTHLY OCCURRENCE OF SOME COMMON INSECTS
AT LIGHT TRAPS*

Species November December January February March

ORTHOPTERA
Nemobius carolinus 634 338 943 1690 599
Neoconocephalus triops 19 13 11 23 1

EPHEMEROPTERA
Callibaetis pretiosus 182 73 105 165 358
Caenis diminuta 42,624 11,044 17,830 24,083 44,079

COLEOPTERA
Cicindela trifasciata 4 1 0 0 47
Agonoderus infuscatus 10 2 62 233 834
Dyscinetus morator 84 188 288 1057 662
Diplotaxis bidentata 571 107 63 187 606
Anomala nigropicta 0 0 53 268 72
Lytta polita 0 0 58 493 87
Phengodes plumosa 0 0 0 12 49
Philhydrus cinctus 105 30 139 594 802
Tropisternus striolatus 368 10 15 217 1225
LEPIDOPTERA
Tolype minta 21 37 64 85 34
Halisidota longa 3 7 18 37 13
Urodus parvulus 154 126 168 323 64

HETEROPTERA
Cyrtomenus mirabilis 94 21 39 403 940

HOMOPTERA
Tomaspis bicincta 478 10 2 116 14

DIPTERA
Tabanus lineola 44 1 0 1 62
Pyrgota filiosa 0 1 1 0 89

Totals for 1958-59 and 1959-60 averaged.

The rather large black scarab, Dyscinetus morator (Fab.), was likewise
taken more abundantly during February and March, The small Diplotaxis
bidentata lec., followed the general pattern, coming more frequently during
November and March.
Anomala nigropicta Csy., Lytta polite (Say), and Phengodes plumosa
(Oliv.) were taken chiefly during January, February, and March.









The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


The aquatic beetles, Philhydrus cinctus Say and Tropisternus striolatus
(Lec.), came chiefly during February and March although they were taken
to some extent during November.
Urodus parvulus (Hy Edw.) occurred somewhat consistently during
the winter although it was more numerous during February.
-.-Tomaspis bicincta Say was noticeably abundant during November.
Tabanus lineola Fab., was one of the few insects that came almost
entirely during November and March.

SEASONAL DIFFERENCES IN LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS
Further details indicated that some insects were more numerous during
one winter than the other. The extreme was noted in the case of the noctuid
Xanthopastis regnatrix (Grt.). No specimens were taken during the first
and second winters; 1958-59 and 1959-60. However, from January 1 to
April 1, 1961, they were frequent visitors to the traps. Table 10 illustrates
some of these differences.

TABLE 10.-SOME SEASONAL DIFFERENCES IN LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS

Number of specimens
Species 1958-59 1959-60

ORTHOPTERA
Nemobius carolinus 4,765 2,787
Neoconocephalus triops 120 14
EPHEMEROPTERA
Callibaetis pretiosus 890 825
Caenis diminuta 97,298 185,584

HOMOPTERA
Tomaspis bicincta 971 219

HEMIPTERA
Cyrtomenus mirabilis 1,099 1,259

COLEOPTERA
Anomala nigropicta 257 534
Diplotaxis bidentata 1,913 1,061
Dyscinetus morator 3,043 1,299
Aphodiinae 8,764 2,967
Tropisternus striolatus 1,227 2,245
Philhydrus cinctus 1,933 1,258
Neohydrophilus castus 676 1,138
Lytta polita 439 896

SLEPIDOPTERA
Urodus parvulus 1,158 412
Halisidota long 128 31
Tolype minta 353 117













Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 29

The winter of 1962 was exceedingly dry and revealed some unusual con-
ditions. Many of the aquatic groups such as the Odonata, Trichoptera and
Ephemeroptera were very scarce or almost entirely absent. The small
numbers of Caenis diminuta, never exceeding ten specimens on a single
night, contrasted with the phenomenal numbers taken the previous winters.
On the other hand, the mud-loving beetles, Heteroceridae, were numerous.
The Scarabaeidae, especially Dyscinetus morator, were noticeable abundant.
The total number of these beetles taken during the winters of 1958, 1959,
1960 and 1961 was 4,342. During the winter of 1962 seldom less than 150
specimens and frequently more than 10,000 specimens were taken on a
single night. These figures clearly indicate that several winters are neces-
sary to draw correct conclusions concerning the activities of insects about
light traps.

A DISCUSSION OF THE INSECTS ATTRACTED TO LIGHT TRAPS IN FLORIDA
Of the 20 extant orders of winged insects generally recognized, all but
one have been taken in light traps. There are six entirely wingless orders,
not including the Protura, which naturally would not be attracted to light
traps. Actually no Plecoptera or Mecoptera were taken in light traps oper-
ated in Florida although they have been taken in light traps elsewhere.
ORTHOPTERA: The Orthoptera were relatively rare visitors to light traps
in Pennsylvania but were conspicuously present in those operated in Flor-
ida. Often as many as 100 small crickets of the genus Nemobius came on a
single night. Nemobius carolinus was most common (Fig. 9), although two
other species were involved. The cone-headed grasshopper Neoconocephalus
triops was also numerous; males and females came in about equal numbers.
During 1958-59, 120 specimens were taken but only 14 during 1959-60.

oo10 NEMOBIUS








75

50

25


NOV I DEC JAN FE B I MARCH
Figure 9. Collections of Nemobius, 1958-1959. 95% were N. carolinus,.

ZORAPTERA: This is the only order with winged forms that has not
been recorded from light traps or observed to be attracted to lights.
NEUROPTERA: With the exception of the Hemerobiidae, the Neuroptera
were not frequent visitors to the traps. Six species of Hemerobiidae were
identified from the material obtained, and many of them were numerous.












The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


The Mantispidae were never common. Twenty-eight specimens were taken
during the two winters, and the collections were scattered throughout the
winter from November until March. The Chrysopidae, which came to
light frequently in some localities, were seldom intercepted in Florida.
Only two specimens of Berothidae, Lomamyia hamata (Wlk.) were taken.
Many of these were seen about lights but apparently they did not readily
enter the light traps.
EPHEMEROPTERA: Only two species were taken in light traps. Callibaetis
pretiosus was an occasional visitor while Caenis diminuta was captured in
phenomenal numbers. The latter came regularly throughout the winter
months, except during very cold periods, and, as indicated elsewhere,
came almost entirely during the first or second hour of trap operation
(Fig. 8).
PLECOPTERA: Plecoptera have been captured in light traps only when
traps were placed close to the source of infestation. Although several
species are known to occur in Florida and the traps were close to drainage
ditches, none were taken. This may reflect a seasonal condition.
PSOCOPTERA: The Psocidae were conspicuously abundant throughout the
winter months. Psocus leidyi Aaron, taken on several occasions, is here
reported for the first time from the United States. A species of Caecilius
was collected from light traps in larger numbers than by all previous col-
lectors of Florida Psocidae. Several new species await description.
EMBIOPTERA: Although three species are known from Florida, only
two were taken in light traps, Oligotoma saundersi Westw. and Oligembia
vandykei Ross. They were never numerous; however, 79 specimens were
captured during the two winters. Fifty-nine of these came in November;
the remainder were taken from December 1 to April.
THYSANOPTERA: Only two specimens of thrips were taken. This is
not strange, for many forms are wingless, and they have not been taken
commonly in light traps elsewhere. One was Polyphemothrips tibialis, H.
and W., the other a species of Hoplandothrips, probably new.
HOMOPTERA: This is one of the larger groups of insects attracted to
light traps. The leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) and the lantern flies (Ful-
goridae) were the most frequent visitors. Approximately 50 species of
Cicadellidae were taken but none came in very large numbers. Balclutha
hebe (Kirk), Graminella nigrifrons (Forbes), Paraphlepsius lippulus (Ball),
Xestocephala pulicarius Van D., and Tylozygus bifidus (Say) were the most
common.
The Aphidae were generally scarce although 11 species were intercepted.
A single species of Cercopidae, Tomaspis bicincta, was unusually abun-
dant throughout the winter months. During 1958-59, 971 specimens were
taken, while during 1959-60, 219 specimens were taken.
Over 20 species of Fulgoroidea were taken in light traps. Most of them
were represented by one or two specimens but a few such as Flatoides punc-
tatus Wlk., Megamelus paleatus (Van D.), Oliarus quinquelineatus Say,
and Epiptera slossonae (Van D.) were common.
As elsewhere, the Membracidae were taken only when traps were close
to the source of infestation. They are not strong fliers and apparently are
not freely attracted to light. Two species, Idioderma virescens Van D. and
I. varia Van D., that inhabited nearby live oaks, were taken occasionally.















Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 31





s12oo CAENIS DIMINUTA
19 S-1959
6400


3200


1600


o00


400


200


!00 1.





S ,i I l



NOV DEC JAN FEB MARCH
CAENIS DIMINUTA
9400-in4


J400







*400I
i I Ii I I

III I .. .. I I








.,i i i.



NOV I DEC. I JAN. F EB. MARCH


Figure 10. Collections of Caenis diminuta; upper graph for
1958-1959, lower for 1959-1960.












The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


HEMIPTERA: A large number of species of Hemiptera was collected but
none in exceptional numbers. Lethocerus uhleri (Mont.) and Benacus griseus
(Say) were conspicuous because of their size. They presented-~T-ftroble~
for they resisted killing, thrashed about the cyanide jars and mutilated
many of the more delicate specimens.
Four species of Cydnidae, Cyrtomenus mirabilis (Perty), Amnestus
pusillus Uhler, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say), and Aethus indentatis (Uhler),
were generally conspicuous.
Pentatomidae were not common although at times ten or more speci-
mens were taken. Banasa lenticularis Uhler, Nezara viridula (Linn),
Podisus maculiventris (Say), and Euschistus obscurus (P. de B.) were the
conspicuous species. A single specimen of Amaurochrous magnus B. and S.
is rated as rare.
The Reduviidae were often numerous. These included Pygolampis pec-
toralis (Say), Rasahus hamatus (Fab.), Sirthenea carinata Fab., Zelus
bilobus Say, and three species of Pnirontis. Of the latter Pnirontis infirma
Sailor and P. modest Banks were most common. Melanolestes picipes was
also somewhat common.
A single species of Coriscidae, Leptocorisa tipuloides (De G.), was often
abundant.
Some of the Lygaeidae were often numerous. Cymoninus notabilis
(Dist.), Orthaea servillei (Guer.), and Perigenes contrictus (Say) were es-
pecially outstanding, and the minute Antillocoris pallidus (Uhler) was
well represented in most of the collections.
Although Miridae are generally attracted to light in considerable num-
bers, they were not taken in numbers to compare with, some of the other
insects. This may have been due to the season of the year. Phytocoris
megalopsis Blatch., was somewhat the exception.
The Corixidae constituted the largest part of the Hemiptera. Tricho-
corixa louisianae was exceedingly abundant. Frequently 200 and some-
times 1000 specimens were taken on a single night (Fig. 11.)
The Notonectidae were also frequently abundant. These included the
larger species Buenoa scimitra Bare and the minute Plea striola Fieber.
Several specimens of the macropterous forms of Buenoa confusa Truxal.,
which are rare in collections, were taken.
Several species of Veliidae were taken but Microvelia albonotata Champ.
was most common.
The Aradidae were not numerous. At most only one or two specimens
were taken on a single night.
DERMAPTERA: The earwigs constituted one of the minor groups. Only
27 specimens of the species Labidura riparia (Pallas) were taken during
the two winters. Twenty two of these came during November.
ISOPTERA: Strangely, these insects were extremely rare in light trap
catches in Florida. Normally, termites are strongly attracted to light and
are abundant in tropical areas. Only one specimen was taken during No-
vember. An interesting emergence of termites was observed indicating that
they were on the wing during the winter months.
COLEOPTERA: The beetles constituted one of the outstanding groups of
insects attracted to lights. A very large number of species was involved,
and some were extremely abundant. This was especially true of the Sta-














Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 33


phylinidae and Trichopterygidae. Often more than 3200 specimens of
Staphylinidae were taken on a single night (Fig. 12.) The Trichopterygidae,
because of their minute size and abundance, were not counted. Previous
reference has been made to the fact that these beetles came at dusk,
often before 6 P.M., even when the light intensity was strong at this time.
Many specimens were preserved for identification.
The Chrysomelidae were conspicuous by their absence. They were
neither abundant in species nor individuals. Not more than one or two
specimens were taken on a single night. The most outstanding was Chryso-
mela script Fab., which was scarce from 1958-1960 but quite common dur-
ing 1961. Rhabdopterus bowditchi Barber was somewhat common during
the entire period.
The Scarabaeidae yielded some unusual records. A medium-sized brown
or black species, Diplotaxis bidentata Lec., was often numerous. During
1958-59, 1913 specimens were taken while during 1959-60, 1061 specimens
were taken. These were more numerous during November, February, and


o00o0


CORIXIDAE
1958-1959


NOV


3200

1600

WO

400

200

100

S0



NOV
NOV


DEC


DEC.


JAN FEB I MARCH
GORIXIDAE
195.-10W


JAN. FEB.


...... MARCH i


Figure 11. Collections of Corixidae; upper graph for 1958-1959, lower
for 1959-1960. Over 95% of those collected were Trichocorixa louisianae.










34 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 1


March. A large black species, Dyscinetus morator (Fab.), was also nu-
merous and sometimes dominated the collection. During the first winter,
3043 specimens were taken; during the second winter, 1299 specimens were
taken. Like most beetles they were more common during November, Feb-
ruary, and March. Anomala nigropicta Csy. was another somewhat con-
spicuous species. During the two winters 257 and 534 specimens were taken,
respectively. The Aphodiinae, represented by three species of Aphodius
and eight species of Ataenius, were frequently numerous. During 1958-59,
8764 specimens were taken, during 1959-60, 2967 specimens were taken.
These came chiefly between 7 and 10 P.M., and were distinctly more com-
mon during November and March. A single specimen of Onthophagus
depressus Har. is the first record of this species from Florida. Serica errans
Blatch., represented in the U. S. National Museum by a single specimen
and considered a rare species, was taken in rather large numbers.

00oo CARABIDAE
1959 -190O

800


400


200

600


200




S600
NOV. DEC. JAN FES. MARCH
STAPHYLINIOAE
12600 1959-1960


6400

3200


1600

Soo

400


200


100




NO V l ....... . ........ ... 1....
NOV. DEC. JAN. 1 FEB, MARCH

Figure 12. Collections of Carabidae and Staphylinidae for 1959-1960.












Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 35

Many species of Carabidae were represented. Generally they came in
largest numbers during February and March. Agonoderus infuscatus Dej.
and Ardistomis viridis Say were especially conspicuous. During the two
winters 9829 specimens of the former and 2182 specimens of the latter
came to light traps. It was discovered later that Anisotarsus agilis Dej.
was common but individual counts were not made.
The aquatic coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae and Gyrinidae, were
common. These species might be expected because of the numerous ditches
near the area where the traps were operated. They came in largest num-
bers between 7 and 10 p.m. and generally during November, February, and
March. Tropisternus striolatus (Lec.) was especially conspicuous. During
the two winters, 3,673 specimens were taken, while in the same period,
3191 specimens of Philhydrus cinctus Say were taken. Neohydrophilus
castus (Say) showed some variation. During 1958-59, 1,676 specimens
were collected while during 1959-60 only 1138 specimens were taken. Other
Hydrophilidae included Helocares sallaei Sharp, Helobata striata (Brull6),
Hydrochus callous Lec., Hydrochus simplex Lec., and Berosus infuscatus
Lee., all of which were common although no specific records were obtained
at the time of the collection and separation. Many species of Dytiscidae
came to the traps. Several species of Celina were obtained but Celina slos-
soni Mutch. was most common. Coptotomus interrogatus obscurus Sharp,
Thermonectes basilaris (Harris), Hydaticus bimarginatus Say, and Rhantus
calidus (Fab.) were also common. Only one species of Gyrinidae, Dineutus
carolinus Lee., came to the traps freely.
Although 9 species of Lampyridae were taken, in general they were
never common.
The males of Phengodes plumosa (Oliv.) were often common. Over 100
were preserved and many were discarded. During the flight period of
the males, a search for the wingless females was futile.
Only two species of Meloidae came to the traps. The large brown Lytta
polita (Say) was noticeably abundant and was taken only during February
and March. They often constituted a problem because they were not
readily killed in the cyanide jars and crawled about other insects causing
much injury. This species gave forth a sweet odor which often scented
the whole night's collection and could be detected months after the insects
were collected.
The tiger beetles, Cicindelidae, were seldom taken in light traps in
Pennsylvania but in Florida they were quite numerous. A single species,
Cicindela trifasciata tortuosa Lec., was taken on various occasions, chiefly
during March. Their presence might be expected because they often feed
upon ants, which in turn are common in Florida.
The most abundant specimens of the Elateridae were Melanotus decu-
manus (Er.), Conoderus falli Lee., Lanelater sallei (Lec.), and Anchastus
fumicollis Fall.
Sixteen species of Cerambycidae came to the traps but only three, Am-
niscus arcuatus arcuatus (Lec.), Xylotrechus sagittatus (Germ.), and Nea-
canthocinus obsoletus (Oliv.) were common.
Two species of scolytids, Platypus compositus Say and Xyleborus affinis
Eich., were frequent visitors.










36 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 1


The Bostrichidae, Lagriidae, and Tenebrionidae were represented by
three common species, Amphicerus bicaudatus (Say), Statira gagatina
Melsh, and Opatrinus notus Say, respectively.

STREPSIPTERA: The males of a single species Caenocholax fenyesi Pierre
were taken on several occasions. These insects are minute and difficult to
separate from the thousands of other insects. They were especially inter-
esting for males are seldom collected. This species is a new record for
Florida. It was known previously only from Mexico, Argentina, and a
specimen intercepted in California from Panama.

MECOPTERA: No Mecoptera were taken in light traps at the Archbold
Biological Station although several species are known to occur in Florida.
Elsewhere they have been attracted only occasionally to light traps.

TRICHOPTERA: The caddis flies, as indicated in the charts, were taken
in large numbers. None have thus far been identified, but ample material
has been preserved for study. Records for the Microtrichoptera (Hydrop-
tilidae) have been kept separate from those of the Macrotrichoptera (Fig.
13).

16oo MICRO TRICHOPTERA
HY ROPTILI OAC
t199-t190
800

400

200

100

50





NOV DEC. JAN. FEB MARCH

0oo MACRO TRICHOPTERA

400

200

100

50





No DEG, JAN. FE MARCH

Figure 13. Trichoptera collected during 1959-1960. The Microtri-
choptera were represented by two or three species of Hydroptilidae.












Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 37

(LEPIDOPTERA) The moths constituted one of the largest groups taken in
light traps. Over 500 species have been isolated and identified. A few
skippers and gossamer-winged butterflies were also taken, chiefly during
December. It is interesting to note that butterflies have never been taken
in light traps in Pennsylvania.
Although 13 species of Sphingidae were attracted, only Lapara coni-
ferarum (A. and S.) and Enyo lugubris (Linn.) came frequently.
The Saturniidae were not frequent visitors. Telea polyphemus (Cram.)
and Callosamia promethea (Dru.) came occasionally. Only Automeris io
lilith (S. and Kr.) was numerous.
Of the Citheroniidae, a few Anisota rubicunda (Fab.), were taken.
Several species of Amatidae were taken but only Lymire edwardsii
(Grt.) was common.
Of the Nolidae, only Nigetia formosalis Wlk. was common.
The Arctiidae contributed a large number of species. Several species
of Apantesis were represented; however, A. plalerata (Harr.) was most
numerous. Males and females came in about equal numbers and both
showed considerable variation in color. Over 200 specimens have been
preserved for future study.
Holomelina aurantiaca (Hbn.) and H. laeta (Guer.) were both numerous.
Halisidota longa (Grt.), a southern species and Hyphantria cunea
(Dru.), a species widely distributed in the eastern states, were both common.
The Arctiidae Cycnia insulata Wlk., Seirarctia echo (A. and S.), and
Pagara simplex Wlk., were also somewhat common.
The Noctuidae were of course numerous. These are typical night-
flying moths. They were more numerous than the Pyralidae in species
but less numerous in individuals. Most of the them appeared each winter
but Xanthopastis regnatrix (Grt.) was completely absent during 1958-59
and 1959-60. During 1961 they were very common and were taken in
light traps from January 1st to April 15th. Records indicate that they
were flying during September and October also.
The following Noctuidae were recorded frequently at light traps: Agro-
tis ypsilon Rott., Morrisonia mucens sectilana Strand, Drasteria graphic
Hbn., Lepipolys perscripta Gn., Euagrotis illapsa (Wlk.), Zale metata
Smith, Zale declarans (Wlk.), Cryphia nana Hbn., Anicla infect Ochs,
Laphygma frugiperda (A. and S.), Argyrostrotis quadrifilaris (Hbn.),
Chaetaglaea tremula (H.arv.), Platysenta apameoides (Gn.), Renia frater-
nalis Smith, Tarachidia candefacta (Hbn.), Amolita fessa Grt., Phytometra
rhodarialis (Wlk.), Atethmia subusta, Hbn., Mocis latipes (Gn.), Prodenia
dolichos (Fab.), Prodenia eridania (Cram.), Elaphria festivoides (Gn.),
Elaphria nucicolora (Gn.), Acronicta afficta Grt., A. lanceolaria (Grt.),
A. triton (Hbn.), Hormoschista latipalpis (Wlk.), Phuphena u-album
(Gn.), and Eucoptocnemis dapsalis (Grt.).
Sixteen species of Notodontidae came to the traps but only two were
abundant, Heterocampa astarte Dbldy. and Lophodonta angulosa (A. and
S.).
Nearly 50 species of Geometridae were attracted to the light traps and
of these five were common-Semiothisa distribuaria (Hbn.) Racheospila
gerularia (Hbn.), Scelolophia laevitaria (Hbn.), Lophosis labeculata
(Hulst), and Stenotrachelys approximaria (Hbn.).













38 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 1

Two species of Lasiocampidae were taken commonly, Artace punc-
tistriga Wlk. and Tolype minta Dyar. During 1958-59, 381 specimens of
Tolype minta were collected, most of these during February.
Four species of Limacodidae were taken but only Prolimacodes badia
Hbn., was common.
Of the two species of Megalopygidae, Lagoa pyxidifera (A. and S.) was
most common.
Many species of Pyralidae came to the light traps. Some of them
were very numerous and probably contributed the largest number of any
of the Lepidoptera. Three species were especially common, Pachyzancla
phaeopteralis Gn., Paraponyx allionealis (Wlk.), and Pyrausta tyralis
(Gn.). Other common species were Synclita obliteralis (Wlk.), Anania
florella (Cram.), Samea eccesialis (Grt.) Etiella zinckenella (Treit), Nom-
phila noctuella (D. and S.), Tholeria reversalis (Gn.), Hymenia fascialis
(Cram.), Blepharomastix ebulealis (Gn.), and Argyria argentana (Mar-
tyn) (Fig. 14).
3200
PY RALI DAE
1959 -1960
1600

800

400

200



Il i ii




I Ii II I h iii iiiiii iI ilii;, I I
NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB I MARCH I

Figure 14. Collections of Pyralidae made during the winter months
of 1959-1960.

Of the 15 species of Phycitidae, three were common: Dioryctria amatella
(Hulst), D. clarioralis Wlk., and Adelphia petrella (Zell.).
Twenty species of Olethreutidae were taken but only three were com-
mon: Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff., R. rigidana Fern., and Thiodia dorsia-
tomana Kft.
Two Tortricidae were common, Platynota rostrana (Wlk.) and a new
species of Argyrotaenia.
A gelechiid, Aroga coloradensis (Busck), a cossid, Givira francesca
(Dyar), and a stenomid, Stenoma vestalis (Zell.), were noticeably abundant.
The hyponomeutid, Urodus parvulus, visited the traps quite regularly
and provided sufficient data to plot curves. The favorite food of the larvae
of this species, bay tree, Persea, orange, oaks and others grew only a few
feet from the light traps (Fig. 15).













Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 39

URODUS PARVULUS


19~ 8 9S5







II




1NOV I I E ll, I A, II, I
NOV I DEC JAN


FEB


URODUS PARVULUS
195-1e960









J A. .. I F E B I ....... ..... ...... ..l
DEC. JAN. FEB MARCH I


Figure 15. Collections of Urodus parvulus made during the winter
months of 1958-1959 and 1959-1960.

TOTAL DIPTERA -----
za6oo NEMATOGERA
195 -160
6400

3200 I i








.1, .. | , .
10 I I i 1I 1





II h Ii I l.,, I il/. :, !, , ,
I .I i i




NOV I DEG. I JAN FEB I MARCH I
Figure 16. Total number of Diptera as compared with the Nematocera
collected in 1959-60. A very large percentage of the Nematocera were
Culicoides.


20

10


MARCH


10



5I i
NOV










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


Four species of Psychidae were taken; two of these were common
visitors, Platoeceticus nigrita (B. and McD.) and P, gloveri (Pack.).
DIPTERA: The Nematocera, including the Tipulidae, Psychodidae,
Tendipedidae, Culicidae, Ceratopogonidae, Mycetophilidae, Cecidomyiidae,
Bibionidae and Simuliidae, were far more numerous than the Brachycera
and Cyclorrhapha (Fig. 16).
Two species of Tendipedidae (Chironomidae), Tendipes crassicaudatus
(Mall.) and T. decorus (Johns.), were especially conspicuous (Fig. 17).
Eleven species of Ceratopogonidae were taken in light traps. Several
of the genus Atrichopogon are still unidentified. They contributed the
largest proportion of the catches. Forcipomyia fuliginosa (Meig.), gener-
ally rated an uncommon species, was noticeably abundant.
The Tipulidae were never very numerous. Of the eleven species, four
were somewhat common, Limonia distans (0. S.), L. rostrata (Say), Tipula
osceola Alex., and Pseudolimnophila luteipennis (0. S.). A new species,
Limonia frosti has been described by C. P. Alexander.
Likewise mosquitoes were generally not abundant. They were most
common during November, February, and March but seldom exceeded 25 to
to 30 a night. On a few nights during November and March 100 speci-

TEND PES SPP
1959 .1980


0o

80

40

20

10









60



40


I DEC.


JAN.


I FEB.


MARCH


CULICI DAE
195 -1960


NOV. DEC


JAN FEB. MARCH


Figure 17. Collections of Tendipes and Culicidae made during the
winter months of 1959-1960. Over 90% of the various Tendipes species were
T. crassicaudatus.













Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 41

mens were taken. Culex nigripalpus Theob., Anopheles crucians Wied.,
Mansonia perturbans Wlk., and Urotaenia lowii Theob. predominated (Fig.
17).
The higher Diptera, Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha were not taken in
large numbers. Some of the smaller flies of the families Agromyzidae,
Drosophilidae, Ephydridae, Chloropidae, Otitidae, and Ephydridae were
occasional visitors to the traps. One of the Chloropidae, Hippelates pusio
Loew was noticeably abundant. The Ephydridae, Paralimna punctipennis
(Weid.) and P. decipiens Loew, were .also abundant. One specimen of
Zeros Calverti Cress., a species considered rare in Florida, was taken during
1961. Two Otitidae, Euxesta notata (Wied.) and E. basalis (Wlk.), oc-
curred quite frequently.
The Pyrgotidae, represented by Pyrgota filiosa Will., were often some-
what numerous.
Two Tabanidae were conspicuous in the collections, Tabanus lineola Fab.,
and Chlorotabanus crepuscularis (Beq.). Tabanus lineola was the most
seasonal of the insects taken and came almost entirely during November
and March. Males were more common than females. This had been noted
for light-trap catches elsewhere. It is an excellent method of obtaining
the somewhat elusive males. Of 82 specimens trapped during a short
period in November, 53 were males. C. crepuscularis came in large numbers
only during March. Dr. L. L. Pechuman states that the males of Tabanus

TABLE 11.-NUMBER OF SPECIES TAKEN IN LIGHT TRAPS AT THE
ARCHBOLD BIOLOGICAL STATION, WINTERS OF 1958, 1959, 1960,
AND 1961.

Number of
Order species

Orthoptera 14
Neuroptera 21
Isoptera 1
Ephemeroptera 2
Odonata 11
Psocoptera 25
Thysanoptera 3
Embioptera 2
Homoptera 94
Hemiptera 115
Dermaptera 1
Coleoptera 337
Strepsiptera 1
Trichoptera unidentified
Lepidoptera 509
Diptera 227
Hymenoptera 61


Total 1424


1424


Total













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


nigripes Wied and T. rufofrater Wlk. are rarely collected. These were
taken in light traps.
ODONATA: During the winters that the traps were operated, 23 speci-
mens of Odonata in 11 species were taken. The majority appeared in
March; however, specimens were also taken during November, early De-
cember, and late February. They were usually trapped on warm, nights
when the insect catch was large or relatively large. Of these, one came
between 6 and 7 P.M., two between 7 and 8 P.M., two between 8 and 9 P.M.,
two between 9 and 10 P.M., five between 10 P.M. and 2 A.M., and one
close to 7 A.M. This is contrary to the early belief that they came chiefly
at dusk.
HYMENOPTERA: With the exception of the Formicidae and a few para-
sitic wasps, the Hymenoptera were not strongly attracted to light traps.
This is generally true of the Hymenoptera. Xyela pini Rohwer was taken
occasionally. The larvae of this species develops in the staminate cones
of pines which, of course, were numerous in the vicinity.

CONCLUSIONS

Insects responded freely to light traps operated at The Archbold Bio-
logical Station during the winter months from November 4th to March
31st. The recovery of over 1000 species, some in enormous numbers, in-
dicated that insect light trapping was profitable for study of abundance.
The Lepidoptera and the Coleoptera contributed the largest number of
species. The Hemiptera, Homoptera, Diptera and Psocoptera were also
conspicuous visitors to the traps.
Information was obtained on the periods of the winter and intervals of
the night when certain species or groups of species were most active.
The catches of many species were large and continuous during the winter
except when the temperatures dropped close to freezing. Collections were
very satisfactory when the temperatures were above 60 F. but below this
temperature they were somewhat reduced. When the temperatures dropped
below 50 F., numbers of many insects, especially the Lepidoptera and Cole-
optera, were noticeably reduced. Midges (Nematocera) were captured in
considerable numbers even below 400. In Florida, slightly higher temper-
atures were required to trap the same groups of insects attracted further
north at lower temperatures.
Light drizzling rains affected the catches but little. At higher tem-
peratures, foggy, drizzling rains actually increased the collections. Heavy
rains seldom prevented the operation of the traps but reduced the catches
considerably. Strong winds reduced the collections noticeably.
The discovery of several new species and many new records for Florida
and the United States added much to these studies.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am greatly indebted to the Department of Zoology-Entomology of The
Pennsylvania State University and especially to Dr. B. G. Anderson for
their cooperation and helpfulness in supporting this study. The Depart-
ment supplied most of the field equipment, aid, and facilities for compiling
the data.












Frost: Trapping at the Archbold Station, Florida 43

For his encouragement and assistance, I am particularly grateful to
Mr. Richard Archbold who provided excellent living quarters and splendid
laboratory facilities. His continued interest in the project and many help-
ful suggestions are greatly appreciated.
This work would have been futile without the help of many who willing-
ly identified the tremendous amount of material gathered in the light traps.
A list of the specialists who cooperated will accompany an annotated list
of insects taken at light traps at The Archbold Biological Station to be
published separately.








CHLORDANE

HEPTACHLOR


E NDRIN


,",




GRUB

Chlordane, Heptachlor and Endrin are among the most versatile
insecticides now in common use. They are recommended for
many different types of insect control: agricultural; household,
lawn and garden; and public health. Each kills a wide variety
of insects, providing the effective combination of high initial
kill and lasting residual action. If you are engaged in economic
entomology, we think that you will find these insecticides often
have the advantages of better control and lower cost. If you
are in research, we think that you will find it well worthwhile
to include Chlordane, Heptachlor and Endrin in your testing
programs. For technical information and service, please
write Velsicol Chemical Corporation, 330 East Grand
Ave., Chicago 11, Ill.

The versatile insecticides
for agriculture,
homes, lawns, gardens
and public health!


P.















THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS


ARTICLE I
Name and Objectives
Section 1.-The association shall be known as The Florida Entomo-
logical Society.
Section 2.-The objectives of the Society shall be: (1) to promote the
study of entomology; (2) to encourage research relative to insects and
related Arthropods in Florida; (3) to distribute widely knowledge pertain-
ing to insects; and (4) to publish THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.

ARTICLE II

Composition of Association
Section 1.-The Florida Entomological Society is a statewide organiza-
tion. It may recognize regional branches and may approve the affiliation
of societies and organizations which are permanently established, provided
the aims of these organizations are consistent with the aims of the parent
organization. Branches of the Society shall be established and function
under the provisions of Article VIII.

ARTICLE III

Membership
Section 1.-All persons having entomological training or a sincere in-
terest in entomology may become active members of the society. Applica-
tions for membership will be endorsed by two members of the Society, ac-
companied by the payment of the annual dues and submitted by the Mem-
bership Committee to the Executive Committee for action. The Secretary
will notify the applicant of the action taken.
Section 2.-Honorary membership may be conferred by action of the
Society on anyone who has performed distinguished service in the field
of Florida entomology. Such individuals shall be required to have been
active in entomological work for a minimum of 20 years. Any active
member may propose the name of a person for Honorary Membership.
The name shall be submitted to the Executive Committee. Upon approval
by the Executive Committee, the name or names of the proposed individuals
will be referred to a vote by the Society. Such vote to be a secret mail
ballot at least 30 days prior to any annual meeting. Election to Honorary
Membership shall require a two-third majority of those balloting. No more
than two names may be voted upon in any one year.
Section 3.-Upon payment of one hundred dollars ($100.00) any active
member may become a life member and shall thenceforth be granted the
privileges of the Society, be exempt from, annual dues, and supplied with*
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST without further charge.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


Section 4.-Members shall not use the name of the Society for com-
mercial advertising. Such a practice shall constitute sufficient grounds
for a recommendation by the Executive Committee that said member be
dropped from the Society.

ARTICLE IV

Officers
Section 1.-The officers of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SO-
CIETY shall consist of a President, a Vice-President, a Secretary, each
of whom shall be elected annually; and a Treasurer, who, shall be elected
for a term of three years.
Section 2.-There shall be an executive committee consisting of the
president, the vice president, the immediate past president, the secretary,
the treasurer, and two active members, one of whom shall'be elected each
year to serve a period of two years. The president shall act as chairman
of this committee.
ARTICLE V
Funds
Section 1.-The funds of the Society shall consist of two types:-
general funds, and a permanent fund.
Section 2.-The general funds shall be collected, entered, disbursed, and
accounted for by the treasurer and shall be available for current expenses.
Section 3.-The permanent fund shall include all donations, bequests,
fees for active membership for life, and such other property or funds as
may be added from time to time. This fund shall be left in custody of the
treasurer. The principal of this fund shall be invested. The interest from
the investment may be used to meet necessary expenditures, but if not
used during the year it is to be placed in the permanent fund. Expendi-
tures from the principal of this fund are to be made upon the recommen-
dation of the Executive Committee and the approval of the Society at any
meeting. Notice of such proposed action must be given in the call for said
meeting.
ARTICLE VI
Meetings, Quorum and Voting
Section 1.-There shall be an annual meeting. The time and place of
such meeting may be decided by the membership at the previous annual
meeting, or by the Executive Committee.
Section 2.-Special meetings may be called by the Executive Committee
and shall be called by the president upon the written request of six (6)
active members.
Section 3.-Six (6) active members shall constitute a quorum for trans-
action of business of the Society.
Section 4.-Voting and holding of office shall be limited to active mem-
bers of the Society.









Constitution and By-Laws


ARTICLE VII

Amendments
Section 1.-All proposed amendments to the Constitution shall be pre-
sented at the annual meeting. The president shall then appoint a special
committee to consider said amendment; this committee shall report its
recommendations at the next annual meeting. Each member shall be
supplied with a copy of the proposed amendment at least thirty (30) days
prior to the annual meeting by the secretary. A two-thirds vote, of the
active membership present shall be required to sanction a constitutional
change. Minor changes in the proposed amendment may be made by the
Society, during the course of its consideration.

ARTICLE VIII

Branches
Section 1.-Branches are established on a geographical basis, for the
purpose of holding meetings, presenting papers, conducting conferences and
stimulating interest in entomology.
Section 2.-Membership in a Branch shall be restricted to members of
the Society residing or stationed in the area covered by the Branch.
Section 3.-Officers of Branches. The officers of each branch shall be
a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman, a Secretary-Treasurer and a representative
on the executive committee. Election to these offices shall be restricted
to voting members of the parent Society. They shall be elected at the an-
nual meeting of the Branch by procedures to be adopted by the Branch.
Section 4.-Activities of Branches. Branches may hold meetings or
conferences at appropriate times and places. Branches shall not charge
dues, but they may charge registration fees for those in attendance at
meetings in an amount to be determined by the Branch. A charge may also
be made for the proceedings, minutes or records of Branch meetings.
Section 5.-Establishment of Branches. To become established, proposed
Branches must formally petition the Society, be endorsed by the Executive
Committee and be approved by the Society. The petition must set forth
the territorial limits of the proposed Branch and indicate clearly the par-
ticular purpose for which the Branch is to be formed; that an organized
group of society members desiring to form a Branch already exists; and
that the establishment of the proposed Branch will be useful to the Society
and to entomology. The currently existing Branch which has been estab-
lished by the Society is the Sub-Tropical branch.












The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 1


BY-LAWS

ARTICLE I
Section 1.-All members have equal privileges as to the presentation
of papers and discussions at meetings.

ARTICLE II

Officers and Their Duties
Section 1.-The president shall preside and deliver an address at the
annual meeting over which he presides. He shall announce his appointment
of the necessary committees at the first session of the annual meeting.
He shall exercise such powers as are necessary to carry out his official
duties.
Section 2.-In the absence of the president, the vice-president shall as-
sume the duties of the president.
Section 3.-It shall be the duty of the treasurer to act as business man-
ager of publications. He shall collect all monies due, pay all bills incurred
by the Society, and submit a report at each annual meeting. His accounts
shall be audited annually, which audit shall be submitted at each annual
meeting.
Section 4.-The secretary shall make necessary arrangements for the
meetings of the Society, keep a record of proceedings, and attend to gen-
eral correspondence.
Section 5.-The Executive Committee shall transact the business of the
Society between annual meetings. It shall make recommendations on policies
to the Society and shall give an annual report. The Executive Committee
may receive and approve or reject the reports of the standing or special
committees. The committee shall hold an annual business session at the
close of each annual meeting.
Section 6.-There shall be a permanent Public Relations Committee of
5 members. It shall be the duty of this committee to handle such matters
as publicity, education and general public relations in fulfillment of the
first objective given in the constitution, which is "To promote the study
of entomology." The committee shall also be concerned with matters which
affect the interest of the entomological profession. In the furtherance
of this latter objective, the committee shall (1) appear at public hearings
on matters which affect the interests of the entomological profession; (2)
keep informed on all public affairs affecting entomology, including legisla-
tion, and to represent the Society in all such matters by offering advice
and counsel to the State Government and to the public in these matters;
(3) to promote activities designed to improve the status of professional
entomology. The Chairman (or representative) of the committee shall
serve in an ex-officio capacity on the Executive Committee. The incoming
President shall name the full initial committee, one member of which will
serve for one year, two for two years and two for three years. Each suc-
ceeding President shall appoint members for a three-year term to fill com-
mittee vacancies. The Chairman shall be designated each year by the Pres-
ident under whom he will serve.









Constitution and By-Laws


Section 7.-All officers and standing committees shall be elected by bal-
lot, unless otherwise provided for.
Section 8.-All elected officers of the Society shall assume office at the
close of the annual meeting, and shall serve for one year unless other
provisions are made.

ARTICLE III
Publications
Section 1.-The Society may issue a publication containing the trans-
actions of the organization's meetings and such other matter as may be of
interest to entomologists. A copy of each issue (THE FLORIDA EN-
TOMOLOGIST) shall be sent to each member of the Florida Entomological
Society. The direction of the publication of the Society shall be entrusted
to a Board of Managers, consisting of an editor, an associate editor, and
a business manager, who shall be the treasurer of the Society. This Board
shall be elected annually unless otherwise provided for. The official pub-
lication shall be issued at such intervals as may be determined by the So-
ciety or by the Board of Managers.

ARTICLE IV

Dues
Section 1.-The annual dues of active members shall be $5.00, except
for University or High School students who may affiliate with the Society
by the payment of $1.25. At least three-fourths of said dues shall be used
for a year's subscription to the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Honorary
members shall be exempt from payment of dues. Dues shall be paid an-
nually in advance.
ARTICLE V

Meetings
Section 1.-Special meetings may be called as provided for in the Con-
stitution. Notice of such meetings shall be given by the Secretary at least
ten (10) days prior to such meetings.

ARTICLE VI

Amendments to By-Laws
Section-1.-Changes in these By-Laws may be made by a. two-thirds
vote of the members at any meeting; provided that notice in writing of the
proposed change shall have been sent to each member at least ten (10)
days before the date of the meeting at which it will be considered.




















SHELL PESTICIDES MEET THE


NEEDS OF FARM AND INDUSTRY


How can they serve you?


SHELL Chemical Company, in coopera-
tion with federal, state and local agri-
cultural specialists, is continually striving
to help farmers reach higher agricultural
goals. Products such as aldrin, dieldrin,
endrin, methyl parathion, Phosdrin and
Vapona Insecticides have been of major
assistance to the farmer, homeowner and
industry. So have D-D and Nemagon
Soil Fumigants and Aqualin herbicide,
slimicide, biocide.
These products have proved their effec-
tiveness and versatility by solving many
of the economic pest problems confront-
ing the farmer. Shell insecticides are prov-


ing equally useful in a growing number
of non-agricultural applications in indus-
try and the home.
The never-ending search for additional
uses of established Shell pesticides and for
new, improved products to help you, is a
welcome assignment at Shell Chemical
Company chemical partner of agricul-
ture and industry.
Get full details about the Shell pesti-
cide that fits your needs at your nearest
Shell Chemical Co. District Office, or
write: Shell Chemical Co., Agricultural
Chemicals Division, 110 West 51st Street,
New York 20, N. Y.


Product No. Agricultural No. Non-Agricultural No. Pests
Crop Uses Uses Controlled


Dieldrin 153
Aldrin 159
Endrin 37
Phosdrin
Insecticide 51
Vapona
Insecticide
Methyl Parathion 23
Nemagon Soil 49
Fumigant
D-D Soil 50
Fumigant

SHELL CHEMICAL SHELI
COMPANY
Agricultural Chemicals Division


L *There are more than 130 species of neniia-
todes known to attackplants. Nenmagon and
D-D Soil Fumigants control most of these.
















PESTICIDES


FOR


FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS


*


The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service
to Florida Farmers through the facilities of its 14 Stores, Lab-
oratory and technically trained Field Staff.






THE KILGORE SEED COMPANY

DIVISION OF ASGROW SEED COMPANY
GENERAL OFFICES AND LABORATORY
PLANT CITY, FLORIDA


*


Stores located at

BELLE GLADE, BOYNTON BEACH, FT. MYERS, GAINES-
VILLE, HASTINGS, HOMESTEAD, MIAMI, OCALA,
PAHOKEE, PALMETTO, PLANT CITY, POM-
PANO, SANFORD, VERO BEACH,
WAUCHULA, WEST PALM BEACH


-- --~-----I I


















.2 .n.


... on Superior Sam's side of the fence.


Superior Extra Value Fertilizers make pastures lusher
and greener. You can always count on higher quality
to help you upgrade stock for more profits or help
you increase milk production and butterfat content.

SUPERIOR SAM SAYS:
FERTILIZE IMMEDIATELY thin strands
of grass pastures then "rest." FERTILIZE
NOW for a) early summer hay, b) grass.
silage and c) peak summer grazing.
IT'S NOT TOO LATE to seed summer legumes
and other temporary crops for silage, hay or
grazing.


PLANTS: Tampa and Ft. Pierce



TAMPA- P.O. Box 1021, Ph. 248-4131


Call your Superior Pasture Representative to make a
detailed study of your fertilizer and grazing rotation
needs. Fertilizers will be custom-blended for you and
delivered bagged or in bulk when and where you
want them.

FERTILIZERS DIVISION


No. 1 NAME IN FERTILIZERS AND CHEMICALS SINCE 1936


FORT PIERCE- P.O. Box 246, Ph. HOward 1-2230


=_.-











Citrus profits
go up
when mite counts
go down
with



Kelthane
KELTHANE miticide kills citrus
red, flat, Yuma, 6-spot but is
harmless to mite predators and
beneficial insects. Gives fast kill
and long residual action. Safe for
new foliage and sensitive fruit-
finishes when used as recom-
mended. Can be used up to seven
days before harvest. For better
coverage, use TRITON B-1956,
the non-oil spreader-sticker. See
lour dealer for both products.


P H I L AAD L P P1 I A P A


""oll~r*t: i"S~II'~













Cygon* 400...


new low-hazard


systemic


insecticide

Recently cleared by USDA for
protection of certain vegetables,
non-bearing fruits and ornamentals.


Now, from the laboratories of
American Cyanamid Company
comes another new advance in
insecticides... CYGON 400. Wide-
ly tested under the name ,di-
methoate, CYGON brings an
added dimension to phosphate
insecticides. It combines sys-
temic activity with low-hazard
to man and animal.
Wide safety margin
Unlike previous systemics,
which have generally been of a
rather high order of toxicity,
CYGON is so low in toxicity to
warm blooded animals that its
use does not require "special"
protective measures-other
than those normally taken with
any pesticide.


Outstanding control
CYGON 400 gives outstanding
control of aphids, leafhoppers
and leaf miners and has so far
been cleared by USDA for use
on potatoes, tomatoes and
watermelons. CYGON can also be
used on non-bearing apples,
pears and citrus fruits to con-
trol aphids, mites, thrips and
pear psylla. In addition, CYGON
can be used to control aphids,
thrips, leaf miners, scales, leaf-
hoppers and mites attacking a
number .of ornamental plants.
CYGON 400 will be widely
available this year in one gal-
lon and five gallon sizes. For
further information, write ad-
dress below.


C YA NA1 M I D

AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY
*Trademark













































TOXAPHENE. Hercules' time-tested agricultural in-
NITROfORM" slow.release nitrogen for turfgrasses. TOce u rs sten ftiturk in.
NITROFORM slow-release nitrogen for turfgrasses. secticide. Noted for long residual and effective kill on
For direct use, or in Blue Chip complete fertilizers. more thAn 200 different insect pests.


UN-32 liquid nitrogen fertilizer containing urea and DELNAVs insecticide and mticide. Controls livestock
ammonium nitrate for agricultural uses. insects and ticks; also insects and mites on grapes,
Citrus and deciduous fruits.

NITROGEN FERTILIZER SOLUTIONS (HPC Solutions). METADELPHENE. Broad-range, all-purpose insect
Nitrogen solutions ranging from 20% to 49% N. For repellent, specified as standard by armed forces. Now
mixed fertilizers or direct application. available for general use.

UREA SOLUTIONS. Source of N for fertilizer applica- THANITE. Effective insecticide for livestock and
tion in agriculture and silviculture. household sprays.


HERPOCO. Fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate for di- WEED-RHAP*. Herbicide for agriculture and consu-
rect application or as an ingredient in mixed fertilizers. merusecontaining2,4-D.Controlsbroad-leafedweeds.

ANHYDROUS AMMONIA. Widely accepted nitrogen
fertilizer. Is applied direct and is used as a basic ingre- BRUSH-RHAP*. Powerful herbicide formulated with
dient in fertilizer manufacturing. 2,4,5.T for control of woody plants and brush.

AQUA AMMONIA. Liquid nitrogen fertilizer. Farmers SILVI-RHAP*. Effective herbicide containing Silvex for
can apply it without elaborate equipment. control of unwanted brush.


V PROPI-RHAP*. Herbicide containing low volatile ester
of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy propionic acid in emulsifiable
form for brush control.


Hules Tdemark For additional information about these products, write to:

aHsu POWD CO


Hercules Tower, 910 Market Street, Wilmington 99, Delaware
District Offices: BROWNSVILLE, TEXAS/DALLAS/GREENVILLE, MISS./LOUISIANA, MO./MONTGOMERY, ALA./PHOENIX/RALEIGH/SAN FRANCISCO


A GROWING I FORCE


IN FARM CHEMICALS























NT


FOR ALL PURPOSES


Carefully Executed


Delivered on Time


PEPPER PRINTING COMPANY


- FLORIDA


ORTHO


For CITRUS VEGETABLES LIVESTOCK
Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
Ortho Division
CALIFORNIA CHEMICAL CO.
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
P. O. Box 7067 ORLANDO Phone CY 5-0451


PR


N


G


GAINESVILLE




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs